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Anda di halaman 1dari 33

in)

CHAPTER 10

BEARINGS

One of the important factors governing the vibration characteristics of rotating machinery is the

effective dynamic stiffness of the supports as seen by the rotor as shown in Figure 10.1. The dynamic

stiffness of the support is determined by the combined effects of flexibility of the bearing, the bearing

pedestal assembly (bearing housing) and the foundations on which the pedestal is mounted. For the

case of turbo generator rotors mounted on oil-film bearings might be three times more flexible as

compared to pedestals and foundations.

(b) Single-rotor-degree of

freedom idealisation

In the case of aeroengine compressor shafts are mounted on rolling element bearings, the foundation

of bearing is far more flexible. The theoretical models available for predicting the rotor support

stiffness are insufficiently accurate. It is for this reason that designers of high-speed rotating must rely

on empirically derived values (i.e. experimental) for support stiffness and damping in their design

calculations. Following methods are available which is classified in terms of type of forcing applied

(ii) Dynamic force method

o

Multi-frequency testing

Transient methods

10.1 Static force method

It is possible to determine all four stiffness coefficients (i.e. K xx , K yy , K xy and K yx ) of the bearing

oil film by application of static loads only. Unfortunately this method of loading does not enable the

oil-film damping coefficient to be determined.

The exact operating position of the shaft center on a particular bearing depends upon the Sommerfeld

number. Because the bearing oil-film coefficient are specific to a particular location of shaft center on

the static locus as shown in Figure 10.2. A static load must first be applied in order to establish

operation at the required point on the locus. The next step is to apply incremental loads in both the

horizontal and vertical directions, which will cause changes in the journal horizontal and vertical

displacement relative to the bearing bush (or more precisely with respect to its static equilibrium

position). By relating the measured changes in displacements to the changes in the static load it is

possible to determine four-stiffness coefficients on the bearing oil film. We have, increments in forces

as

399

f x = k xx x + k xy y ;

f y = k yx x + k yy y

and

(10.1)

where x and y are the journal displacement in x and y directions, respectively (with respect to static

equilibrium position). If the displacement in the y direction is made to zero by application of suitable

loads f x and f y then

k xx = f x / x ;

k yx = f y / x

(10.2)

k xy = f x / y ;

k yy = f y / y

(10.3)

Determination of the oil-film coefficient in this way necessitates a test rig, which is capable of

applying loads to the journal in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The method is somewhat

tedious in the experimental stage since evaluation of the required loads to ensure zero change in

displacement in one or other direction is dependent on the application of trial loads.

Alternative method (i) Instead of applying loads in both x and y directions, to ensue zero

displacements in one of these directions, it is easier to simply apply a load in one direction only and

measure resulting displacements in both directions. Equations (10.1) can be written as

{ f } = [ K ] {d }

(10.4)

with

{ f } = f x ;

[ K ] = k xx

yx

k xy

;

k yy

{d } =

{d } = [ ]{ f }

(10.5)

with

[K ]

xx xy

= [ ] =

yx yy

400

where the quantities xx, xy, etc. are called the oil-film influence coefficients. If the force in the y

direction is zero then

xx =

x

;

fx

yx =

y

fx

(10.6)

xy =

x

;

fy

yy =

y

fy

(10.7)

The bearing stiffness coefficient may be obtained by inverting the influence coefficient matrix i.e.

[ K ] = [ ]

. This method still requires a test rig which is capable of providing loads on the bearing in

Alternative method (ii): If there is no facility on the test rig for applying loads transverse to the normal

steady-state load direction of the bearing, it is still possible to obtain approximate value of the

stiffness coefficients.

Figure 10.3 Shift in the journal center position due to a horizontal load

In Figure 10.3, e is the eccentricity, is the altitude angle, A is the steady state position for a vertical

load w, B is the additional imaginary force Fx is applied to change its steady state running position to

B, R is the resultant of w and Fx , d is the angle of R with respect to vertical line i.e. w, d is the

401

change in altitude angle due to additional Fx , e + d e is the new eccentricity after application of Fx .

The influence coefficient can be obtained as

xx =

x PB PR PB SA ( e + d e ) sin ( + d ) e sin

=

=

=

Fx

Fx

Fx

Fx

Fx

Since for small displacement, we have (e + d e ) e , sin d = d and cos d = 1 . The influence

coefficient can be simplified to

xx

Fx

e(d ) cos

Fx

(10.8)

magnitude as the original load w, except that it has been turned through an angle d . We may write

d d = tan d =

Fx

w

(10.9)

xx

e cos Fx e cos d y

=

Fx w

w

w

(10.10)

yx =

d

e sin

= x

w

w

(10.11)

yy =

be obtained as [ k ] = [ ] .

1

402

x

y

and xy =

. Stiffness coefficients can

Fy

Fy

Example 10.1: Under particular operating conditions, the theoretical values of the stiffness

coefficients for a hydrodynamic bearing are found to be; Kxx=30 MN/m, Kxy=26.7 MN/m, Kyx=-0.926

MN/m, Kyy=11.7 MN/m. A testing is being designed so that these values can be confirmed

experimentally. What increment in horizontal (Fx) and vertical (Fy) loads must the rig is capable of

providing in order to provide (a) a displacement increment of 12 m in the horizontal direction whilst

that in the vertical direction is maintained zero and (b) a displacement increment of 12 m in the

vertical direction whilst that in horizontal direction is maintained zero.

Solution: From equation (10.1) static forces required in the x and y directions to a given displacement

can be obtained. For case (a) following forces are required

f x = 30 12 = 360 N

and

f y = 0.926 12 = 11.112 N

and

f y = 11.7 12 = 140.4 N

f x = 26.7 12 = 320.4 N

The MATLAB code

INPUT FILE

% For the first condition

x1=12*10^-6; % displacement in horizontal direction when Fx is applied in m

x2=0; % displacement in horizontal direction when Fy is applied in m

% For the second condition

y1=0; % displacement in vertical direction when Fx is applied in m

y2=12*10^-6; % displacement in vertical direction when Fy is applied in m

%Fx = load in horizontal direction in N.

