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Kegiatan pembelajaran merupakan proses pendidikan dengan memberikan kesempatan kepada

peserta didik untuk mengembangkan potensinya menjadi


kemampuan yang semakin lama semakin meningkat
dalam sikap, pengetahuan, dan keterampilan yang
diperlukan untuk hidup dan bermasyarakat, berbangsa,
dan berkontribusi bagi kesejahteraan hidup umat
manusia. Kegiatan pembelajaran diarahkan untuk
memberdayakan semua potensi peserta didik menjadi
kompetensi yang diharapkan.
Menyikapi prinsip dan tujuan kegiatan pembelajaran di atas, maka pada edisi kali ini tim penyusun
menyajikan buku Pegangan Guru sebagai acuan
kegiatan pembelajaran di kelas dengan menggunakan
modul FORMATIF (Formula Siswa Aktif) yang
dilengkapi dengan kompetensi inti, kompetensi dasar,
program semester, silabus, rencana pelaksanaan
pembelajaran (RPP), serta kunci jawaban dan
pembahasan. Silabus dan RPP dibuat secara lengkap,
mudah dipahami, sistematis, dan mudah diterapkan
dengan mengedepankan lima pengalaman belajar yaitu
mengamati, menanya, mengumpulkan informasi,
mengasosiasi, dan mengomunikasikan, serta dilengkapi
penilaian dan pedoman penskoran.
Mudah-mudahan buku ini memberikan manfaat
dalam kegiatan pembelajaran guna pencapaian tujuan yang
telah ditetapkan.
Tim Penyusun

Kata Pengantar............................................... 1
Kompetensi Inti (KI) dan
Kompetensi Dasar (KD)..................................... 2
Program Semester.......................................... 3
Silabus........................................................ 4
Rencana Pelaksanaan
Pembelajaran (RPP)........................................ 11
Kunci Jawaban dan Pembahasan......................... 64

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

KIMIA XIa SMK/MAK


KOMPETENSI INTI
1.

Menghayati dan mengamalkan ajaran


agama yang dianutnya.

KOMPETENSI DASAR
1.1

1.2

Menyadari adanya keteraturan dari sifat hidrokarbon, termokimia, laju reaksi,


kesetimbangan kimia, larutan, koloid, senyawa karbon, dan polimer
sebagai wujud kebesaran Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dan pengetahuan tentang
adanya keteraturan tersebut sebagai hasil pemikiran kreatif manusia yang
kebenarannya bersifat tentatif.
Mensyukuri kekayaan alam Indonesia berupa minyak bumi, batubara dan
gas alam sebagai anugerah Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dan dapat digunakan
untuk kemakmuran rakyat Indonesia.

2.

Menghayati dan mengamalkan perilaku


jujur, disiplin, tanggung jawab, peduli
(gotong royong, kerja sama, toleransi,
damai), santun, responsif, dan proaktif
dan menunjukkan sikap sebagai bagian
dari solusi atas berbagai permasalahan
dalam berinteraksi secara efektif dengan
lingkungan sosial alam serta dalam
menempatkan diri sebagai cerminan
bangsa dalam pergaulan dunia.

2.1 Menunjukkan perilaku ilmiah (memiliki rasa ingin tahu, disiplin, jujur,
objektif, terbuka, mampu membedakan fakta dan opini, ulet, teliti,
bertanggung jawab, kritis, kreatif, inovatif, demokratis, dan komunikatif)
dalam merancang dan melakukan percobaan, serta berdiskusi yang
diwujudkan dalam sikap sehari-hari.
2.2 Menunjukkan perilaku kerja sama, santun, toleransi, cinta damai, dan
peduli lingkungan, serta hemat dalam memanfaatkan sumber daya alam.
2.3 Menunjukkan perilaku responsif dan proaktif serta bijaksana sebagai
wujud kemampuan memecahkan masalah dan membuat keputusan.

3.

Memahami, menerapkan, menganalisis


pengetahuan faktual, konseptual,
prosedural, dan metakognitif berdasarkan
rasa ingin tahunya tentang ilmu
pengetahuan, teknologi, seni, budaya,
dan humaniora dengan wawasan
kemanusiaan, kebangsaan, kenegaraan,
peradaban terkait penyebab fenomena
dan kejadian dalam bidang kerja spesifik
untuk memecahkan masalah.

3.1 Menganalisis struktur dan sifat senyawa hidrokarbon berdasarkan


kekhasan atom karbon dan penggolongan senyawanya.
3.2 Memahami proses pembentukan dan teknik pemisahan fraksi-fraksi
minyak bumi serta kegunaannya.
3.3 Memahami dampak pembakaran senyawa hidrokarbon terhadap
lingkungan dan kesehatan serta cara mengatasinya.
3.4 Membedakan reaksi eksoterm dan reaksi endoterm berdasarkan hasil
percobaan dan diagram tingkat energi.
3.5 Memahami* reaksi berdasarkan hukum Hess.
3.6 Memahami teori tumbukan (tabrakan) untuk menjelaskan reaksi kimia.
3.7 Menganalisis faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi laju reaksi.
3.8 Menganalisis faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi pergeseran arah
kesetimbangan yang diterapkan dalam industri.

4.

Mengolah, menalar, dan menyaji dalam


ranah konkret dan ranah abstrak terkait
dengan pengembangan dari yang dipelajarinya di sekolah secara mandiri,
bertindak secara efektif dan kreatif, dan
mampu melaksanakan tugas spesifik di
bawah pengawasan langsung.

