Anda di halaman 1dari 30

Statistical Data on Switzerland

This chapter presents the main statistical findings in English for our international readers. Statistics reveal the current status of Swiss
demographics and society as well as the Swiss economy and the environment. They also reveal how things have changed over time.
The content structure is based on the one used by the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat).

Switzerland in an international context

556

Sustainable development

558
560
560
561
562
563

Industry, trade and services


571
Company structure
572
Industry, construction and trade
573
574
Financial markets
Tourism 575

2 Population

564

Agriculture, forestry and fisheries

576

3 Health

566

International trade

578

4 Education

567

10 Transport

579

Labour Market

568

11 Environment

580

Living conditions and social protection


Living conditions
Social protection

569
569
570

12 Energy

581

13 Science and technology

582

F S O

Economy and finance


National accounts
Public finance
Prices and income
Balance of payments

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

555

SJB_all.indb 555

28.01.2014 11:41:01

Switzerland in an international context


Switzerland has a population of 8.039million people (31December 2012) for a territory of 41000km. The country lies in
Central Western Europe with the Alps forming a natural boundary between its northern and southern parts. With four official
languages (German, French, Italian and Romansh), Switzerland is
characterized by cultural and linguistic diversity.
The Swiss Confederation (in Latin Confoederatio Helvetica,
whence the international ISO abbreviation CH) was created in
1848 by formally bringing together 26 historically close but very
politically and geographically distinct cantons into a common political entity that still guarantees wide autonomy to each of its
members. Ever since 1959, the seven-member Swiss cabinet
(Federal Council) has been made up of representatives from Switzerlands four leading political parties: the Radical Democratic
Party (FDP), the Socialist Party (SP), the Christian Democratic
Party (CVP) and the Swiss Peoples Party (SVP). Since 2008,
five parties have been represented in the national government:
the Conservative Democratic Party (BDP) took over a seat that
had been held by the Swiss Peoples Party (SVP/UDC). Cabinet
members (Federal Councillors) are elected every four years in
a joint session of the two freshly elected houses of the Swiss
Parliament: the National Council (200 members representing the
people) and the Council of States (46members representing
the Cantons). The Swiss people wield considerable power in the
Swiss political system: voting privileges are wide-ranging and it

is relatively easy for the people to submit popular initiatives and


call for referendums. Swiss citizens are therefore called to the
ballot box several times a year.
Compared to other countries, Switzerland has a fairly robust economy in terms of gross domestic product (GDP). If we
consider GDP per capita, it is among the richest countries in the
world. That said, the Swiss economy has grown at a slower rate
than other OECD countries since 1990. Following this slump, the
Swiss economy recovered again after the turn of the millennium.
Since then it has been growing more strongly (with the exception of 2009 in the wake of the financial crisis). By international
comparison, the Swiss unemployment rate remains low and employment rate high.
As in all modern societies, the tertiary sector dominates
the Swiss economy. Important branches include financial services and tourism. As for the secondary sector, Switzerlands
lack of raw materials has led to the development of specialised
manufacturing industries such as the machinery manufacture,
pharmaceuticals production and watchmaking. In 2012, the primary sectors share in the value added of the Swiss economy
was only 0.7%. Foreign trade is extremely important to the Swiss
economy; the value of total imports and exports per capita as
well as the share of imports and exports to GDP are among the
highest in the world.

KE 0.1

Political structure
B a d en-W rt t emberg

Ba var i a

SCHAFFHAUSEN
Schaffhausen

H a u t e -S a n e
H a u t- R h in

Basel

B e lfo r t

BASELJURA

Liestal

-LANDSCHAFT

Delmont

THURGAU

-STADT

Frauenfeld

AARGAU
Saint Gallen

ZURICH

Aarau

APPENZELL-

Zurich

Herisau

-A. RH. Appenzell


-I. RH.

SOLOTHURN
Solothurn
Zug

Doubs
NEUCHTEL

SCHWYZ

Lucerne

Schwyz

Neuchtel
Bern

BERN

Fribourg

Liechtenstein

ZUG

LUCERNE

Sarnen

OBWALDEN

Tirol

Glarus

GLARUS

Stans

NIDWALDEN

Vo rarlb erg

SAINT GALLEN

Altdorf

Chur

URI

FRIBOURG
GRAUBNDEN

VAUD

J u ra

Lausanne

TICINO

Ain
Sion

Geneva

GENEVA

Bellinzona

VALAIS

H a u t e -S av o ie

Pie dmont
Lombardy

1 : 2 000 000
0

10

20

30

40

50 km

Va lle d A o s ta

SFSO, ThemaKart, Neuchtel

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

556

SJB_all.indb 556

28.01.2014 11:41:05

Switzerland in comparison with other countries


Year

Switzerland Germany

France

Italy

Netherland Austria

Sweden

United
Kingdom

National accounts, prices and income


2012

40 800

31 300

27 500

25 200

32 800

33 300

32 700

28 300

2000
2012

3.7

3.3

2.1

1.0

2.3

2.7

2.9

2.0

Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices (HICP)

2012

0.7

2.1

2.2

3.3

2.8

2.6

0.9

2.8

Equality: wage gap between sexes in %

2011

17.9

22.2

14.8

5.8

17.9

23.7

15.8

20.1

Number of inhabitants in 000

20134

8 039

82 021

65 633

59 685

16 780

8 452

9 556

63 896

Inhabitants per km of the total area

20114

198

229

103

202

495

102

23

...

People under 20 years of age in %

20134

20.4

18.1

24.7

18.7

23.1

20.1

22.8

23.7

People age 65 and over in %

20134

17.4

20.7

17.5

21.2

16.8

18.1

19.1

17.2

Foreigners as percentage of the total population

20124

22.8

9.1

5.9

8.1

4.2

11.3

6.8

7.6

Live births per 1000 inhabitants

2012

10.3

8.2

...

...

10.5

9.4

11.9

...

Female life expectancy at birth in years

2011

85.0

83.2

85.7

85.3

83.1

83.8

83.8

83.0

Male life expectancy at birth in years

2011

80.5

78.4

78.7

80.1

79.4

78.3

79.9

79.0

Gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant, in PPS1


Average annual real growth in the GDP
per inhabitant, in %

Population
2

Health
Number of doctors per 100000 inhabitants

20105

61

157

159

...

...

158

...

80

Health care expenditure as % of GDP

2011

6.8

9.4

9.1

7.1

10.9

7.2

7.5

8.3

Infant mortality per 1000 birth (live births)

2011

3.8

3.6

3.5

3.2

3.6

3.6

2.1

4.2

Young people (1824) without post-compulsory


education in %

2012

30.7

37.5

20.8

34.0

30.3

25.6

27.8

18.6

Persons (2564) with highest educational attainment


at tertiary level in %

2012

36.6

28.1

30.8

15.7

32.9

20.0

35.7

38.6

Education expenditure in % of GDP

2011

5.6

5.1

5.9

4.7

5.9

6.0

7.3

5.7

Employment rate for women

2012

73.6

68.0

60.0

47.1

70.4

67.3

71.8

65.1

Employment rate for men

2012

85.2

77.6

68.0

66.5

79.7

77.8

75.6

75.2

Unemployment rate (1574), ILO-based2

2012

4.2

5.5

10.2

10.7

5.3

4.3

8.0

7.9

Women

2012

4.5

5.2

10.4

11.9

5.2

4.3

7.7

7.4

Men

2012

3.9

5.7

10.1

9.9

5.3

4.4

8.2

8.3

1524 year-olds

2012

8.4

8.1

24.7

35.3

9.5

8.7

23.7

21.0

2011

24.2

28.3

31.9

28.4

30.5

28.7

29.0

26.3

Beds in hotels and health establishments per 1000


inhabitants

2012

34.1

22.4

19.1

37.9

13.5

70.7

24.1

24.7

Agricultural area, as % of the total area

20095

36.9

51.7

54.2

51.4

55.0

38.2

8.1

65.1

Wooded areas, as % of the total area

20095

30.8

33.9

31.7

33.2

11.9

47.0

66.0

14.8

Education

Employment

Social Security
Social security expenditure as % of GDP
Tourism, agriculture and forestry

Transport, environment and energy


Number of passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants

20115

523

517

...

610

470

535

464

...

Road accidents, fatalities per 1 million inhabitants

20085

46

54

67

79

41

81

43

43

Total area in km2

20095

41 285

357 113

548 763

301 392

37 357

83 920

449 159

244 436

Percentage of settlement and urban areas in %

20095

6.8

9.9

9.4

11.0

25.1

7.2

14.6

13.5

Greenhouse gas emissions in CO2 equivalents, tonnes


per person

20115

6.9

11.7

7.7

8.4

12.2

10.1

6.7

9.2

Gross energy consumption, TOE3 per inhabitant

20115

3.4

3.9

4.0

2.9

4.9

4.0

5.2

3.1

1
2
3
4
5

Purchasing Power Standards


Unemployment figures based on the International Labour Organisations definitions
Tonnes of crude oil equivalent
At 1 January
At 31 December

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

Source: Eurostat
Only one source has been used for all variables: Eurostat. It is possible that the data vary from those
published by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office in other publications.

2 0 1 4

557

SJB_all.indb 557

28.01.2014 11:41:05

Sustainable development

Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs


of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. When using natural, economic
and social resources, consideration should be given to the principle of fairness among and between present and future generations, both in Switzerland and in relation to foreign countries.
Sustainable development also means enabling people to live in
conditions that are adequate for them in terms of human rights,
by creating and maintaining the maximum range of options to
ensure that individuals are free to develop their designs for living.
Meeting needs in a balanced manner requires social solidarity,
economic efficiency and ecological responsibility, and none of
these three qualitative objectives must be attained at the longterm detriment of any of the other objectives.
The MONET system was created to show where Switzerland
is on the path to sustainable development. It is based on a set
of principles that indicate the direction to be taken in order to
create and maintain a sustainable society. These principles ultimately form the frame of reference that is used to assess the
sustainability of observed developments. All the principles have
a clear and direct relation to the definition of sustainable de
velopment and the three qualitative objectives of social solidarity,
economic efficiency and ecological responsibility. Each of the 75
MONET indicators refers to at least one principle.

With the purpose of facilitating clear and concise information


at a glance, a set of sixteen key indicators were developed, all
taken from the MONET indicator system. The following presentation of five out of the sixteen is intended to give the reader an
idea of how indicators can illustrate how sustainability has de
veloped so far; and with the support of principles to assess
sustainability in terms of the direction that should be taken.


