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<a href=Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 Contents lists available at S c i V e r s e S c i e n c e D i r e c t Renewable Energy journal homepage: www.els evier.com/locate/renene Photovoltaic-grid connection in the UAE: Technical perspective Ammar M. Al-Sabounchi * , Esmaeel Al-Hammadi, Saeed Yalyali, Hamda A. Al-Thani National Energy and Water Research Center, Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates article info Article history: Available online 10 February 2012 Keywords: Utility-interactive PV System Distributed generation Distribution feeder Dust deposition abstract Connection of utility-interactive PV generators at the distribution level, namely PV distributed generation (PVDG), could bring many bene fi ts to the distribution network. However, deployment of PVDG systems, in any country, requires actual data on the performance of these systems under actual weather condi- tions. Additionally, it needs compliance with the electrical structure and regulations of the power distribution network in that country. Hence, applying PVDG technology in the UAE brings forth many considerations and this work aims at tackling potential technical ones. Among these is the role of daily load curve and PV production curve in determining feasible locations and capacities of PVDG systems. The analyses are based on existing case study feeders at the 11 kV level of Abu Dhabi distribution network. Accordingly, the work results in suitable recommendations on feasible locations of PVDG systems. Also it de fi nes rational objectives and constraints for optimal sizing and location of such systems. The other consideration tackled in this work is the performance of PVDG systems in actual UAE weather conditions. Actual data from two pilot PVDG systems installed in Abu Dhabi are collected and analyzed. The production of PV array, consistency of voltage and frequency and the conversion ef fi ciency of PV modules and inverters along with the impact of ambient temperature are considered. In the same connection, the in fl uence of accumulated dust deposition on the production of PV array in UAE is also taken over in this work. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Knowing that the daily average solar insolation in the UAE is topped to around 6 kWh/m makes the sense for the country to go for solar energy systems over other renewables. Regarding solar energy systems, interfacing of photovoltaic (PV) systems with the utility grid at the distribution level, so called PV distribution generation (PVDG), has been drawing considerable attention in the UAE. As in other distribution generation (DG) systems, the PVDG can bring many bene fi ts to the network. These may include reduction of line losses, improvement of voltage pro fi le, postponing network upgrade, improvement of system reliability, and reduction of global warming concerns [1] . However, connection of PVDG systems (and any other DG) may bring some concerns to power distribution companies. One of the main concerns is that the PVDG systems deviate from the tradi- tional concept of hierarchical power fl ow from the substation to consumers. This may result in power fl ow in the upstream direction that may disturb the automatic voltage regulators [2] . As for power * Corresponding author. E-mail address: ammar.munir@adwea.ae (A.M. Al-Sabounchi). 0960-1481/$ e see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.070 quality concern, the PVDG system shall inject reliable electricity of voltage and frequency within the acceptable limits [3] . This work aims at brie fi ng potential outcomes of research activities conducted, by the National Energy and Water Research Center (NEWRC), to investigate the performance of PVDG systems in the UAE. It is worth mentioning that the UAE power grid is mainly supplied by thermal/gas power plants generating three phase electricity at 50 Hz frequency. The generated electricity is connected to the transmission lines at 132 kV, 220 kV and 400 kV voltage levels via step up transformers. The transmission lines, in turn, provide the distribution network at 33 kV and 11 kV voltage levels via step down transformers. At this stage, the electricity is distributed through 11 kV underground and overhead feeders supplying three phase 11/0.4 kV distribution transformers. Based on above, the con fi guration of distribution feeders along with the trends of load and solar irradiance curves are investi- gated fundamentally in this work. The performance of PVDG systems under actual UAE weather conditions is also tackled. Two pilot systems, implemented by NEWRC in Abu Dhabi at the 0.4 kV level, are monitored and evaluated for this purpose. The outcomes of these systems are believed valuable in generating solid recommendations for feasible installation of PVDG systems in the UAE. " id="pdf-obj-0-7" src="pdf-obj-0-7.jpg">

