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TRANSFORMERTESTING

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Transformers:
coreofelectricitysupply

Transformer:mostvitalequipmentofthesupplysystem
Types:

EHVTransformer
HTTransformer
LTTransformer
InstrumentTransformers

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NECESSITYOFTESTS

Toprovethatthedesignmeetsthespecifiedjobrequirementsandtoobtaintransformer
characteristics.

Tocheckthatthequalityrequirementshavebeenmetandthatperformanceiswithinthe
toleranceguaranteed.

TestsperformedfortheformerpurposearereferredtoasTypetests andthatforthelater
purposearereferredtoasRoutinetests (carriedoutoneveryunitmanufactured).
InAdditiontothesetwocategoryoftests,specialtests
Mayalsobeperformedtoobtaininformationusefultothe
Userduringoperationormaintenanceofthetransformer.

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Reference standard : IEC 60076

TransformerTests

EXAMPLE:ROUTINETESTS

Measurementofwindingresistance

Measurementofvoltageratio,polarityandcheckofvoltagevectorrelationship

Measurementofnoloadlossandexcitationcurrent

Measurementofshortcircuitimpedanceandloadloss

Measurementofinsulationresistance

Switchingimpulsevoltagewithstandtest

Lightningimpulsevoltagewithstandtest

Magneticcircuit(isolation)test
EXAMPLE: TYPETESTS

Meaurementofpowertakenbycoolingcircuits

TempRiseTest

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ADDITIONALTESTS

TESTWITHLIGHTNINGIMPULSECHOPPEDONTHETAIL

MAGNETICCIRCUIT(ISOLATION)TEST

MAGNETICBALANCETESTONTHREEPHASETRANSFORMERS

DISSOLVEDGASANALYSIS(DGA)OFOILFILLEDINTHETRANSFORMER

DETERMINATIONOFCAPACITANCESANDTANDELTABETWEENWINDINGTOEARTHANDBETWEEN
WINDINGS

MECHANICALTESTS

MEASUREMENTOFVIBRATIONONTRANSFORMERTANK

VACUUMTESTONTRANSFORMERTANK

OILPRESSURETESTONCOMPLETELYASSEMBLEDTRANSFORMER

JACKINGTESTANDDYEPENETRATIONTEST

PRESSURERELIEFDEVICETEST

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TestsonTransformers

Erectiontests(installationTests)
Precommissioningtests
CommissioningTests

Erection tests:
Thorough checking for any damage
Verification of technical specifications
Foundation etc

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ERECTIONATSITE:INSPECTION

y Makevisualinspectionforanytransitdamage
y Checknitrogenpressure.
y Checkvariousaccessoriesforanytypeoftransitdamage.
y Makeinternalinspectionofthetransformertotheextent
possibleforanyvisiblediscrepancy.

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OILFILLING

Beforefillingtheoilintotransformerchecktheoilcarefullyfor
y
y
y

Breakdownvoltage
Moisturecontent
Tandeltaandcapacitance

Iftheoilisnothavingthepropertiesasrecommendedbythe
standards,itmustbefilteredwithfilterswithbuiltinheaters and
vacuumpumpsforimprovingthequalityofoil.
Fortransformersdispatchedgasfilled,oilfillingmustalwaysbe
doneundervacuum.

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GENERALTESTSAFTERTRAFOINSTALLATION

(GetClearanceforTesting&Commissioningactivities)
Physicalinspection
Fireprotectionsystemavailable
Oillevelchecking,nooilleakage
Powerandcontrolcablingchecking,
CoolerfanandPumpcontrolcktchecking
Buch.Relaycorrectlymounted,airreleasedfromBuchrelay,
Coolingsystem&radiators,OLTC
BreatherinstallationOk,silicagelcolourblue

OTI&WTICalibration

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PrecommissioningTests

IRvalueoftransformerandcables
WindingResistance
TransformerTurnsRatio
PolarityTest
MagnetizingCurrent
VectorGroup
MagneticBalance
Bushing&WindingTanDelta(HV)
Protectiverelaytesting
Transformeroiltesting
Hipottest

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CommissioningTests:

RemoteAnnunciationandcontrolschemes
PowercableIdentification&Tests
Chargingthetransformer:noloadandfullloadoperation

andObservationforanyabnormality
Confirmingtheoperationofallprotection,interlocksand
meteringschemes