Peoples health is improving
Principle: Promoting health
People who feel healthy are often more contented than those
who are ill or disabled. At the same time, they are also more productive. The benefits of living a long and healthy life are mainly
felt by people themselves. However, the goal of a healthy lifestyle
is also worth pursuing in the interests of the economy and society as a whole.

Life expectancy in good health

Targeted trends
Growth

Stabilisation

Decrease

No marked change

Observed trends
Growth

Assessment of the observed trend in relation to targeted trend


since 1992:
Positive (toward sustainability)
Negative (away from sustainability)
Unchanged

Life expectancy at birth in years


1992

63.9
65.3

1997

65.2
64.7

The unemployment rate based on ILO1


definition is rising
Principle: Employment that is morally worthwhile and provides a
decent living
In developed countries, unemployment is one of the main
causes of poverty and social exclusion. In addition, high unemployment can result in social unrests.

Women

69.4
70.3

2007

Men

67.5
68.7

2002

Decrease

20

40

60

80

100

Unemployment rate based on ILO definition


Percentage of unemployed in relation to total working population
10%
8%
6%
4%
2%
0%

1991

ILO: International Labour Office

F S O

1995

S tat i s t i c a l

2000

Y e a r b oo k

2005

2010

2013

2 0 1 4

558

SJB_all.indb 558

28.01.2014 11:41:07


Teenage reading skills are improving
Principles: Encouraging learning; Promotion of economic efficiency
Education ensures that the economy is both innovative and
competitive, while the ability to retain and process information is
essential for individuals to constructively adapt to changes taking
place in society.

Teenage reading skills


Share of 15-year-olds reaching at least reading skills level 2 (scale <1 to 6)1
2000
2003
2006
2009

79.6
83.4
83.6
83.1

0%
1

Built-up areas are encroaching upon the


landscape
Principles: Limits for consumption of non-renewable resources;
Preservation of natural resources
Soils are an important life support system for humans, animals and plants. Constructions of buildings, roads and factories
inevitably result in a loss of farmland. It is very difficult to reverse
the degradation process once it has been set in motion and this
change affects future generations.

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

2009: Change in the skills profiles

Per capita settlement area1


In m / inhabitant
1979/85

386,6

1992/97

400,9

2004/09

406,9

0
1


Material intensity is decreasing
Principles: Ecologically acceptable production; Ecologically and
socially acceptable consumption
One of the main goals of sustainable development is to
bring about a gradual dematerialisation of the economy so as to
lessen the environmental impact of human and economic activities. Material and energy flows must be optimised so that natural
resources can be maintained in the long run.

100

200

300

400

500

Building areas, industrial areas, special urban areas, recreational facilities, parks
and transportation areas

Material intensity
Total Material Requirement to GDP ratio, index 1990 = 100
105
100
95
90
85
80
0
1995

1990

2000

2010p/11p

2005

Switzerlands ecological footprint is four times as


great as its biocapacity
The key indicators show whether or not development is sustainable whereas the ecological footprint measures sustainability
from the standpoint of consumption of natural resources.1
The ecological footprint expresses consumption in terms of
how much surface area (in global hectares) is required to sustain this consumption. It shows whether and to what extent our
use of natural resources exceeds the regenerative capacities of
the biosphere (i.e. our biocapacity). Consumption of natural resources is considered sustainable when the ecological footprint
of our consumption matches our biocapacity. When consumption exceeds our biocapacity, natural resources at home become
depleted or have to be imported from other countries. In such
cases, we end up living at the expense of other regions of the
planet or of future generations.

Switzerlands ecological footprint and biocapacity

See INFRAS 2006: Switzerlands Ecological Footprint. A Contribution to the Sustainability Debate. Commissioned and published by the Federal Office for Spatial Development, the Federal
Statistical Office, the Agency for Development and Cooperation and the Federal Office for the
Environment. In cooperation with Global Footprint Network and Locher, Schmill, Van Wezemael
& Partner. Neuchtel, September 2006.

All MONET indicators, key indicators, principles and publications as well as the ecological footprint can
be found at: http://www.monet.admin.ch

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

In global hectares per capita


6
5

Footprint

4
3

Biocapacity

2
1
0
1961

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2009

2 0 1 4

559

SJB_all.indb 559

28.01.2014 11:41:08

1 Economy and finance

National accounts
Gross domestic product by expenditure approach1
In CHF million, at current prices, % changes over time
Expenditure approach

At current prices

Change with respect to previous year, in %, at current


prices

2008

2009

2010

2011p

2012p

2009

2010

2011p

2012p

Consumer spending

379 573

386 189

394 751

399 868

405 905

1.7

2.2

1.3

1.5

Private households and NPISH2

320 693

324 146

331 823

335 415

339 785

1.1

2.4

1.1

1.3

58 880

62 042

62 928

64 453

66 120

5.4

1.4

2.4

2.6

Public sector
Gross investment

125 280

106 950

116 158

124 503

124 192

14.6

8.6

7.2

0.2

Gross fixed capital formation

120 762

110 409

115 012

120 319

119 000

8.6

4.2

4.6

1.1

Machinery and equipment

71 653

60 327

62 979

65 782

65 838

15.8

4.4

4.5

0.1

Buildings and structures

49 109

50 082

52 033

54 537

53 161

2.0

3.9

4.8

2.5

3 535

5 357

1 704

4 328

7 760

983

1 898

559

144

2 567

308 162

279 221

296 349

299 878

309 529

9.4

6.1

1.2

3.2

216 910

188 369

204 053

208 727

212 386

13.2

8.3

2.3

1.8

91 252

90 852

92 296

91 151

97 143

0.4

1.6

1.2

6.6

245 163

217 988

234 593

239 147

247 775

11.1

7.6

1.9

3.6

205 079

174 887

190 874

194 324

196 879

14.7

9.1

1.8

1.3

40 083

43 101

43 719

44 823

50 896

7.5

1.4

2.5

13.5

567 852

554 372

572 665

585 102

591 851

2.4

3.3

2.2

1.2

73 641

71 062

72 696

73 947

74 010

3.5

2.3

1.7

0.1

Changes in inventories
Acquisitions less disposals of
valuables
Exports
Goods
Services
Less: Imports
Goods
Services
GDP
Per capita

1
2

Revised figures
NPISH: Non-profit institutions serving households

Source: FSO National Accounts

Real GDP growth

Per capita GDP in purchase price parity (PPP)

At prices of preceding year

Compared to average of 30 OECD countries = 100

6%

US
150

4%
2%
0%

100
CH

EU-15

2%

50

Japan

4%
6%
1990

0
1995

2000

2005

2012p

1980

F S O

1985

1990

S tat i s t i c a l

1995

Y e a r b oo k

2000

2005

2012p

2 0 1 4

560

SJB_all.indb 560

28.01.2014 11:41:08

Public finance
Key public finance figures
In % of GDP1
2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

20122

Public sector

37.2

36.7

36.3

34.4

33.4

31.3

33.2

32.8

33.2

32.9

Confederation

11.0

10.9

10.7

10.2

11.1

10.1

10.5

10.4

10.8

10.4

Cantons

15.0

14.7

14.6

13.9

13.7

12.7

13.2

13.1

13.6

13.6

9.8

9.5

9.4

9.0

8.6

7.2

7.7

7.5

7.4

7.4

10.7

10.6

10.5

9.9

9.9

8.8

9.7

9.6

9.4

9.4

Public sector

1.4

1.3

0.6

0.9

1.3

1.8

0.5

0.2

0.3

0.1

Confederation

0.6

0.5

0.0

0.6

0.5

0.9

0.4

0.3

0.1

0.1

Cantons

0.5

0.3

0.0

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.4

Municipalities

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

Social insurance

0.2

0.5

0.6

0.2

1.0

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.5

Public sector

53.4

52.8

50.8

45.4

41.8

39.2

37.7

36.4

35.5

35.7

Confederation

27.5

27.2

27.2

24.3

22.4

21.4

20.0

19.2

18.8

19.0

Cantons

15.5

15.4

13.5

12.2

11.2

9.9

9.5

9.2

8.8

8.6

Municipalities

10.3

10.1

10.1

8.8

8.2

7.9

8.2

8.0

7.9

7.9

0.1

0.5

0.9

1.0

0.9

0.7

1.0

1.3

1.0

1.1

Public sector

28.2

27.8

28.1

27.9

27.7

28.1

28.7

28.1

28.6

28.4

Confederation

9.6

9.7

9.9

10.0

9.9

10.5

10.4

10.2

10.4

10.1

Cantons

6.7

6.8

7.0

6.9

6.9

6.8

7.0

6.9

6.9

6.9

Municipalities

4.6

4.5

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.3

4.4

4.3

4.3

4.3

Social insurance

7.3

6.8

6.8

6.6

6.5

6.5

6.9

6.7

7.0

7.1

Public spending to GDP ratio1

Municipalities
Social insurance
Financial balance1

Debt to GDP ratio1

Social insurance
Tax to GDP ratio (OECD)1

1
2

Double counts are not included in totals and subtotals.


Some data are estimates.