%Fy = load in vertical direction in N.

Kxx=30*10^6; % dynamic stiffness coefficient for a bearing in N/m

Kxy=26.7*10^6; % dynamic stiffness coefficient for a bearing in N/m

Kyx=-.926*10^6; % dynamic stiffness coefficient for a bearing in N/m

Kyy=11.7*10^6; % dynamic stiffness coefficient for a bearing in N/m

MAIN FILE

clear all;

input_qus_1_1;

x=[x1 x2; y1 y2];

k=[kxx kxy;kyx kyy];

f=k*x;

fprintf ('The loads to be applied in the first condition');

fprintf ('\nfx1=');

fprintf (num2str (f (1,1))); fprintf (' N\n');

fprintf ('\nfy1=');

fprintf (num2str (f (2,1))); fprintf (' N\n');

fprintf ('\nThe loads to be applied in the second condition');

fprintf ('\nfx2=');

fprintf (num2str (f (1,2))); fprintf (' N\n');

fprintf ('\nfy2=');

fprintf (num2str (f (2,2))); fprintf (' N\n');

403

OUTPUT

The loads to be applied in the first condition

fy1=-11.112 N

fx1=360 N,

The loads to be applied in the second condition

fy2=140.4 N

fx2=320.4 N,

Example 10.2: The test rig described in Example 10.1 is used to measure the hydrodynamic bearing

stiffness coefficients by applying first of all a horizontal load of 360 N, which is then removed and

replaced by a vertical load of 320 N. The horizontal load produces displacement of 10.3 m and 3.3

m in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, whilst the vertical load produces respective

displacements of 18.3 m and 19.7 m. Calculate the value of stiffness coefficients based on these

measurements.

Solution: For the horizontal load of 360 N alone from equation (10.4), we have

xx =

10.3

= 28.6 10 9 m/N ;

360

yx =

3.3

= 9.167 109 m/N

360

For the vertical load of 320 N alone from equation (10.5), we have

xy =

18.3

= 57.188 m/N ;

320

yy =

19.7

= 61.563 m/N

320

k

[ K ] = k xx

yx

k xy 28.6 57.188

0.0269 0.0250 9 26.9 25.0

109 =

=

k yy 9.167 61.563

-0.0040 0.0125

INPUT FILE

% Input file name is

input_qus_1_2.m

x1=10.3*10^-6; % displacement in horizontal direction when Fx is applied (in meter)

y1=3.3*10^-6; % displacement in vertical direction when Fx is applied (in meter)

Fx1=360; % load in horizontal direction (in N)

Fy1=0; % load in vertical direction (in N)

x2=-18.3*10^-6; % displacement in horizontal direction when Fy is applied (in meter)

y2=19.7*10^-6; % displacement in vertical direction when Fy is applied (in meter)

Fx2=0; % load in horizontal direction (in N)

Fy2=320; % load in vertical direction (in N)

MAIN FILE

clear all;

input_qus_1_2;

f=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];

X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];

404

a=X/f;

k=a^-1;

fprintf ('Dynamic stiffness coefficients are');

fprintf ('\nkxx=');

fprintf (num2str (k (1,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nkxy=');

fprintf (num2str (k (1,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nkyx=');

fprintf (num2str (k (2,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nkyy=');

fprintf (num2str (k (2,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

OUTPUT

Dynamic stiffness coefficients are

kxx=26935055.0703 N/m,

kyx=-4010634.2575 N/m,

kxy=25020888.7201 N/m

kyy=12518040.2583 N/m

Exercise 10.1 For the estimation of bearing stiffness coefficients by the static load method, the static

load of 400 N is applied in the vertical and horizontal directions, one at a time. When the load is

applied in the horizontal direction, it produces displacements of 22 m and 20 m in the vertical and

horizontal directions respectively, whilst the vertical load produces respective displacements of 4 m

and 12 m. Obtained bearing stiffness coefficients from the above measurements.

Answer: The stiffness coefficients are kxx=-4.651 MN/m, kxy=13.953 MN/m, kyx=25.581 MN/m and

kyy=23.256 MN/m.

Exercise 10.2 A test rig is used to measure the hydrodynamic bearing stiffness coefficients by

applying first of all a horizontal load of 400 N. It produces displacements of 10 m and 4 m in the

horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Then in second case only a vertical load of 300 N is

applied. It produces displacements of -20 m and 20 m in the horizontal and vertical directions,

respectively. Calculate the value of the stiffness coefficients based on these measurements.

In order to fully analyse the behavior of a bearing under dynamic loading it is necessary to cause the

journal to vibrate within the bearing bush under the action of a known exciting force as shown in

Figure 10.4(a). Alternatively, the bearing bush can be allowed to float freely on the journal as shown

in Figure 10.4(b), which is mounted on a slave bearings and the forcing is applied to the bush. By

measuring the resulting system vibrations and relating these to the force, it is possible to determine the

effective oil-film stiffness and damping coefficient. By varying the amplitude, frequency and shape of

the electrical signal input to the vibratior it is possible to exercise full control over the forcing applied

to the system.

405

Fixed non-floating

bearing

housing

( xb 0 and yb 0)

Fluid

fy(t)

Journal

fx(t)

Figure 10.4(a). A fixed bearing and a rotating journal floating on the fluid

Floating

bearing

bush

( xb 0 and yb 0)

Fluid

Journal

fy(t)

fx(t)

Figure 10.4(b). A fixed rotating shaft and a non-rotating bearing floating on the fluid

10.2.1 Complex Receptance Method

The method involves applying a sinusoidally varying force to the journal in the horizontal direction,

whilst the forcing in the vertical direction is zero, and measuring the resulting displacement

amplitudes in the horizontal and vertical directions together with their respective phase relative to the

exciting force. It is then necessary to repeat the procedure with the forcing applied only in the vertical