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1.ChecktheoperationoftheBuchholtzalarmandtripbyinjectingairthroughthetestpet
cock.
2.TesttheOTIforalarmandtrip.
3.TesttheWTIforalarmandtrip.
4.ChecktheworkingoftheWTI/RTD(ResistanceTemperatureDevice)repeatersatthe
controlroom.
5.TesttheOLTC Oilsurgerelayfortrip.
6.Checkalarmforlowoillevel.
7.Checkvariousrelaysforcurrent&timesettings
8.Checkthecoolerunitfor
overcurrentsettingoffansandoilpumps
coolersupplyfailurealarm
fan/pumptripalarm
.anymal operationofthetransformerBuchholtzrelaywhenalltheoilpumpsare
switchedonsimultaneouslyinforcedoilcooledtransformers

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FIELDTESTS:
NoLoad
Windingresistance
TurnsRatio.
Polarity,
connectiongroupand
Excitationcurrent.
Onload
shortcircuittest,
Impedancemeasurement

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InsulationResistance
y Thistesthasbeenthemostusual

historically,beingcalledto
megger thetransformer
(thetermcomesfromthefirmof
thefirstIRsystems).

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InsulationResistanceandPolarizationIndex

Equivalent diagram of the dielectric circuit of a transformer.


Ri is the insulation resistance, Cg the geometric capacitance
and the different Ra/Ca emulate the equivalent dielectric absorption circuit.

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WindingResistance
y Thisisnothingbuttheresistancemeasurementofthewindingsbyapplyingasmall

d.cvoltagetothewindingandmeasuringthecurrentthroughthe same
y Themeasuredresistanceshouldbecorrectedtoacommontemperaturesuchas

75Cor85Cusingthefollowingformula:

where
y RCisthecorrectedresistance,RMisthemeasuredresistance
y CFisthecorrectionfactorforcopper(234.5)oraluminum(225) windings
y CTisthecorrectedtemperature(75Cor85C)
y WTisthewindingtemperature(C)attimeoftest

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WindingResistance.
y Withthistestwedeterminatethepure

ohmicresistancefromeachphasewindings
bothinhighandlowvoltageandeach
positionoftapchanger.

y inafirstapproachseemseasytomeasure,

itsnotso,becauseitisnecessarytomake
flowrelativelyhighcurrentstoregisterthe
usuallowresistancevalues/m / with
therequiredprecision.Thiscurrentsmust
alsoflowthroughtheequivalentinductance
ofthetransformer.

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TransformerTurnsRatio(TTR):
Transformer Turns Ratio (TTR): quotient between high voltage / low
voltage. Must match with protocol /nameplate values.
In the power transformer with tap changer, take readings for each
position (giving extra information on its status and that of the On Line Tap
Changer (OLTC)

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Transformer Turns Ratio: Doble kit

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PolarityTest

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Opencircuittest&Excitationcurrent
y Excitationcurrentisthecurrentflowingintothehighvoltagewinding

withthelowvoltagesideopen.

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FIELDTESTS:Loadtest
y shortcircuittest,
y Impedancemeasurement

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ShortCircuittest

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ShortCircuittest
y shortcircuittest isbasedintheapplicationofavoltageinonewinding

(highvoltageone)withtheotherwindingshortcircuited.Itisusualto
registernominalandextremepositionsifthetransformerhadan OLTC.

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Impedancemeasurement
y Shortcircuitvoltage:voltagerequiredtocirculatefullloadcurrent.
y shouldbeneartheprotocol/nameplatevaluefromthetransformer.
y Itschangewillindicateirregularitiesinthemagneticcore,winding,

displacement,shortcircuits,mechanicaldeformations

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FrequencyResponseAnalysis

y Themainpurposeofthistestistodeterminatethefrequencyresponse

graphoftheequivalentelectric/dielectric/magnetic/mechanic
altogetherevaluated.

