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AIAA 2011-1938

Identification of Fatigue Cracks in Bladed Disk

Assemblies

Oleg V. Shiryayev

Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435

The goal of this research is to further develop a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)

system for detection of fatigue cracks in blades and bladed disks using harmonic responses

caused by crack nonlinearities. Driving weakly nonlinear systems, such as a cracked structure, results in the generation of harmonics. When these harmonics coincide with a resonance, the resulting information can be used to identify the location of the crack. This

paper presents analytical results obtained for a simple beam model illustrating the phenomenon. The results suggest that superharmonic resonances caused by weak nonlinearity

are a suitable crack detection feature.

I.

Introduction

A means of an automated Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system for turbomachinery components

would greatly decrease the cost of maintenance inspections and increase the likeliness of structural failure

prevention. Degradation in structures generally involves corrosion, cracking, delamination of composite

layers, and loosened fasteners. In the case of turbine engine disks, blades, and other components, a SHM

system would be greatly advantageous for the purposes of fatigue crack detection and evaluation. Fatigue

cracks are one of the most common causes of failures in turbomachinery (and in many other mechanical

systems) and yet one of the hardest types of damage to detect. Due to the large amount of kinetic energy

stored in the moving parts of turbomachinery, fatigue cracks can cause uncontained failures, which may have

catastrophic consequences. Debris flying out of the engines may damage vital aircraft systems leading to

loss of control and a consequent crash,1 or fatalities on board the aircraft after penetrating the fuselage.2

Therefore, development of reliable techniques for detection of damage is highly critical.

New sensor and actuator capabilities have helped in the development of damage detection. Damage

detection can be performed optically, or using x-ray, ultrasound, and vibration methods. Vibration characteristics of structures, however, has struggled in its development due to focus on behaviors that are sensitive

to effects other than damage, such as thermal effects. Currently, vibration techniques for damage detection

include using time, frequency, and modal concepts,36 most of which do not exploit the inherent nonlinear

behavior of fatigue cracks which would help distinguish damage from other benign phenomenon. In many

instances linear vibration testing for damage detection is not sensitive enough to the very localized behavior that comes from hairline fatigue cracks. Mode shapes and especially natural frequencies can be very

insensitive to fatigue cracks until the damage is too far along.

Unlike many types of damage, fatigue cracks are typically hard to find by inspection due to little if any

material being lost. They do become observable, however, when looking at the nonlinear elastic behavior

that results from the opening and closing of the crack. This nonlinear behavior is very localized and acts

like a bilinear local modulus when strained. This nonlinearity is well known to be true of beams with cracks

Assistant

Assistant, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.

Professor, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, joseph.slater@wright.edu. AIAA Associate Fellow

Research

1 of 13

American

of Aeronautics

and Astronautics

Copyright 2011 by Joseph C. Slater and Oleg Shiryayev. Published

byInstitute

the American

Institute of Aeronautics

and Astronautics, Inc., with permission.

also.7, 8 Shiryayev and Slater have exploited this phenomena using changes in statistics of the Randomdec

signatures cause by the onset of nonlinearity due to a crack. This method was developed and then verified

experimentally.911 The SHM community has also investigated other nonlinear response features (see for

example1216 ).

Previous work by Meier, Shiryayev and Slater17, 18 identified candidate features that can be used to

detect fatigue cracks in bladed fan or turbine disks from vibration data. In this document we describe the

extension of the crack detection approach by considering a spectral fingerprint of the structure obtained

by continuously changing the excitation frequency. We describe further investigations of these frequency

response features utilizing a model of a beam. We consider a simple structure instead of a full FE model

of a hypothetical compressor disk18 due to its computational efficiency. This is a necessary step towards

developing effective automated monitoring techniques.

II.

The bilinear type weak nonlinearity that occurs due to the presence of an opening and closing crack can

be roughly approximated by a system that has a quadratic stiffness term in addition to the linear one as

shown in Equation (1). Higher polynomial terms can also be included to improve the approximation. Only

terms that are even functions will have non-zero coefficients.

y + 20 y + 02 y + y 2 = F (t)

(1)

In this equation 0 is the natural frequency of the linear system, and is small relative to 02 . One of the

differences between responses of linear and nonlinear systems due to harmonic excitations is that responses

of nonlinear systems may contain harmonics other than those at the driving frequencies. Nayfeh and Mook19

provide a detailed analysis of systems with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities under harmonic excitations.