Source: Federal Finance Administration (FFA)

Public debt
In CHF billion

As % of GDP

300

60%

250

50%

200

40%

150

30%

100

20%

50

10%
0%
1990

0
1990

1995

Confederation

F S O

2000
Cantons

S tat i s t i c a l

2005
Communes

Y e a r b oo k

2012

1995

2000

2005

2012

Social insurances

2 0 1 4

561

SJB_all.indb 561

28.01.2014 11:41:09

Prices and income


General fluctuations in Swiss consumer prices
Average % changes over time
2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Total

0.5

0.7

0.2

0.7

0.2

Food and non-alcoholic beverages

0.2

1.1

3.3

1.0

1.2

2.7

1.2

1.7

1.1

1.3

Alcoholic beverages and tobacco


Clothing and footwear
Housing and energy
Household furniture and furnishings
and routine maintenance
Health

2.4

1.1

1.4

6.0

3.7

1.1

2.4

2.4

0.8

0.1

0.8

0.4

1.3

1.9

1.6

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.9

Transport

3.3

2.4

1.1

2.2

0.9

Communications

4.9

1.4

0.1

0.6

2.3

Recreation and culture

0.6

2.1

3.3

2.8

0.0

Education

1.6

1.2

1.4

1.7

1.7

Restaurants and hotels

1.7

0.8

1.5

0.7

0.7

Other goods and services

0.5

1.3

0.2

0.1

0.6

Consumer Price Index (CPI)


Index December 2010 = 100
102
100
98
96
94
92
90
2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2013

2010

Source: FSO Consumer Price Index (CPI)

International comparison of price level indices. 2012p, EU-28=100


Switzerland Germany Spain

France

Italy

Netherlands

Austria

Sweden

United
Danemark
Kingdom

Norway

Gross Domestic Product

154

103

91

112

100

110

110

133

113

137

Actual individual consumption

166

101

94

109

102

111

110

136

117

145

168

154

106

93

109

112

96

120

124

104

143

186

Food and non-alcoholic beverages

156

Alcoholic beverages and tobacco

124

91

86

106

100

102

90

143

165

125

268

Clothing and footwear

126

103

89

104

107

107

99

130

92

126

156

Housing and energy

207

105

96

112

99

114

95

124

142

148

133

Furnishings, household equipment


and routine maintenance of the house

127

97

97

111

102

103

109

124

110

118

137

Health

209

98

103

115

110

134

131

153

114

161

206

Transport

115

104

94

102

97

109

104

124

108

135

156

Communication

124

82

147

110

106

125

96

83

109

96

96

Recreation and culture

139

102

98

106

103

102

108

129

108

135

163

Education

255

105

90

119

97

118

158

202

141

175

210

Restaurants and hotels

157

101

92

103

106

104

106

149

113

154

195

154

98

88

110

101

112

109

138

105

148

184

Actual collective consumption

Miscellaneous goods and services

177

115

85

124

115

118

128

130

105

146

182

Gross fixed capital formation

142

114

83

117

88

110

107

140

104

119

157

Source: EUROSTAT

Wage growth
130

Index 1993 = 100


Nominal wages

120
110

Real wages

100
1993 1995

2000

2005

2010

2012

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

562

SJB_all.indb 562

28.01.2014 11:41:09

Balance of payments
Swiss Balance of Payments (BoP).1 In CHF million, at current prices2
2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

58 233

60 381

65 303

72 915

46 620

11 866

58 484

84 408

52 467

66 346

4 318

6 705

3 004

5 065

9 373

15 108

16 446

13 179

14 403

15 507

Exports

141 622

153 235

163 468

185 649

207 033

216 997

188 320

204 053

208 728

212 388

Imports

Current Account, net


Goods, net

137 304

146 530

160 463

180 584

197 660

201 889

171 874

190 874

194 325

196 881

Services, net

28 908

30 361

33 568

39 338

45 483

50 222

45 924

48 901

44 125

41 186

Receipts

48 814

54 581

62 036

68 758

79 026

83 604

82 967

86 927

84 314

85 170

19 906

24 220

28 468

29 420

33 542

33 382

37 043

38 025

40 189

43 984

32 593

31 412

42 449

40 175

3 117

39 431

9 192

34 747

5 726

21 568

84 400

88 660

127 464

136 380

146 733

91 884

99 348

122 572

92 072

116 429

51 807

57 248

85 016

96 204

143 616

131 315

90 156

87 825

86 347

94 861

7 587

8 097

13 718

11 663

11 354

14 033

13 077

12 419

11 787

11 916

17 752

17 732

19 537

22 213

27 540

30 496

28 794

25 889

27 584

28 738

25 338

25 829

33 255

33 877

38 894

44 530

41 871

38 308

39 371

40 654

Capital Transfers, net

2 932

3 934

2 847

5 432

5 038

3 780

3 775

4 617

8 382

1 917

Capital transfers abroad

3 595

4 439

3 432

5 767

5 523

4 876

3 919

4 975

8 865

2 362

662

505

584

335

485

1 096

144

359

483

446

35 197

71 484

84 398

75 806

57 432

7 899

21 489

106 350

37 367

96 752

1 430

31 507

64 835

40 256

22 308

32 624

2 734

49 196

26 352

27 112

47 022

49 673

59 151

53 538

23 308

38 513

32 066

30 972

16 802

13 185

...

...

...

3 677

12 768

7 378

2 515

1 293

4 484

4 984

Expenses
Labour and investment income, net
Receipts
Expenses
Current transfers, net
Receipts
Expenses

Capital transfers to Switzerland


Financial Account, net
Direct investment, net
Portfolio investment, net
Derivatives and structured
products, net
Other investment, net

14 877

11 557

16 933

22 057

5 009

60 005

52 107

48 383

43 947

86 783

Reserve assets, total

4 482

1 861

22 655

392

4 057

4 146

46 780

137 803

42 644

174 591

20 104

15 037

21 943

8 323

15 851

186

33 220

26 559

6 719

32 323

Net Errors and Omissions

The minus sign () indicates a surplus of imports over exports in the current account, and an
export of capital in the other positions.
Revised figures

Source: Swiss National Bank (SNB)

Current Account balance


In CHF billion
100

Total Current Account

80
60
40
20

Services

0
20
40

Goods

1985

F S O

Compensation of employees

Investment income

1990

2005

S tat i s t i c a l

1995

2000

Y e a r b oo k

2012

2 0 1 4

563

SJB_all.indb 563

28.01.2014 11:41:10

2 Population

Persons in employment1, in thousands

Population and population growth


9

4000

Population
in millions

8
7

Tertiary sector (services)

4%

3000

3%

5
4

2%

2000

3
2

Secondary sector
(industry and craft)

1%

1
0

1000

0%
Population growth (in %, right scale)

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

Primary sector
(agriculture, forestry)
0

1%

1960

2000 2012
1

1970

1980

1990

2000

2013

New calculation method from 1975/1991 onwards

Life expectancy

The main languages in Switzerland 2010

90

Question: What is your main language, i.e. the language you think in
and know best? Number of persons in millions.

Years

80

German
French

70
60

From birth:

Women

Italian

Men

Raeto-Romansch

50

Other languages

40

Unknown
0

30
20

From age 65:

Women

10

Persons interviewed could indicate more than one main language. The
answers of the 320 000 (approx.) respondents were extrapolated to the total
resident population aged 15 and over on the 31.12.2010 (6.5 m persons).

Men

0
1878

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000 2012

Educational attainment 2012

Net migration and excess of births over deaths, in thousands


100
80
60
Excess of births1
40
20
0
20
40
Net migration2
60

Women
Age 2534

11.2

Age 5564

49.0

23.2

39.8
56.8

20.1

Men
Age 2534 10.0
Age 5564

48.5

13.0

41.4

49.5

37.5

All persons aged 2564

13.7

49.7

36.6

German-speaking

12.3

51.1

36.6

French-speaking

17.2

Italian-speaking

16.6

0%
Compulsory education

45.3
52.9

20%

40%

Upper secondary

1971

37.4

1
2

30.5

60%

80%

1980

1990

2000

2012

Live births minus deaths


Incl. change of status: change from residence permit valid for less than 12 months
to residence permit valid 12 months or longer.

100%

Higher education

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

564

SJB_all.indb 564

28.01.2014 11:41:10

Selected criteria

Permanent resident population in 000


Foreigners

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2008

2009

20101

2011

2012

4 717

5 360

6 193

6 335

6 751

7 204

7 702

7 786

7 870

7 955

8 039

285

514

1 002

914

1 127

1 424

1 670

1 714

1 766

1 816

1 870

Urban

...

...

...

4 722

4 983

5 259

5 666

5 733

5 799

5 864

5 929

Rural

...

...

...

1 614

1 767

1 945

2 036

2 052

2 071

2 091

2 110

Age groups, in %
Age 019

30.6

31.8

31.0

27.5

23.4

23.1

21.2

21.0

20.9

20.6

20.4

Age 2064

59.8

57.9

57.5

58.6

62.0

61.5

62.2

62.2

62.2

62.2

62.2

9.6

10.3

11.5

13.9

14.6

15.4

16.6

16.8

16.9

17.2

17.4

Excess of births over deaths, per 1000


inhabitants

8.0

7.9

6.8

2.3

3.0

2.2

2.0

2.0

2.3

2.4

2.2

Migration balance, per 1000 inhabitants

2.5

4.2

2.9

2.7

8.4

2.8

12.7

9.6

8.3

6.6

5.6

18.1

17.7

16.1

11.7

12.5

11.0

10.0

10.1

10.4

10.2

10.3

3.8

3.8

3.8

4.8

6.1

10.7

17.1

17.9

18.9

19.3

20.2

Age 65+

Live births per 1000 inhabitants


Infant born out of wedlock, in %
Age of mother at birth of first child

26.8

26.0

25.3

26.3

27.6

28.7

29.9

30.1

30.2

30.4

30.4

Total birth rate

2.40

2.44

2.10

1.55

1.59

1.50

1.48

1.50

1.54

1.52

1.53

Deaths per 1000 inhabitants

10.1

9.8

9.2

9.4

9.5

8.7

8.0

8.1

8.0

7.8

8.0

Deaths before age 1, per 1000 live births

31.2

21.1

15.1

9.1

6.8

4.9

4.0

4.3

3.8

3.8

3.6

Marriages per 1000 inhabitants

7.9

7.8

7.6

5.7

6.9

5.5

5.4

5.4

5.5

5.3

5.3

25.8

24.9

24.1

25.0

26.7

27.9

29.1

29.2

29.4

29.5

29.5

Total marriage rate for single women under


the age of 50, in %

92

96

87

66

75

64

64

64

65

63

64

Divorces per 1000 inhabitants

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.7

2.0

1.5

2.6

2.5

2.8

2.2

2.2

Total divorce rate, in %

12

13

15

27

33

26

48

48

54

43

43

Average age of woman at marriage

From 2010, new definition of the permanent resident population, which also includes asylum seekers with a total length of stay of at least 12 months.

Sources: FSO Federal Population Census, Annual Population Statistics (ESPOP, STATPOP), Vital Statistics (BEVNAT)

An aging society
There are now many more elderly people than 50 years ago.
The number of over 64-year-olds has more than doubled since
1950, while the number of 80+ year-olds has even quadrupled. In
contrast, the number of under twenties has increased much less
and has actually declined since the early Seventies. This aging
process is the result of longer life expectancy and fewer births.
According to FSO population scenarios, this trend will continue
over the next few decades.

A large foreign population


Foreigners account for 23.3% of the permanent resident population (2012). More than half of the residents without a Swiss
passport have been living in Switzerland for more than 15 years
or were born here. In 2012, 33500 persons obtained Swiss
citizenship. 85.1% of Switzerlands permanent resident foreign
population are of European origin, more than two-thirds of whom
are nationals of an EU or EFTA member state. The largest group
of foreigners are Italian (15.6%), followed by nationals of Germany (15.2%), Portugal (12.7%) and Serbia (5.3%). An increasing
number of foreigners come from more distant countries. The proportion of non-European nationals doubled since 1980 to reach
14.8% today.