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FrequencyResponseAnalysis

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DIELECTRICSYSTEMTESTS.
Liquiddielectric(usuallymineraloil)
ORsoliddielectric(usuallypaper)

Dielectriccircuittests.
InsulationResistanceandPolarizationIndex(IR,PI).
y Capacitance,Dissipation(power)factor(tan)andinsulationlosses
indielectricbushing.
y PartialDischarge(PD).
y

Oilsampling.
DielectricStrength.
y Moisturecontent.
y DissolvedGases.
y FuranAnalysis.
y

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Oiltestingandmaintenance
Therearethreeimportantpurposesoftheoilina
transformer:
1.Gooddielectricstrength
2.Efficientheattransferandcooling
3.Topreservethecoreandassembly
y Byfillingvoids(toeliminatepartialdischarge)
y Bypreventingchemicalattackofcore,copperandinsulationby

having
y lowgascontentandnaturalresistancetoageing.

OilTesting

Visualchecks

OilBDVtest

Powerfactor(tandelta)test

Aciditytest

Moisture(ppm)

DGA

Transformer BDV test set


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Breakdownvoltage.

y Oildegradationcanbeeasilyappreciatedwiththisparameter

tested.Thetestisbasedintheinsertionofelectrodesimmersedin
oilandincreasingvoltageuptobreakdown.
y Testisrepeatedsixtimestogetarepeatablemeasurement.
y Theonlydisadvantageisthatitisnecessarytoextractfromthe
transformerasignificantsample(testcellwillhave350...600ml).

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IEC 156

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TransformerOilSpecifications
Characteristics

Requirementasper
IS:18661983

Breakdownvoltage

50KV(min)for>145KV
40KV(min)for72.5KVto145KV
30KV(min)for<72.5KV

Watercontent

25ppm(max)for>145KV
35ppm(max)for<145KV

Tandeltaat50deg.C

0.2(max)for>145KV
1.0(max)for<145KV

Specificresistanceat90deg.Cohmcm

>0.1X10E12

NeutralizationvaluemgKOH/gm

<0.5

Flashpoint(degreeC)

>140

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Capacitance/Tandelta
(DissipationFactor)

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Capacitance/Tandelta
(DissipationFactor)

y Anotherusualapproachwhenperformingdielectricevaluationistan

delta.ThistestusesACandpursuestoknowlossangleofthetested
element.
y Thismeasurementincludesinformationofthemoistureand

contaminationdegreeandemulatesthebehaviourandvoltage
aggressionssimilartoserviceones.
y Itisimportanttotakenoteoftransformertemperatureand

environmentalmoisture(surfaceleakage).

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VectorGroupTest:Dy11

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VectorGroupTest:Dy11

Dy11

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Vectorgrptest

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VectorGroupDy1

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VectorGroupDy1

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PartialDischargetest.
y Partialdischargearesmalldischargesthatappearinsideofthe dielectricasasignofits

degeneration.Theyappearasaresultoftheincreaseoftheelectricfieldinsmall
gaseousvoidsinsidetheoilandalsoinsidethepaper,epoxyor asaresultofthe
presenceofmetalliccontamination,etc.Thisdischargeacceleratethethermal
degradationeffectsandleadsometimesexponentiallytothepowertransformer
destruction.

y Therearetwousualdetectionsystems,
y
y

Acousticsystemusessoundmechanicmanifestation(inultrasonicrange
Electric systemsdeterminatesdischargesandcorrelatesthemwithInsulation
healthiness.

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SomeotherTests,normallyperformed
atManufacturersworks

TemperatureRiseTest
LighteningImpulseTest
VacuumAndPressureTest
LightningImpulseWithstand
SwitchingImpulseWithstand

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History/Trending

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Conclusion
Testingisanart&scienceofmanagingMachine,Manpower,Material,
Quality,Time
y Peopleresponsibleforupkeepofelectricalapparatusneedto
cultivateawatchfulattitudeto
y
Look (eye)
Listen (ear)
y
Smell (nose)
Feel (finger/skin)
forsymptomsofimpendingtrouble
y Adaptnewtechniques.
y Keeponlearningfromtheexperiencesworldwide,avoid
obsolescence
y DevelopIntegratedPredictiveDiagnosticSystem
y KeepitSystemOrientedtoensuresustainability
y
(Avoidsubjectivity&individualbias)
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Conclusion

y SafetyFirst
y GoodTestequipment
y peopletohaveadeepknowledge
y Takecareofenvironmentalconditionswhilecomparingresults
y Workpressureandshortdowntime
y Keepyourmindcool