If the system with quadratic nonlinearity is excited by a two term harmonic excitation such as in Equation

(2),

F (t) = F1 (t) + F2 (t) = A1 cos(1 t + 1 ) + A2 cos(2 t + 2 )

(2)

then besides the primary resonance (1 or 2 close to 0 ) several interesting phenomena can be observed

in the response depending on the relationships between driving frequencies 1 and 2 , as well as the linear

natural frequency of the system 0 .

Superharmonic resonance can be excited if 1 or 2 1/20 .

Subharmonic resonance can be excited when 1 or 2 20 .

Combination resonance occurs when 1 + 2 0 , or 1 2 0 .

An alternative approach to account for the nonlinearity introduced by a crack is to consider the forces

resulting from the crack motion directly. When a structure is excited, it experiences alternating states of

tension and compression. Since a crack cannot support a tensile load, it opens as the tension grows in that

section of the structure and closes when tension reverts to compression. As the crack closes, a gradually

increasing compressive force is applied to the structure. When subject to sinusoidal excitation, his non-linear

behavior is best approximated by the half-wave rectified sinusoid shown in Equation 3. The peaks in the first

plot of Figure 1 correspond to compression and the flat regions correspond to tension. The Fourier series

coefficients are shown in the stem plot in Figure 1 and indicate that the presence of a crack will induce a

significant excitation at twice the driving frequency. The zeroth term and fourth term will also amplify the

response but may not be significant enough to be useful.

X

A A

2A

A sin(1 t) + abs (A sin(1 t))

= + sin(1 t)

cos(n1 t)

Fc (t) =

2 1)

2

2

(n

n=2

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(3)

Time Domain

Amplitude

0.5

0

0

T/2

2T

3T

Relative Time

Frequency Domain

0.8

Amplitude

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

3

4

5

6

Fundamental Frequency Multiples

10

This phenomenon will cause a resonant response to occur when a cracked beam is excited at one half

a natural frequency and accounts for the additional peak for the cracked beam in Figure 2. Contrary to

anticipated, but not observed, behavior in previous work by Meier et al., it should be noted in Figure 1

that there is no term corresponding to half of the driving frequency. This implies that there will be no

subharmonic resonance for a breathing crack despite the prediction of such by the quadratic stiffness model.

Further, there is no n = 3 harmonic, but there is a small n = 4 harmonic that is unlikely to be useful.

Linear Beam

ABS fft, dB

0

20

40

60

80

50

100

150

Frequency, Hz

200

250

200

250

Cracked Beam

ABS fft, dB

0

20

40

60

80

50

100

150

Frequency, Hz

The amplitude of the superharmonic excitation introduced by the crack depends on several factors. The

first is the location of the excitation. Away from resonances, operational deflection shapes (responses to

harmonic excitations) are not close to mode shapes. Instead they are linear combinations of mode shapes.

Further, the shapes are highly dependent on location of excitation, as illustrated by the sensitivity of antiresonances to excitation location. As a result, moving the excitation has a strong direct impact on the strain

amplitude in the vicinity of the crack. As the strain amplitude in the vicinity of the crack is directly related to

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the superharmonic excitations that it generates (there is also a zero frequency excitation that will likely not

be observable), knowledge of the excitation location, and the resulting dependence of superharmonic response

amplitude to it, will be posed as an optimization problem to determine the location of the excitation. As

numerous locations (similar to nodal lines) will have identical strains in a given operational deflection shape,

multiple modes will be excited in phases of testing and a means to optimize this process can be determined.

Because the excitation caused by the crack itself is an order of magnitude less (or smaller yet) than the

primary excitation, we will be ignoring, in analysis, the change in response of the system at primary driving

frequency relative to the healthy system to that primary driving frequency. This is a reasonable assumption

since for very small cracks, the energy dissipation is very slight. This slight damping has been used in the past

for damage detection,2024 but our goals here are to focus on where the energy does go, and use resonance

to amplify and find it. Thus we can actually use two separate families of FRF results, one for direct force

input, and one for moment input: the first for use in determining responses (and thus surface strains) to

the primary excitations, and the second to determine the response expected by the induced surface strain

excitation at a resonance. Both can be done on a model basis, and the second is simply a family of modal

cofactors, albeit in mixed direct/strain form.