4.1 Mengklasifikasi senyawa hidrokarbon berdasarkan struktur, sifat


senyawa, dan kekhasan atom karbon.
4.2 Membuktikan proses pembentukan dan pemisahan fraksi-fraksi minyak.
4.3 Menyusun rencana penyehatan lingkungan akibat pembakaran senyawa
hidrokarbon di suatu daerah.
4.4 Membuktikan proses terjadinya reaksi eksoterm dan reaksi endoterm.
4.5 Menggunakan Hukum Hess untuk menghitung* suatu reaksi.
4.6 Mengevaluasi terjadinya reaksi kimia dengan menggunakan teori
tumbukan (tabrakan).
4.7 Membuktikan proses laju reaksi dari berbagai faktor yang memengaruhinya.
4.8 Membuktikan faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi pergeseran arah
kesetimbangan yang diterapkan dalam industri.

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

Sekolah

: ____________________

Mata Pelajaran : Kimia


Kelas/Semester : XI/1
No.
1.

Materi Pokok/Submateri Pokok

Alokasi
Waktu
(JP)

Juli
1 2

Agustus

September

Oktober

November Desember

3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

BAB 1
A.

HIDROKARBON DAN MINYAK


BUMI
Identifikasi Atom C dan H

B. Kekhasan Atom dan Karbon

C. Alkana

D. Alkena
E. Alkuna

2
2

F. Pembentukan Minyak Bumi


G. Teknik Pemisahan Fraksi Minyak
Bumi

H. Mutu Bensin
I.

Dampak Pembakaran Bahan Bakar

2.

ULANGAN HARIAN 1

3.
4.

ULANGAN TENGAH SEMESTER

BAB 2

TERMOKIMIA

A. Sistem dan Lingkungan


B.

Reaksi Eksoterm dan Reaksi


Endoterm

C. Perubahan Entalpi

5.

ULANGAN HARIAN 2

6.

BAB 3
A.

Pengertian Laju Reaksi

B.

Teori Tumbukan

C.

Faktor-Faktor yang Memengaruhi


Laju Reaksi

D.

Orde Reaksi dan Persamaan Laju


Reaksi

ULANGAN HARIAN 3

8.

BAB 4

2
2
2
2

KESETIMBANGAN KIMIA

A.

Kesetimbangan Dinamis

B.

Pergeseran Arah Kesetimbangan dan


Aplikasinya dalam Industri

C.

2 2

LAJU REAKSI

7.

9.

Tetapan Kesetimbangan (Kc dan Kp)

ULANGAN HARIAN 4

10. ULANGAN AKHIR SEMESTER


Jumlah Jam

2
2

36

Keterangan:
JP

Jam Pelajaran (satu jam pelajaran = 45 menit)

Perkiraan libur semester genap

Perkiraan libur hari raya Idulfitri

Perkiraan kegiatan tengah semester

Perkiraan ulangan akhir semester gasal

Perkiraan remedial/persiapan buku Laporan Hasil Belajar (LHB)

Perkiraan libur semester gasal

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

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Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

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/GPFKUMWUKMCPOCECOOCECORGTWDCJCP

GPVCNRK

/GTCPECPIFCPOGORTGUGPVCUKMCP
TCPECPICPRGTEQDCCP
4GCMUKGMUQVGTOFCPTGCMUKGPFQVGTO
2GPGPVWCPRGTWDCJCPGPVCNRKFGPICP
MCNQTKOGVGT
2GPGPVWCPMCNQTRGODCMCTCPDCJCP
DCMCT
/GPICOCVKFCPOGPECVCVJCUKNRGTEQDCCP

/GPICUQUKCUK

/GPICPCNKUKUFCVCWPVWMOGODWCVFKCITCO
UKMNWUFCPFKCITCOVKPIMCVGPGTIK
/GPIJWDWPIMCPRGTWDCJCPGPVCNRKTGCMUK

FGPICPGPGTIKKMCVCP

/GPIJKVWPIRGTWDCJCPGPVCNRKDGTFCUCTMCP
JWMWO*GUUFCPGPGTIKKMCVCP
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
/GODWCVNCRQTCPJCUKNFKUMWUKFCP

RGTEQDCCPFGPICPOGPIIWPCMCPVCVC
DCJCUC[CPIDGPCT

/GORTGUGPVCUKMCPJCUKNFKUMWUKFCP
RGTEQDCCPFGPICPOGPIIWPCMCPVCVC
DCJCUC[CPIDGPCT

2GPKNCKCP

-GIKCVCP2GODGNCLCTCP

,2

#NQMCUK
9CMVW

$WMWRCMGV
-KOKC-GNCU:+
5//QFWN(QTOCVKH
-KOKC-GNCU:+
5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP
%88+8#
2#-#4+0&1
$WMWDWMW
-KOKC:+[CPI
TGNGXCP

$WMWDWMW
RGPWPLCPI
[CPITGNGXCP
/GFKCOCUUC
EGVCM
GNGMVTQPKM

5WODGT$GNCLCT

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

-QORGVGPUK&CUCT

/CVGTK
2GODGNCLCTCP

/GODWCVNCRQTCPJCUKNRGTEQDCCPRTCMVKMWO
HCMVQTHCMVQT[CPIOGOGPICTWJKNCLWTGCMUK
FGPICPOGPIIWPCMCPVCVCDCJCUC[CPI
DGPCT
/GORTGUGPVCUKMCPJCUKNRGTEQDCCP
RTCMVKMWOHCMVQTHCMVQT[CPIOGOGPICTWJK
NCLWTGCMUKFGPICPOGPIIWPCMCPVCVC
DCJCUC[CPIDGPCT