406

direction. The knowledge of force amplitude and measured displacement quantities, then enables the

eight oil-film coefficient to be derived. The force transmitted across the oil-film may be represented in

the form

f x = k xx x + k xy y + cxx x + cxy y

and

f y = k yx x + k yy y + c yx x + c yy y

(10.12)

function), equation (10.12) gives

f x = (k xx + jc xx )x + (k xy + jc xy )y

and

f y = (k yx + jc yx )x + (k yy + jc yy )y

(10.13)

f x Z xx

=

f y Z yx

Z xy x

Z yy y

(10.14)

x R xx

=

y R yx

where [R ] = [Z ]

R xy f x

R yy f y

(10.15)

is called the complex receptance matrix. For the case of forcing in horizontal

R xx =

x

fx

R yx =

and

y

fx

(10.16)

where x and y are the measured displacement in the horizontal and vertical directions at a particular

time and f x is the force in the horizontal direction at that instant. For the case when forcing is in the

vertical direction the other reacceptance terms are derived as

R xy =

x

fy

R yy =

and

407

y

fy

(10.17)

On inverting [R ] elements of [Z ] can be obtained. The elements of [Z ] contain all eight bearing

stiffness and damping coefficients as defined in equation (10.14) i.e. Z = k + j c where is the

frequency of forcing function. The problems related to this method can be easily solved in the

MATLAB and is illustrated in the following example.

Example 10.3 A bearing is forced in the horizontal direction by a force Fx = 150 sin 200t N. The

resulting vibrations are x = 2010-6 sin(200t-0.2) m in the horizontal direction and y = 2010-6

sin(200t-0.32) m in the vertical direction. When the same forcing is applied in the vertical direction

the horizontal and vertical displacements take the respective forms x = 810-6 sin(200t + 0.15) m and

y = 2610-6 sin(200t-0.3) m. Determine dynamic coefficients of the bearing.

Solution:

We have two sets of measurements

(i) For Fx = 150 sin 200 t N and F y = 0

x = 7 10 6 sin(200t 0.2) m

and

y = 2 0 1 0 6 sin (2 0 0 t 0 .32 ) m

For Fx = 150e j200t alone, we have

(A)

and

(ii) Fx = 0 and Fy = 150sin 200t N

and

y = 26 10 6 sin(200 t 0.3) m

For Fy = 150e j200 t alone, we have

408

(B)

Fy = k yx x + k yy y + c yx x + c yy y

(C)

On substituting the first set of measurement from equation (A) into equation (C), we have

( k yx + j200 c yx )

(D)

Similarly on substituting the second set of measurement from equation (B) into equation (C), we have

j200 t

6 j(200 t -0.3)

150e

(k yx + j200c yx ) (k yy + j200c yy ) 26 10 e

(E)

Z = k + j c

with

= 200 rad/sec

(F)

(G)

and

Z xx =

Z xy

8 106 e j(200 t -0.15)

or

409

Z xx = -3.25e 0.45 j Z xy

(H)

Z xy =

150e j200 t

150

=

6 j(200 t -0.32)

6 j(200 t -0.2)

6 0..32j

26 10 e

20 10 e

22.75 10 e

22.75 10 6 e 0.2j

or

(I)

(J)

Z yx = Z yy

( 20 10

e j(200 t 0..32) )

7 10 e

j(200 t 0.2)

Z yx = 2.8571e 0.12 j Z yy

(K)

Z yy =

150e j200t

150 106

=

6 j(200 t 0.3)

6 j(200 t + 0.15)

j0.3

22.86 10 e

22.86 e j0.15

26 10 e

26 e

(L)

(M)

Stiffness and damping coefficients can be obtained by separating real and imaginary part of the

dynamic stiffness coefficients from equations (I), (J) and (M), as

k xx = 7.64 107 N/m; k xy = 3.52 107 N/m; k yx = 1.186 107 N/m; k yy = 2.6156 106 N/m

cxx = 524500 N/ m-sec ; cxy = 94200 N/m-sec ; c yx = 179700 N/m-sec; c yy = 64935 N/m-sec

MATLAB solution:

INPUT FILE

% The name of the input file is

input_qus_5.m

410

% For the given 1st condition

Fx1=150; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)

Fy1=0; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)

X1=20*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter)

1=-0.2; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)

Y1=20*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)

2=-.32; % Phase angle of vertical vibration (in radian)

% For the given 2nd condition

Fx2=0; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)

Fy2=150; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)

X2=8*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter

1=0.15; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)

Y2=26*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)

2=-0.3; % Phase angle of vertical vibration (in radian)

x1=X1*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));

y1=Y1*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));

x2=X2*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));

y2=Y2*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));

MAIN FILE

clear all;

input_qus_1_5;

F=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];

X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];

K=X\F;

fprintf ('Dynamic coefficients of the bearing are');

fprintf ('\nkxx=');

fprintf (num2str (real (K (1,1)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nkxy=');

fprintf (num2str (real (K (1,2)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nkyx=');

fprintf (num2str (real (K (2,1)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nkyy=');

fprintf (num2str (real (K (2,2)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\ncxx=');

fprintf (num2str (imag (K (1,1)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');

fprintf ('\ncxy=');

fprintf (num2str (imag (K (1,2)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');

fprintf ('\ncyx=');

fprintf (num2str (imag (K (2,1)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');

fprintf ('\ncyy=');

fprintf (num2str (imag (K (2,2)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');

OUTPUT

The dynamic coefficients of the bearing are

Kxx=9877721.7564 N/m

Kxy=-2269493.2286 N/m

Kyx=-7650433.7248 N/m

Kyy=7292188.2744 N/m

Cxx=3491110.953 N/m^2

Cxy=-2289239.7727 N/m^2

Cyx=-2532978.0684 N/m^2

Cyy=3430612.8087 N/m^2

INPUT FILE

% The input file name is input_altr_qus_1_5.m

w=200;

t=pi/(4*w); % time of operation in second

% For the first condition

Fx1=150*sin(200*t); % applied force in horizontal direction (in N)

Fy1=0; % applied force in vertical direction (in N)

A1=-.2; % phase of the vibration in the horizontal direction for the first condition (in radian)

B1=-.32; % phase of the vibration in the vertical direction for the first condition (in radian)

411

Mx1=20*10^-6; % amplitude of the vibration in the horizontal direction for the first condition (in meter)

