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Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.

in)

CHAPTER 10

EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATION OF DYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF


BEARINGS

One of the important factors governing the vibration characteristics of rotating machinery is the
effective dynamic stiffness of the supports as seen by the rotor as shown in Figure 10.1. The dynamic
stiffness of the support is determined by the combined effects of flexibility of the bearing, the bearing
pedestal assembly (bearing housing) and the foundations on which the pedestal is mounted. For the
case of turbo generator rotors mounted on oil-film bearings might be three times more flexible as
compared to pedestals and foundations.

Figure 10.1(a) A simplified representation of a rotor-bearingfoundation system

(b) Single-rotor-degree of
freedom idealisation

In the case of aeroengine compressor shafts are mounted on rolling element bearings, the foundation
of bearing is far more flexible. The theoretical models available for predicting the rotor support
stiffness are insufficiently accurate. It is for this reason that designers of high-speed rotating must rely
on empirically derived values (i.e. experimental) for support stiffness and damping in their design
calculations. Following methods are available which is classified in terms of type of forcing applied

(i) Static force method


(ii) Dynamic force method
o

Use of an electromagnetic vibration or exciter




Complex receptance method

Direct complex impedance derivation

Multi-frequency testing

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Use of centrifugal forces




Imbalance mass attached to the journal

Imbalance mass attached to an independent vibrator shaft

Transient methods


Measurement on the running machine

o Forces inherent in the system (residual imbalance and random)


10.1 Static force method
It is possible to determine all four stiffness coefficients (i.e. K xx , K yy , K xy and K yx ) of the bearing
oil film by application of static loads only. Unfortunately this method of loading does not enable the
oil-film damping coefficient to be determined.

Figure 9.2 (a) A bearing model

(b) Steady state locus curve of the shaft center

The exact operating position of the shaft center on a particular bearing depends upon the Sommerfeld
number. Because the bearing oil-film coefficient are specific to a particular location of shaft center on
the static locus as shown in Figure 10.2. A static load must first be applied in order to establish
operation at the required point on the locus. The next step is to apply incremental loads in both the
horizontal and vertical directions, which will cause changes in the journal horizontal and vertical
displacement relative to the bearing bush (or more precisely with respect to its static equilibrium
position). By relating the measured changes in displacements to the changes in the static load it is
possible to determine four-stiffness coefficients on the bearing oil film. We have, increments in forces
as

399

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

f x = k xx x + k xy y ;

f y = k yx x + k yy y

and

(10.1)

where x and y are the journal displacement in x and y directions, respectively (with respect to static
equilibrium position). If the displacement in the y direction is made to zero by application of suitable
loads f x and f y then

k xx = f x / x ;

k yx = f y / x

(10.2)

Similarly if the displacement in the x-direction is made zero then

k xy = f x / y ;

k yy = f y / y

(10.3)

Determination of the oil-film coefficient in this way necessitates a test rig, which is capable of
applying loads to the journal in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The method is somewhat
tedious in the experimental stage since evaluation of the required loads to ensure zero change in
displacement in one or other direction is dependent on the application of trial loads.

Alternative method (i) Instead of applying loads in both x and y directions, to ensue zero
displacements in one of these directions, it is easier to simply apply a load in one direction only and
measure resulting displacements in both directions. Equations (10.1) can be written as

{ f } = [ K ] {d }

(10.4)

with

{ f } = f x ;

[ K ] = k xx

yx

k xy
;
k yy

{d } =

If the [K] matrix is inverted then equation (10.4) can be written as

{d } = [ ]{ f }

(10.5)

with

[K ]

xx xy
= [ ] =

yx yy

400

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

where the quantities xx, xy, etc. are called the oil-film influence coefficients. If the force in the y
direction is zero then

xx =

x
;
fx

yx =

y
fx

(10.6)

Similarly, when the force in the x direction is zero, we have

xy =

x
;
fy

yy =

y
fy

(10.7)

The bearing stiffness coefficient may be obtained by inverting the influence coefficient matrix i.e.

[ K ] = [ ]

. This method still requires a test rig which is capable of providing loads on the bearing in

both x and y directions (specially in the horizontal direction, x).

Alternative method (ii): If there is no facility on the test rig for applying loads transverse to the normal
steady-state load direction of the bearing, it is still possible to obtain approximate value of the
stiffness coefficients.

Figure 10.3 Shift in the journal center position due to a horizontal load
In Figure 10.3, e is the eccentricity, is the altitude angle, A is the steady state position for a vertical
load w, B is the additional imaginary force Fx is applied to change its steady state running position to
B, R is the resultant of w and Fx , d is the angle of R with respect to vertical line i.e. w, d is the

401

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

change in altitude angle due to additional Fx , e + d e is the new eccentricity after application of Fx .
The influence coefficient can be obtained as

xx =

x PB PR PB SA ( e + d e ) sin ( + d ) e sin
=
=
=
Fx
Fx
Fx
Fx

( e + d e )( sin cos d + cos sin d ) e sin


Fx

Since for small displacement, we have (e + d e ) e , sin d = d and cos d = 1 . The influence
coefficient can be simplified to

xx

e ( sin + d cos ) e sin


Fx

e(d ) cos
Fx

(10.8)

A further simplification can be made if the resultant R is considered to be of vertically same


magnitude as the original load w, except that it has been turned through an angle d . We may write

d d = tan d =

Fx
w

(10.9)

On substituting equation (10.9) into (10.8), it gives

xx

e cos Fx e cos d y
=

Fx w
w
w

(10.10)

Similarly it may be shown that

yx =

d
e sin
= x
w
w

Since vertical load is easy to apply, one can get

(10.11)

yy =

be obtained as [ k ] = [ ] .
1

402

x
y
and xy =
. Stiffness coefficients can
Fy
Fy

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Example 10.1: Under particular operating conditions, the theoretical values of the stiffness
coefficients for a hydrodynamic bearing are found to be; Kxx=30 MN/m, Kxy=26.7 MN/m, Kyx=-0.926
MN/m, Kyy=11.7 MN/m. A testing is being designed so that these values can be confirmed
experimentally. What increment in horizontal (Fx) and vertical (Fy) loads must the rig is capable of
providing in order to provide (a) a displacement increment of 12 m in the horizontal direction whilst
that in the vertical direction is maintained zero and (b) a displacement increment of 12 m in the
vertical direction whilst that in horizontal direction is maintained zero.
Solution: From equation (10.1) static forces required in the x and y directions to a given displacement
can be obtained. For case (a) following forces are required