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

565

SJB_all.indb 565

28.01.2014 11:41:11

3 Health
Selected indicators
1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2009

2010

2011

2012

Women, at birth

70.9

74.1

76.2

79.1

80.8

82.6

84.4

84.6

84.7

84.7

Women, at age 65

14.0

15.2

16.3

18.3

19.4

20.7

22.0

22.2

22.2

22.1

Men, at birth

66.4

68.7

70.3

72.4

74.0

76.9

79.8

80.2

80.3

80.5

Men, at age 65

12.4

12.9

13.3

14.4

15.3

17.0

18.8

18.9

19.0

19.9

Infant mortality, deaths per 1000 live births

31.0

21.1

15.1

9.1

6.8

4.9

4.3

3.8

3.8

3.6

Perinatal deaths per 1000 live births

34.7

25.6

18.1

9.5

7.7

6.6

7.5

7.0

6.8

6.8

0.3

90.6

30.3

19.0

20.0

15.0

...

15.7

22.0

28.9

35.0

35.1

31.6

27.7

28.6

28.5

...

9.1

10.0

12.5

10.3

7.8

5.4

5.1

5.0

4.4

...

Road accidents

16.7

25.2

26.5

18.5

13.2

7.4

4.3

3.8

3.3

...

Suicides

23.0

19.0

19.5

24.9

20.1

17.2

12.5

11.1

11.2

...

...

...

28.8

...

...

...

9.3

8.9

8.2

...

Life expectancy in years1

AIDS, new cases per million inhabitants


Deaths per 100000 inhabitants
Lung cancer
Cirrhosis of the liver

Occupational diseases, new cases of illness per


10000 FTEs
Disability, recipients of disability benefits

...

...

...

...

16 815

23 570

30 932

31 644

32 390

32 900

0.9

0.9

0.9

1.2

1.5

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.1

14.6

11.6

10.0

9.3

8.2

6.2

5.1

4.9

4.8

4.8

in CHF million

...

1 925

5 316

13 509

26 870

42 843

60 981

62 495

64 574

...

in % of GDP

...

4.8

5.4

7.3

7.9

9.9

11.0

10.9

11.0

...

Practising physicians per 1000 inhabitants


Hospitals, beds per 1000 inhabitants
Healthcare costs

Figures up to and including 1980: based on Official Mortality Tables; figures from 1990
onwards: based on complete Annual Mortality Tables

Source: FSO

Health care costs


In 2011, 11.0% of the GDP went on health (1990: 8.1%). De
velopment of supply is a fundamental factor in this increase:
e.g. expanded facilities, growing specialization and greater use
of technology, greater comfort. The impact of the aging population and the escalation of social insurance benefits are not so
significant.

State of health
83% of the population (84% of men and 81% of women) perceived
their general state of health as good or very good (2012). The
percentage of people who consider their health to be (very) good
steadily drops with age. This proportion is also lower among
people whose level of education does not exceed compulsory
schooling than among people with tertiary level education (62%
compared to 90%). The percentage of people who rated themselves as being in (very) good health has decreased within five
years (2007: 87%; 2012: 83%). This decline is valid for all age
groups but is particularly pronounced for men aged between 55
and 74.
41% of the population are overweight or obese; 51% of men
and 32% of women. The percentage of overweight or obese
people almost stabilised between 2002 and 2007. Since then, it
has increased again.
89% of men and 78% of women consume alcohol; 17% of
men and 9% of women consume alcohol on a daily basis. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with age: 38% of men
and 20% of women aged 65 years and older consume alcohol
on a daily basis. The percentage of daily consumers among men
has fallen from 31% to 17% since 1992.
28% of the Swiss population smoke; 32% of men and 24%
of women. The largest proportion of smokers among men are
between 25 and 34 years (43%) and among women between 15
and 24 years (32%). While compared to 1992 the percentage
of male smokers fell from 37% to 32% in 2012, this percentage
remained stable among females.

Healthcare costs, in % of GDP


14%
12%
10%
8%
6%
4%
2%
0%
1970

F S O

1975

1980

S tat i s t i c a l

1985

1990

Y e a r b oo k

1995

2000

2005

2011

2 0 1 4

566

SJB_all.indb 566

28.01.2014 11:41:11

4 Education
Selected indicators

Share of public expenditures for


education at federal, cantonal
and municipal levels, in % of GDP

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

4.9

4.9

5.4

In Switzerland, the education system from the pre-school level


(nursery school) to the tertiary level (higher education institutions
and higher vocational education) is a task of the state whose primary responsibility lies with the 26 cantons. In the post-compulsory sector (grammar schools, vocational education and training
and higher educational institutions), the Confederation and the
cantons share joint responsibility for public education.
In 2011, the public sector invested almost CHF31billion
in education. In international comparison, Switzerlands education expenditures in relation to GDP are slightly below the OECD
average. Switzerland ranks significantly higher if one considers
expenditure per student or vocational trainee.
In addition to public expenditure on education there is
also private expenditure. In 2011, private enterprises invested
CHF2.8billion in education.

Education expectancy1, in years


Total

16.6

16.6

16.7

16.7

16.3

Pre-school

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

Compulsory education

9.6

9.6

9.5

9.5

9.1

Upper secondary education

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.6

3.5

Tertiary education

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.1

2.1

87.6

88.4

91.7

93.7

95.3

8.5

8.8

9.1

7.6

7.3

At least upper secondary


education

86.0

86.8

86.9

85.8

85.6

Tertiary education

31.3

33.7

35.0

35.3

35.2

Completion rate for upper


secondary education
Dropout rate2
Highest level of education attained, persons aged 2564

Duration of post-compulsory education


In years
1
2

For a five-year-old child under current conditions


Share of persons aged 1824, who have only completed lower secondary education and are
not currently attending any training or continuing education courses, in %.

6
Men

Sources: FSO Student Statistics, Statistics on Completed Education and Diplomas, Statistics on

Public Expenditures for Education

Total

Women

Students1

2
2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

Pre-primary education

152 919

147 200

148 573

149 660

Primary education

499 435

492 508

487 436

483 466

Lower secondary education

291 089

289 636

286 907

284 217

Upper secondary education

309 944

315 548

318 093

321 945

15 382

16 353

17 122

18 817

214 412

228 519

236 743

247 561

10%

Second stage of tertiary


education

19 076

20 120

20 953

22 012

8%

Unclassifiable

12 000

12 524

12 730

13 202

Post-secondary but nontertiary education


First stage of tertiary
education

1
0
1990

1995

2000

Lower secondary education

6%

Upper secondary education

2%
Education levels according to ISCED

S tat i s t i c a l

1996

Y e a r b oo k

Tertiary education

0%

Source: FSO Student Statistics

F S O

2011

Unemployment rate by level of education

4%

2005

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2013

2 0 1 4

567

SJB_all.indb 567

28.01.2014 11:41:12

5 Labour Market
Selected indicators
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Persons in employment, in 0001

4 203

4 222

4 306

4 419

4 533

4 572

4 592

4 707

4 755

4 816

Men

2 333

2 338

2 383

2 454

2 491

2 499

2 530

2 588

2 620

2 636

Women

1 870

1 884

1 923

1 965

2 042

2 073

2 062

2 119

2 136

2 180

Swiss nationals

3 160

3 163

3 212

3 273

3 335

3 330

3 340

3 392

3 398

3 418

Foreigners

1 043

1 058

1 094

1 146

1 198

1 242

1 252

1 315

1 357

1 398

Primary sector

151

151

151

157

161

152

153

172

173

171

Secondary sector

982

989

1 017

1 049

1 059

1 048

1 068

1 086

1 072

1 067

3 069

3 081

3 137

3 213

3 313

3 372

3 371

3 448

3 510

3 578

179

185

169

157

148

183

190

162

170

193

Standardised activity rate1,3

67.3

67.0

67.4

67.6

68.2

68.2

67.7

67.9

67.8

68.0

Men

76.0

75.1

75.4

75.8

75.5

75.2

75.2

75.3

75.0

74.8

Women

59.1

59.3

59.8

59.9

61.3

61.6

60.6

60.7

60.8

61.5

Swiss nationals

65.7

65.4

65.8

66.1

66.6

66.4

66.0

66.0

65.7

66.0

Foreigners

73.8

73.4

73.5

73.6

74.4

74.9

74.2

74.4

75.0

74.9

4.4

4.5

4.1

3.7

3.4

4.1

4.2

3.6

3.7

4.2

Tertiary sector
Unemployed (ILO-based)2 in 0001

Unemployment rate (ILO-based)2, in %1

1
2
3

Data for the second quarter


ILO: International Labour Organisationn
Persons in employment in % of permanent resident population (age 15+)

Sources: FSO Employment Statistics (ES), Swiss Labour Force Survey (SLFS), Swiss Wage Index (SWI)

Unemployment
Unemployment is closely linked to economic developments. After
reaching a historic high in 1997 (5.2%), the unemployment rate
fell back to 1.7% in 2001, only to start rising again until 2004
(3.9%). After several years of steady decrease (2008: 2.6%),
it rose again to 3.9% in 2010. In 2013 it reached 3.2%. Different segments of the population are affected to varying degrees.
Unemployment figures are comparatively high among unskilled
workers, foreign aliens (who display on average a comparatively
low level of qualification) and in French- and Italian-speaking Switzerland. In recent years, we have seen higher than average levels
of unemployment among the 1524 age group.