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SomeReferences
y
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y
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y
y
y
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NATIONALSTANDARDSIS2026(PARTIII)
IEC600765:2000.Powertransformers.Part5:Abilitytowithstandshortcircuit.
IEC60726:2003.Drytypepowertransformers.
IEC600763Testlevels&testmethodrequirementfordifferenttests
ANSI/IEEEStd621995.IEEEGuideforDiagnosticFieldTestingofElectricPowerApparatus
Part1:OilFilledPowerTransformers,Regulators,andReactors.IEEEPowerEngineeringSociety1995.
ANSI/IEEEStdC57.12.901993.IEEEStandardTestCodeforLiquidImmersedDistribution.Power
andRegulatingTransformersandIEEEGuideforShortCircuitTestingofDistributionandPower
Transformers.
ANSI/IEEEStd.C57.12.001993.IEEEStandardGeneralRequirementsforLiquidImmersed
Distribution,PowerandRegulatingTransformers.
EN601561995.Insulatingliquids.Determinationofthebreakdownvoltageatpowerfrequency.
Testmethod..
EN608141997.Insulatingliquids.Oilimpregnatedpaperandpressboard.Determinationofwater
byautomaticcoulometricKarlFischerTitration.
EN605671992.Guideforthesamplingofgasesandofoilfromoilfilledelectricalequipmentand
fortheanalysisoffreeanddissolvedgases .
EN60599:1999.Mineraloilimpregnatedelectricalequipmentinservice Guidetothe
interpretationofdissolvedandfreegasesanalysis..
EN61620:1999.Insulatingliquids.Determinationofthedielectricdissipationfactorby
measurementoftheconductanceandcapacitance.Testmethod.
EN61198:1994.Mineralinsulatingoils.Methodforthedeterminationof2furfuralandrelated
compounds.

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TESTING OF TRANSFORMERS
y

LIGHTNINGIMPULSETEST

TosimulatethesystemdisturbancesduetoLightningstroke
Canberepresentedbythreebasicwaveshapes

FullwaveLI
Choppedwave(Choppedontail)
Choppedwave(Choppedonfront)

Lightningdisturbancesdonotalwayshavethesebasicwaveshapes.However,by

definingtheamplitudeandshapeofthesewaves,itispossibletoestablishaminimum
impulsedielectricstrengththatatransformershouldmeet.
y

Ifalightningdisturbancetravelssomedistancealongthelinebeforeitreachesatransformer,its
waveshapeapproachesthatofthefullwave.Itisgenerallyreferredtoas1.2/50wave.Awave
travelingalongthelinemightcauseflashoveracrossaninsulatorafterthepeakofthewavehas
beenreached.Thiswaveissimulatedbyachoppedwavewhichisofthesamemagnitudeasthefull
wave.Ifalightningstrokehitsdirectlyatorveryneartoatransformerterminal,theimpulse
voltagemayrisesteeplyuntilitisrelievedbyaflashover,causingsudden,verysteepcollapsein
voltage.Thisconditionisrepresentedbythefrontofwave

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TESTSONTRANSFORMERS
y

LIGHTNINGIMPULSETEST

CURRENTWAVEFORMDURINGLI

1.2/50SLIWAVE

TYPICAL TEST LEVELS FOR LI TEST :


H1 : 1300 kVp,
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TESTSONTRANSFORMERS
y

LIGHTNINGIMPULSETEST

1.2/50SLIWAVECHOPPEDAT3.7S

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CURRENTWAVEFORMDURINGCHOPPEDLI

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SWITCHINGIMPULSETEST
y

Switchingimpulselevelisconductedtoverifytheintegrityoftransformerundervarious
switchingsurgesonAC/DCline.

ThetypicalwaveshapeofSwitchingimpulseis250/2500SasperIEC60060&itsmagnitudeis
lowerthanthecorrespondingLIwavebutforlongerduration.

Inviewofthedifficultiesingeneratingthesewaveshapesinlaboratoriesandmoretominimize
thecoresaturationduringtestingoftransformers,IEC60076Part3hasspecifiedaswitching
impulsewavehavingavirtualfronttimeofatleast100s,durationabove90%ofthespecified
amplitudeofatleast200sandatotaldurationtothefirstzeropassageofatleast1000s.

Unlikeinthecaseofacwinding,boththeterminalsofvalvewindingexperiencefulldcvoltage
ofthebridgetowhichtheyareconnected.Thereforevalvewindingistestedtoprovethe
insulationofthewindingwiththerespecttoground.Switchingimpulsesareappliedtothe
valvewindingterminalsconnectedtogether.Theotherwindingterminalsnotundertestare
shortcircuitedandgrounded.