My1=20*10^-6; % amplitude of the vibration in the vertical direction for the first condition (in meter)

% for the second condition

Fx2=0; % applied force in horizontal direction (in N)

Fy2=150*sin(200*t); % applied force in vertical direction(in N)

A2=.15; % phase of the vibration in the horizontal direction for the second condition (in radian)

B2=-.3; % phase of the vibration in the vertical direction for the second condition (in radian)

Mx2=8*10^-6; % amplitude of the vibration in the horizontal direction for the second condition (in meter)

My2=26*10^-6; % amplitude of the vibration in the vertical direction for the second condition (in meter)

x1=Mx1*(sin(w*t)*cos(A1)+j*sin(A1)*cos(w*t)); % displacement in horizontal direction when Fx is applied (in meter)

x2=Mx2*(sin(w*t)*cos(A2)+j*sin(A2)*cos(w*t)); % displacement in horizontal direction when Fy is applied (in meter)

y1=My1*(sin(w*t)*cos(B1)+j*sin(B1)*cos(w*t)); % displacement in vertical direction when Fx is applied (in meter)

y2=My2*(sin(w*t)*cos(B2)+j*sin(B2)*cos(w*t)); % displacement in vertical direction when Fy is applied (in meter)

MAIN FILE

clear all;

input_altr_qus_1_5;

F=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];

X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];

K=X\F;

fprintf ('Dynamic coefficients of the bearing are');

fprintf ('\nkxx=');

fprintf (num2str (real (K (1,1)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nkxy=');

fprintf (num2str (real (K (1,2)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nkyx=');

fprintf (num2str (real (K (2,1)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nkyy=');

fprintf (num2str (real (K (2,2)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\ncxx=');

fprintf (num2str (imag (K (1,1)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');

fprintf ('\ncxy=');

fprintf (num2str (imag (K (1,2)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');

fprintf ('\ncyx=');

fprintf (num2str (imag (K (2,1)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');

fprintf ('\ncyy=');

fprintf (num2str (imag (K (2,2)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');

OUTPUT

The dynamic coefficients of the bearing are

kxx=9877721.7564 N/m

kxy=-2269493.2286 N/m

kyx=-7650433.7248 N/m

kyy=7292188.2744 N/m

cxx=3491110.953 N/m-sec

cxy=-2289239.7727 N/m-sec

cyx=-2532978.0684 N/m-sec

cyy=3430612.8087 N/m-sec

Example 10.4 A bearing is forced in the horizontal direction by a force Fx = 150 sin 200t N. The

resulting vibrations are x = 710-6 sin(200t-0.2) meters in the horizontal direction and y = 2010-6

sin(200t-0.32) meters in the vertical direction. When the same forcing is applied in the vertical

direction the horizontal and vertical displacements take the respective forms x=810-6 sin(200t +0.15)

meters and y=2610-6 sin (200t-0.3) meters. Determine elements of complex receptance matrix for the

bearing.

Solution: The following measurement were done

412

Case II: For Fy = 150sin 200t N and Fx = 0 , we have

For a force Fx leading a displacement X by is shown in Figure 8.5.

Fx cos

Fx

Fy sin

X

Figure 8.5 Phase between the displacement and force vectors

From Figure 8.5 the receptance can be expressed as

Rxx =

X

Fx cos + j Fx sin

where X and Fx are displacement and force amplitudes. The displacement is lagging behind force by

angle.

Fx = 150 N

0.2 rad

X = 710

-6

From Figure 10.6, we have

Rxx =

x

X

7.0 106

=

=

= (0.04574 -j 0.00927) 10-6 m/N

Fx Fx cos + j Fx sin 150 cos 0.2 + j 150sin 0.2

413

Ryx =

y

26 10 6

=

= ( 0.1266 j 0.042 ) 10 6 m/N

f x 150cos0.32 + j150sin0.32

Ryy =

y

26 10 6

=

= ( 0.046 + j 0.007 ) 10 6 m/N

f y 150cos0.3 + j 150sin0.3

x

8 106

Rxy =

=

= ( 0.127 j 0.0394 ) 106 m/N

f y 150cos0.15 + j 150sin0.15

Hence, the receptance matrix can be written as

Rxx

R] =

Ryx

(52.73 + j 7.97) m

=

MATLAB Solution:

INPUT FILE

% The name of the input file is

input_qus_1_6.m

w=200; % Frequency of the applied force

% For the given 1st condition

Fx1=150; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)

Fy1=0; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)

X1=7*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter)

1=-0.2; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)

Y1=20*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)

2=-.32; % Phase angle of vertical vibration ( in radian)

% For the given 2nd condition

Fx2=0; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)

Fy2=150; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)

X2=8*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter

1=0.15; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)

Y2=26*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)

2=-0.3; % Phase angle of vertical vibration (in radian)

x1=X1*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));

y1=Y1*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));

x2=X2*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));

y2=Y2*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));

MAIN FILE

clear all;

input_qus_1_6;

F=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];

X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];

K=X/F;

fprintf ('The elements of complex receptance matrix for the bearing are');

fprintf ('\nRxx=');

fprintf (num2str (K (1,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nRxy=');

fprintf (num2str (K (1,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nRyx=');

fprintf (num2str (K (2,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nRyy=');

fprintf (num2str (K (2,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

414

OUTPUT

The elements of complex receptance matrix for the bearing are

Rxx=4.5736e-008-9.2712e-009i m/N

Rxy=5.2734e-008+7.97e-009i m/N

Ryx=1.2656e-007-4.1942e-008i m/N

Ryy=1.6559e-007-5.1224e-008i m/N

Exercise 10.3 A bearing is forced in the horizontal direction by a force Fx = 200 sin 150t N. The

resulting journal vibrations are x = 12 10 6 sin(150t 0.35) m (in the horizontal direction) and

y = 20 106 sin(150t 0.4) m (in the vertical direction). When the same force is applied in the

vertical direction the horizontal and vertical displacements take the respective forms

x = 13 10 6 sin(150t + 0.3) and y = 25 106 sin(150t 0.38) . Determine elements of the complex

impedance matrix for the bearing.