Unemployment1 rate (annual median)


6%

GE 2.11

Total

5%
4%
3%
2%
1%
0%
1990

1995

2000

2005

12%

12%

10%

10%

8%
6%
4%

6%
4%

Men

2%

2%

Swiss

0%

0%
1990

2013

Foreigners

8%

Women

2010

2000

2013

1990

2000

2013

12%
French and italianspeaking Switzerland

10%
8%
6%
4%

2%
0%
1990

F S O

German-speaking
Switzerland

S tat i s t i c a l

Unemployment figures as per


the Swiss Secretariat for
Economic Affairs (seco)

2013

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

568

SJB_all.indb 568

28.01.2014 11:41:12

6 Living conditions and social protection


Living conditions
Private households according to type
2011, in thousand

Expenditure among private households


In % of consumer expenditure
Number of
households1

Confidence
interval
(in %)2

Total

3 534.5

0.2

One-person households

1 289.0

0.8

Couples without children

994.2

0.6

Couples with children

943.4

0.6

Lone parents with children

196.3

1.8

Multi-family households

14.2

5.6

Non-family households with several persons

48.7

3.6

Unknown type of multi-person households3

48.5

3.2

1
2

2009

2010

2011

6.9

7.0

6.8

6.8

Alcoholic beverages and tobacco

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.2

Restaurants and holiday accommodation

5.7

5.8

5.8

5.5

Clothing and footwear

2.5

2.4

2.5

2.5

15.6

16.0

15.6

15.4

Furniture and fittings, daily expenses

2.9

3.0

3.0

2.7

Healthcare

2.8

2.9

2.9

2.7

Transport

7.9

7.7

7.9

8.0

Telecommunications

1.9

1.9

1.9

1.8

Entertainment, recreation and cultural


pasttimes

6.5

6.7

6.6

6.4

Other goods and services

3.1

2.9

3.1

3.3

Housing and energy

The Structural Survey includes all the private households of the permanent resident population.
The Structural Survey is a sample survey. The confidence interval indicates the precision of
the results.
The family relations between the members of these multi-person households are unknown.

20092011
Food and non-alcoholic beverages

Source: FSO Household Budget Survey (HBS)

Source: FSO Structural Survey

Income distribution
In 20092011, the average gross income of private households
in Switzerland was CHF 9565 per month. Employee income,
pensions and social benefits made up the largest proportion
of gross income. There were very considerable differences in
income between the income groups. In 20092011, the average gross income of the quintile with the highest-income at CHF
16,277 was almost four times that of the lowest income quintile
(CHF4201).

Availability of selected consumer goods, 2011


Television set

93%

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Mobile phone

PC

96%

Y e a r b oo k

Dishwasher

90%

82%

Washing machine

62%

Clothes drier

38%

2 0 1 4

569

SJB_all.indb 569

28.01.2014 11:41:12

Social protection
Social security: Total expenditure, benefits and revenues
Double counting eliminated from calculation
1990

2000

2009

2010

Social security: Benefits according to intended purpose


In %

2011p

At current prices,
in CHF million
Total expenditure

61 794

106 547

148 475

153 321

155 503

Social security benefits

55 009

96 282

137 990

139 386

141 681

Revenues

86 156

130 248

172 490

176 628

184 527

In relation to GDP, in %
Total expenditure

18.2

24.6

26.8

26.7

26.5

Social security benefits

16.2

22.3

24.9

24.3

24.1

Revenues

25.4

30.1

31.1

30.8

31.4

2000

2008

2009

2010

2011p

Old-age

44.4

43.8

43.3

44.0

44.7

Illness/healthcare

26.5

27.8

28.3

27.6

28.1

Disability

12.4

12.9

11.4

11.0

10.9

Surviving dependants

4.8

4.6

4.5

4.5

4.5

Family / children

4.9

4.8

4.8

5.2

5.3

Unemployment

3.0

2.8

4.3

4.4

3.1

Social marginalisation

3.2

2.9

2.8

2.9

2.9

Housing

0.7

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Source: FSO Total Social Security Accounts

Source: FSO Total Social Security Accounts

Marked increase in social benefits since 1950


Since the introduction of the federal old-age and survivors pension scheme in 1948, revenues, benefits and expenditure for
social security have risen enormously, both in absolute terms
and in constant rates per inhabitant. This can be explained by
both the gradual expansion of the welfare state and the fact that
more people are forced to seek financial support from the state
when the economy is not doing well. In the second half of the
20th century, the social expenditure to GDP ratio consequently
rose from 6.5% in 1950 to 24.8% in 2011.

Social security: Expenditure according to type


Double counting eliminated from calculation,
in % of total expenditure
2000

2008

2009

2010

2011p

Social security benefits

90.4

93.0

92.9

90.9

91.1

Not means-tested

83.8

86.6

86.7

84.6

84.7

Cash benefits

61.1

60.5

61.9

59.9

59.8

Benefits in kind

22.7

26.1

24.8

24.6

24.9

Means-tested

6.5

6.4

6.3

6.4

6.4

Other expenditure

9.6

7.0

7.1

9.1

8.9

Implementation costs

4.7

5.3

5.0

5.4

5.6

Other expenditure1

4.9

1.7

2.1

3.7

3.3
Social security: long-term growth
30%

150

Mainly net payments from occupational pension plans for other types of insurance coverage

25%

Source: FSO Total Social Security Accounts

20%

National insurance contributions


of whom Employer-paid

2009

2010

2011p

65.6

65.5

65.6

65.0

31.4

31.0

30.6

30.0

State contributions

22.6

23.2

23.5

24.1

Confederation

10.4

10.4

10.4

11.1

Cantons and communes

13.0

12.2

12.8

13.1

Other revenues

11.8

11.3

10.9

11.0

Asset income

11.2

10.6

10.2

10.3

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

Other revenues

100

15%

Social security: Revenues according to type


Double counting eliminated from calculation, in % of total revenues
2008

Total paid benefits in % of GDP


(Based on Total Social Security Accounts, left scale)

10%

50

5%

Total expenditure in CHF billion

0%
1950

(At current prices, right scale)

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

0
2011p

Source: FSO Total Social Security Accounts

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

570

SJB_all.indb 570

28.01.2014 11:41:13

7 Industry, trade and services


Company1 size 2011

Total

Jobs per size cateogory2

Primary
sector
Secondary
sector
Tertiary
sector

Total

6.4

92.1

Primary
sector
Secondary
sector
Tertiary
sector

14.1

93.2

0%

20%
09

2.9

99.4
82.5

5.6

40%

60%

1049

80%

30.3

100%

50249

250

19.4

25.3
19.2

20%

Tourism income
In CHF billion

120

20

40%

15

Production

30.2

29.1

17.7

32.3

60%

80%

Derived from non-residents

10

90

Derived from residents

80

Turnover

70

100%

Only commercial companies


The size of the companies is measured according to its number of full time jobs
(part-time employment is converted into full-time employment).

Indexed quarterly results, yearly average 2010 = 100

100

26.2

30.8

Secondary sector production and turnover

110

19.0

94.6

0%
1
2

20.4

4.1

Breakdown of size categories2

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2012

Trans-Alpine freight traffic1 in millions of net tonnes


France

Switzerland

Austria

40

40

40

30

30

30

20

20

20

10

10

10

1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

2012

1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005


Road traffic

2012

1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

2012

Rail traffic

Alpine route considered: From Mt Cenis/Frjus to Brenner

Construction expenditure1 Index 1980 = 100

Final energy consumption by user category, in thousand TJ

250

300

Industry, services1
Transformations

200

200

Transport

Public maintenance projects


150

Overall total

Private
Households

100

100
New constructions
1980
1

F S O

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

0
1990

2012

At 2000 prices

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

1995

2000

2005

2012

Incl. statistical difference and agriculture

2 0 1 4

571

SJB_all.indb 571

28.01.2014 11:41:13

Company structure
Companies1 and jobs according to economic branch. 2011p
Branch of economic activity (NOGA 2008)
Total

Ongoing structural change with SMEs continuing to


predominate
The structure of branches in the Swiss economy has changed
steadily since 1995. The most striking examples relate to the
economic branches within the secondary sector such as construction, textile, leatherworks, paper, cardboard, printing and
publishing and engine building where companies have had to lay
off workers. In contrast, economic branches within the tertiary
sector such as business services, IT services, R&D, healthcare
and social services have grown sharply.
More than 99% of all enterprises in Switzerland are small
and medium-sized enterprises, i.e. enterprises with fewer than
250employees (calculated as full-time equivalents); about 92%
are micro-enterprises, i.e. with fewer than 10employees. In
2011, roughly 564,000enterprises were counted in Switzerland. That is 6900 more than in 2008 and 33,600 more than in
2005. Since 2005, the number of enterprises in the industrial
sector increased by 7600, and rose by almost 41,000 in the
service sector. This means that the share of third sector businesses increased by almost 11% within six years.

Companies Jobs
549 571

4 202 884

Primary sector

57 789

164 708

Secondary sector

89 658

1 090 560

of wich:
Mining and quarrying
Manufacture of food and tobacco products
Manufacture of textiles and apparel
Manufacture of wood and paper products, and printing
Manufacture of pharmaceutical products

273

4 595

3 423

88 533

2 912

17 479

10 430

77 454

246

41 001

Manufacture of metal products

8 337

106 895

Manuf. of computer, elec., optical prod.; watches, clocks

2 327

112 042

Manufacture of electrical equipment

896

38 791

Electricity, gas, steam and air-conditioning supply

669

29 545

7 755

106 468

402 124

2 947 616

Wholesale trade

24 379

229 541

Retail trade

38 907

358 950

Construction of buildings and Civil engineering


Tertiary sector
of wich:

Accommodation

5 570

76 759

Food and beverage service activities

23 225

162 810

IT and other information services

15 400

88 220

5 606

143 730

Architectural and engineering activities

23 426

110 961

Administrative and support service activities

18 684

163 723

Human health activities

47 485

337 087

Financial service activities

New companies. 2011


Branch of economic Total new
activity
companies
(NOGA 2008)
Total

Only commercial companies

Source: FSO Statistics on enterprise structure (SES)

Created
jobs

Created
jobs (fulltime)

Created
Jobs (parttime)

11 531

20 484

13 510

6 974

Secondary sector

1 976

4 088

3 253

835

Industry and Energy

586

1 068

764

304

Construction

1 390

3 020

2 489

531

Tertiary sector

9 555

16 396

10 257

6 139

Trade and repair


sector

2 073

3 444

2 101

1 343

Transport and warehousing

341

628

479

149

Accommodation, food
and beverage service
activities

204

632

377

255

Information and
communication

954

1 554

1 079

475

Banking and insurance

677

1 206

861

345

Real estate activities


and services

1 244

2 390

1 346

1 044

Professional and
scientific activities

2 918

4 491

2 958

1 533

Education

197

286

143

143

Health and social


services

378

814

369

445

Arts and recreation

232

368

202

166

Other service
activities

337

583

342

241

Source: FSO Swiss Business Demographics (BDEMO)

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

572

SJB_all.indb 572

28.01.2014 11:41:14

Industry, construction and trade


Retail sales. Average % change compared to previous year

Industrial output. Yearly mean 2010=100


2009

2011

2012

Total Manufacturing

93.0

103.8

105.3

Manufacture of food and tobacco products

99.1

100.9

101.8

Manufacture of textiles and apparel

99.4

Manufacture of wood and paper products, and printing


Manufacture of coke, chemicals and chemical
products

111.0

2010

2011

2012
1.0

Nominal turnover
Total

103.2

1.9

1.2

Food, beverages and tobacco

2.3

0.5

1.7

2.0

4.0

2.3
6.9

96.7

97.5

92.8

Clothing, footwear

102.0

102.3

98.3

Automotive fuel

2.2

4.7

Remaining classes of goods (excluding fuel)

1.5

1.9

0.5

Non-attributable1

2.8

1.2

2.7

Total excluding fuel

1.9

1.6

0.7

Manufacture of pharmaceutical products

94.8

104.7

115.8

Manufacture of rubber and plastics products

95.8

99.4

93.7

Manufacture of metal products

79.2

93.4

87.4

Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical


products; watches and clocks

90.1

109.6

114.1

Manufacture of electrical equipment

91.5

102.9

104.6

Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.