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Renewable Energy

<a href=Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 Contents lists available at S c i V e r s e S c i e n c e D i r e c t Renewable Energy journal homepage: www.els evier.com/locate/renene Photovoltaic-grid connection in the UAE: Technical perspective Ammar M. Al-Sabounchi * , Esmaeel Al-Hammadi, Saeed Yalyali, Hamda A. Al-Thani National Energy and Water Research Center, Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates article info Article history: Available online 10 February 2012 Keywords: Utility-interactive PV System Distributed generation Distribution feeder Dust deposition abstract Connection of utility-interactive PV generators at the distribution level, namely PV distributed generation (PVDG), could bring many bene fi ts to the distribution network. However, deployment of PVDG systems, in any country, requires actual data on the performance of these systems under actual weather condi- tions. Additionally, it needs compliance with the electrical structure and regulations of the power distribution network in that country. Hence, applying PVDG technology in the UAE brings forth many considerations and this work aims at tackling potential technical ones. Among these is the role of daily load curve and PV production curve in determining feasible locations and capacities of PVDG systems. The analyses are based on existing case study feeders at the 11 kV level of Abu Dhabi distribution network. Accordingly, the work results in suitable recommendations on feasible locations of PVDG systems. Also it de fi nes rational objectives and constraints for optimal sizing and location of such systems. The other consideration tackled in this work is the performance of PVDG systems in actual UAE weather conditions. Actual data from two pilot PVDG systems installed in Abu Dhabi are collected and analyzed. The production of PV array, consistency of voltage and frequency and the conversion ef fi ciency of PV modules and inverters along with the impact of ambient temperature are considered. In the same connection, the in fl uence of accumulated dust deposition on the production of PV array in UAE is also taken over in this work. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Knowing that the daily average solar insolation in the UAE is topped to around 6 kWh/m makes the sense for the country to go for solar energy systems over other renewables. Regarding solar energy systems, interfacing of photovoltaic (PV) systems with the utility grid at the distribution level, so called PV distribution generation (PVDG), has been drawing considerable attention in the UAE. As in other distribution generation (DG) systems, the PVDG can bring many bene fi ts to the network. These may include reduction of line losses, improvement of voltage pro fi le, postponing network upgrade, improvement of system reliability, and reduction of global warming concerns [1] . However, connection of PVDG systems (and any other DG) may bring some concerns to power distribution companies. One of the main concerns is that the PVDG systems deviate from the tradi- tional concept of hierarchical power fl ow from the substation to consumers. This may result in power fl ow in the upstream direction that may disturb the automatic voltage regulators [2] . As for power * Corresponding author. E-mail address: ammar.munir@adwea.ae (A.M. Al-Sabounchi). 0960-1481/$ e see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2012.01.070 quality concern, the PVDG system shall inject reliable electricity of voltage and frequency within the acceptable limits [3] . This work aims at brie fi ng potential outcomes of research activities conducted, by the National Energy and Water Research Center (NEWRC), to investigate the performance of PVDG systems in the UAE. It is worth mentioning that the UAE power grid is mainly supplied by thermal/gas power plants generating three phase electricity at 50 Hz frequency. The generated electricity is connected to the transmission lines at 132 kV, 220 kV and 400 kV voltage levels via step up transformers. The transmission lines, in turn, provide the distribution network at 33 kV and 11 kV voltage levels via step down transformers. At this stage, the electricity is distributed through 11 kV underground and overhead feeders supplying three phase 11/0.4 kV distribution transformers. Based on above, the con fi guration of distribution feeders along with the trends of load and solar irradiance curves are investi- gated fundamentally in this work. The performance of PVDG systems under actual UAE weather conditions is also tackled. Two pilot systems, implemented by NEWRC in Abu Dhabi at the 0.4 kV level, are monitored and evaluated for this purpose. The outcomes of these systems are believed valuable in generating solid recommendations for feasible installation of PVDG systems in the UAE. " id="pdf-obj-0-38" src="pdf-obj-0-38.jpg">

Photovoltaic-grid connection in the UAE: Technical perspective

Ammar M. Al-Sabounchi * , Esmaeel Al-Hammadi, Saeed Yalyali, Hamda A. Al-Thani

National Energy and Water Research Center, Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

article info

Article history:

Available online 10 February 2012

Keywords:

Utility-interactive PV System

Distributed generation

Distribution feeder

Dust deposition

abstract

Connection of utility-interactive PV generators at the distribution level, namely PV distributed generation (PVDG), could bring many benets to the distribution network. However, deployment of PVDG systems,

in any country, requires actual data on the performance of these systems under actual weather condi- tions. Additionally, it needs compliance with the electrical structure and regulations of the power distribution network in that country. Hence, applying PVDG technology in the UAE brings forth many considerations and this work aims at tackling potential technical ones. Among these is the role of daily load curve and PV production curve in determining feasible locations and capacities of PVDG systems. The analyses are based on existing case study feeders at the 11 kV level of Abu Dhabi distribution network. Accordingly, the work results in suitable recommendations on feasible locations of PVDG systems. Also it denes rational objectives and constraints for optimal sizing and location of such systems. The other consideration tackled in this work is the performance of PVDG systems in actual UAE weather conditions. Actual data from two pilot PVDG systems installed in Abu Dhabi are collected and analyzed. The production of PV array, consistency of voltage and frequency and the conversion efciency of PV modules and inverters along with the impact of ambient temperature are considered. In the same connection, the inuence of accumulated dust deposition on the production of PV array in UAE is also taken over in this work.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Knowing that the daily average solar insolation in the UAE is topped to around 6 kWh/m 2 makes the sense for the country to go for solar energy systems over other renewables. Regarding solar energy systems, interfacing of photovoltaic (PV) systems with the utility grid at the distribution level, so called PV distribution generation (PVDG), has been drawing considerable attention in the UAE. As in other distribution generation (DG) systems, the PVDG can bring many benets to the network. These may include reduction of line losses, improvement of voltage prole, postponing network upgrade, improvement of system reliability, and reduction of global warming concerns [1]. However, connection of PVDG systems (and any other DG) may bring some concerns to power distribution companies. One of the main concerns is that the PVDG systems deviate from the tradi- tional concept of hierarchical power ow from the substation to consumers. This may result in power ow in the upstream direction that may disturb the automatic voltage regulators [2]. As for power

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: ammar.munir@adwea.ae (A.M. Al-Sabounchi).

0960-1481/$ e see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

quality concern, the PVDG system shall inject reliable electricity of voltage and frequency within the acceptable limits [3]. This work aims at brieng potential outcomes of research activities conducted, by the National Energy and Water Research Center (NEWRC), to investigate the performance of PVDG systems in the UAE. It is worth mentioning that the UAE power grid is mainly supplied by thermal/gas power plants generating three phase electricity at 50 Hz frequency. The generated electricity is connected to the transmission lines at 132 kV, 220 kV and 400 kV voltage levels via step up transformers. The transmission lines, in turn, provide the distribution network at 33 kV and 11 kV voltage levels via step down transformers. At this stage, the electricity is distributed through 11 kV underground and overhead feeders supplying three phase 11/0.4 kV distribution transformers. Based on above, the conguration of distribution feeders along with the trends of load and solar irradiance curves are investi- gated fundamentally in this work. The performance of PVDG systems under actual UAE weather conditions is also tackled. Two pilot systems, implemented by NEWRC in Abu Dhabi at the 0.4 kV level, are monitored and evaluated for this purpose. The outcomes of these systems are believed valuable in generating solid recommendations for feasible installation of PVDG systems in the UAE.

40

A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39e43

40 A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 Fig. 1. Per-unit

Fig. 1. Per-unit daily summer load curves.

Fig. 3. Per-unit daily spring & fall load curves.
Fig. 3. Per-unit daily spring & fall load curves.

2. Methodology

Six 11 kV distribution feeders supplying residential, industrial and commercial load demands in Abu Dhabi are taken as case studies. Those consist of ve underground (UG) and one overhead (OH) feeders, inside the city and at suburbs, representing the prevalent types of 11 kV feeders in Abu Dhabi. The data of feeder are collected and analyzed in terms of physical structure and load demand. Additionally, the daily average rates of solar irradiance in Abu Dhabi are provided. On performance evaluation aspect, the two pilot PVDG systems mentioned above are installed in Abu Dhabi at ground and rooftop levels.