f x = 30 12 = 360 N

and

f y = 0.926 12 = 11.112 N

and

f y = 11.7 12 = 140.4 N

For case (b) following forces are required

f x = 26.7 12 = 320.4 N
The MATLAB code
INPUT FILE

% Input file name is input_qus_1_1.m


% For the first condition
x1=12*10^-6; % displacement in horizontal direction when Fx is applied in m
x2=0; % displacement in horizontal direction when Fy is applied in m
% For the second condition
y1=0; % displacement in vertical direction when Fx is applied in m
y2=12*10^-6; % displacement in vertical direction when Fy is applied in m
%Fx = load in horizontal direction in N.
%Fy = load in vertical direction in N.
Kxx=30*10^6; % dynamic stiffness coefficient for a bearing in N/m
Kxy=26.7*10^6; % dynamic stiffness coefficient for a bearing in N/m
Kyx=-.926*10^6; % dynamic stiffness coefficient for a bearing in N/m
Kyy=11.7*10^6; % dynamic stiffness coefficient for a bearing in N/m
MAIN FILE
clear all;
input_qus_1_1;
x=[x1 x2; y1 y2];
k=[kxx kxy;kyx kyy];
f=k*x;
fprintf ('The loads to be applied in the first condition');
fprintf ('\nfx1=');
fprintf (num2str (f (1,1))); fprintf (' N\n');
fprintf ('\nfy1=');
fprintf (num2str (f (2,1))); fprintf (' N\n');
fprintf ('\nThe loads to be applied in the second condition');
fprintf ('\nfx2=');
fprintf (num2str (f (1,2))); fprintf (' N\n');
fprintf ('\nfy2=');
fprintf (num2str (f (2,2))); fprintf (' N\n');

403

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

OUTPUT
The loads to be applied in the first condition
fy1=-11.112 N
fx1=360 N,
The loads to be applied in the second condition
fy2=140.4 N
fx2=320.4 N,

Example 10.2: The test rig described in Example 10.1 is used to measure the hydrodynamic bearing
stiffness coefficients by applying first of all a horizontal load of 360 N, which is then removed and
replaced by a vertical load of 320 N. The horizontal load produces displacement of 10.3 m and 3.3
m in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, whilst the vertical load produces respective
displacements of 18.3 m and 19.7 m. Calculate the value of stiffness coefficients based on these
measurements.
Solution: For the horizontal load of 360 N alone from equation (10.4), we have

xx =

10.3
= 28.6 10 9 m/N ;
360

yx =

3.3
= 9.167 109 m/N
360

For the vertical load of 320 N alone from equation (10.5), we have

xy =

18.3
= 57.188 m/N ;
320

yy =

19.7
= 61.563 m/N
320

From equation (10.3), we can obtain stiffness coefficients as

k
[ K ] = k xx
yx

k xy 28.6 57.188
0.0269 0.0250 9 26.9 25.0
109 =
=

10 = -4.0 12.5 MN/m


k yy 9.167 61.563
-0.0040 0.0125

The MATLAB code


INPUT FILE
% Input file name is
input_qus_1_2.m
x1=10.3*10^-6; % displacement in horizontal direction when Fx is applied (in meter)
y1=3.3*10^-6; % displacement in vertical direction when Fx is applied (in meter)
Fx1=360; % load in horizontal direction (in N)
Fy1=0; % load in vertical direction (in N)
x2=-18.3*10^-6; % displacement in horizontal direction when Fy is applied (in meter)
y2=19.7*10^-6; % displacement in vertical direction when Fy is applied (in meter)
Fx2=0; % load in horizontal direction (in N)
Fy2=320; % load in vertical direction (in N)
MAIN FILE
clear all;
input_qus_1_2;
f=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];
X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];

404

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

a=X/f;
k=a^-1;
fprintf ('Dynamic stiffness coefficients are');
fprintf ('\nkxx=');
fprintf (num2str (k (1,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nkxy=');
fprintf (num2str (k (1,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nkyx=');
fprintf (num2str (k (2,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nkyy=');
fprintf (num2str (k (2,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
OUTPUT
Dynamic stiffness coefficients are
kxx=26935055.0703 N/m,
kyx=-4010634.2575 N/m,

kxy=25020888.7201 N/m
kyy=12518040.2583 N/m

Exercise 10.1 For the estimation of bearing stiffness coefficients by the static load method, the static
load of 400 N is applied in the vertical and horizontal directions, one at a time. When the load is
applied in the horizontal direction, it produces displacements of 22 m and 20 m in the vertical and
horizontal directions respectively, whilst the vertical load produces respective displacements of 4 m
and 12 m. Obtained bearing stiffness coefficients from the above measurements.
Answer: The stiffness coefficients are kxx=-4.651 MN/m, kxy=13.953 MN/m, kyx=25.581 MN/m and
kyy=23.256 MN/m.

Exercise 10.2 A test rig is used to measure the hydrodynamic bearing stiffness coefficients by
applying first of all a horizontal load of 400 N. It produces displacements of 10 m and 4 m in the
horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Then in second case only a vertical load of 300 N is
applied. It produces displacements of -20 m and 20 m in the horizontal and vertical directions,
respectively. Calculate the value of the stiffness coefficients based on these measurements.

10.2 Use of Electromagnetic Vibrator


In order to fully analyse the behavior of a bearing under dynamic loading it is necessary to cause the
journal to vibrate within the bearing bush under the action of a known exciting force as shown in
Figure 10.4(a). Alternatively, the bearing bush can be allowed to float freely on the journal as shown
in Figure 10.4(b), which is mounted on a slave bearings and the forcing is applied to the bush. By
measuring the resulting system vibrations and relating these to the force, it is possible to determine the
effective oil-film stiffness and damping coefficient. By varying the amplitude, frequency and shape of
the electrical signal input to the vibratior it is possible to exercise full control over the forcing applied
to the system.

405

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Fixed non-floating
bearing
housing


( xb 0 and yb 0)

Fluid

fy(t)

Journal

fx(t)
Figure 10.4(a). A fixed bearing and a rotating journal floating on the fluid

Floating
bearing
bush
( xb 0 and yb 0)

Fluid

Journal

fy(t)

fx(t)
Figure 10.4(b). A fixed rotating shaft and a non-rotating bearing floating on the fluid
10.2.1 Complex Receptance Method
The method involves applying a sinusoidally varying force to the journal in the horizontal direction,
whilst the forcing in the vertical direction is zero, and measuring the resulting displacement
amplitudes in the horizontal and vertical directions together with their respective phase relative to the
exciting force. It is then necessary to repeat the procedure with the forcing applied only in the vertical

406

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

direction. The knowledge of force amplitude and measured displacement quantities, then enables the
eight oil-film coefficient to be derived. The force transmitted across the oil-film may be represented in
the form

f x = k xx x + k xy y + cxx x + cxy y

and

f y = k yx x + k yy y + c yx x + c yy y

(10.12)

Assuming sinusoidal variations of x and y (i.e. x = Xe jt etc., where is frequency of forcing


function), equation (10.12) gives

f x = (k xx + jc xx )x + (k xy + jc xy )y

and

f y = (k yx + jc yx )x + (k yy + jc yy )y
(10.13)

which can be written in matrix form as

f x Z xx
=
f y Z yx

Z xy x

Z yy y

(10.14)

where Z is a complex stiffness coefficient given by Z = k + jc

x R xx
=
y R yx
where [R ] = [Z ]

R xy f x

R yy f y

(10.15)

is called the complex receptance matrix. For the case of forcing in horizontal

direction only equation (10.15) gives

R xx =

x
fx

R yx =

and

y
fx

(10.16)

where x and y are the measured displacement in the horizontal and vertical directions at a particular
time and f x is the force in the horizontal direction at that instant. For the case when forcing is in the
vertical direction the other reacceptance terms are derived as

R xy =

x
fy

R yy =

and

407

y
fy

(10.17)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

On inverting [R ] elements of [Z ] can be obtained. The elements of [Z ] contain all eight bearing
stiffness and damping coefficients as defined in equation (10.14) i.e. Z = k + j c where is the
frequency of forcing function. The problems related to this method can be easily solved in the
MATLAB and is illustrated in the following example.