/GPIQNCJFCVCWPVWMOGODWCVITCHKMNCLW
TGCMUK

/GPIQNCJFCVCJCUKNRGTEQDCCPHCMVQTHCMVQT
[CPIOGOGPICTWJKNCLWTGCMUK

/GPIQNCJFCVCJCUKNRGTEQDCCPWPVWM
OGPGPVWMCPQTFGTGCMUKFCPRGTUCOCCPNCLW
TGCMUK

/GPIJWDWPIMCPFGPICPRGPICTWJMCVCNKU
[CPICFCFCNCOKPFWUVTK
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP

FCRCVVGTLCFK!
/GPIGMURNQTCUK

/GPFKUMWUKMCPRGPIGTVKCPNCLWTGCMUK

/GPFKUMWUKMCPHCMVQTHCMVQT[CPI
OGOGPICTWJKNCLWTGCMUK

/GTCPECPIFCPOGORTGUGPVCUKMCPJCUKN
TCPECPICPRGTEQDCCPRTCMVKMWOVGPVCPI
HCMVQTHCMVQT[CPIOGOGPICTWJKNCLWTGCMUK
WMWTCPMQPUGPVTCUKUWJWFCPMCVCNKU

/GNCMWMCPRGTEQDCCPHCMVQTHCMVQT[CPI
OGOGPICTWJKNCLWTGCMUK

/GPICOCVKFCPOGPECVCVJCUKNRGTEQDCCP
/GPICUQUKCUK

&GPICPVWODWMCPDCICKOCPCUWCVWTGCMUK

/CPCMCJRGTKUVKYCTGCMUK[CPIFCRCVVGTLCFK
UGECTCEGRCVFCPTGCMUK[CPIDGTLCNCP
UCPICVNCODCV!

/GPCP[C

-GIKCVCP2GODGNCLCTCP

6GUVGTVWNKU
2KNKJCPICPFC

7TCKCP

2QTVQHQNKQ
.CRQTCPJCUKN
RGTEQDCCP

2GPICOCVCPUKMCR
-GCMVKHCPMGTLCUCOC
FCPMGDGTUKJCPFK
NCDQTCVQTKWO

7PLWMMGTLCFK
NCDQTCVQTKWO
2GPIIWPCCPCNCVFCP
DCJCPRGTEQDCCP

2GPKNCKCP

#NQMCUK
9CMVW
5WODGT$GNCLCT

10

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

/GPICPCNKUKUHCMVQTHCMVQT[CPI
OGOGPICTWJKRGTIGUGTCPCTCJ
MGUGVKODCPICP[CPIFKVGTCRMCP
FCNCOKPFWUVTK
/GODWMVKMCPHCMVQTHCMVQT[CPI
OGOGPICTWJKRGTIGUGTCPCTCJ
MGUGVKODCPICP[CPIFKVGTCRMCP
FCNCOKPFWUVTK

-QORGVGPUK&CUCT
-GUGVKODCPICP
-KOKC

-GUGVKODCPI
CPFKPCOKU
2GTIGUGTCP

CTCJ
MGUGVKODCPICP
FCP
CRNKMCUKP[C
FCNCOKPFWUVTK

6GVCRCP
MGUGVKODCPICP
-EFCP-R

/CVGTK
2GODGNCLCTCP
/GPICOCVK
/GPECTKKPHQTOCUKFGPICPECTCOGODCEC
VGPVCPIFGOQPUVTCUKTGCMUKVKODCNUWNHCV
FGPICPMCNKWOKQFKFC[CPIOGPIJCUKNMCP
GPFCRCPYCTPCMWPKPIUGVGNCJRGPCODCJCP
PCVTKWOUWNHCVMGODCNKVGTDGPVWMGPFCRCPRWVK
J/GPICOCVKICODCTKNWUVTCUKVGPVCPICTCJ

RGTIGUGTCPMGUGVKODCPICP
/GPCP[C
/GPICLWMCPRGTVCP[CCPOGPICRCVGTLCFKTGCMUK
DCNKMTGCMUKMGUGVKODCPICPFKPCOKU!
/GPIGMURNQTCUK

/GPLGNCUMCPVGPVCPITGCMUKMGUGVKODCPICP

/GPIKFGPVKHKMCUKLGPKUTGCMUKMGUGVKODCPICP

/GPFKUMWUKMCPTGCMUK[CPIVGTLCFK
DGTFCUCTMCPJCUKNFGOQPUVTCUK

/GPWNKUMCPTGCMUKMKOKCFCNCO
MGUGVKODCPICPMKOKC

/GTCPECPIFCPOGORTGUGPVCUKMCPRGT
EQDCCPHCMVQTHCMVQT[CPIOGPIIGUGTCTCJ
MGUGVKODCPICPWPVWMOGP[COCMCPRGTUGRUK

/GNCMWMCPRGTEQDCCPHCMVQTHCMVQT[CPI
OGPIIGUGTCTCJMGUGVKODCPICPMQPUGPVTCUK
XQNWOGVGMCPCPFCPUWJW

/GPIWORWNMCPFCVCRGTEQDCCP
/GPICUQUKCUK

/GPIQNCJFCVCJCUKNRGTEQDCCPHCMVQTHCMVQT
[CPIOGPIIGUGTCTCJMGUGVKODCPICP

/GPICRNKMCUKMCPHCMVQTHCMVQT[CPIOGPI
IGUGTCTCJMGUGVKODCPICPFCNCODKFCPI
KPFWUVTKWPVWMOGPFCRCVMCPJCUKN[CPIQRVKOCN
&KUMWUKKPHQTOCUKWPVWMOGPGPVWMCP
MQORQUKUK\CVFCNCOMGCFCCPUGVKODCPI
FGTCLCVFKUQUKCUK VGVCRCPMGUGVKODCPICP
-EFCP-RFCPJWDWPICP-EFGPICP-R
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP

/GODWCVNCRQTCPJCUKNRGTEQDCCPRTCMVKMWO
HCMVQTHCMVQT[CPIOGPIIGUGTCTCJMG
UGVKODCPICPFGPICPOGPIIWPCMCPVCVC
DCJCUC[CPIDGPCT

/GORTGUGPVCUKMCPJCUKNRGTEQDCCPRTCMVKMWO
FGPICPOGPIIWPCMCPVCVCDCJCUC[CPI
DGPCT

-GIKCVCP2GODGNCLCTCP

6GUVGTVWNKU

2KNKJCPICPFC

7TCKCP

2QTVQHQNKQ
.CRQTCPJCUKN
RGTEQDCCP

2GPICOCVCPUKMCR
-GCMVKHCPMGTLCUCOC
FCPMGDGTUKJCPFK
NCDQTCVQTKWO

7PLWMMGTLCFK
NCDQTCVQTKWO
2GPIIWPCCPCNCVFCP
DCJCP

6WICU
/GTCPECPIRGTEQDCCP
HCMVQTHCMVQT[CPI
OGPIIGUGTCTCJ
MGUGVKODCPICP

2GPKNCKCP
,2

#NQMCUK
9CMVW

$WMWRCMGV
-KOKC-GNCU:+
5//QFWN(QTOCVKH
-KOKC-GNCU:+
5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP
%88+8#
2#-#4+0&1
$WMWDWMW
-KOKC:+[CPI
TGNGXCP
$WMWDWMW
RGPWPLCPI
[CPITGNGXCP
/GFKCOCUUC
EGVCM
GNGMVTQPKM

5WODGT$GNCLCT

5CVWCP 2GPFKFKMCP

5/- /#-

/CVC 2GNCLCTCP

-KOKC

-GNCU 5GOGUVGT

:+

/CVGTK 2QMQM

*KFTQMCTDQP FCP /KP[CM $WOK

#NQMCUK 9CMVW
#

RGTVGOWCP

,2

-QORGVGPUK +PVK
/GPIJC[CVK FCP OGPICOCNMCP CLCTCP CICOC [CPI FKCPWVP[C
/GPIJC[CVK FCP OGPICOCNMCP RGTKNCMW LWLWT FKUKRNKP VCPIIWPI LCYCD RGFWNK IQVQPI TQ[QPI MGTLC
UCOC VQNGTCPUK FCOCK UCPVWP TGURQPUKH FCP RTQCMVKH FCP OGPWPLWMMCP UKMCR UGDCICK DCIKCP FCTK
UQNWUK CVCU DGTDCICK RGTOCUCNCJCP FCNCO DGTKPVGTCMUK UGECTC GHGMVKH FGPICP NKPIMWPICP UQUKCN CNCO UGTVC
FCNCO OGPGORCVMCP FKTK UGDCICK EGTOKPCP DCPIUC FCNCO RGTICWNCP FWPKC
/GOCJCOK OGPGTCRMCP OGPICPCNKUKU RGPIGVCJWCP HCMVWCN MQPUGRVWCN RTQUGFWTCN FCP OGVCMQIPKVKH
DGTFCUCTMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJWP[C VGPVCPI KNOW RGPIGVCJWCP VGMPQNQIK UGPK DWFC[C FCP JWOCPKQTC
FGPICP YCYCUCP MGOCPWUKCCP MGDCPIUCCP MGPGICTCCP RGTCFCDCP VGTMCKV RGP[GDCD HGPQOGPC FCP
MGLCFKCP FCNCO DKFCPI MGTLC URGUKHKM WPVWM OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ
/GPIQNCJ OGPCNCT FCP OGP[CLK FCNCO TCPCJ MQPMTGV FCP TCPCJ CDUVTCM VGTMCKV FGPICP RGPIGODCPICP FCTK
[CPI FKRGNCLCTKP[C FK UGMQNCJ UGECTC OCPFKTK DGTVKPFCM UGECTC GHGMVKH FCP MTGCVKH FCP OCORW
OGNCMUCPCMCP VWICU URGUKHKM FK DCYCJ RGPICYCUCP NCPIUWPI

-QORGVGPUK &CUCT FCP +PFKMCVQT 2GPECRCKCP -QORGVGPUK


-+

-QORGVGPUK &CUCT

+PFKMCVQT 2GPECRCKCP -QORGVGPUK

/GP[CFCTK CFCP[C MGVGTCVWTCP FCTK UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP


VGTOQMKOKC NCLW TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP MKOKC NCTWVCP MQNQKF
UGP[CYC MCTDQP FCP RQNKOGT UGDCICK YWLWF MGDGUCTCP 6WJCP
;CPI /CJC 'UC FCP RGPIGVCJWCP VGPVCPI CFCP[C MGVGTCVWTCP
VGTUGDWV UGDCICK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC [CPI
MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH
/GPU[WMWTK MGMC[CCP CNCO +PFQPGUKC DGTWRC OKP[CM DWOK
DCVWDCTC FCP ICU CNCO UGDCICK CPWIGTCJ 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC
'UC FCP FCRCV FKIWPCMCP WPVWM MGOCMOWTCP TCM[CV
+PFQPGUKC

/GPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC


[CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM
6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C
OGNCNWK MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
$GTU[WMWT CVCU MGMC[CCP CNCO +PFQPGUKC

/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW KNOKCJ OGOKNKMK TCUC KPIKP VCJW FKUKRNKP


LWLWT QDLGMVKH VGTDWMC OCORW OGODGFCMCP HCMVC FCP QRKPK
WNGV VGNKVK DGTVCPIIWPI LCYCD MTKVKU MTGCVKH KPQXCVKH
FGOQMTCVKU FCP MQOWPKMCVKH FCNCO OGTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP
RGTEQDCCP UGTVC DGTFKUMWUK [CPI FKYWLWFMCP FCNCO UKMCR
UGJCTKJCTK
/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW MGTLC UCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK EKPVC
FCOCK FCP RGFWNK NKPIMWPICP UGTVC JGOCV FCNCO OG
OCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C CNCO
/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW TGURQPUKH FCP RTQCMVKH UGTVC DKLCMUCPC
UGDCICK YWLWF MGOCORWCP OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP
OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