MATLAB Solution:

INPUT FILE

% The name of the input file is

input_qus_8_4.m

w=150; % Frequency of the applied force

% For the given 1st condition

Fx1=200; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)

Fy1=0; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)

X1=12*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter)

1=-0.35; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)

Y1=20*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)

2=-0.4; % Phase angle of vertical vibration (in radian)

% For the given 2nd condition

Fx2=0; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)

Fy2=200; % amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)

X2=13*10^-6; % Amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter)

1=0.3; % Phase angle of the horizontal vibration (in radian)

Y2=25*10^-6; % amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)

2=-0.38; % Phase angle of the vertical vibration (in radian)

MAIN FILE

clear all;

input_qus_1_4;

x1=X1*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));

y1=Y1*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));

x2=X2*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));

y2=Y2*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));

F=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];

X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];

K=X\F;

fprintf ('The elements of complex impedance matrix for the bearing are');

fprintf ('\nKxx=');

fprintf (num2str (K (1,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nKxy=');

fprintf (num2str (K (1,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nKyx=');

fprintf (num2str (K (2,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nKyy=');

fprintf (num2str (K (2,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

OUTPUT

The elements of complex impedance matrix for the bearing are

Kxx=5061762.20178+27691680.0054i N/m

415

Kxy=7007752.44721-12851849.7486i N/m

Kyx=-4491637.24935-22067930.6871i N/m

Kyy=2029852.21747+13358903.8911i N/m

Exercise 10.4. For the bearing dynamic parameter estimation, how many minimum numbers of

independent sets of force-response measurements are required? Justify your answer. (Assume there is

no residual imbalance in rotor.)

It is possible to determine the complex stiffness coefficients Z xx , Z etc. in equation (10.14) directly

without resorting to the use of receptances. This may be done provided that forcing in both the

horizontal and vertical directions be able provide simultaneously, and with independent control over

each input with respect to its amplitude and relative phase. The system force-displacement

relationship is given by equation (10.14). In the present approach it is to ensure that one of the

resulting system displacement vectors, say Y, is zero. This can be made to be the case by correctly

adjusting the amplitude of the force in the y-direction and its phase relative to that in the x-direction.

Suitable values for these quantities can be found relatively easily by trial and error. The first line of

equation (10.14) thus gives

Z xx =

fx

x

(10.18)

which will allow the value of Z xx to be determined directly provided that the amplitude and phase of

the horizontal displacement relative to the horizontal force had been measured. If the amplitude and

phase of the force in the y-direction were also noted then the value of Z yx could also be determined as

Z yx =

fy

(10.19)

In the above case, it is the phase of the x-direction displacement amplitude relative to the force in the

y-direction that is significant. Similarly by adjusting forcing amplitudes and relative phases so as to

ensure a zero horizontal displacement, x, then the values of Z xy and Z yy could also be determined.

This method requires more complicated experimental procedure. It may be more costly in terms of

equipment, since two vibrators and additional control units are required.

Some experimental measurement considerations are discussed now. Choice of forcing frequency (or

forcing frequency range) is an important parameter to choose. It depends upon the system resonance.

416

If the system is excited close to its resonant frequency then a response of suitable magnitude may be

obtained for a lower force amplitude input. (since the bearing impedance changes with journal

vibration non-linearity effect will play a major roll). The advantage of exciting the system at a

frequency in the region of its resonant frequency, that is that phase lag will be generally greater than

zero. (between response and force). With this for small inaccuracies in their (phase) measurement are

less likely to substantially alter the magnitude of coefficients, which are derived. This is not the case

hen the lag angle is very small or when it is close to 90 0 . In these cases (i.e. close to 0 0 and 90 0 ) ill

conditioning of the equation of motion results in significant changes in the magnitude of the derived

coefficient for even a change of only 3-4 degrees of phase (which may be about the accuracy to which

phase is measured). This coefficient derived using data generated well away from the critical speed

may well be considerably in accurate (of the order of 100% in some cases). Also since at critical

speeds it is observed that the orbit of the shaft center is elliptical in nature and that leads to well

conditioning of regression matrix.

It has advantage that the certainty of exciting all system modes within the prescribe frequency range,

and inherent high noise rejection. The method involves forcing the system in both x and y directions,

at all frequencies within the range of interest, simultaneously. The aim is to arrive at more accurate

values of the coefficients, which are assumed to be independent of frequency, by means of some

averaging procedure. When all (several) frequencies are excited simultaneously, the knowledge of

bearing behavior at many different frequencies should enable more accurate results to be obtained.

Also it saves the laboratory time. Fourier analysis can be used to convert measured input and output

signals from the time domain to the frequency domain. Recent advances in laboratory

instrumentation, for example, the emergence of spectrum analysers (FFT analysis) capable of carrying

out the Fourier transform, have helped the technique to evolve. In theory, any shape of input signal

with multi-frequency content can be used to force the system. For example an impulse signal (Figure

10.7) is actually composed of signals at all frequencies in coexistence. Because of the likely

concentration of the signal at the low-frequency end of the spectrum however, a impulse in practice

provides useful signals over only a relatively small frequency range. For higher frequency the signal/

noise ratio becomes too low. An alternative is a white noise signal, which contains all frequencies

within its spectrum Band-limited white noise, sometimes referred to as coloured noise, contains all

frequencies within a prescribed range. One way of producing such a signal is with pseudo random

binary sequences (PRBS) where the frequency range that is present is chosen to excite appropriate

modes in the system under test. Unfortunately, both with impulse and PRBS signals there is a danger

of saturating the system so that amplitudes at some frequencies are so large that non-linearity are

encountered and the test becomes invalid. These disadvantages can be overcome by using a signal

417

mode up of equal-amplitude sinusoidal signals whose frequency are those which one wishes to excite

within a particular frequency range. One signal of this type is Schroeder phased harmonics.