Example 10.3 A bearing is forced in the horizontal direction by a force Fx = 150 sin 200t N. The
resulting vibrations are x = 2010-6 sin(200t-0.2) m in the horizontal direction and y = 2010-6
sin(200t-0.32) m in the vertical direction. When the same forcing is applied in the vertical direction
the horizontal and vertical displacements take the respective forms x = 810-6 sin(200t + 0.15) m and
y = 2610-6 sin(200t-0.3) m. Determine dynamic coefficients of the bearing.
Solution:
We have two sets of measurements
(i) For Fx = 150 sin 200 t N and F y = 0

x = 7 10 6 sin(200t 0.2) m

and

y = 2 0 1 0 6 sin (2 0 0 t 0 .32 ) m

which can be written in complex plane as


For Fx = 150e j200t alone, we have

x = 7 10 6 e j(200t -0.2) and y = 20 106 e j(200 t -0.32)

(A)

and
(ii) Fx = 0 and Fy = 150sin 200t N

x = 0.8 106 sin(200t + 0.15) m

and

y = 26 10 6 sin(200 t 0.3) m

which can be written in complex plane as


For Fy = 150e j200 t alone, we have

x = 0.8 106 e j(200t + 0.15) and y = 26 106 e j(200 t -0.3)

408

(B)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Bearing dynamic coefficients are defined as

Fx = k xx x + k xy y + cxx x + cxy y and

Fy = k yx x + k yy y + c yx x + c yy y

(C)

On substituting the first set of measurement from equation (A) into equation (C), we have

150 e j200 t ( k xx + j200 c xx )

( k yx + j200 c yx )

( k xy + j200c xy ) 7 10 6 e j( 200 t -0.2)

( k yy + j200c yy ) 20 10 6 e j(200 t -0.32)

(D)

Similarly on substituting the second set of measurement from equation (B) into equation (C), we have

0 (k xx + j200cxx ) (k xy + j200cxy ) 8 106 e j(200t + 0.15)

j200 t
6 j(200 t -0.3)

150e
(k yx + j200c yx ) (k yy + j200c yy ) 26 10 e

(E)

Let the dynamic stiffness is defined as


Z = k + j c

with

= 200 rad/sec

First set of equations from equations (D) and (E), we have

7 106 e j(200t -0.2) Z xx + 20 106 e j(200t -0.32) Z xy = 150e j200t

(F)

8 106 e j(200t-0.15) Z xx + 26 106 e j(200t-0.3) Z xy = 0

(G)

and

Equation (G) gives

Z xx =

26 106 e j(200t -0.3)


Z xy
8 106 e j(200 t -0.15)

or

On substituting equation (H) into equation (F), we get

409

Z xx = -3.25e 0.45 j Z xy

(H)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Z xy =

150e j200 t
150
=
6 j(200 t -0.32)
6 j(200 t -0.2)
6 0..32j
26 10 e
20 10 e
22.75 10 e
22.75 10 6 e 0.2j

or

Z xy = 3.52 107 + j 1.884 107

(I)

On substituting equation (I) into equation (H), we get

Z xx = 7.64 107 j 1.049 108

(J)

Similarly from first set of equation (E), we have

Z yx = Z yy

( 20 10

e j(200 t 0..32) )

7 10 e

j(200 t 0.2)

Z yx = 2.8571e 0.12 j Z yy

(K)

On substituting equation (K) into second equation of (E), we get

Z yy =

150e j200t
150 106
=
6 j(200 t 0.3)
6 j(200 t + 0.15)
j0.3
22.86 10 e
22.86 e j0.15
26 10 e
26 e

(L)

In simplification of equations (K) and (L), we get

Z yy = 2.6156 106 + j 1.2987 107 and Z yx = 1.186 107 j 3.594 107

(M)

Stiffness and damping coefficients can be obtained by separating real and imaginary part of the
dynamic stiffness coefficients from equations (I), (J) and (M), as

k xx = 7.64 107 N/m; k xy = 3.52 107 N/m; k yx = 1.186 107 N/m; k yy = 2.6156 106 N/m
cxx = 524500 N/ m-sec ; cxy = 94200 N/m-sec ; c yx = 179700 N/m-sec; c yy = 64935 N/m-sec

MATLAB solution:
INPUT FILE
% The name of the input file is

input_qus_5.m

410

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

w=200; % Frequency of the applied force


% For the given 1st condition
Fx1=150; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)
Fy1=0; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)
X1=20*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter)
1=-0.2; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)
Y1=20*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)
2=-.32; % Phase angle of vertical vibration (in radian)
% For the given 2nd condition
Fx2=0; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)
Fy2=150; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)
X2=8*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter
1=0.15; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)
Y2=26*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)
2=-0.3; % Phase angle of vertical vibration (in radian)
x1=X1*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));
y1=Y1*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));
x2=X2*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));
y2=Y2*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));
MAIN FILE
clear all;
input_qus_1_5;
F=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];
X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];
K=X\F;
fprintf ('Dynamic coefficients of the bearing are');
fprintf ('\nkxx=');
fprintf (num2str (real (K (1,1)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nkxy=');
fprintf (num2str (real (K (1,2)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nkyx=');
fprintf (num2str (real (K (2,1)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nkyy=');
fprintf (num2str (real (K (2,2)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\ncxx=');
fprintf (num2str (imag (K (1,1)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');
fprintf ('\ncxy=');
fprintf (num2str (imag (K (1,2)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');
fprintf ('\ncyx=');
fprintf (num2str (imag (K (2,1)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');
fprintf ('\ncyy=');
fprintf (num2str (imag (K (2,2)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');
OUTPUT
The dynamic coefficients of the bearing are
Kxx=9877721.7564 N/m
Kxy=-2269493.2286 N/m
Kyx=-7650433.7248 N/m
Kyy=7292188.2744 N/m
Cxx=3491110.953 N/m^2
Cxy=-2289239.7727 N/m^2
Cyx=-2532978.0684 N/m^2
Cyy=3430612.8087 N/m^2