To account for these resonant responses caused by remote frequency excitations, the sophistication of

current methodology will need to be increased. To achieve this, a much simpler model of a cracked beam

with multiple natural frequencies is being experimented with prior to working on a structural model of a

representative disk. This model represents a beam mounted in clamp on a shaker as shown in Figure 3.

III.

Beam model

The numerical model of the system consists of two linear submodels: one for the case when the crack is

in the closed state, and the other for the crack in the open state. This implies that there are two eigenvalue

problems resulting in two sets of mode shapes and natural frequencies. Switching between the two submodels

occurs when the crack opens and closes, which is checked at every time step based on the curvature of the

beam near the crack location. We proceed by deriving the modal equations for the case when the crack is

closed.

III.A.

The governing partial differential equation for the continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam is written in Eq. (4),

where y(x, t) is the displacement of any point along the beam.

A

2 y(x, t)

y(x, t)

4 y(x, t)

+

D

+

EI

=0

c

t2

t

x4

X

y(x, t) = w(t) +

Yi (x)qi (t)

i

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(4)

(5)

P

where w(t) is the displacement of the clamp and i Yi (x)qi (t) is the sum of modal components representing

displacement with respect to the spring hinge. Substituting Eq. (5) into Eq. (4), dividing by A and

rearranging gives

X

Yi (x)

qi (t) +

Dc

EI X d4 Yi (x)

Dc X

qi (t) = w(t)

Yi (x)qi (t) +

w(t)

A i

A i

dx4

A

(6)

In this derivation we assume the mode shapes are similar to the undamped case and are written as

Yi (x) = a1i cos i x + a2i sin i x + a3i ei x + a4i ei x

One can verify that

X

i

d4 Yi (x)

dx4

(7)

= i4 Yi (x), then:

Yi (x)

qi (t) +

Dc X

EI X 4

Dc

Yi (x)qi (t) +

Yi (x)qi (t) = w(t)

w(t)

A i

A i i

A

(8)

The eigenvalue problem for the clamped-free beam can be formulated by considering the boundary

conditions (see Fig. 4).

at

x=0:

at

x=L:

d2 Yi (0)

dYi (0)

= Kc

dx2

dx

d3 Yi (0)

d2 Yi (0)

= 0,

=0

dx2

dx3

Yi (0) = 0, EI

(9)

(10)

where Kc is the torsional stiffness of the spring hinge. A set of four equations can be obtained from conditions

in Eqs. (9) and (10). Characteristic equation is obtained by setting the determinant of the resulting matrix

to zero. Solution of the characteristic equation was calculated using Matlab.25 The resulting mode shapes

are expressed as:

2i EI

2i EI

Yi (x) = ci (1 + i ) cos i x +

+1+

1 i sin i x

Kc

Kc

+ ei x + i ei x

(11)

where coefficients i are defined as

i =

2i EI

Kc

2i EI

Kc

(12)

p

Coefficients i are related to the natural frequencies as i = i2 EI/(A). Constant ci is chosen to normalize

the mode shapes

Z L

AYi2 (x)dx = 1

(13)

0

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Utilizing orthogonality of the modes, we multiply Eq. (6) by AYi (x) and integrate over the length of the

beam, which results in the set of modal equations shown below.

Z L

Dc

EI 4

Dc

AYi (x)dx w(t)

qi (t) +

qi (t) =

w(t)

(14)

qi (t) +

A

A i

A

0

In a more common form Eq. (14) can be rewritten as

Z L

qi (t) + 2i i qi (t) + i2 qi (t) =

AYi (x)dx (w(t)

2i i w(t))

(15)

where i and i are the corresponding modal damping ratio and natural frequency. Note that the righthand-side of Eq. (15) represents modal forcing, which is dependent on the motion of the clamp.