/GPIIWPCMCP UKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO OGTCPECPI FCP


OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP FCP FKUMWUK
2GFWNK NKPIMWPICP FCNCO OGOCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C
CNCO
$GTUKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO
OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

/GPICPCNKUKU UVTWMVWT FCP UKHCV UGP[CYC JKFTQMCTDQP


DGTFCUCTMCP MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
UGP[CYCP[C

/GPICPCNKUKU UGP[CYC FCNCO KFGPVKHKMCUK CVQO % FCP *


/GPICPCNKUKU MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP

/GOCJCOK RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP FCP VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP HTCMUK


HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK UGTVC MGIWPCCPP[C
/GOCJCOK FCORCM RGODCMCTCP UGP[CYC JKFTQMCTDQP
VGTJCFCR NKPIMWPICP FCP MGUGJCVCP UGTVC ECTC OGPICVCUKP[C

/GPICPCNKUKU UGP[CYC CNMCPC FCTK UVTWMVWT UKHCV


MGMJCUCP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
/GPICPCNKUKU UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCTK UVTWMVWT UKHCV
MGMJCUCP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
/GPICPCNKUKU UGP[CYC CNMWPC FCTK UVTWMVWT UKHCV
MGMJCUCP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
/GPICPCNKUKU RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK
/GPICPCNKUKU VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP FCP HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK
UGTVC MGIWPCCPP[C
/GODGFCMCP MWCNKVCU OWVW DGPUKP
/GPIGXCNWCUK FCORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

11

-+

-QORGVGPUK &CUCT
/GPIMNCUKHKMCUK UGP[CYC JKFTQMCTDQP DGTFCUCTMCP UVTWMVWT
UKHCV UGP[CYC FCP MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP
/GODWMVKMCP RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP FCP RGOKUCJCP HTCMUK
HTCMUK OKP[CM
/GP[WUWP TGPECPC RGP[GJCVCP NKPIMWPICP CMKDCV RGODCMCTCP
UGP[CYC JKFTQMCTDQP FK UWCVW FCGTCJ

+PFKMCVQT 2GPECRCKCP -QORGVGPUK


/GNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI CFCP[C CVQO % * FCP 1
$GTFKUMWUK WPVWM OGPIQNCJ CPCNKUKU UGP[CYC CNMCPC
FCTK UVTWMVWT UKHCV MGMJCUCP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
$GTFKUMWUK WPVWM OGPIQNCJ CPCNKUKU UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCTK
UVTWMVWT UKHCV MGMJCUCP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
$GTFKUMWUK WPVWM OGPIQNCJ CPCNKUKU UGP[CYC CNMWPC FCTK
UVTWMVWT UKHCV MGMJCUCP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
$GTFKUMWUK FCP OGP[CLKMCP RGOCJCOCP VGPVCPI RTQUGU
RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK
$GTFKUMWUK FCP OGP[CLKMCP RGOCJCOCP VGPVCPI VGMPKM
RGOKUCJCP HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCPP[C
$GTFKUMWUK FCP OGP[CLKMCP JCUKN GXCNWCUK FCORCM
RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT

6WLWCP 2GODGNCLCTCP
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GPIGPCN UGP[CYC MCTDQP OGNCNWK FGOQPUVTCUK RGODCMCTCP UGP[CYC MCTDQP
/GOCJCOK RGTDGFCCP UGP[CYC MCTDQP QTICPKM FCP UGP[CYC MCTDQP CPQTICPKM
/GPIGPCN CFCP[C CVQO % * FCP 1 OGNCNWK RGTEQDCCP KFGPVKHKMCUK UGP[CYC
/GOCJCOK MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP
/GOCJCOK LGPKU CVQO % DGTFCUCTMCP LWONCJ CVQO % [CPI VGTKMCV RCFC TCPVCK CVQO MCTDQP
RTKOGT CVQO % UGMWPFGT CVQO % VGTUKGT FCP CVQO % MWCTVGPGT

CVQO %

2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GPIKFGPVKHKMCUK UGP[CYC CNMCPC DGTFCUCTMCP UVTWMVWT OQNGMWNP[C
/GOCJCOK VCVC PCOC UGP[CYC CNMCPC
/GORTGFKMUK KUQOGT UGP[CYC CNMCPC
/GOCJCOK JWDWPICP KUQOGT UGP[CYC CNMCPC FGPICP VKVKM FKFKJ
/GOCJCOK UKHCV HKUKU UGP[CYC CNMCPC
/GOCJCOK TGCMUK UGP[CYC CNMCPC
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GPIKFGPVKHKMCUK UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC DGTFCUCTMCP UVTWMVWT OQNGMWNP[C
/GOCJCOK VCVC PCOC UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC
/GORTGFKMUK KUQOGT UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC
/GOCJCOK JWDWPICP KUQOGT UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC FGPICP VKVKM FKFKJ
/GOCJCOK UKHCV HKUKU UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC
/GOCJCOK TGCMUK UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GOCJCOK RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK
/GOCJCOK MQORQPGP OKP[CM DWOK
/GOCJCOK VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK
/GOCJCOK HTCMUKHTCMUK JCUKN RGP[WNKPICP OKP[CM DWOK
/GOCJCOK MGIWPCCP HTCMUKHTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK DGTFCUCTMCP LWONCJ CVQO FCP VKVKM FKFKJP[C
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GPIKFGPVKHKMCUK MWCNKVCU OWVW DGPUKP DGTFCUCTMCP CPIMC QMVCP
/GOCJCOK RGPIGTVKCP CPIMC QMVCP
/GOCJCOK RGPCODCJCP \CV CFKVKH RCFC DGPUKP FCP VWLWCPP[C
/GOCJCOK VGTLCFKP[C TGCMUK RGODCMCTCP UGORWTPC FCP VKFCM UGORWTPC RCFC DCJCP DCMCT
/GOCJCOK JCUKN ICU DWCPI [CPI DGTDCJC[C FCTK RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT
/GPIKFGPVKHKMCUK CMKDCV [CPI FKVKODWNMCP FCTK RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT OKP[CM DWOK UGECTC VGTWU
OGPGTWU RCFC NKPIMWPICP FCP MGUGJCVCP
/GPIKFGPVKHKMCUKMCP WRC[C WPVWM OGPICVCUK FCORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT OKP[CM RCFC NKPIMWPICP FCP
MGUGJCVCP