92.4

107.5

99.7

Manufacture of transport equipment

96.7

111.5

119.9

Other manufacturing, repair and installation

97.4

102.9

105.8

Real turnover
Total

3.2

1.2

3.4

Food, beverages and tobacco

3.1

2.1

2.4

Clothing, footwear

0.9

5.6

4.0

5.7

1.4

2.5

Remaining classes of goods (excluding fuel)

3.3

2.6

2.5

Non-attributable1

4.0

1.2

5.0

Total excluding fuel

2.9

0.6

3.2

Automotive fuel

Source: FSO Industry Production, Orders and Turnover Statistics (INDPAU)


1

Turnover that cannot be allocated to a class of goods

Source: FSO Retail Sales Statistics

Construction expenditures. In CHF million, at year 2000 prices1


2010

2011

2012

Total

49 240 50 422 51 926

Government-funded projects2

15 958 16 274 17 012

Civil engineering

9 649

9 679

10 169

of which roads

4 739

4 552

4 662

6 309

6 595

6 843

456

488

474

Building construction
of which residential buildings
Privately-funded projects3

33 281 34 148 34 914

Infrastructure
Housing

3 275

3 331

3 434

22 995

23 705

24 008

Agriculture and forestry


Industry, small business, services

1
2
3

467

483

539

6 544

6 629

6 934

Construction deflators based on FSO National Accounts


Construction expenditure of the Confederation, the cantons, the municipalities and
corresponding public enterprises, including public maintenance work
Without private maintenance work

Source: FSO Annual Construction and Housing Statistics

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

573

SJB_all.indb 573

28.01.2014 11:41:14

Financial markets
Insurance companies revenue from premiums
In Switzerland and abroad, in CHF million

Assets and liabilities of Swiss banks


Year end

2010

2011

2012

Insurance branch
In CHF million

Total

Assets
Domestic

1 262 680

1 369 353

1 492 600

Foreign

1 451 847

1 423 613

1 285 679

Liabilities
Domestic

1 288 790

1 304 788

1 363 837

Foreign

1 425 737

1 488 178

1 414 442

2 714 526

2 792 965

2 778 279

Balance sheet total

2010

2011

2012

109 573

103 408

115 854

Life insurance

32 558

32 686

33 413

Accident and indemnity

49 092

45 370

48 743

Reinsurance

27 924

25 352

33 698

Source: Federal Office of Private Insurance (FOPI)

Compensation paid out by insurance companies


In Switzerland and abroad, in CHF million

As % of balance sheet total


Assets
Domestic

46.5

49.0

53.7

Foreign

53.5

51.0

46.3

Type of insurance

Liabilities

Total

2010

2011

2012

71 455

80 395

76 901

Domestic

47.5

46.7

49.1

Life insurance

27 330

29 241

27 395

Foreign

52.5

53.3

50.9

Accident and indemnity insurance

29 262

28 901

30 621

Reinsurance

14 863

22 253

18 885

Source: Swiss National Bank (SNB)


Source: Federal Office of Private Insurance (FOPI)

Yield on Confederation bonds and mean interest rates. In %


Year end

2010

2011

No. of people working for insurance companies


In Switzerland only, year end

2012

Confederation bonds

1.67

0.74

0.56

Domestic liabilities in the form of savings


and deposits, denominated in CHF

0.68

0.61

0.53

Medium-term transferable coupon-bearing


bonds and cash vouchers

2.12

1.85

1.68

Total

Mortgage accounts payable

2.58

2.39

2.18

Indemnity insurance

Life insurance
Reinsurance

2010

2011

2012

38 804

38 102

38 309

6 008

5 124

4 866

28 627

28 624

28 826

4 169

4 354

4 617

Source: Swiss National Bank (SNB)


Source: Federal Office of Private Insurance (FOPI)

No. of bank employees1


Year end
All banks
in Switzerland

2010

2011

2012

132 010

132 540

128 914
105 166

107 997

108 098

Abroad

24 013

24 442

23 748

Major banks

59 392

59 792

58 431

in Switzerland

39 871

39 698

39 275

Abroad

19 521

20 094

19 156

Full-time equivalents

Source: Swiss National Bank (SNB)

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

574

SJB_all.indb 574

28.01.2014 11:41:14

Tourism
Selected tourism indicators
2010

2011

2012

275 193

273 969

271 168

16 298

Main countries of origin of foreign guests1 2012


Germany
UK
USA
France
Italy
China
Netherlands
Belgium
Russia
States of the Gulf
Japan
India
Spain
Austria

Supply (beds)1
Hotels and health establishments
Demand: arrivals in 000
16 203

16 229

Campsites

Hotels and health establishments

932

907

917

Youth hostels

471

453

459

Demand: overnight stays in 000


Hotels and health establishments
of which foreign guests
Campsites
of which foreign guests
Youth hostels
of which foreign guests

36 208

35 486

34 766

20 443

19 734

19 076

3 281

3 057

2 964

1 532

1 349

1 202

939

905

917

394

376

380

0
1

Hotels and health establishments

2.2

2.2

2.1

3.5

3.4

3.2

Youth hostels

2.0

2.0

2.0

Gross occupancy rate: hotels and


health establishments
expressed as a % of available beds

36.0

35.5

35.0

Tourism account CHF millions


Receipts from foreign visitors to
Switzerland

15 356r

15 185

14 983p

Expenditure by Swiss nationals abroad

11 644

12 128

12 942

3 058

2 042

Balance

3 712

Overnight stays in millions, excl. supplementary accomodation

Overnight stays (hotels and resorts)

Length of stay average number of nights


Campsites

4.625
1.544
1.525
1.318
0.972
0.744
0.727
0.621
0.561
0.519
0.510
0.475
0.435
0.378

In millions

Foreign guests

50

100%

40

80%

30

60%

20

40%

10

20%
0%

0
1950

1970

1990

2012

1980

1990

2000

2012

Beds available: total beds in registered establishments

Source: FSO Accommodation Statistics

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

575

SJB_all.indb 575

28.01.2014 11:41:14

8 Agriculture, forestry and fisheries


Key agricultural figures
2000

2005

2010

2012

Structural changes in agriculture

Agricultural holdings
Number of agricultural holdings, in 000
Agricultural area, in 000 ha

70.5

63.6

59.1

56.6

1 072

1 065

1 052

1 051

Agricultural area per holding, in ha

15.2

16.7

17.8

18.6

Holdings with agricultural area <5 ha, in %

19.5

16.7

17.0

16.1

Holdings with agricultural area 50 ha, in %

1.7

2.5

3.3

3.9

Agricultural holdings

Total

per size category

(in absolute terms)

1985

32.5

1990

30.3

1996

24.0

2002
2008

16.7

Agricultural holdings with cows

2012

16.1

Number of cows, in 000

48

42

38

36

714

699

700

706

0%

32.7
34.1

19.1

18.4

Cattle-raising
Number of holdings, in 000

21.3
20.3

35.1

17.9
16.5

20%

33.5

40%

79 479

28.6

67 421

33.3

32.2

60 894

36.7

60%

0 5 ha

98 759
92 815

21.8

35.1

15.0

13.5
15.4

56 575

80%

100%

5 10 ha

10 20 ha

>20 ha

Agricultural holdings with pigs


Number of holdings, in 000
Number of pigs, in 000

15

12

1 498

1 609

1 589

1 544

408

405

404

403

Organic farms

Land use
Area under arable, in 000 ha
% of total agricultural area

38

38

38

38

Area under cereals, in 000 ha

183

168

152

147

% of total agricultural area

17

16

14

14

Area under grass, in 000 ha

629

625

612

611

% of total agricultural area

59

59

58

58

1996
2000

Labour force
Total labour force per agricultural holding

2.9

2.8

2.8

2.9

2005

6.4

2008

6.0

2010

5.7

2012

5.9

60.9
59.1

114.0

104.6

100.7

98.8

Purchase Price Index Agriculture


(December 2010 = 100)

92.3

95.2

100.0

100.6

11 087 10 160 10 081

9 983

1065.1

114.1

1058.1
1051.7
1051,1

121.8

60

80

Agricultural holdings,
in thousands

Producer Price Index Agriculture


(December 2010 = 100)

117.1

111.5

56,6

40

1072.5

82.7

63.6

20

1082.9

54.6

70.5

4.9

Price indexes

400

800

1200

Agricultural area,
in thousand ha

... of which organic farms

Economic Accounts for


Agriculture (at current prices)
Total value of output at basic prices
(in CHF million)

79.5

3.3

Agricultural prices
Index December 2010 = 100

140
130
120

Source: FSO

110
100
90
1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2010

2013p

Agricultural crops and livestock production


At current prices, in CHF billion
8

Livestock production

6
Agricultural crops

4
2
0
1985

F S O

1990

1995

S tat i s t i c a l

2000

Y e a r b oo k

2005

2 0 1 4

576

SJB_all.indb 576

28.01.2014 11:41:15

Key forestry figures


2009

2010

2011

Timber industry

2012

Forest area in hectares

1 255 141

1 255 274

1 257 294

1 258 658

Variations in domestic use, in millions m

Operations in m3

4 879 701

5 128 999

5 075 084

4 658 379

10

Softwood

68.6

68.5

67.0

65.9

Hardwood

31.4

31.5

32.7

33.8

Type of wood in %

4
58.3

57.4

55.7

53.0

Pulpwood

9.6

10.3

10.5

10.8

Firewood

31.7

32.0

33.5

35.9

0.4

0.4

0.3

0.3

Other

Total

Trunk wood

Pulp wood1

Agglomerated wood in %
Trunk wood

Firewood

2
0
1974
1
2

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2012

Incl. other categories of wood


Storms: Vivian (25.27.2.1990), Lothar (26.12.1999)