2.1. Physical structure

The 11 kV feeders and laterals branching from them in Abu Dhabi are extended in three phases. They are considered in balanced mode operation by the distribution company. Conse- quently, the feeders are usually extended in three wires (Y or D) with no return bath for the neutral. Based on the six case studies,

the capacity of the 11/0.4 kV distribution transformers along 11 kV feeders is in the range of 0.2e1.5 MVA. At the same time the installed capacity of the feeders is in the range of 10e20 MVA. The

  • 11 kV feeders are usually extended in XLPE underground cables of

wire sizes in the range of 185e300 mm 2 . The available overhead

feeders are usually found in the suburbs with wire size around

  • 95 mm 2 carried on crossarm poles.

40 A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 Fig. 1. Per-unit

Fig. 2. Per-unit daily winter load curves.

  • 2.2. Load demand

The daily demand proles at the input of the feeders were collected from the power distribution company for four seasonal days reecting the power consumption trends of the four seasons. For each feeder the active power demand (MW) at each time interval is represented in per unit of feeder installed capacity (MVA). The process is repeated for the four seasonal days with the results are depicted in Figs. 1e3. The load curves of Fig. 1 shows that the highest load demand in Abu Dhabi is in summer, which is very normal due to the high cooling load. At the same time, the difference between summer and winter demands is considerably high. This is due to the absence of cooling load in winter, also the moderate ambient temperature in winter drops the need for real heating load. As for peak load demand (PLD) and peak load time (PLT), Fig. 4 summarizes the results of the feeders over usual summer day. According to the gure the average of the highest PLD -in summer- is around 25% of feeder installed capacity. This could be an indicator for distribution load relief in Abu Dhabi and consequently long time before network upgrade is needed. Additionally, Fig. 4 shows that PLT most likely occur at late daylight hours in Abu Dhabi, or even after nightfall like in feeders 4-UG & 5-UG. Not to mention that the average PLT of the six feeders is found to be at 5:30pm.

  • 2.3. Solar irradiance

The daily solar irradiance curves, in per unit of 1000 W/m 2 , are illustrated in Fig. 5 over four usual seasonal days. The gure is

plotted based on actual measurements collected from the two pilot

PVDG systems. Since the PV power production is directly

40 A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 Fig. 1. Per-unit

Fig. 4. PLD and PLT of feeders in summer day.

A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39e43

41

A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 41 Fig. 5. Per-unit

Fig. 5. Per-unit daily trends of solar irradiance/PV production in Abu Dhabi.

proportional to solar irradiance, the same curves are considered to represent PV production in per-unit of standard production at irradiance 1000 W/m 2 .

3. Results

The integration and analyzes of the aforementioned information can result in potential technical perspectives on feasible installation of PVDG systems in the UAE.

3.1. Optimal sizing and location

  • 3.1.1. Objective

The optimal capacity and location of distribution generation (DG) systems e including PVDG e is determined by solving certain objective function for maximum benets subject to certain constraints. Generally, the objective function is to maximize the peak power and/or energy loss savings in the feeders due to connection of DG systems [1,4e 8]. However, solving for maximum line peak power loss saving (DPPL) could not make sense for PVDG systems in Abu Dhabi; and Figs. 4 and 5 can tell the reason. They show clear mismatching in peak hours of the daily load and PV production curves (unless certain technique shifting the peak PV production is applied). As a matter of facts, the PLT in some feeders

even occur after nightfall resulting in zero DPPL. Consequently, it is recommended solving the optimization problem considering line power loss saving over the day, namely line energy loss saving (DEL) [9]. Mind that DEL is directly proportional to the modern benet of CO 2 emission reduction. At the same time the DPPL is still considered as sub-benet, provided that the time of PLT occurs during daytime hours.

  • 3.1.2. Sizing and space constraints

The PVDG system is a time variant power source driven by solar irradiance and other weather conditions. Thus, it is a non- dispatchable generator that usually injects as much as power it can generate into the feeder. However, if the PVDG power exceeds feeder demand then it will result in surplus power ow in the

upstream direction. To this end, if the surplus power is high enough

Table 1

Recommended maximum capacity of PVDG system at the 11 kV level in Abu Dhabi.