The above problem we can be solved by an alternative method:


INPUT FILE
% The input file name is input_altr_qus_1_5.m
w=200;
t=pi/(4*w); % time of operation in second
% For the first condition
Fx1=150*sin(200*t); % applied force in horizontal direction (in N)
Fy1=0; % applied force in vertical direction (in N)
A1=-.2; % phase of the vibration in the horizontal direction for the first condition (in radian)
B1=-.32; % phase of the vibration in the vertical direction for the first condition (in radian)

411

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Mx1=20*10^-6; % amplitude of the vibration in the horizontal direction for the first condition (in meter)
My1=20*10^-6; % amplitude of the vibration in the vertical direction for the first condition (in meter)
% for the second condition
Fx2=0; % applied force in horizontal direction (in N)
Fy2=150*sin(200*t); % applied force in vertical direction(in N)
A2=.15; % phase of the vibration in the horizontal direction for the second condition (in radian)
B2=-.3; % phase of the vibration in the vertical direction for the second condition (in radian)
Mx2=8*10^-6; % amplitude of the vibration in the horizontal direction for the second condition (in meter)
My2=26*10^-6; % amplitude of the vibration in the vertical direction for the second condition (in meter)
x1=Mx1*(sin(w*t)*cos(A1)+j*sin(A1)*cos(w*t)); % displacement in horizontal direction when Fx is applied (in meter)
x2=Mx2*(sin(w*t)*cos(A2)+j*sin(A2)*cos(w*t)); % displacement in horizontal direction when Fy is applied (in meter)
y1=My1*(sin(w*t)*cos(B1)+j*sin(B1)*cos(w*t)); % displacement in vertical direction when Fx is applied (in meter)
y2=My2*(sin(w*t)*cos(B2)+j*sin(B2)*cos(w*t)); % displacement in vertical direction when Fy is applied (in meter)
MAIN FILE
clear all;
input_altr_qus_1_5;
F=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];
X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];
K=X\F;
fprintf ('Dynamic coefficients of the bearing are');
fprintf ('\nkxx=');
fprintf (num2str (real (K (1,1)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nkxy=');
fprintf (num2str (real (K (1,2)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nkyx=');
fprintf (num2str (real (K (2,1)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nkyy=');
fprintf (num2str (real (K (2,2)))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\ncxx=');
fprintf (num2str (imag (K (1,1)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');
fprintf ('\ncxy=');
fprintf (num2str (imag (K (1,2)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');
fprintf ('\ncyx=');
fprintf (num2str (imag (K (2,1)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');
fprintf ('\ncyy=');
fprintf (num2str (imag (K (2,2)))); fprintf (' N/m-sec\n');
OUTPUT
The dynamic coefficients of the bearing are
kxx=9877721.7564 N/m
kxy=-2269493.2286 N/m
kyx=-7650433.7248 N/m
kyy=7292188.2744 N/m
cxx=3491110.953 N/m-sec
cxy=-2289239.7727 N/m-sec
cyx=-2532978.0684 N/m-sec
cyy=3430612.8087 N/m-sec

Example 10.4 A bearing is forced in the horizontal direction by a force Fx = 150 sin 200t N. The
resulting vibrations are x = 710-6 sin(200t-0.2) meters in the horizontal direction and y = 2010-6
sin(200t-0.32) meters in the vertical direction. When the same forcing is applied in the vertical
direction the horizontal and vertical displacements take the respective forms x=810-6 sin(200t +0.15)
meters and y=2610-6 sin (200t-0.3) meters. Determine elements of complex receptance matrix for the
bearing.
Solution: The following measurement were done

412

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Case I: For Fx = 150sin 200t N and Fy = 0 , we have

x = 7 10 6 sin(200t 0.2) m and y = 20 106sin(200t 0.32) m


Case II: For Fy = 150sin 200t N and Fx = 0 , we have

x = 8 10 6 sin(200t + 0.15) m and y = 26 106 sin(200t 0.3) m


For a force Fx leading a displacement X by is shown in Figure 8.5.
Fx cos

Fx

Fy sin

X
Figure 8.5 Phase between the displacement and force vectors
From Figure 8.5 the receptance can be expressed as

Rxx =

X
Fx cos + j Fx sin

where X and Fx are displacement and force amplitudes. The displacement is lagging behind force by
angle.
Fx = 150 N

0.2 rad

X = 710

-6

Figure 10.6 A typical force and displacement vectors


From Figure 10.6, we have

Rxx =

x
X
7.0 106
=
=
= (0.04574 -j 0.00927) 10-6 m/N
Fx Fx cos + j Fx sin 150 cos 0.2 + j 150sin 0.2

413

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Ryx =

y
26 10 6
=
= ( 0.1266 j 0.042 ) 10 6 m/N
f x 150cos0.32 + j150sin0.32

Ryy =

y
26 10 6
=
= ( 0.046 + j 0.007 ) 10 6 m/N
f y 150cos0.3 + j 150sin0.3

x
8 106
Rxy =
=
= ( 0.127 j 0.0394 ) 106 m/N
f y 150cos0.15 + j 150sin0.15
Hence, the receptance matrix can be written as

Rxx
R] =
Ryx

Rxy (45.74 j 9.27)


(52.73 + j 7.97) m
=

Ryy (126.56 j 41.94) (165.59 + j 51.22) MN

MATLAB Solution:
INPUT FILE
% The name of the input file is
input_qus_1_6.m
w=200; % Frequency of the applied force
% For the given 1st condition
Fx1=150; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)
Fy1=0; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)
X1=7*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter)
1=-0.2; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)
Y1=20*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)
2=-.32; % Phase angle of vertical vibration ( in radian)
% For the given 2nd condition
Fx2=0; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)
Fy2=150; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)
X2=8*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter
1=0.15; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)
Y2=26*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)
2=-0.3; % Phase angle of vertical vibration (in radian)
x1=X1*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));
y1=Y1*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));
x2=X2*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));
y2=Y2*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));
MAIN FILE
clear all;
input_qus_1_6;
F=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];
X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];
K=X/F;
fprintf ('The elements of complex receptance matrix for the bearing are');
fprintf ('\nRxx=');
fprintf (num2str (K (1,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nRxy=');
fprintf (num2str (K (1,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nRyx=');
fprintf (num2str (K (2,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nRyy=');
fprintf (num2str (K (2,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

414

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

OUTPUT
The elements of complex receptance matrix for the bearing are
Rxx=4.5736e-008-9.2712e-009i m/N
Rxy=5.2734e-008+7.97e-009i m/N
Ryx=1.2656e-007-4.1942e-008i m/N
Ryy=1.6559e-007-5.1224e-008i m/N