Source: FSO Forestry Statistics

Professional fishing. Yield in kg


Area in km2

2006

2007

2008

2010

2011

2012

1 232.2

1 415 443

1 376 878

1 606 554

1 651 243

1 629 952

882 280
470 060

Total
Lake Geneva1

345.4

223 259

210 482

291 028

346 200

472 378

Lake Neuchtel

215.0

249 826

265 526

289 483

296 841

256 865

212 300

Lake Constance2

172.6

210 851

213 682

288 629

262 152

251 044

113 950

Lake Lucerne

113.7

136 942

119 422

118 057

111 969

113 399

5 470

Lake Zurich3

88.1

198 023

208 050

254 892

279 218

198 791

37 040

Lake Thun

47.7

37 230

35 922

40 427

27 402

28 947

37 040

Lake Maggiore1

40.8

51 566

43 734

45 674

43 619

42 713

37 040

Lake Biel

39.4

92 844

108 398

107 594

132 626

102 559

16 880

Lake Zug

38.4

38 976

34 349

31 714

35 600

38 945

10 260

131.1

175 926

137 313

139 056

115 616

124 311

16 320

Other4

1
2
3
4

Lake area fished from Switzerland


Including Untersee
Including Obersee
Lake Lugano, Lake Brienz, Lake Walen, Lake Murten, Lake Hallwil and Lake Sempach

Sources: Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN); lake area: GG25 2009 Federal Office of Topography swisstopo

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

577

SJB_all.indb 577

28.01.2014 11:41:15

9 International trade
Imports and exports according to economic areas and type of goods. In CHF million
Imports

Total

Exports
1990

2000

2010

2012

1990

2000

2010

2012

96 610.9

139 402.2

183 436.2

185 409.4

88 256.9

136 014.9

203 483.8

211 807.5

Economic area
Europe
EU-27

77 575.2

110 918.5

144 544.1

140 789.6

60 811.9

86 838.8

126 096.1

125 062.6

76 098.5

106 122.1

142 084.6

138 298.0

57 906.8

83 755.5

119 329.9

117 953.0

EFTA

645.1

364.8

354.6

321.1

490.7

553.6

770.5

1 072.3

Other areas of Europe

873.5

4 431.6

2 104.9

2 064.0

2 414.4

2 529.7

5 995.7

5 862.8

Africa

1 684.1

2 356.1

2 213.5

3 755.2

1 842.4

2 081.2

3 432.2

3 347.0

Asia

8 964.8

12 467.2

23 113.7

26 160.4

14 839.7

22 748.6

41 956.3

47 091.7

China (Peoples Republic)

418.7

2 300.5

6 085.6

10 286.9

415.0

1 402.7

7 467.0

7 828.3

Hong Kong

902.1

894.7

1 636.4

1 802.5

2 264.7

3 841.5

6 534.9

8 274.9

of which:

Japan

4 246.0

3 925.5

3 680.9

4 214.8

4 206.3

5 767.2

6 734.6

6 958.8

America

8 234.8

13 355.9

13 151.5

14 266.7

9 889.2

23 123.7

29 561.6

33 560.8

of which:
Canada
United States of America

304.1

578.9

945.8

639.9

709.3

1 251.0

2 891.2

3 239.8

5 920.6

10 288.4

9 827.8

10 493.4

6 977.4

17 426.6

20 558.1

23 520.0

152.0

304.5

413.4

437.5

873.8

1 222.6

2 437.5

2 745.1

Australasia
Type of goods
Agricultural and forestry products

8 094.5

9 924.9

13 398.0

13 306.0

2 997.7

4 428.0

8 498.0

8 655.8

Textiles, clothing, footwear

8 806.1

8 905.2

8 956.3

8 718.1

4 984.3

3 890.8

3 386.1

3 113.7

Chemicals

10 624.5

21 898.5

37 786.7

39 368.6

18 421.7

35 891.7

75 909.4

79 012.3

9 025.3

10 735.1

14 378.7

13 810.9

7 536.7

10 891.9

12 738.5

11 932.7

Machines, electronic products

19 793.5

31 583.2

31 437.7

29 364.9

25 527.2

37 136.9

36 435.0

33 307.4

Motor vehicles

10 230.4

14 903.2

16 581.1

17 073.7

1 485.3

3 054.0

4 013.3

5 095.0

5 785.9

8 030.6

18 619.9

19 022.0

13 329.6

20 516.2

36 971.2

44 040.0

Metals

Technical instruments, watches

Source: Federal Customs Administration

Swiss foreign trade in 2012: Main goods

Key trading partners 2012


Germany

29.6

19.8
5.7

USA
Italy

Technical instruments,
watches

Austria
Netherlands
Japan
Spain

Energy resources

24.2

10%

20%

4.1
3.8
4.6

Textiles, clothing, footwear

4.7

1.5

Other goods

Share of exports on a
value basis, in %

4.8

0%

40%

Share of imports on a
value basis, in %

7.2

Precious metals, gems


and gemstones

34.7

30%

9.2

2.4

Agricultural and forestry prod.

Share of exports on a
value basis, in %

20.8

9.4

3.2

Motor vehicles

Share of imports on a
value basis, in %

Other countries
0%

10.3
7.4
5.6

Metals

3.6
5.4
5.5
3.7
4.2
2.9
3.4
2.4
2.3
3.3
2.9
2.6

GB
China

37.3

15.8
15.7

Machines, electronic products

11.1
10.2

7.1
8.4
7.0

France

21.2

Chemicals

11.0

10%

20%

30%

40%

Foreign trade represents a high proportion of gross domestic


product (GDP) in Switzerland. Its most important trading partners
are the industrialised countries, which accounted for 73.3% of
Swiss exports and 73.5% of imports (2012). The EU plays a particularly important role (55.8% of exports and 74.6% of imports).

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

578

SJB_all.indb 578

28.01.2014 11:41:16

10 Transport
Selected criteria
1990

2000

2010

2012

Passenger transport
Use of transport 2010, annual travel in %1

Length of network, in km
Rail

5 049

5 032

5 124

70 970

71 132

71 452

71 519

1 495

1 638

1 790

1 809

2 985 397

3 545 247

4 075 825

4 254 725

Road1,2
of which motorways

Motorcycle2

Everyday travel

Bicycle

Trips and holidays

On foot
Other

No. of vehicles3
Private motor vehicles
Motorcycles

299 264

493 781

651 202

679 822

Commercial vehicles

252 136

278 518

335 200

361 926

196 845

227 316

283 458

308 884

Passenger transport, rail5

12 678

12 620

19 177

19 262

Passenger transport, road6

of which delivery vehicles

Bus, tram
Railway
Airplane
Car

Transport

0%

77 759

79 142

88 702

91 810

Freight traffic, rail5

9 045

11 080

11 074

11 061p

Freight traffic, road

11 524

13 618

17 057

17 238p

10%

7.0%

Deaths
Injured persons

23 737

19 609

10.2%

18 148

954

592

327

339

29 243

30 058

24 237

22 218

serious injuries

11 182

6 191

4 458

4 202

minor injuries

18 061

23 867

19 779

18 016

40%

50%

Work
16.7%
3.6%

Transport accidents
23 834

30%

Purpose of travel 2010, annual travel in %1

8.7%

Road accidents involving injury


to persons

20%

53.7%

Education, training
Shopping
Leisure
Commercial traffic
Other

1
2

Percentages based on the annual distances travelled in Switzerland and abroad by


people from the age of 6
Includes small motorcycles and mopeds

1
Breakdown into cantonal and secondary roads taken into account (year: 2010)
2
Secondary roads: as at 1984
3 Road
4
In million passenger-km or million tonne-km.
Railways only
5
6
Private transport
Sources: FSO; Federal Office of Transport (FOT)

Trans-Alpine freight traffic. 20121, in million net tonnes


Rail

Road

Total

Transit

Variation2
%

Total
France
Switzerland
of which via the
Gotthard Pass
Austria

1
2

Total
%

Transit

Variation2
%

38.3

81.2

9.1

63.2

58.9

5.5

3.4

59.5

19.0

14.2

24.3

23.7

86.1

28.8

13.7

56.9

63.1

13.9

80.6

6.7

10.0

62.0

42.9

11.2

95.5

34.9

30.5

87.5

15.5

Rail: Alpine arc Mt CenisBrenner; road: Alpine arc FrjusBrenner


Variation (total) compared to 1999

Source: Federal Office of Transport (FOT)

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

579

SJB_all.indb 579

28.01.2014 11:41:16

11 Environment
Selected environmental indicators1
2000

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Population density in urban areas (inhabitants per km2)

578

622

630

637

644

651

Population density in rural areas (inhabitants per km2)

63

66

66

67

68

68

35 263

36 750

36 931

37 194

Water consumption per inhabitant per day (in litres)

405

347

338

325

325

316

Consumption of fossil fuels (in gigajoules per inhabitant)

73.3

Per capita consumer spending (in CHF at year 2000 prices)

37 428p

84.5

79.4

76.3

78.3

71.1

Nitrogen balance2 on farmlands (in kg N/ha farmland)

58

60

57

62

58

Share of organic farmland in total farmland (in %)

7.7

10.8

10.6

10.6

11.0

11.6

Total emissions of greenhouse gases in CO2 equivalents (in millions of tonnes)

51.7

53.7

52.3

54.1

50.0

Particulate matter (PM10) yearly average in city centres (roads in g/m3)3

28.7

25.4

25.0

23.5

24.1

21.3

NO2, yearly average in city centres (roads in g/m3)4

47.3

45.7

43.2

42.2

42.4

41.4

Share of renewable energy sources in final energy consumption (in %)

16.8

18.6

19.0

19.4

18.9

20.8

Municipal waste excl. recycled waste (in kg/inhabitant)

361

366

340

349

344

347

45

50

51

50

50

50

3 405

3 956

3 997

4 216

4 223

Share of sorted waste5 in total waste (in %)


Public expenditure for environmental protection (in CHF million)

1
2

Some date revised


Basis for calculations: Input (fertilizer, manure, other nitrogen input) Output (cereals, plants,
roughage, pasture forage) by method OECD
Threshold value=20 g/m3

4
5

Threshold value=30 g/m3


Paper, cardboard, plant waste, glass, tinplate, aluminium, polyethylene terephthalate (PET),
batteries

Sources: FFSO; Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (SFOEN)

Households and consumption


In 2012, the average person required 45m2 of living space,
which is about 11m2 more than back in 1980. Our living and
consumption habits are closely linked with our consumption of
energy and drinking water as well as with the amount of waste we
produce. In 2012, households and small businesses consumed
about 28% of total available energy and 58.2% of the drinking
water. In 2012 694kg of municipal waste were produced per
person. The settlement and urban area scores the highest average growing rate of all types of land use. This is closely linked
to the modern needs for living and leisure activities where due
to the high demand of space per person agglomerations are
encroaching more and more upon rural communes.