 

Case study 11 kV feeders

 
 

1-UG

2-UG

3-UG

4-UG

5-UG

6-OH

Average

Capacity (MVA) 19.5

14.5

13.5

18.5

17

11.2

15.7

PLDs of the 11 kV case study feeders (MVA)

Summer

1.53

4.22

4.33

4.41

5.06

2.21

3.63

Spring & Fall

0.79

2.88

3.17

2.74

4.14

0.54

2.38

Winter

0.45

1.63

2.51

1.44

3.79

0.48

1.72

it will pass unpreferably through the substation transformer to the higher voltage level of the grid [10]. In order to set suitable constraints avoiding the surplus power, the PVDG system size should be at least not exceeding the PLD. In this course, the per-unit PLDs of Figs. 1e3 are changed into the actual amounts of Table 1. The table can approximate maximum limits for PVDG system capacity at the 11 kV level. Considering the load curve proles over seasons, Figs. 1 and 2 show considerable drop in winter load curve comparing to summer load curve. This is due to the absence of the high A/C load demand in winter. However, Fig. 5 manifests small change in solar irradiance peaks over the year. Actually the change is mainly in daytime durations but not peaks. Hence, for hot summer regions like in Abu Dhabi it is recommended to consider winter load demand in the sizing procedure. Otherwise, considerable amounts

Fig. 6. PV production & efficiency with irradiance.
Fig. 6. PV production & efficiency with irradiance.

Fig. 7. PV efciency with ambient temperature.

42

A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39e43

42 A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 Fig. 8. Conversion

Fig. 8. Conversion efciency of inverter.

of PV surplus power will be produced in winter resulting in unpreferably power ow in the upstream direction. In this course, Table 1 yields that the average PLD of feeders in winter is around 47% of that in summer. To have an idea about the space area corresponding to PVDG system sizing, the multi-crystalline silicon PV modules are taken as example. According to datasheets, the approximate area required to produce 1 kWp at standard conditions is around 7.5e8.0 m 2 . As this area is not small, it is deemed rational that prospective PVDG systems in Abu Dhabi are most likely t at no higher than the 11 kV level.

3.1.3. Voltage constraint/benet Connection of PVDG system on distribution feeder reduces the current ow from the substation up to the point of common

coupling (PCC) resulting in improvement of voltage pro fi le. This

coupling (PCC) resulting in improvement of voltage prole. This

benet is secured as long as the PVDG system capacity is sized in

compliance with the sizing constraint avoiding any surplus PVDG

compliance with the sizing constraint avoiding any surplus PVDG

power generation. Otherwise, the surplus power in the upstream

direction could be high enough that raises the voltage at some

direction could be high enough that raises the voltage at some

downstream nodes to unacceptable values. This may affect the

performance of automatic voltage regulators that rely on the trend

of decreasing voltage prole along the feeder [2].

coupling (PCC) resulting in improvement of voltage pro fi le. This bene fi t is secured
 

3.2. Performance evaluation

coupling (PCC) resulting in improvement of voltage pro fi le. This bene fi t is secured

For credible performance evaluation of PVDG systems in the

UAE, two pilot systems rated at 36 kW and 9 kW were installed in Abu Dhabi at the 0.4 kV level. Many parameters are being evaluated through these systems including production of power, consistency of voltage & frequency, efciency of system components, reduction of CO 2 emission, impact of dust deposition, and others. This section represents selective synthesized data, taken from the 36 kW system, on some potential performance parameters. Out of the 13 multiple inverters of the system, inverter 9 and the PV strings supplying it are taken as example. Fig. 6 depicts the dc power production and efciency of the PV strings at different irradiances. Also Fig. 7 shows the impact of ambient temperature on PV modules efciency. Mind that the measurements were taken in June 6th, 2009 to show the worst possible status in summer. The gure manifests the inverse relation between ambient temperature and efciency that raises the maximum efciency to around 13% at 7am. Based on the same gure, the daily average efciency during daytime hours is around 11%. Similar evaluation is conducted to inverter 9 at the same day, with the results shown in Fig. 8. The gure shows that the daily

42 A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 Fig. 8. Conversion

Fig. 9. Operating ac voltage & frequency of inverter.

average operation efciency of the inverter is topped to 93%. Also it

manifests a sort of consistent efciency, even with the variations of

dc input power.

