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# MiCOM P544, P546

8 Application Examples

7.1

## Recommended CT Classes (British and IEC)

Class X current transformers with a knee point voltage greater or equal than that calculated can be
used.
Class 5P protection CTs can be used, noting that the knee point voltage equivalent these offer can be
approximated from:
Vk =

Where:

7.2

VA =

ALF =

In

## Current Differential Requirements

For accuracy, class X or class 5P Current Transformers (CTs) are strongly recommended. The knee
point voltage of the CTs should comply with the minimum requirements of the formulae shown below.
Vk t

K*In*(Rct + 2*RL)

Where:
Vk =

## Required IEC knee point voltage

K =

Dimensioning factor

In =

Rct=

CT resistance

RL =

If =

X/R=

## Primary system X/R ratio

K is determined as follows:

## 1. Transient Bias = Disabled

For IEDs set at Is1 = 20%, Is2 = 2 In, k1 = 30%, k2 = 150%:
K must be the highest of:
K =

Or
K =

65

## This is valid for (If x X/R) d 1000

For higher (If x X/R) up to 1600:
K =

107

P544&6/EN/TM/E

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## MiCOM P544, P546

8 Application Examples

K =

Or
K =

65

## This is valid for (If x X/R) d 600

For higher (If x X/R) up to 1600:
K =

256

## 2. Transient Bias = Enabled

For IEDs set at Is1 = 20%, Is2 = 2 In, k1 = 30%, k2 = 150%:
K =

K =

7.3

7.3.1

Vk t

Where:

7.4

Vk =

KRPA =

IF Z1

X/R =

RCT=

RL =

## Zone 1 Close-up Fault Operation

An additional calculation must be performed for all cables, and any lines where the source impedance
ratio might be less than SIR = 2.
Vk t

Where:
Kmax

IF max

## Max. secondary phase fault current (A).

Then, the highest of the two calculated knee points must be used.
Note:

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It is not necessary to repeat the calculation for earth faults, as the phase reach calculation (3M) is
the worst-case for CT dimensioning.

P544&6/EN/TM/E

## MiCOM P544, P546

7.5

8 Application Examples

## Determining Vk for an IEEE C" class CT

Where American/IEEE standards are used to specify CTs, the C class voltage rating can be checked
to determine the equivalent Vk (knee point voltage according to IEC).
The equivalence formula is:
Vk =

7.6

## Worked Example for CT Requirements

The Power system and the line parameters (Line length: 100 km) as given in section 4.2 is used here
to calculate CT requirements.

7.6.1

## Important notes to be considered

x Current differential Both If and X/R are to be calculated for a through fault
x Distance Zone1 reach point case Both If and X/R are to be calculated for a fault at Zone1
reach point
x For calculating the CT requirements, the bus bar short time symmetrical fault rating shall be
considered as the bus fault level.
x If only indicative X/Rs are available, the circuit breakers dc breaking capacity is used to derive
the primary time constant and therefore the primary system X/R. It is derived from the circuit
breaker manufacturers practical primary time constants. These vary between 50 ms (66 kV
and 132 kV breakers) and 120 ms (220 kV and 400 kV breakers). 150 ms is a practical figure
for generator circuit breakers.

7.6.2

System Data
In the following example, the following parameters have been considered for the CT calculations:
System voltage - 230 kV
System frequency - 50 Hz
System grounding - solid
Single circuit operation between Green Valley and Blue River
CT ratio - 1200/1
Line length - 100 kms
Line positive sequence impedance Z1

## Bus fault level - 40 kA

Primary time constant

7.6.3

= 120 ms

## Calculation of Primary X/R

Primary X/R till the Green Valley bus

## = 2 * pi * f * primary time constant in s

= 2 * pi * 50 * 0.12

7.6.4

= 37.7

## Calculation of Source Impedance Zs

Source Impedance Zs

P544&6/EN/TM/E

= 3.32 ohms

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## MiCOM P544, P546

8 Application Examples

= tan-1 (X/R)

Source angle

= tan-1 (37.7)
= 88.48 deg
Hence, Zs = 0.088 + j 3.317 ohms

7.6.5

7.6.6

Z1

ZL

ZL

ZT = Zs + ZL

## = 8.988 + j 50.917 ohms

= 51.7 ohms with an angle of 80 deg

7.6.7

X/R thro

= 50.917 / 8.988
= 5.66

7.6.8

If thro

## = 230kV / (1.732 * 51.7)

= 2568.5 A primary
= 2.14 A (secondary)

7.6.9

Zzone1

## = 0.8 * ZL = 7.12 + j 38.08 ohms

= 38.73 ohms with an angle of 79.4 deg

7.6.10

## Calculation of Total Impedance Till Zone1 Reach Point

ZTzone1 = Zs + Zzone1
= 7.208 + j 41.397 ohms
= 42.019 ohms with an angle of 80 deg

7.6.11

## Calculation of X/R Till Zone1 Reach Point

X/R Zone1 = 41.397 / 7.208
= 5.74

7.6.12

If Zone1

## = 230 kV / (1.732 * 42.019)

= 3160.34 A (primary)
= 2.63 A (secondary)

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P544&6/EN/TM/E

## MiCOM P544, P546

7.6.13

8 Application Examples

## CT Vk for Current Differential Protection

1. Transient Bias = Disabled
If thro * X/R thro

= 2.14 * 5.66
= 12.11

K

## > 40.8 OR K > 65

Hence K = 65
Vk t
Vk

K. In (Rct + 2 RL)
t

65 (RCT + 2 RL)

## 2. Transient Bias = Enabled

K = (1.42*2.14 + 53.7) * (6.06*10-3 *5.66 + 0.515) = 31.2
Vk

7.6.14

7.6.15

Vk t

Vk

>

Vk

>

## CT Vk for Distance Zone1 Close-up Fault

SIR = Zs / Zzone1 = 3.32 / 38.73 is less than 2; so we need to do this Vk calculation
Close-up fault current = 40 kA (primary) = 33.33 A (secondary)

7.6.16

Vk t

Vk

>

Vk

>

## CT Vk for Distance Time Delayed Zones

Vk > If (RCT + RL)

## Vk > If thro * (RCT + RL)

Vk > 2.14 (RCT + RL)

7.6.17

Vk to be considered
Using the above sections, the different Vk requirements are to be calculated for all the functions that
will be enabled, or that will be brought into operation. Then the highest Vk shall be considered for the
CT design.

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