Exercise 10.3 A bearing is forced in the horizontal direction by a force Fx = 200 sin 150t N. The
resulting journal vibrations are x = 12 10 6 sin(150t 0.35) m (in the horizontal direction) and

y = 20 106 sin(150t 0.4) m (in the vertical direction). When the same force is applied in the
vertical direction the horizontal and vertical displacements take the respective forms

x = 13 10 6 sin(150t + 0.3) and y = 25 106 sin(150t 0.38) . Determine elements of the complex
impedance matrix for the bearing.
MATLAB Solution:
INPUT FILE
% The name of the input file is
input_qus_8_4.m
w=150; % Frequency of the applied force
% For the given 1st condition
Fx1=200; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)
Fy1=0; % Amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)
X1=12*10^-6; % amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter)
1=-0.35; % Phase angle of horizontal vibration (in radian)
Y1=20*10^-6; %Amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)
2=-0.4; % Phase angle of vertical vibration (in radian)
% For the given 2nd condition
Fx2=0; % Amplitude of the applied horizontal force (in N)
Fy2=200; % amplitude of the applied vertical force (in N)
X2=13*10^-6; % Amplitude of the horizontal vibration (in meter)
1=0.3; % Phase angle of the horizontal vibration (in radian)
Y2=25*10^-6; % amplitude of the vertical vibration (in meter)
2=-0.38; % Phase angle of the vertical vibration (in radian)
MAIN FILE
clear all;
input_qus_1_4;
x1=X1*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));
y1=Y1*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));
x2=X2*(cos(1)+i*sin(1));
y2=Y2*(cos(2)+i*sin(2));
F=[Fx1 Fx2; Fy1 Fy2];
X=[x1 x2; y1 y2];
K=X\F;
fprintf ('The elements of complex impedance matrix for the bearing are');
fprintf ('\nKxx=');
fprintf (num2str (K (1,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nKxy=');
fprintf (num2str (K (1,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nKyx=');
fprintf (num2str (K (2,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nKyy=');
fprintf (num2str (K (2,2))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
OUTPUT
The elements of complex impedance matrix for the bearing are
Kxx=5061762.20178+27691680.0054i N/m

415

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Kxy=7007752.44721-12851849.7486i N/m
Kyx=-4491637.24935-22067930.6871i N/m
Kyy=2029852.21747+13358903.8911i N/m

Exercise 10.4. For the bearing dynamic parameter estimation, how many minimum numbers of
independent sets of force-response measurements are required? Justify your answer. (Assume there is
no residual imbalance in rotor.)

10.2.2 Direct Complex Impedance Derivation


It is possible to determine the complex stiffness coefficients Z xx , Z etc. in equation (10.14) directly
without resorting to the use of receptances. This may be done provided that forcing in both the
horizontal and vertical directions be able provide simultaneously, and with independent control over
each input with respect to its amplitude and relative phase. The system force-displacement
relationship is given by equation (10.14). In the present approach it is to ensure that one of the
resulting system displacement vectors, say Y, is zero. This can be made to be the case by correctly
adjusting the amplitude of the force in the y-direction and its phase relative to that in the x-direction.
Suitable values for these quantities can be found relatively easily by trial and error. The first line of
equation (10.14) thus gives

Z xx =

fx
x

(10.18)

which will allow the value of Z xx to be determined directly provided that the amplitude and phase of
the horizontal displacement relative to the horizontal force had been measured. If the amplitude and
phase of the force in the y-direction were also noted then the value of Z yx could also be determined as

Z yx =

fy

(10.19)

In the above case, it is the phase of the x-direction displacement amplitude relative to the force in the
y-direction that is significant. Similarly by adjusting forcing amplitudes and relative phases so as to
ensure a zero horizontal displacement, x, then the values of Z xy and Z yy could also be determined.
This method requires more complicated experimental procedure. It may be more costly in terms of
equipment, since two vibrators and additional control units are required.

Some experimental measurement considerations are discussed now. Choice of forcing frequency (or
forcing frequency range) is an important parameter to choose. It depends upon the system resonance.
416

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

If the system is excited close to its resonant frequency then a response of suitable magnitude may be
obtained for a lower force amplitude input. (since the bearing impedance changes with journal
vibration non-linearity effect will play a major roll). The advantage of exciting the system at a
frequency in the region of its resonant frequency, that is that phase lag will be generally greater than
zero. (between response and force). With this for small inaccuracies in their (phase) measurement are
less likely to substantially alter the magnitude of coefficients, which are derived. This is not the case
hen the lag angle is very small or when it is close to 90 0 . In these cases (i.e. close to 0 0 and 90 0 ) ill
conditioning of the equation of motion results in significant changes in the magnitude of the derived
coefficient for even a change of only 3-4 degrees of phase (which may be about the accuracy to which
phase is measured). This coefficient derived using data generated well away from the critical speed
may well be considerably in accurate (of the order of 100% in some cases). Also since at critical
speeds it is observed that the orbit of the shaft center is elliptical in nature and that leads to well
conditioning of regression matrix.

10.2.3 Multi Frequency Testing


It has advantage that the certainty of exciting all system modes within the prescribe frequency range,
and inherent high noise rejection. The method involves forcing the system in both x and y directions,
at all frequencies within the range of interest, simultaneously. The aim is to arrive at more accurate
values of the coefficients, which are assumed to be independent of frequency, by means of some
averaging procedure. When all (several) frequencies are excited simultaneously, the knowledge of
bearing behavior at many different frequencies should enable more accurate results to be obtained.
Also it saves the laboratory time. Fourier analysis can be used to convert measured input and output
signals from the time domain to the frequency domain. Recent advances in laboratory
instrumentation, for example, the emergence of spectrum analysers (FFT analysis) capable of carrying
out the Fourier transform, have helped the technique to evolve. In theory, any shape of input signal
with multi-frequency content can be used to force the system. For example an impulse signal (Figure
10.7) is actually composed of signals at all frequencies in coexistence. Because of the likely
concentration of the signal at the low-frequency end of the spectrum however, a impulse in practice
provides useful signals over only a relatively small frequency range. For higher frequency the signal/
noise ratio becomes too low. An alternative is a white noise signal, which contains all frequencies
within its spectrum Band-limited white noise, sometimes referred to as coloured noise, contains all
frequencies within a prescribed range. One way of producing such a signal is with pseudo random
binary sequences (PRBS) where the frequency range that is present is chosen to excite appropriate
modes in the system under test. Unfortunately, both with impulse and PRBS signals there is a danger
of saturating the system so that amplitudes at some frequencies are so large that non-linearity are
encountered and the test becomes invalid. These disadvantages can be overcome by using a signal

417

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

mode up of equal-amplitude sinusoidal signals whose frequency are those which one wishes to excite
within a particular frequency range. One signal of this type is Schroeder phased harmonics.