National economy and environment, index 1990 = 100


140

Gross domestic product

130
120
110

Final energy consumption

100
CO2 emissions1

90
1990
1

1995

2000

2005

2010 2012

According to Swiss Federal Law on CO 2 emissions Switzerland

Agriculture and environment, index 1996 = 100


225
200

Organic farmland

175
150

Ecological compensation areas

125
100

Nitrogen input

75
1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

Households, consumption and environment, index 1990 = 100


125

Per capita municipal waste

120
115
Resident
population

110
105

Per capita
consumer spending1

100
95
1990
1

1995

2000

2005

2010 2012

Spending of private households based on the price of the previous year


(reference year 2000)

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

580

SJB_all.indb 580

28.01.2014 11:41:16

Settlement and urban areas by category 2009

Main land use categories

1985 6.0

37.9

30.4

25.6

1997

6.8

36.7

31.1

25.4

2009

7.5

35.9

31.3

25.3

6.4%

Industrial and commercial


areas

5.5% 7.8%

Building areas
Transportation areas
Recreational areas and
cemeteries

30.9%
49.4%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

Special urban areas

100%

Settlement and urban areas

Wooded areas (forest and woods)

Agricultural areas

Unproductive areas

Total area: 4 128 498 ha

Total settlement and urban areas: 307 897 ha

Wooded areas, 19852009

Origin of new settlement and urban areas 19852009

per 2500 ha (25 km)

New settlement and urban


areas developed from:

5.2%1.5%
3.9%
13.5%
2.9%

Orchard, vineyard
and horticulture areas

8.7%

Arable land
Meadows
31.5%

Farm pastures
Alpine agricultural areas

32.8%

Woods
Forest
Unproductive areas

Total new settlement and urban areas:


65 828 ha

Change of wooded areas 19852009, in hectares


70 21

20 +20

+21 +50

+51 +100

F S O

S TAT I S T I C A L

Y E A R B O O K

+101 +304

2 0 1 4

581

SJB_all.indb 581

28.01.2014 11:41:17

12 Energy
Electricity production. In GWh
1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2011

2012

31 273

33 542

30 675

37 851

37 450

33 795

39 906

Nuclear power stations

1 850

13 663

22 298

24 949

25 205

25 560

24 345

Conventional thermal power stations

1 763

957

1 013

2 371

3 121

...

...

88

177

476

665

921

34 886

48 162

54 074

65 348

66 252

62 881

68 019

Hydropower plants

Various renewable
Gross production
Minus storage pump consumption
Net production

1
2
3

2 861

2 847

965

1 531

1 695

1 974

2 494

2 466

2 411

33 921

46 631

52 379

63 374

63 758

60 415

65 608

One terajoule (TJ) corresponds to roughly 24 tonnes of crude oil or around 0.28 million kWh
Figures from 1990 onwards are based on new survey methodology.
Solar power, biogas, biofuel, ambient heat

Source: Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) National Energy Statistics

Breakdown of final consumption according


to energy resource. In terajoules1

Total energy use and final consumption, 2012

1980

1990

2000

2012

Rest

10,6%

Total

697 110

798 300

854 590

882 280

Gas

10,7%

Crude oil

488 300

501 050

509 740

470 060

309 480

247 830

216 490

170 640

Hydropower

12,5%

Used for combustion


Used as fuel
Electricity

178 820

253 220

293 250

299 420

126 910

167 670

188 540

212 300

Natural gas

30 370

63 430

92 860

113 950

Coal and coke

13 630

14 360

5 850

5 470

Wood, charcoal2

26 280

28 600

27 650

37 040

District heating

7 920

10 420

13 180

16 880

Household and industrial waste

3 700

8 680

10 440

10 260

...

4 090

6 330

16 320

Other renewable energy


sources3

Nuclear
combustibles

23,1%

Crude oil and


petroleum
products

43,8%

Losses

Energy use1
1 156 950 TJ
1

Source: Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) Electricity statistics

F S O

9,7%

Rest

12,9%

Gas

24,1%

Electricity

33,9%

Motor fuels

19,3%

Heating fuels

Final energy consumption


882 280 TJ

Incl. export surplus of electricity (0.7%), Total: 100.7%

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

582

SJB_all.indb 582

28.01.2014 11:41:18

13 Science and technology

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)

High-tech trade balance 2011

In % of GDP

In USD billion

4%
Exports

Aerospace

3%

Imports
Electronics

2%

Computers and
office machinery

1%
0%
1986

1989

1992

1996

2000

2004

Pharmaceuticals

2008

Instruments
0

24%

Business enterprise funds


(incl. insurance companies)

73%

40

50

60

70

600
500

1%

Funds
from the
Confederation

30

Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)

Private non-profit and other


funds

2%

20

Patent applications filed under the

Total intramural expenditure on R&D by category 2008


Higher education
funds

10

Relating to information and


communication technologies (ICTs)

400
300
200
100

Relating to biotechnology

0
1985

1990

1995

R&D personnel

Internet usage

In thousand full-time equivalents

Regular Internet users1 by age groups


100%

60

Total

40

2005

2010

1419
3039

80%

5059

of whom researchers

60%

(or university graduates)

20

2000

6069
40%

0
1986

1989

1992

1996

2000

2004

2008

20%

70+ years

0%
1997
1

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2013

Respondents who stated that they use the Internet several times per week.

2 0 1 4

583

SJB_all.indb 583

28.01.2014 11:41:19

Company intramural R&D expenditure in Switzerland


In CHF million

Total
Private companies

Telecommunications infrastructure. Status on 31 December

2004

2008

13 100

16 300

9 660

11 980

4 250

5 275

Machinery manufacture and metal processing companies

1 640

1 610

140

120

75

70

3 000

3 940

2 385

3 085

Research laboratories run by Swiss fed. instit. of technology

440

505

Universities of applied sciences

175

350

300

260

Confederation
of which Federal Department of Economic Affairs (DEA)
University-level institutions
Universities

Private non-profit organisations and other institutions

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

3 698

3 635

3 494

3 261

3 141

2 998

48.7

47.2

44.9

41.5

39.5

37.3

4 927

4 828

4 644

4 360

4 208

3 968

64.9

62.7

59.6

55.6

52.9

49.4

2 367

2 556

2 739

2 912

3 076

3 190

31.2

33.2

35.2

36.9

38.7

39.7

Wireline
Connection
in 000

of which:
Pharmaceutical and chemical companies

2007

per 100 inhabitants


Access channels
in 000
per 100 inhabitants
Broadband access
in 000
per 100 inhabitants
Cable TV subscribers1
in millions

2.88

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.8

2.8

per 100 inhabitants

37.9

37.5

37.0

36.2

35.1

34.7

in millions

2.80

2.76

2.85

2.99

3.15

3.22

per 100 inhabitants

36.9

35.8

36.6

37.9

39.6

40.1

23.5

21.9

19.3

16.9

14.5

12.3

3.1

2.9

2.5

2.1

1.8

1.5

in 000

8 209

8 897

9 323

9 644

10 083

10 414

per 100 inhabitants

109.7

115.5

119.6

122.5

126.8

129.5

Internet subscribers

Source: FSO Surveys of R&D activities of private companies, university-level institutions and the
Confederation

Public phones
in 000

Triadic patent families in international comparison1

per 100 inhabitants

1990

2000

2010

2011

32 362

45 066

41 078

41 919

2.4

1.8

1.7

1.7

Japan

29.7

33.1

32.3

32.7

United States

34.8

30.7

30.2

30.2

EU-272

30.9

29.6

28.8

28.6

Total OECD

Wireless
Cellphone subscribers

As % of OECD total
Switzerland

Television subscribers with coaxial cable-based or fibre optic/coaxial cable-based infrastructure

Source: Federal Office of Communications (OFCOM) Telecommunications Statistics


1

A triadic patent family is when a single invention is protected by patents in the three main
economies (European Patent Office (EPO), Japanese Patent Office (JPO), US Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO)).
Prior to 2004 the EU comprised 15 Member States (EU-15). Up until 31 December 2006, 25 Member States belonged to the European Union. In 2007 Bulgaria and Rumania joined the EU (EU-27).

Internet usage. In % of the population aged 14 and over

Source: OECD

Regular Internet users1

R&D personnel by educational background and type of


employer in Switzerland. 2008
Total

Total number of people

100 164

Private
company
45 623

Confe
deration
1 576

University-level
institution
52 965

of whom:

Occasional Internet users2

04.200509.2005

57.3

70.1

10.200503.2006

60.6

71.8

04.200609.2006

64.1

75.7

10.200603.2007

65.6

75.6

04.200709.2007

67.4

77.2

10.200703.2008

68.0

77.2

04.200809.2008

70.9

79.2

10.200803.2009

71.8

79.7

04.200909.2009

73.2

81.3

Women

31 661

9 381

551

21 729

10.200903.2010

74.5

82.1

Foreigners

34 161

14 796

153

19 212

04.201009.2010

77.4

83.9

52 587

18 804

1 184

32 599

10.201003.2011

77.5

84.1

04.201109.2011

78.5

85.2

Tertiary level, university


of whom:
Women

14 984

3 573

377

11 034

10.201103.2012

79.3

85.0

Foreigners

23 702

8 173

138

15 391

04.201209.20123

78.1

85.2

10.201203.2013

79.0

85.0

Total, in full-time equivalents

62 066

39 832

809

21 425

Tertiary level, university

31 440

16 627

531

14 283

9 081

8 342

49

690

21 545

14 862

230

6 452

Tertiary level, higher vocational


education
Other training

1
2
3

Respondents who stated that they use the Internet several times per week.
Respondents who stated that they have used the Internet at least once in the past six months
Due to changes in the methodology, the results from autumn 2012 onwards cannot be
compared with those of previous surveys.

Sources: FSO; MA-Net; Net-Metrix-Base

Source: FSO Surveys of R&D activities of private companies, university-level institutions and the
Confederation

F S O

S tat i s t i c a l

Y e a r b oo k

2 0 1 4

584

SJB_all.indb 584

28.01.2014 11:41:19