Figure 10.7 Impulse and white noise signals in the time and frequency domains

If the system response to multi-frequency signal is recorded, bearing properties may be obtained as

follows. The displacement in the x and y directions occurring at a frequency are written in the form

x = Xe jt

and

y = Ye jt

(10.20)

Thus

x = j Xe jt ;

y = jYe jt ;

x = 2 Xe jt

and

y = 2Ye jt

(10.21)

f x = Fx e jt

and

f y = Fy e jt

(10.22)

and

f y k yx x k yy y c yx x c yy y = My

(10.23)

where M is the mass of journal and k xx , cxx etc. are oil film stiffness and damping coefficients.

Substituting equations (10.20) to (10.22) into equation (10.23), we get

Z xx ( ) Z xy ( ) X Fx + M 2 X

=

2

Z yx ( ) Z yy ( ) Y Fy + M Y

418

(10.24)

where Z = k + j c . On separating the real and imaginary parts, we rearrange equation (10.24) as

X r

i

X

X i Yr

X r Y i

Y i

Y r

Fxr

Fxi

k xx

c

xx

Fyi k xy

Fyr cxy

1

k yx

c yx

k yy M 2 X r

=

c yy M 2 X i

0

M 2Y r

M 2Y i

(10.25)

and quantities in the first and last matrices of equation (23) are determined by the Fourier

transformation of time-domain signals. All of these equations (10.25) may be grouped as a single

matrix equation as

(10.26)

The contents of the [Z ] matrix might be best obtained by means of a least squares estimator. This

involves recognizing that measurements obtained in the laboratory will be inaccurate and so there are

no values of the coefficient in the [Z ] matrix which will satisfy all lines of equation (10.26). A

residual matrix is developed which defines the errors between the left hand and right hand sides of

equation (10.26) i.e.

(10.27)

The contents of the [Z ] matrix are defined as being those values, which ensure that the sums of the

squares of the elements in the [E ] matrix are minimized. On multiplying equation (10.27) by [D ]62 n ,

T

we get

1

or

[D ]

and

[A]

(10.28)

transformation of the output and input signals. The noise occurring at a frequency greater than n 0 is

automatically filtered out of the analysis.

419

One of the simplest ways of exciting a journal in a sinusoidal manner is by means of centrifugal

forcing, simply by attaching imbalance masses of known magnitude to a rotating shaft. Advantage

with this method is that there is no need for costly electromagnetic exciter. In present method the

processing of measured data in the time domain. Out of three methods in two methods an imbalance

of known magnitude attached to the journal (and are based on the assumption that inherent rotor

imbalance is insignificantly small). The third method involves use of a separate imbalance mass shaft,

which can rotate at frequencies independent of the journal rotational frequency.

This means of exciting the journal can be used to determine the bearing oil-film damping coefficients

when the bearing stiffness coefficients are already known. (for example by static force method). The

experimental involves measurement of the horizontal and vertical displacement amplitudes of the

journal relative to the bearing, and of the bearing or pedestals itself relative to space (fixed

foundation). In addition, measurements of the corresponding phase lag angles of each of these

displacements behind the imbalance force vector are also made.

In addition to imbalance force as shown in Figure 10.8, the rotor also has oil-film forces acting on it,

these being transmitted to rotor by shaft. Governing equations of the rotor can be written as

2 f x 2k xx x 2k xy y 2cxx x 2c yy y = 2 M (

x +

xp )

and

2 f y 2k yx x 2k yy y 2c yx x 2c yy y = 2 M (

y +

yp )

420

(10.29)

where x and y are displacements of journal relative to bearing (or pedestal), x p and y p are the

displacement of pedestal (or bearing) relative to fixed foundation, 2M is the central rotor mass

(symmetric) and f is the known imbalance force on the rotor. We can write

f y = Fy e j t

f x = Fx e jt ;

so that

x = Xe jt ;

y = Ye jt ;

x p = X p e jt ;

y p = Yp e jt

(10.30)

where Fx , Fy , X , Y , X p and Yp are in general complex quantity and contain the amplitude and

phase information and is the rotational speed of the rotor. On substituting equation (10.30) into

equation (10.29), we get

2

Z xx ( ) Z xy ( ) X Fx + M ( X + X p )

=

2

Z yx ( ) Z yy ( ) Y Fy + M (Y + Yp )

(10.31)

M 2 k xx

k yx

cxx

c yx

k xy

k yy M 2

c yy

c yy

cxx

c yy

k xx M 2

k yx

2

X i M X pi

2

Yr = F + M Ypr

X r F + M 2 X

k xy

pr

2

2

k yy M Yi

M Ypi

cxy

c yy

(10.32)

Quantities M , Fx , Fy , , X , Y , X p and Yp are either known or are measured during the course of

the experiment. k xx , cxx , are unknown (eight for the present case). Equation (30) has four

equations so if four stiffness coefficient are known (by static force method) the remaining four

damping coefficient can be obtained from this. Alternatively, if bearing dynamic parameters are

speed-independent then measurement at least two speed will be sufficient to obtain all eight

coefficients or by changing F and rotating the rotor at same speed (for speed-dependent bearing

parameters) all eight coefficients can be obtained.

421

In previous method equation (30) has eight unknowns ( k xx , cxx , ) and it has four equations. If a test

rig capable of providing excitation by means of imbalance forcing, where the forcing frequency could

be varied without upsetting the journal rotational frequency. Thus a second equation (30) could be

obtained, resulting in eight simultaneous equations in all, by using a different value of without

upsetting the bearing Sommerfeld number. Two sets of measurements can be taken for two different

rotational frequency of secondary shaft, most convenient would be so that the steady state

position should not disturb (as shown in Figure 10.9b).

Fixed non-floating

bearing

housing

( xb 0 and yb 0)

Fluid

Journal

Anti-synchronous

excitation

(b) Basic principle of the excitation unit

Figure 10.9 An anti-synchronous excitation by an auxiliary unbalance unit

422

Example 10.5 For estimation of bearing dynamic coefficients the following measurements were

made: (i) X 1 and Y1 for simultaneous application of Fx1 and Fy1 and (ii) X 2 and Y2 for simultaneous

application Fx2 and Fy2 ; where X and Y are displacements and F is force and in general they all are

complex in nature. If shapes of both the orbits of the shaft center are circular in shape, whether it

would be possible to estimate all bearing dynamic coefficients from these two measurements.