Figure 10.7 Impulse and white noise signals in the time and frequency domains

If the system response to multi-frequency signal is recorded, bearing properties may be obtained as
follows. The displacement in the x and y directions occurring at a frequency are written in the form

x = Xe jt

and

y = Ye jt

(10.20)

Thus

x = j Xe jt ;

y = jYe jt ;


x = 2 Xe jt

and


y = 2Ye jt

(10.21)

The forcing function may similarly be defined as

f x = Fx e jt

and

f y = Fy e jt

(10.22)

Equations of motion of the journal in the x and y directions are

f x k xx x k xy y cxx x cxy y = Mx

and

f y k yx x k yy y c yx x c yy y = My

(10.23)

where M is the mass of journal and k xx , cxx etc. are oil film stiffness and damping coefficients.
Substituting equations (10.20) to (10.22) into equation (10.23), we get

Z xx ( ) Z xy ( ) X Fx + M 2 X

=
2
Z yx ( ) Z yy ( ) Y Fy + M Y

418

(10.24)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

where Z = k + j c . On separating the real and imaginary parts, we rearrange equation (10.24) as

X r
i
X

X i Yr
X r Y i

Y i
Y r

Fxr
Fxi

k xx
c
xx
Fyi k xy

Fyr cxy
1

k yx
c yx
k yy M 2 X r
=
c yy M 2 X i
0

M 2Y r

M 2Y i

(10.25)

Equation (10.25) may be written for = 0 , 20 , 30 , , n0 (Total of n times in all). Values of

and quantities in the first and last matrices of equation (23) are determined by the Fourier
transformation of time-domain signals. All of these equations (10.25) may be grouped as a single
matrix equation as

[D]2 n6 [Z ]62 = [A]2n2

(10.26)

The contents of the [Z ] matrix might be best obtained by means of a least squares estimator. This
involves recognizing that measurements obtained in the laboratory will be inaccurate and so there are
no values of the coefficient in the [Z ] matrix which will satisfy all lines of equation (10.26). A
residual matrix is developed which defines the errors between the left hand and right hand sides of
equation (10.26) i.e.

[E ]2n2 = [A]2n2 [D]2n6 [Z ]62

(10.27)

The contents of the [Z ] matrix are defined as being those values, which ensure that the sums of the
squares of the elements in the [E ] matrix are minimized. On multiplying equation (10.27) by [D ]62 n ,
T

we get

[D]T [D ][Z ] = [D]T [A]

[Z ] = [[D]T [D]] [D]T [A]


1

or

Since measured terms used to make up the

[D ]

and

[A]

(10.28)

matrices are obtained via Fourier

transformation of the output and input signals. The noise occurring at a frequency greater than n 0 is
automatically filtered out of the analysis.

419

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

10.3 Use of Centrifugal Forces


One of the simplest ways of exciting a journal in a sinusoidal manner is by means of centrifugal
forcing, simply by attaching imbalance masses of known magnitude to a rotating shaft. Advantage
with this method is that there is no need for costly electromagnetic exciter. In present method the
processing of measured data in the time domain. Out of three methods in two methods an imbalance
of known magnitude attached to the journal (and are based on the assumption that inherent rotor
imbalance is insignificantly small). The third method involves use of a separate imbalance mass shaft,
which can rotate at frequencies independent of the journal rotational frequency.

(i) Imbalance mass attached to the journal


This means of exciting the journal can be used to determine the bearing oil-film damping coefficients
when the bearing stiffness coefficients are already known. (for example by static force method). The
experimental involves measurement of the horizontal and vertical displacement amplitudes of the
journal relative to the bearing, and of the bearing or pedestals itself relative to space (fixed
foundation). In addition, measurements of the corresponding phase lag angles of each of these
displacements behind the imbalance force vector are also made.

Figure 10.8 A rotor-bearing system with an unbalance

In addition to imbalance force as shown in Figure 10.8, the rotor also has oil-film forces acting on it,
these being transmitted to rotor by shaft. Governing equations of the rotor can be written as

2 f x 2k xx x 2k xy y 2cxx x 2c yy y = 2 M ( 
x + 
xp )
and

2 f y 2k yx x 2k yy y 2c yx x 2c yy y = 2 M ( 
y + 
yp )

420

(10.29)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

where x and y are displacements of journal relative to bearing (or pedestal), x p and y p are the
displacement of pedestal (or bearing) relative to fixed foundation, 2M is the central rotor mass
(symmetric) and f is the known imbalance force on the rotor. We can write

f y = Fy e j t

f x = Fx e jt ;

so that

x = Xe jt ;

y = Ye jt ;

x p = X p e jt ;

y p = Yp e jt

(10.30)

where Fx , Fy , X , Y , X p and Yp are in general complex quantity and contain the amplitude and
phase information and is the rotational speed of the rotor. On substituting equation (10.30) into
equation (10.29), we get
2
Z xx ( ) Z xy ( ) X Fx + M ( X + X p )

=
2
Z yx ( ) Z yy ( ) Y Fy + M (Y + Yp )

(10.31)

On separating real and imaginary terms, we get

M 2 k xx

k yx
cxx

c yx

k xy
k yy M 2
c yy
c yy

cxx
c yy
k xx M 2
k yx

2
X i M X pi


2
Yr = F + M Ypr
X r F + M 2 X
k xy
pr

2
2

k yy M Yi
M Ypi

cxy
c yy

(10.32)

Quantities M , Fx , Fy , , X , Y , X p and Yp are either known or are measured during the course of
the experiment. k xx , cxx , are unknown (eight for the present case). Equation (30) has four
equations so if four stiffness coefficient are known (by static force method) the remaining four
damping coefficient can be obtained from this. Alternatively, if bearing dynamic parameters are
speed-independent then measurement at least two speed will be sufficient to obtain all eight
coefficients or by changing F and rotating the rotor at same speed (for speed-dependent bearing
parameters) all eight coefficients can be obtained.

Imbalanced mass attached to an independent vibrator shaft

421

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

In previous method equation (30) has eight unknowns ( k xx , cxx , ) and it has four equations. If a test
rig capable of providing excitation by means of imbalance forcing, where the forcing frequency could
be varied without upsetting the journal rotational frequency. Thus a second equation (30) could be
obtained, resulting in eight simultaneous equations in all, by using a different value of without
upsetting the bearing Sommerfeld number. Two sets of measurements can be taken for two different
rotational frequency of secondary shaft, most convenient would be so that the steady state
position should not disturb (as shown in Figure 10.9b).