III.B.

When the crack is open (see Fig. 5), the beam is divided into two continuous segments connected by a

torsional spring as shown in Fig. 6. According to Sundermeyer and Weaver,26 the stiffness of the torsional

spring KT is calculated based on the concepts of linear fracture mechanics and Castiglianos theorem as

KT =

Ebh2

72F1 (ac /h)

(16)

where F1 (ac /h) is the shape factor that depends on geometry and loading. The shape factor is calculated as

F1 (ac /h)

+ 20.29(ac /h)6 9.975(ac /h)5 + 4.602(ac /h)4

1.047(ac /h)3 + 0.6294(ac /h)2

(17)

The mode shapes for the two beam segments in Fig. 6 are written as

Y1i (x1 ) = a1i sin i x1 + a2i cos i x1 + a3i ei x1 + a4i ei x1

Y2i (x2 ) = b1i sin i x2 + b2i cos i x2 + b3i ei x2 + b4i ei x2

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(18)

(19)

The eigenvalue problem is formed in order to calculate the mode shapes and natural frequencies by

considering boundary conditions and continuity conditions at the location of the crack. At the clamped end

(x1 = 0) and the free end (x2 = 0):

at

x1 = 0 :

at

x2 = 0 :

dY1 (0)

=0

dx1

d3 Y2 (0)

d2 Y2 (0)

=

0,

=0

dx22

dx32

Y1 (0) = 0,

(20)

(21)

Continuity of displacement, shear force and bending moment is enforced at the crack location (x1 = Xc ,

x2 = L Xc ):

Y1 (Xc ) = Y2 (L Xc )

d3 Y2 (L Xc )

d Y1 (Xc )

=

3

dx1

dx32

d2 Y1 (Xc )

KT dY1 (Xc ) dY2 (L Xc )

=

+

dx21

EI

dx1

dx2

2

d Y2 (L Xc )

KT dY1 (Xc ) dY2 (L Xc )

=

+

dx22

EI

dx1

dx2

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

Eqs. (20-25) are written in matrix form and the characteristic equation is formed by equating the determinant

to zero. Solution of characteristic equation is calculated numerically in Matlab. The resulting mode shapes

are expressed as

sin i x + ei x +

Y1i = i

Ai cos i x + 2 Ai 1 2Ki EI

c

i x

(Ai 1) e

, 0 < x < Xc

(26)

Y2i = i i

(Bi + 1)ei (Lx) , Xc 6 x < L

Ai cos i Xc + 2 Ai 1 2Ki EI

sin i Xc + ei Xc + (Ai 1) ei Xc

c

i =

Bi cos i (L Xc ) (Bi + 2) sin i (L Xc ) + ei (LXc ) (Bi + 1)ei (LXc )

(27)

(28)

Coefficients Ai and Bi are expressed as shown in the appendix, and i are normalization constants such that

Eq. (29) holds.

Z Xc

Z L

AY1i2 (x)dx +

AY2i2 (x)dx = 1

(29)

0

Xc

The parameters for the beam were chosen to replicate the experimental setup that was used in previous

work.17 The beam was made of 2024 aluminum (E = 70 GPa, = 2700 kg/m3 ), with a free length of 0.66 m,

and a rectangular cross-section of 0.0250.0125 m. The distance from the clamp to the crack was Xc = 0.257

m. The stiffness of the torsional spring Kt that represents flexibility of the shaker head assembly has been

varied to achieve natural frequencies that are close to those observed in the past series of experiments.17 The

models use the modal damping ratios obtained from the experimental data. In Table 1, a large difference is

observed between the model and experimental value at the 1st natural frequency. However, higher modes

have frequency values that match experimental data to within 2%. In this work we are mostly concerned

with higher modes because they are the ones that are most affected by the presence of cracks.

Figure 7 illustrates the mode shapes obtained for the the open and closed crack submodels. As expected

the first several modes are mostly unaffected by the presence of the crack. However, modes 4 and 5 have

more noticeable differences between the baseline and the open crack states.

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2

baseline

cracked

2.5

baseline

cracked

1.5

1

0.5

0

Y(x)

Y(x)

1.5

0.5

1

1.5

0.5

2

0

2.5

0.5

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

3

0

0.7

0.1

0.2

0.3

X, m

(a) Mode 1.