12

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP VGPICJ UGOGUVGT
&

/CVGTK 2GODGNCLCTCP
2GTVGOWCP
C
+FGPVKHKMCUK #VQO % FCP *
D
-GMJCUCP #VQO -CTDQP
E
#VQO -CTDQP 2TKOGT 5GMWPFGT 6GTUKGT FCP -WCTVGPGT
2GTVGOWCP
C
5VTWMVWT #NMCPC
E
+UQOGT
D
6CVC 0COC 5GP[CYC #NMCPC
F
5KHCV5KHCV #NMCPC
2GTVGOWCP
C
5VTWMVWT #NMGPC
G
5VTWMVWT #NMWPC
D
6CVC 0COC 5GP[CYC #NMGPC
H
6CVC 0COC 5GP[CYC #NMWPC
E
+UQOGT
I
+UQOGT
F
5KHCV5KHCV #NMGPC
J
5KHCV5KHCV #NMWPC
2GTVGOWCP
C
2GODGPVWMCP /KP[CM $WOK
D
-QORQPGP 2GP[WUWP /KP[CM $WOK
E
2GP[WNKPICP /KP[CM $WOK FCP 5GEQPFCT[ 2TQEGUUKPI
F
(TCMUK *KFTQMCTDQP *CUKN 2GP[WNKPICP /KP[CM $WOK FCP -GIWPCCPP[C
2GTVGOWCP
C
/WVW $GPUKP
D
#PIMC 1MVCP
E
<CV #FKVKH $GPUKP
F &CORCM 2GODCMCTCP $CJCP $CMCT
2GTVGOWCP
C
7NCPICP *CTKCP
D
7NCPICP 6GPICJ 5GOGUVGT

'

/GVQFG 2GODGNCLCTCP
/GVQFG UCKPVKHKM
2GODGNCLCTCP MQQRGTCVKH
2GODGNCLCTCP FKUEQXGT[

2GODGNCLCTCP DGTDCUKU OCUCNCJ


2GODGNCLCTCP MQPVGMUVWCN

5WODGT $GNCLCT
$WMW RCMGV -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5//QFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
$WMW RGNCLCTCP -KOKC [CPI TGNGXCP
$WMWDWMW NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP

/GFKC 2GODGNCLCTCP
/GFKC
C
6CDGN RGTDGFCCP UGP[CYC MCTDQP QTICPKM FGPICP UGP[CYC MCTDQP CPQTICPKM RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH
-KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
D
)CODCT TCPIMCKCP CNCV RGTEQDCCP FCP NCPIMCJ MGTLC RGPIWLKCP CVQO %
* FCP 1 RCFC OQFWN
(QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
E
6CDGN DGPVWM TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGP[CYC CNMCPC RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
F
6CDGN TWOWU OQNGMWN FCP PCOC UGP[CYC CNMCPC RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
G
6CDGN JWDWPICP KUQOGT FCP VKVKM FKFKJ UGP[CYC RGPVCPC RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
H
6CDGN TWOWU OQNGMWN FCP PCOC UGP[CYC CNMGPC RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
I
6CDGN TWOWU OQNGMWN FCP PCOC UGP[CYC CNMWPC RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

13

)CODCT RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCNCO NCWV RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
K
5MGOC RGP[WNKPICP OKP[CM DWOK RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8#
2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
L
6CDGN HTCMUK JKFTQMCTDQP JCUKN RGP[WNKPICP OKP[CM DWOK DGTFCUCTMCP LWONCJ CVQO % RCFC OQFWN
(QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
M
.GODCT UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP DCD
N
.GODCT UQCN WNCPICP VGPICJ UGOGUVGT
O
/GFKC NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP
#NCV FCP $CJCP
C
6CDWPI TGCMUK RKRC MCEC UVCVKH MNGO MCRCU FCP CNCV RGODCMCT
D
)WNC RCUKT VGRWPI DGTCU UWUW DWDWM MGTVCU MQDCV CKT MCRWT UGTDWM %W1 FCP NCTWVCP %C 1*
E
/GFKC EGVCM FCP GNGMVTQPKM
F
#NCV FCP DCJCP NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP
*

.CPIMCJ.CPIMCJ -GIKCVCP 2GODGNCLCTCP


2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
KFGPVKHKMCUK CVQO % FCP * UGTVC MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP
D
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
E
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK KFGPVKHKMCUK CVQO % FCP * UGTVC MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP
F
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
G
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI MGIKCVCP [CPI CMCP
FKNCMWMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGP[GNGUCKMCP RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU VGPVCPI KFGPVKHKMCUK CVQO % FCP *
UGTVC MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP
-GIKCVCP +PVK
OGPKV
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VGPVCPI RGPIWLKCP WPUWT % FCP WPUWT * FCNCO RGTEQDCCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM
FCNCO OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI RGTWDCJCP [CPI VGTLCFK RCFC RGOCPCUCP IWNC
FCP DCJCP NCKPP[C
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK FCP OGPIJWDWPIMCP MCKVCPP[C FGPICP
UGP[CYC % * FCP 1
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
KFGPVKHKMCUK CVQO % FCP * [CPI UWFCJ FKCOCVKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC ECTC OGNCMWMCP KFGPVKHKMCUK WPUWT % FCP *!
D
#RC RGTWDCJCP [CPI VGTLCFK RCFC KFGPVKHKMCUK % FCP *!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK RGTEQDCCP [CPI
VGNCJ FKNCMWMCP FCP OGPECVCVP[C RCFC VCDGN JCUKN MGTLC RCFC VWICU MGNQORQM FCNCO OQFWN
(QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI FCVC RGTEQDCCP [CPI FKRGTQNGJ
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI JCUKN RGPICOCVCP
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI JCUKN OGPIWLK WPUWT % FCP JCUKN OGPIWLK WPUWT * FCP 1
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPIWLKCP WPUWT %
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPIWLKCP WPUWT * FCP 1