(a) Excitation unit arrangement

Fixed non-floating
bearing
housing
( xb 0 and yb 0)

Fluid

Journal

Anti-synchronous
excitation
(b) Basic principle of the excitation unit
Figure 10.9 An anti-synchronous excitation by an auxiliary unbalance unit

422

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Example 10.5 For estimation of bearing dynamic coefficients the following measurements were
made: (i) X 1 and Y1 for simultaneous application of Fx1 and Fy1 and (ii) X 2 and Y2 for simultaneous
application Fx2 and Fy2 ; where X and Y are displacements and F is force and in general they all are
complex in nature. If shapes of both the orbits of the shaft center are circular in shape, whether it
would be possible to estimate all bearing dynamic coefficients from these two measurements.
Solution: Consider a single bearing and use a complex stiffness, Z = k m 2 + j c , at a single
frequency to describe the equation of motion in frequency domain, as

Z xx
Z
yx

Z xy f x
=
Z yy f y

(A)

Using two unbalance runs with corresponding responses x1 , y1 , x 2 and y 2 and right hand sides

f x1 , f y1 , f x 2 and f y 2 , equation (A) may be written as

Z xx
Z
yx

Z xy x1

Z yy y1

x2 f x1
=
y2 f y1

f x2

f y2

(B)

The solution of equation (B) is obtained as

Z xx
Z
yx

Z xy
y2
1
=

Z yy ( x1 y2 x2 y1 ) y1

x2 f x1

x1 f y1

f x2

f y2

(C)

For circular orbits y1 = jx1 and y 2 = jx 2 (or negative, depends on the definition of axes, and the
direction of rotation). Then the denominator of equation (C) becomes

x1 y 2 x 2 y1 = x1 ( jx 2 ) x 2 ( jx1 ) = 0

(D)

and hence, equation (D) is ill-conditioned for circular orbits. Having a third unbalance run does not
help. For three unbalances equation (B) may be written as

Z xx
Z
yx

Z xy x1
Z yy y1

x2
y2

x3 f x1
=
y3 f y1

fx2
f y2

423

f x3

f y3

(E)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The least squares solution involves the following inversion

x1
y
1

x2
y2

x
x3 1
x
y3 2
x3

y1
x12 + x22 + x32
y2 =
x y +x y +x y
y3 1 1 2 2 3 3

x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3

y12 + y22 + y32

( x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 )

x12 + x22 + x32

y12 + y22 + y32


1
= 2

( x1 + x22 + x32 )( y12 + y22 + y32 ) ( x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 ) x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3


(F)
If y i = jxi , then the denominator of the equation (F) becomes

(x

2
1

+ x22 + x32 )( y12 + y22 + y32 ) ( x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 )

(G)

= ( x12 + x22 + x32 ) j2 ( x12 + x22 + x32 ) j ( x12 + x22 + x32 ) = 0


2

and the circular orbits are ill-conditioned. There is another possibility when ill-conditioning may
occur, namely when y1 = x1 and y 2 = x 2 for any value of , where is a constant. Then the
denominator of equation (C) becomes zero, leading to ill-conditioning. This means that a change in
orbit from one unbalance to the next is required. The ill-conditioning due to a circular orbit may be
avoided by taking measurements in both the clockwise and anticlockwise directions of rotation of the
rotor. For this case y1 = jx1 and y 2 = jx 2 . Then the denominator of equation (C) becomes

x1 y 2 x 2 y1 = x1 ( jx 2 ) x 2 ( jx1 ) 0

(H)

and hence, equation (C) becomes well-conditioned.

Exercise 10.5 The eight bearing stiffness and damping coefficients are to be determined by using the
method described above. Experimental measurements of journal vibration amplitude and phase lag
angle are given in the Table 10.1; pedestal vibrations are found to be negligible. Determine the values
of oil-film coefficients implied by these measurements, and the maximum change in the direct crosscoupling terms introduced by an error of +4 in the measurement of the phase recorded as 42.5.
Table 10.1 Some test data used to calculate bearing stiffness and damping coefficients

424

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Horizontal vibration amplitude


Horizontal phase lag
Vertical vibration amplitude
Vertical phase lag
Force amplitude
Forcing frequency
Journal mass

Forward excitation
66.4 m
42.5
55.5 m
9.9
1.0 KN
12.6 Hz
150 kg

Reverse excitation
46.6m
20.9
38.4 m
111
1.0 KN
12.6 Hz
150 kg

MATLAB Solution:
INPUT FILE
% Name of this input file is
input_qus_1_7.m
X1=66.4*1.0e-6; % horizontal vibration amplitude (in meter)
A1=42.5; % horizontal phase lag (in degree)
Y1=55.5*1.0e-6; % vertical vibration amplitude (in meter)
B1=9.9; % vertical phase lag (in degree)
F1=1*1.0e+3; % force amplitude (in N)
n1=12.6; % forcing frequency(in Hz)
M=150; % journal mass (in Kg)
% For the reverse excitation condition.
X2=46.6*1.0e-6; % horizontal vibration amplitude (in meter)
A2=-20.9; % horizontal phase lag (in degree)
Y2=38.4*1.0e-6; % vertical vibration amplitude (in meter)
B2=-111; % vertical phase lag (in degree)
F2=1*1.0e+3; % force amplitude (in N)
n2=12.6; % forcing frequency (in Hz)
M=150; % journal mass (in Kg)
MAIN FILE
clear all;
input_qus_1_7;
w1=2*pi*n1;
w2=2*pi*n2;
a1= A1*(pi/180);
b1= B1*(pi/180);
a2= A2*(pi/180);
b2= B2*(pi/180);
p=[-X1*sin(a1) Y1*cos(b1) 0
0
w1*X1*cos(a1) w1* Y1*sin(b1) 0
0;
0
w1* X1*cos(a1)
w1*Y1*sin(b1);
0
0
- X1*sin(a1) Y1*cos(b1) 0
X1*cos(a1) Y1*sin(b1) 0
0
w1* X1*sin(a1) - w1*Y1*cos(b1) 0
0;
0
0
X1*cos(a1) Y1*sin(b1) 0
0
w1* X1*sin(a1) - w1*Y1*cos(b1);
- X2*sin(a2) Y2*cos(b2) 0
0
w2* X2*cos(a2) w2*Y2*sin(b2) 0
0;
0
0
- X2*sin(a2) Y2*cos(b2) 0
0
w2* X2*cos(a2) w2*Y2*sin(b2);
0
w2* X2*sin(a2) - w2*Y2*cos(b2) 0
0;
X2*cos(a2) Y2*sin(b2) 0
0
0
X2*cos(a2) Y2*sin(b2) 0
0
w2* X2*sin(a2) - w2*Y2*cos(b2)];
f=[-M* w1^2* X1*sin(a1);
F1+M* w1^2*Y1*cos(b1);
F1+M* w1^2* X1 *cos(a1);
M* w1^2*Y1*sin(b1);
-M* w2^2*X2*sin(a2);
F2+M* w2^2*Y2*cos(b2);
F2+M* w2^2*X2*cos(a2);
M* w2^2*Y2*sin(b2)];
k=p\f;
disp ('The bearing coefficients are');
fprintf ('\nKxx='); fprintf (num2str (k (1,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nKxy='); fprintf (num2str (k (2,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nKyx='); fprintf (num2str (k (3,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nKyy='); fprintf (num2str (k (4,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nCxx='); fprintf (num2str (k (5,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nCxy='); fprintf (num2str (k (6,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');
fprintf ('\nCyx='); fprintf (num2str (k (7,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');