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SWITCHINGIMPULSETEST
y

WAVESHAPEOFSWITCHINGIMPULSEASPERIEC60060

STANDARD250/2500SSWITCHING
IMPULSEWAVE

TYPICAL SWITCHING IMPULSE LEVELS :


H1 : 1080 kVp,
X1-X2 : 1290 kVp, X3-X4: 980 kVp

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SWITCHINGIMPULSETEST
y

Switchingimpulselevelisconductedtoverifytheintegrityoftransformerundervarious
switchingsurgesonAC/DCline.

ThetypicalwaveshapeofSwitchingimpulseis250/2500SasperIEC60060&itsmagnitudeis
lowerthanthecorrespondingLIwavebutforlongerduration.

Inviewofthedifficultiesingeneratingthesewaveshapesinlaboratoriesandmoretominimize
thecoresaturationduringtestingoftransformers,IEC60076Part3hasspecifiedaswitching
impulsewavehavingavirtualfronttimeofatleast100s,durationabove90%ofthespecified
amplitudeofatleast200sandatotaldurationtothefirstzeropassageofatleast1000s.

Unlikeinthecaseofacwinding,boththeterminalsofvalvewindingexperiencefulldcvoltage
ofthebridgetowhichtheyareconnected.Thereforevalvewindingistestedtoprovethe
insulationofthewindingwiththerespecttoground.Switchingimpulsesareappliedtothe
valvewindingterminalsconnectedtogether.Theotherwindingterminalsnotundertestare
shortcircuitedandgrounded.

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SWITCHINGIMPULSETEST
y

WAVESHAPEOFSWITCHINGIMPULSEASPERIEC60060

STANDARD250/2500SSWITCHING
IMPULSEWAVE

TYPICAL SWITCHING IMPULSE LEVELS :


H1 : 1080 kVp,
X1-X2 : 1290 kVp, X3-X4: 980 kVp

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Magnetic balance test

Done on TRANSFORMER to see whether the transformer core is magnetically balanced or


not...AND ALSO WINDING CONDITION....
for example we r having delta HV and star winding LV side ... HV SIDE WE WIL BE HAVING
THREE BUSHINGS....THOSE R 1U,1V,1W.. HV SIDE WE WIL BE HAVING FOUR
BUSHINGS.....2U,2V,2W,2N... WE CAN DO THIS MBT (MAGNETIC BALANCE TEST)WITH
1PHASE SUPPLY(1PHASE AND NEUTRAL(230V)) OR WITH 2-PHASE SUPPLY(2PHASES(440V)) 1ST STEP OF MBT: GIVE POWER SUPPLY 1-PHASE OR 2 PHASE
BETWEEN 1U AND 1V ,MEASURE THE VOLTAGES BETWEEN 1V-1W AND 1U-1W AND
ALSO 2U-2N,2V-2N,2W-2N.. SO HERE IF THE CORE IS CORRECTLY BALANCED THEN WE
WILL GET RESULTS AS FOLLOWS 1U-1V 1V-1W 1U-1W 2U-2N 2V-2N 2W-2N 440 300 140 90
50 40 THAT MEANS HV SIDE : 1U-1V = 1V-1W + 1U-1W I.E 440V = 300 + 140 AND ALSO LV
SIDE : 2U-2N = 2V-2N + 2W-2N 90 = 50 + 40 STEP 2: AFTER DOING THIS ..INTERCHANGE
THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN 1V-1W AND MEASURE THE VALUES AS ABOVE... STEP 3:
AFTER DOING THIS ..INTER CHANGE THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN 1U-1W AND
MEASURE THE VALUES AS ABOVE... IF ANY FAULT IS THERE IN TRANSFORMER WE CAN
NOT FIND GOOD RESULTS.... IF THE WINDING IS DAMAGED .... WE WILL GET ZERO
VALUES .... ex: HV SIDE 1U-1V = 1V-1W + 1U-1W 440V = 440 + 0 AND ALSO LV SIDE : 2U-2N
= 2V-2N + 2W-2N 90 = 90 + 0 THIS IS THE ACTUAL APPLICATION OF MANGNETICA
BALANCE TEST...

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