14

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI JCUKN RGTEQDCCP RGPIWLKCP CFCP[C WPUWT %
* FCP 1
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP RGPIWLKCP CFCP[C WPUWT %
* FCP 1 FK
FGRCP MGNCU
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV NCRQTCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC UCLC EKTK MJCU [CPI FKOKNKMK QNGJ CVQO MCTDQP!
D
#RC RGPIGTVKCP CVQO UGMWPFGT FCP CVQO VGTUKGT!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
D
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI
MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT OGNCNWK CTVKMGNCTVKMGN FK DGTDCICK OGFKC
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP FCP CVQO MCTDQP RTKOGT UGMWPFGT VGTUKGT FCP MWCTVGPGT
E
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP CTVMGN VGPVCPI MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP FCP CVQO MCTDQP RTKOGT UGMWPFGT
VGTUKGT FCP MWCTVGPGT
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI CVQO MCTDQP RTKOGT UGMWPFGT VGTUKGT FCP MWCTVGPGT
F
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP FCP CVQO MCTDQP
RTKOGT UGMWPFGT VGTUKGT FCP MWCTVGPGT
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP VGPVCPI MGMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP FCP CVQO
MCTDQP RTKOGT UGMWPFGT VGTUKGT FCP MWCTVGPGT FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP

G
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP UGP[CYC CNMCPC MGTLC WPVWM RGTVGOWCP
DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP UCNCO FCP OGPCP[CMCP MCDCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
D
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
UGP[CYC CNMCPC
E
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
F
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK UGP[CYC CNMCPC
G
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI UGP[CYC CNMCPC
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

15

-GIKCVCP +PVK
-GIKCVCP
C

OGPKV

/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VGTJCFCR VCDGN TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGP[CYC CNMCPC
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP OGNCNWK MGIKCVCP OGPICOCVK TWOWU UVTWMVWT CNMCPC RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC
-GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI RCFC UGP[CYC CNMCPC
C UVTWMVWT .GYKU CNMCPC
F TWOWU WOWO CNMCPC
D TWOWU UVTWMVWT CNMCPC
G PCOC UGP[CYC CNMCPC FCP
E TWOWU OQNGMWN CNMCPC
H
RGPWNKUCP TWOWU UVTWMVWT
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
TWOWU UVTWMVWT VCVC PCOC FCP RGPWNKUCP CNMCPC [CPI UWFCJ FKCOCVKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC UVTWMVWT UGP[CYC CNMCPC!
D
$CICKOCPC DGPVWM TWOWU WOWO CNMCPC!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI TWOWU
UVTWMVWT VCVC PCOC FCP RGPWNKUCP CNMCPC
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT VCVC PCOC FCP RGPWNKUCP CNMCPC
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
TWOWU UVTWMVWT VCVC PCOC FCP RGPWNKUCP CNMCPC
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT VCVC PCOC FCP RGPWNKUCP CNMCPC
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT CNMCPC
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI VCVC PCOC UGP[CYC CNMCPC
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT VCVC PCOC FCP RGPWNKUCP
CNMCPC
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP TWOWU UVTWMVWT VCVC PCOC FCP RGPWNKUCP
CNMCPC FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM

-GIKCVCP
C

16

/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VGTJCFCR VCDGN KUQOGT FCP JWDWPICPP[C FGPICP VKVKM FKFKJ
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU VGPVCPI UKHCV HKUKU FCP UKHCV MKOKC UGP[CYC CNMCPC
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VGPVCPI LWONCJ KUQOGT RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8
8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI RCFC UGP[CYC CNMCPC
C RGPIGTVKCP KUQOGT
E UKHCV HKUKMC FCP MKOKC FCP
D JWDWPICP KUQOGT FGPICP VKVKM FKFKJ
F OGPWNKUMCP TGCMUK UGP[CYC CNMCPC
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
KUQOGT FCP UKHCV CNMCPC [CPI UWFCJ FKCOCVKP[C
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC RGPIGTVKCP KUQOGT!
D
$CICKOCPC TGCMUK UGP[CYC CNMCPC!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E

/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI KUQOGT FCP
UKHCV CNMCPC
5GVKCR 2GUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIMCLK NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI LWONCJ KUQOGT RCFC OCUKPI OCUKPI
UGP[CYC CNMCPC RCFC VWICU MGNQORQM FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI LWONCJ KUQOGT UGP[CYC CNMCPC
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI TGCMUK UGP[CYC CNMCPC
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI KUQOGT FCP TGCMUK CNMCPC
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP KUQOGT FCP TGCMUK CNMCPC FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
G
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC WPVWM
RGTVGOWCP DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP UCNCO FCP OGPCP[CMCP MCDCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
D
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC
E
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
F
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC
G
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI UGP[CYC CNMGPC FCP
CNMWPC
-GIKCVCP +PVK
OGPKV
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VGTJCFCR VCDGN TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGP[CYC CNMGPC
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP OGNCNWK MGIKCVCP OGPICOCVK TWOWU WOWO CNMGPC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP OGNCNWK MGIKCVCP MGNQORQM VGPVCPI LWONCJ KUQOGT RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC
-GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI RCFC UGP[CYC CNMCPC
C TWOWU UVTWMVWT CNMGPC
E TWOWU WOWO CNMGPC
D TWOWU OQNGMWN CNMGPC
F PCOC UGP[CYC CNMGPC
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