425

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

fprintf ('\nCyy='); fprintf (num2str (k (8,1))); fprintf (' N/m\n');


OUTPUT
The bearing stiffness and dynamic coefficients are
Kxx=32899302.6948 N/m
Kxy=14491075.2905 N/m
Kyx=-9134864.0493 N/m
Kyy=-19410190.4825 N/m
Cxx=115385.6165 N/m
Cxy=257052.0267 N/m
Cyx=403687.2122 N/m
Cyy=183041.7669 N/m

10.4 Transient Methods


In this method it is possible to take measurement on running machines. In this method the system
consists of a symmetrical rigid rotor mounted in two identical journal bearings. Transient vibration of
the rotor in the bearings is caused by applying a force impulse (as shown in Figure 10.10) to the rotor
center of gravity. In practice this is provided by striking the rotor with a calibrated hammer whose
head mass is known. This means of excitation results in an impulse, which lasts for a finite period of
time (typically a fraction of second). If an accelerometer is mounted in the hammerhead, it is possible
to determine the instantaneous force, which is applied to the rotor. The electrical output from the
hammer will then indicate the vibration of the applied force with time. An impulse can be considered
as made up of a number of sine waves of different frequencies, all occurring simultaneously. By
varying the hammer head mass, the stiffness of the hammer impact force (tip) and the initial hammer
head velocity, it is possible to vary the amplitude, frequency content and duration of the applied
impulse. EOM of the journal would be

f x k xx x k xy y C xx x C xy y = Mx and

f y k yx x k yy y C yx x C yy y = My

(10.33)

Figure 10.10 An impulse in the time and frequency domains

Since forcing may be considered to be sinusoidal, albeit at several different frequencies, any one
component will be of the form in the horizontal and vertical directions

426

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

f x = Fx e j t

f y = Fy e j t

and

(10.34)

The corresponding horizontal and vertical displacements x and y will be of the form

x = Xe j t

Ye j t

(10.35)


y = 2 y

(10.36)

and

so that

x = j x; 
x = 2 x;

y = j y; and

On substituting in EOM yields


2
Fx ( k xx M + j C xx )
=
Fy ( k yx + j C yx )

(k

+ j C xy )

X

( k yy M 2 + jC yy ) Y
xy

(10.37)

which can written as


2
X 1 ( k yy M + j C yy )
=
Y D ( k yx j C yx )

( k xy + j Cxy )

F
x
2
( kxx M + jCxx ) Fy

where

D = ( k xx M 2 + j Cxx )( k yy M 2 + j C yy ) ( k yx + j C yx )( k xy + j Cxy )

(10.38)

Equation (36) is similar to the case of electromagnetic exciter method (first method) except in present
case the inertia force has now also been allowed for. If forcing is applied in one direction (for example
the hammer strikes the rotor in horizontal direction) then it is possible to define the reacceptance as :
(from equation 36)

Rxx

(k
=

yy

M 2 + j C yy )

X
Fx

Ryx =

and

( k yx + j C yx )

Y
Fx

(10.39)

Similarly if hammer strikes the rotor in the y-direction then

Rxy =

( k xy + j C xy )
D

X
=
Fy

and

Ryy

(k
=

427

xx

M 2 + j Cxx )
D

Y
Fy

(10.40)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

The reacceptance terms defined in equations (10.39) and (10.40) are clearly functions of frequency
and so take a different value depending on the vibration frequency being considered. The
reacceptance terms are in general complex because displacement and force are not in-phase. The
method of determining the oil-film stiffness and damping coefficient makes use only of the modulus
of the reacceptance terms, however, doesnot use the data describing phase. In experiment the right
hand side of equations (10.39)-(10.40) exist at many different frequencies simultaneously, and the
corresponding receptance terms must be determined for each of these frequencies. The reacceptance
will be

Fourier transform of
Fourier transform of

R xx ( ) =

x
=
fx

x(t )e

jt

dt

(10.41)

f (t )e
x

jt

dt

This may be obtained in experiment by spectrum analyzer and it will display reacceptance as shown
in Figure 10.11.

Figure 10.11 A typical variation of magnitude of receptance terms

The above reacceptances have been obtained from right hand side of equations (10.39)-(10.40) using
two independent forcing. Now our aim is to obtain k xx etc. so that when it is substituted back in left
hand side of equation (10.39)-(10.40) it should give the value of the right hand side of equation
(10.39)-(10.40). These processes can be repeated until appropriate values are found which results in
the difference between left hand side and right hand side of equations (10.39)-(10.40) being
minimized, for all frequencies under consideration. The least squares error criteria may be used so
that to minimize a scalar quantity

s=

[R ( )
ij

theory

Rij ( ) exp

428

(10.42)

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

Using filter synchronous the imbalance response must be subtracted as shown in Figure 10.12.

Figure 10.12 Effect of residual unbalance on the impulse response

Step function: This step function can be generated by giving gradual static load to the rotor and
suddenly releasing the load at well defined upper limit of the static load as shown in Figure 10.13.

Figure 10.13 A step function forcing and corresponding response

References
[1] Goodwin, M.J., 1991, Experimental Techniques for Bearing Impedance Measurement, ASME
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 113, No. 3, 335-342.
[2] Mitchell, J.R., Holmes, R. and Ballegooyen, H.V., 1965-66, Experimental Determination of a
Bearing Oil Film Stiffness, in the 4th Lubrication and Wear Convention, IMechE, Vol. 180,
No. 3K, 90-96.
[3] Parkins, D.W., 1979, Theoretical and Experimental Determination of the Dynamic
Characteristics of a Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing, ASME Journal of Lubrication
Technology, Vol. 101, No. 2, 129-139.
[4] Swanson, E.E. and Kirk, R.G., 1997, Survey of Experimental Data for Fixed Geometry
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings, ASME Journal of Tribology, Vol. 119, No. 4, 704-710.
[5] Tiwari, R., Lees, A.W. and Friswell, M.I., 2004, Identification Of Dynamic Bearing Parameters:
A Review, Shock & Vibration Digest, Vol. 36, No. 2, 99-124.
[6] Tripp, H. and Murphy, B. T., 1984, Eccentricity measurements on a tilting pad bearing, Trans
ASLE, Vol.28, No. 2, 217-224.

429

Dr R Tiwari, Associate Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati, (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)

[7] Woodcock, J.S. and Holmes, R., 1969-70, The Determination and Application of the Dynamic
Properties of a Turbo-Rotor Bearing Oil Film, Proceedings of IMechE, Vol. 184, No. 3L,
111-119.

430