Solution: Consider a single bearing and use a complex stiffness, Z = k m 2 + j c , at a single

frequency to describe the equation of motion in frequency domain, as

Z xx

Z

yx

Z xy f x

=

Z yy f y

(A)

Using two unbalance runs with corresponding responses x1 , y1 , x 2 and y 2 and right hand sides

Z xx

Z

yx

Z xy x1

Z yy y1

x2 f x1

=

y2 f y1

f x2

f y2

(B)

Z xx

Z

yx

Z xy

y2

1

=

Z yy ( x1 y2 x2 y1 ) y1

x2 f x1

x1 f y1

f x2

f y2

(C)

For circular orbits y1 = jx1 and y 2 = jx 2 (or negative, depends on the definition of axes, and the

direction of rotation). Then the denominator of equation (C) becomes

x1 y 2 x 2 y1 = x1 ( jx 2 ) x 2 ( jx1 ) = 0

(D)

and hence, equation (D) is ill-conditioned for circular orbits. Having a third unbalance run does not

help. For three unbalances equation (B) may be written as

Z xx

Z

yx

Z xy x1

Z yy y1

x2

y2

x3 f x1

=

y3 f y1

fx2

f y2

423

f x3

f y3

(E)

x1

y

1

x2

y2

x

x3 1

x

y3 2

x3

y1

x12 + x22 + x32

y2 =

x y +x y +x y

y3 1 1 2 2 3 3

x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3

( x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 )

1

= 2

(F)

If y i = jxi , then the denominator of the equation (F) becomes

(x

2

1

(G)

2

and the circular orbits are ill-conditioned. There is another possibility when ill-conditioning may

occur, namely when y1 = x1 and y 2 = x 2 for any value of , where is a constant. Then the

denominator of equation (C) becomes zero, leading to ill-conditioning. This means that a change in

orbit from one unbalance to the next is required. The ill-conditioning due to a circular orbit may be

avoided by taking measurements in both the clockwise and anticlockwise directions of rotation of the

rotor. For this case y1 = jx1 and y 2 = jx 2 . Then the denominator of equation (C) becomes

x1 y 2 x 2 y1 = x1 ( jx 2 ) x 2 ( jx1 ) 0

(H)

Exercise 10.5 The eight bearing stiffness and damping coefficients are to be determined by using the

method described above. Experimental measurements of journal vibration amplitude and phase lag

angle are given in the Table 10.1; pedestal vibrations are found to be negligible. Determine the values

of oil-film coefficients implied by these measurements, and the maximum change in the direct crosscoupling terms introduced by an error of +4 in the measurement of the phase recorded as 42.5.

Table 10.1 Some test data used to calculate bearing stiffness and damping coefficients

424

Horizontal phase lag

Vertical vibration amplitude

Vertical phase lag

Force amplitude

Forcing frequency

Journal mass

Forward excitation

66.4 m

42.5

55.5 m

9.9

1.0 KN

12.6 Hz

150 kg

Reverse excitation

46.6m

20.9

38.4 m

111

1.0 KN

12.6 Hz

150 kg

MATLAB Solution:

INPUT FILE

% Name of this input file is

input_qus_1_7.m

X1=66.4*1.0e-6; % horizontal vibration amplitude (in meter)

A1=42.5; % horizontal phase lag (in degree)

Y1=55.5*1.0e-6; % vertical vibration amplitude (in meter)

B1=9.9; % vertical phase lag (in degree)

F1=1*1.0e+3; % force amplitude (in N)

n1=12.6; % forcing frequency(in Hz)

M=150; % journal mass (in Kg)

% For the reverse excitation condition.

X2=46.6*1.0e-6; % horizontal vibration amplitude (in meter)

A2=-20.9; % horizontal phase lag (in degree)

Y2=38.4*1.0e-6; % vertical vibration amplitude (in meter)

B2=-111; % vertical phase lag (in degree)

F2=1*1.0e+3; % force amplitude (in N)

n2=12.6; % forcing frequency (in Hz)

M=150; % journal mass (in Kg)

MAIN FILE

clear all;

input_qus_1_7;

w1=2*pi*n1;

w2=2*pi*n2;

a1= A1*(pi/180);

b1= B1*(pi/180);

a2= A2*(pi/180);

b2= B2*(pi/180);

p=[-X1*sin(a1) Y1*cos(b1) 0

0

w1*X1*cos(a1) w1* Y1*sin(b1) 0

0;

0

w1* X1*cos(a1)

w1*Y1*sin(b1);

0

0

- X1*sin(a1) Y1*cos(b1) 0

X1*cos(a1) Y1*sin(b1) 0

0

w1* X1*sin(a1) - w1*Y1*cos(b1) 0

0;

0

0

X1*cos(a1) Y1*sin(b1) 0

0

w1* X1*sin(a1) - w1*Y1*cos(b1);

- X2*sin(a2) Y2*cos(b2) 0

0

w2* X2*cos(a2) w2*Y2*sin(b2) 0

0;

0

0

- X2*sin(a2) Y2*cos(b2) 0

0

w2* X2*cos(a2) w2*Y2*sin(b2);

0

w2* X2*sin(a2) - w2*Y2*cos(b2) 0

0;

X2*cos(a2) Y2*sin(b2) 0

0

0

X2*cos(a2) Y2*sin(b2) 0

0

w2* X2*sin(a2) - w2*Y2*cos(b2)];

f=[-M* w1^2* X1*sin(a1);

F1+M* w1^2*Y1*cos(b1);

F1+M* w1^2* X1 *cos(a1);

M* w1^2*Y1*sin(b1);

-M* w2^2*X2*sin(a2);

F2+M* w2^2*Y2*cos(b2);

F2+M* w2^2*X2*cos(a2);

M* w2^2*Y2*sin(b2)];

k=p\f;

disp ('The bearing coefficients are');

fprintf ('\nKxx='); fprintf (num2str (k (1,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nKxy='); fprintf (num2str (k (2,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nKyx='); fprintf (num2str (k (3,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nKyy='); fprintf (num2str (k (4,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nCxx='); fprintf (num2str (k (5,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nCxy='); fprintf (num2str (k (6,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

fprintf ('\nCyx='); fprintf (num2str (k (7,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