0.6

0.7

2

baseline

cracked

2.5

baseline

cracked

1.5

1.5

0.5

0

Y(x)

1

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

1.5

2.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

3

0

0.7

0.1

0.2

0.3

X, m

0.4

0.5

X, m

(c) Mode 3.

(d) Mode 4.

3

baseline

cracked

2.5

2

1.5

1

Y(x)

Y(x)

0.5

(b) Mode 2.

2

0

0.4

X, m

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

X, m

(e) Mode 5.

Figure 7. Mode shapes of the baseline and cracked beam, a/h = 0.2, Xc = 0.26.

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0.6

0.7

Mode

1

2

3

4

Experimental value

(cracked beam)

15.20

139.0

399.9

770.6

Baseline beam

model

22.56

142.2

399.9

786.8

Cracked beam

model, a/h=0.2

22.52

141.8

399.2

786.0

Damping ratio

0.0401

0.0083

0.0018

0.0012

Table 1. Natural frequencies (Hz) and damping ratios of experimental setup and beam models.

The numerical algorithm for the simulation of the cracked beam model utilizes two submodels within

which the beam behaves linearly. It is the switching between two different linear submodels that is responsbile

for the bilinear behavior of the system. The state of the crack is checked at every time step based on the

curvature of the beam near the crack. The curvature of the beam near the crack is calculated based on the

displacements of two points on each side of the crack and the point at the crack location. A coordinate

transformation is performed to maintain continuity of displacement and velocity fields at the intstants when

the state of the crack changes.

IV.

Results

In this work we compare the data obtained from the model of the baseline healthy beam and the model

of the cracked beam. We consider exciting superharmonic resonance near the third mode of the structure at

approximately 400 Hz, hence the driving frequency is varied from 195 Hz to 205 Hz with an increment of 0.5

Hz. Excitation to the structure is provided in terms of acceleration of the shaker head with an amplitude of

40 m/s2 . For each excitation frequency, a 5 seconds long time history displacement data has been obtained

for the point 5 mm away from the free end of the beam. The response reaches the steady state within

the first 3 seconds, hence for further analysis we considered the data in the range of [4, 5] seconds. The

displacement response data was windowed using a Hann window and the FFT was calculated to obtain the

frequency content of the response.

Figure 8 demonstrates the spectral contents of the responses obtained from the models of healthy beam

and cracked beams with the crack depths of 10% and 20% of the cross-section height respectively. The data

obtained from the model of the healthy beam represents typical spectral content of a linear system excitated

away from resonances. There is a signle well-defined peak at the excitation frequency, which could be easily

observed on both the waterfall and contour plots.

The waterfall and contour plots in Figures 8(c)-8(f) suggest that response data obtained from cracked

beam models contains additional harmonics besides the one at the excitation frequency. There are clear

peaks at 2 and 4 the excitation frequency. There is also a spectral line at 3 the excitation frequency,

but it is not nearly as well-defined compared to the ones at even multiples of excitation frequency.

From Figure 8 it is difficult to observe if the superharmonic resonance has been excited when the driving

(3)

frequency passed through the region near 0.5n at approximately 200 Hz. In order to observe excitation of

superharmonic resonances, magnitudes of the harmonics at 2 and 4 the excitation frequency are plotted

in Figure 10 versus the excitation frequency. As the driving frequency passes through the region near 200

Hz, the magnitude of the 2 harmonic is about 10 dB larger than compared to its values when the driving

frequency is 195 Hz or 205 Hz. A similar observation can be made for the magnitude of the 4 harmonic.

To consider this further, another case was evaluated from 95 Hz to 105 Hz to observe the impact on the

4 harmonic when it coincides with a natural frequency. As seen in Figure 9, the 4 harmonic is more

prominent than the 2 under these circumstances and reaches a maximum as the driving frequency passes

through one quarter the natural frequency. These observations suggest that the superharmonic resonances

can be observed in the system with bilinear stiffness characteristic. Also, as the crack becomes larger the

magnitudes of both harmonics increase substantially. The magnitudes of 2 and 4 harmonics for the beam

with a crack 20% deep are about 15 dB higher than those from the beam with a crack that is 10% deep.