As for power quality items, Fig. 9 shows high consistency in

voltage and frequency of the ac power delivered by inverter 9.

According to the gure, the average operating voltage and

frequency are 237.19 V and 49.97 Hz. This means only 1.17% and

0.04%, respectively, below standard nominal values.

Respecting daily operating time of the inverters, Fig. 10 indicates

the daily monthly average hours of inverter 9 measured over the

year of 2009. It shows relatively long operating time extend to 13 h

daily in June but drop to around 8.5 h in December; means 10.75 h

daily annual average of around.

Coming to the inuence of accumulated dust deposition on the

performance PV modules, Fig. 11 shows serious inuence on the

production of the PV system. The gure shows the drop in power production of PV modules after they had been left without cleaning

42 A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 Fig. 8. Conversion

Fig. 10. Daily monthly average of invertersoperating hours.

A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39e43

43

A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 43 Fig. 11. Impact

Fig. 11. Impact of six months dust deposition.

A.M. Al-Sabounchi et al. / Renewable Energy 49 (2013) 39 e 43 43 Fig. 11. Impact

Fig. 12. Monthly power prole with dust deposition.

is within the ampacity of those breakers. On the contrary, if the

capacity is higher than the average maximum limit recommended

in Table 1, then it is suitable to distribute it in separate PVDG

systems at different 11 kV feeders. Alternatively, it is recommended

to be installed on next higher voltage level of the grid, considering

availability of space area.

In the same connection, it seems rational to rate the size of

PVDG systems based on winter load demand. This practice is

deemed suitable for hot summer regions like in UAE and the GCC

countries. As a matter of fact it may avoid, to great extent, the

possibility of surplus PV power production and consequent reverse

power ow during the whole year. To this end, it is recommended

to rate the PVDG system capacity based on the average maximum

limit of winter in Table 1.

As for space area, it seems suitable interfacing the PVDG systems with feeders at the suburbs where the space concern is less than inside the city. Also suburb feeders are usually extended over

longer distances facing more voltage drop problems. Connection of

DG systems, including PVDG, at feasible sizing and location is ideal

solution for improving the voltage prole of such feeders.

On different note, the accumulated dust deposition seems to be

serious concern affecting the production of PVDG systems. The

impact of dust deposition on the power production of PV modules

was illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12. This may provide suitable guid-

ance for PV designers in dealing with the matter. This may impose

suitable cleaning frequency of PV modules and adding extra

modules to compensate the reduction in PV production between

cleaning times. Last but not least, the PVDG systems are expected to show good

performance in terms of operating voltage and frequency along

with conversion efciency of inverters. Additionally, the high

ambient temperature in Abu Dhabi seems to be of moderate effect on the efciency of PV modules.

for six consecutive months. To be more specic, the power production of inverter 9 was measured on daily basis at irradiance 800 W/m 2 with the PV modules been cleaned once at the beginning of the month. The procedure was repeated for three months with the results illustrated in Fig. 12. According to the gure, the average monthly drop in PV power production, due to accumulated dust deposition, is around 27%. This can provide suitable guidance compromising between imposed cleaning frequency, on one side, and the extra PV modules to compensate the impact of dust deposition, on the other side.

4. Conclusions

The PV utility-interactive, especially PVDG systems, is promising and highly recommended technology in UAE. In this course, it is recommended that prospective PVDG systems are installed at no higher than the 11 kV level. This is according to the sizing and spacing constraints of PV arrays along with the load demand trends of six case study feeders representing the most likely 11 kV feeders in Abu Dhabi. In the same connection, if the size of the PVDG system is less than the PLD delivered by the 11/0.4 kV transformer at the PCC, then it is recommended to connect it at the low tension side of 0.4 kV. Additional loss saving will be gained this way across the windings of the transformer. The PVDG system could be even connected after the circuit breakers of the low tension side if its size

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