425

OUTPUT

The bearing stiffness and dynamic coefficients are

Kxx=32899302.6948 N/m

Kxy=14491075.2905 N/m

Kyx=-9134864.0493 N/m

Kyy=-19410190.4825 N/m

Cxx=115385.6165 N/m

Cxy=257052.0267 N/m

Cyx=403687.2122 N/m

Cyy=183041.7669 N/m

In this method it is possible to take measurement on running machines. In this method the system

consists of a symmetrical rigid rotor mounted in two identical journal bearings. Transient vibration of

the rotor in the bearings is caused by applying a force impulse (as shown in Figure 10.10) to the rotor

center of gravity. In practice this is provided by striking the rotor with a calibrated hammer whose

head mass is known. This means of excitation results in an impulse, which lasts for a finite period of

time (typically a fraction of second). If an accelerometer is mounted in the hammerhead, it is possible

to determine the instantaneous force, which is applied to the rotor. The electrical output from the

hammer will then indicate the vibration of the applied force with time. An impulse can be considered

as made up of a number of sine waves of different frequencies, all occurring simultaneously. By

varying the hammer head mass, the stiffness of the hammer impact force (tip) and the initial hammer

head velocity, it is possible to vary the amplitude, frequency content and duration of the applied

impulse. EOM of the journal would be

f x k xx x k xy y C xx x C xy y = Mx and

f y k yx x k yy y C yx x C yy y = My

(10.33)

Since forcing may be considered to be sinusoidal, albeit at several different frequencies, any one

component will be of the form in the horizontal and vertical directions

426

f x = Fx e j t

f y = Fy e j t

and

(10.34)

The corresponding horizontal and vertical displacements x and y will be of the form

x = Xe j t

Ye j t

(10.35)

y = 2 y

(10.36)

and

so that

x = j x;

x = 2 x;

y = j y; and

2

Fx ( k xx M + j C xx )

=

Fy ( k yx + j C yx )

(k

+ j C xy )

X

( k yy M 2 + jC yy ) Y

xy

(10.37)

2

X 1 ( k yy M + j C yy )

=

Y D ( k yx j C yx )

( k xy + j Cxy )

F

x

2

( kxx M + jCxx ) Fy

where

D = ( k xx M 2 + j Cxx )( k yy M 2 + j C yy ) ( k yx + j C yx )( k xy + j Cxy )

(10.38)

Equation (36) is similar to the case of electromagnetic exciter method (first method) except in present

case the inertia force has now also been allowed for. If forcing is applied in one direction (for example

the hammer strikes the rotor in horizontal direction) then it is possible to define the reacceptance as :

(from equation 36)

Rxx

(k

=

yy

M 2 + j C yy )

X

Fx

Ryx =

and

( k yx + j C yx )

Y

Fx

(10.39)

Rxy =

( k xy + j C xy )

D

X

=

Fy

and

Ryy

(k

=

427

xx

M 2 + j Cxx )

D

Y

Fy

(10.40)

The reacceptance terms defined in equations (10.39) and (10.40) are clearly functions of frequency

and so take a different value depending on the vibration frequency being considered. The

reacceptance terms are in general complex because displacement and force are not in-phase. The

method of determining the oil-film stiffness and damping coefficient makes use only of the modulus

of the reacceptance terms, however, doesnot use the data describing phase. In experiment the right

hand side of equations (10.39)-(10.40) exist at many different frequencies simultaneously, and the

corresponding receptance terms must be determined for each of these frequencies. The reacceptance

will be

Fourier transform of

Fourier transform of

R xx ( ) =

x

=

fx

x(t )e

jt

dt

(10.41)

f (t )e

x

jt

dt

This may be obtained in experiment by spectrum analyzer and it will display reacceptance as shown

in Figure 10.11.

The above reacceptances have been obtained from right hand side of equations (10.39)-(10.40) using

two independent forcing. Now our aim is to obtain k xx etc. so that when it is substituted back in left

hand side of equation (10.39)-(10.40) it should give the value of the right hand side of equation

(10.39)-(10.40). These processes can be repeated until appropriate values are found which results in

the difference between left hand side and right hand side of equations (10.39)-(10.40) being

minimized, for all frequencies under consideration. The least squares error criteria may be used so

that to minimize a scalar quantity

s=

[R ( )

ij

theory

Rij ( ) exp

428

(10.42)

Using filter synchronous the imbalance response must be subtracted as shown in Figure 10.12.

Step function: This step function can be generated by giving gradual static load to the rotor and

suddenly releasing the load at well defined upper limit of the static load as shown in Figure 10.13.

References

[1] Goodwin, M.J., 1991, Experimental Techniques for Bearing Impedance Measurement, ASME

Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 113, No. 3, 335-342.

[2] Mitchell, J.R., Holmes, R. and Ballegooyen, H.V., 1965-66, Experimental Determination of a

Bearing Oil Film Stiffness, in the 4th Lubrication and Wear Convention, IMechE, Vol. 180,

No. 3K, 90-96.

[3] Parkins, D.W., 1979, Theoretical and Experimental Determination of the Dynamic

Characteristics of a Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, ASME Journal of Lubrication

Technology, Vol. 101, No. 2, 129-139.

[4] Swanson, E.E. and Kirk, R.G., 1997, Survey of Experimental Data for Fixed Geometry

Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings, ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 119, No. 4, 704-710.

[5] Tiwari, R., Lees, A.W. and Friswell, M.I., 2004, Identification Of Dynamic Bearing Parameters:

A Review, Shock & Vibration Digest, Vol. 36, No. 2, 99-124.

[6] Tripp, H. and Murphy, B. T., 1984, Eccentricity measurements on a tilting pad bearing, Trans

ASLE, Vol.28, No. 2, 217-224.

429

[7] Woodcock, J.S. and Holmes, R., 1969-70, The Determination and Application of the Dynamic

Properties of a Turbo-Rotor Bearing Oil Film, Proceedings of IMechE, Vol. 184, No. 3L,

111-119.

430

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