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Displacement Data

Displacement Data

204

203

Excitation frequency, Hz

FFT magnitude, dB

50

0

50

100

150

200

205

202

201

200

199

198

197

1000

196

200

500

195

Driving frequency, Hz

195

Response frequency, Hz

100

200

300

Frequency, Hz

700

800

Displacement Data

205

Displacement Data

0

204

203

Excitation frequency, Hz

FFT magnitude, dB

50

100

150

200

250

205

201

200

199

198

197

196

200

Driving

frequency, Hz

202

195

200

800

600

400

Response frequency, Hz

195

1000

100

200

300

Frequency, Hz

700

800

Displacement Data

205

204

50

203

Excitation frequency, Hz

FFT magnitude, dB

Displacement Data

100

150

200

250

205

202

201

200

199

198

197

200

Driving

frequency, Hz

196

195

200

800

600

400

Response frequency, Hz

1000

195

100

200

300

Frequency, Hz

700

800

Figure 8. Spectral contents of the responses obtained from baseline healthy and cracked beam models.

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Displacement Data

Displacement Data

30

2 harmonic

4 harmonic

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

195

200

Excitation frequency, Hz

30

Figure 10.

(3)

0.5 n

.

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

195

205

2 harmonic

4 harmonic

35

200

Excitation frequency, Hz

205

Magnitudes of the peaks at 2 and 4 the excitation frequency when the excitation frequency is near

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V.

In this work we considered a spectral fingerprint of the structure for detection of fatigue cracks. This

fingerprint can be obtained by exciting the structure away from any resonances. The fingerprint of a linear

undamaged structure contains a single well-defined harmonic due to excitation. The fingerprints of a cracked

beam contain additional easily observed harmonics at even multiples of excitation frequency. The magnitude

of these harmonics increases by almost an order of magnitude when excitation is near half of a specific natural

frequency, targeting superhamonic resonance condition. In practical setting, such spectral fingerprints can

be easily obtained for the structure of interest.

Future work will focus on experimental implementation of this method. Initially, we will focus on validating analytical results obtained from the beam models using a setup similar to the model described in

this paper: the beam mounted in a clamp on a shaker. Ideally, a non-contact sensor will be used in the

experiment.

VI.

Appendix

Ai =

d34 d12 d23 d34 d13 d22 d32 d23 d14 + d32 d24 d13 + d33 d22 d14 d33 d24 d12

d33 d21 d14 d33 d24 d11 d31 d23 d14 + d31 d24 d13 + d34 d11 d23 d34 d13 d21

d31 d24 d12 d31 d22 d14 + d34 d22 d11 d34 d21 d12 d32 d11 d24 + d32 d14 d21

d32 d11 d23 + d32 d13 d21 + d33 d22 d11 d33 d21 d12 d31 d22 d13 + d31 d23 d12

where coefficients dmn for each mode i are given as:

2i EI

d11 = 1

sin(i Xc ) + cos(i Xc ) ei Xc

Kc

Bi =

d31

(30)

(31)

(32)

d12 = 2 sin(i Xc ) + ei Xc ei Xc

(33)

(34)

(35)

2i EI

d21 = sin(i Xc ) 1

cos(i Xc ) ei Xc

Kc

(36)

d22 = 2 cos(i Xc ) ei Xc ei Xc

(37)

(38)

(39)

Kt

2i EI

Kt

Kt

i Xc

sin(i Xc ) 1 +

e

+ 1

cos(i Xc ) sin(i Xc )

= cos(i Xc )

i EI

i EI

Kc

i EI

(40)

Kt

Kt

Kt

d32 = 1

ei Xc 1 +

ei Xc + 2

cos(i Xc ) sin(i Xc )

(41)

i EI

i EI

i EI

Kt i (LXc )

d33 =

e

sin(i (L Xc )) + cos(i (L Xc ))

(42)

i EI

Kt i (LXc )

d34 =

e

ei (LXc ) 2 cos(i (L Xc ))

(43)

i EI

12 of 13

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

References

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American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

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