17

G RGPWNKUCP TWOWU UVTWMVWT


I UKHCV HKUKMC FCP MKOKC FCP
H
LWONCJ KUQOGT
J OGPWNKUMCP TGCMUK UGP[CYC CNMGPC
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
TWOWU UVTWMVWT VCVC PCOC RGPWNKUCP KUQOGT FCP UKHCV CNMGPC [CPI UWFCJ FKCOCVKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC UVTWMVWT UGP[CYC CNMGPC!
D
$CICKOCPC DGPVWM TWOWU WOWO CNMGPC!
E
#RC RGPIGTVKCP KUQOGT!
F
$CICKOCPC TGCMUK UGP[CYC CNMGPC!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI TWOWU
UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT CNMGPC
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK NGDKJ
LCWJ VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT CNMGPC
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT CNMGPC
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT CNMGPC
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT CNMGPC
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI LWONCJ KUQOGT FCP UKHCV CNMGPC
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT FCP UKHCV
CNMGPC
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT FCP UKHCV CNMGPC
FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VGTJCFCR VCDGN TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGP[CYC CNMWPC
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP OGNCNWK MGIKCVCP OGPICOCVK TWOWU WOWO CNMWPC RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC
-GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI RCFC UGP[CYC CNMCPC
C TWOWU UVTWMVWT CNMWPC
G RGPWNKUCP TWOWU UVTWMVWT
D TWOWU OQNGMWN CNMWPC
H
LWONCJ KUQOGT
E TWOWU WOWO CNMWPC
I UKHCV HKUKMC FCP MKOKC FCP
F PCOC UGP[CYC CNMWPC
J OGPWNKUMCP TGCMUK UGP[CYC CNMWPC
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
TWOWU UVTWMVWT VCVC PCOC RGPWNKUCP KUQOGT FCP UKHCV CNMWPC [CPI UWFCJ FKCOCVKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC UVTWMVWT UGP[CYC CNMWPC!
D
$CICKOCPC DGPVWM TWOWU WOWO CNMWPC!
E
#RC RGPIGTVKCP KUQOGT!
F
$CICKOCPC TGCMUK UGP[CYC CNMWPC!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT

18

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI TWOWU
UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT CNMWPC
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT CNMWPC
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT CNMWPC
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT CNMWPC
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT CNMWPC
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI LWONCJ KUQOGT FCP UKHCV CNMWPC
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT FCP UKHCV
CNMWPC
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP TWOWU UVTWMVWT UGTVC LWONCJ KUQOGT FCP UKHCV
CNMWPC FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
D

)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP


)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
G
)WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
H
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
I
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP OKP[CM DWOK WPVWM RGTVGOWCP
DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK
D
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
E
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK
F
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
G
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI MGIKCVCP [CPI CMCP
FKNCMWMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGP[GNGUCKMCP RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU VGPVCPI RGODGPVWMCP
OKP[CM DWOK FCP VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK
-GIKCVCP +PVK
OGPKV
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP ICODCT VGPVCPI RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM
FCNCO OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FK NCWV
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK FCP OGPIJWDWPIMCP MCKVCPP[C FGPICP
MQORQPGP RGP[WUWP OKP[CM DWOK
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK [CPI UWFCJ FKCOCVKP[C
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

19

)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC VGTDGPVWMP[C OKP[CM DWOK FCP ICU CNCO!
D
$GTCRC NCOC RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP ICU CNCO!
E
$CJCP CRC UCLC [CPI OGODGPVWM OKP[CM DWOK FCP ICU CNCO!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI RTQUGU
RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MQORQPGP RGP[WUWPP[C
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MQORQPGP RGP[WUWPP[C
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MQORQPGP
RGP[WUWPP[C
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MQORQPGP RGP[WUWPP[C
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI MQORQPGP RGP[WUWPP[C
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP
MQORQPGP RGP[WUWPP[C
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MQORQPGP
RGP[WUWPP[C FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP UMGOC RGP[WNKPICP OKP[CM DWOK RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VCDGN HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCPP[C RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM
FCNCO OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCPP[C )WTW
OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK FCP OGPIJWDWPIMCP MCKVCPP[C FGPICP
HTCMUKHTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCPP[C DGTFCUCTMCP LWONCJ CVQO %
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK [CPI UWFCJ FKCOCVKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC ECTC RGOKUCJCP HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK!
D
#RC RGPIGTVKCP FGUVKNCUK CVCW RGP[WNKPICP!
E
#RC MGIWPCCP OCUKPIOCUKPI HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI RTQUGU
VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCP OCUKPIOCUKPI HTCMUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCP OCUKPIOCUKPI HTCMUK
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCP OCUKPI
OCUKPI HTCMUK
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCP OCUKPIOCUKPI HTCMUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI MGIWPCCP OCUKPIOCUKPI HTCMUK

20

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCP
OCUKPIOCUKPI HTCMUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP OKP[CM DWOK FCP MGIWPCCP OCUKPIOCUKPI
HTCMUK FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
G
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP OWVW DGPUKP WPVWM RGTVGOWCP DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP UCNCO FCP OGPCP[CMCP MCDCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
D
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
OWVW DGPUKP
E
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
FCORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT
F
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
G
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK OWVW DGPUKP
H
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
I
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI OWVW DGPUKP FCP FCORCM
RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT
-GIKCVCP +PVK
OGPKV
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VGTJCFCR LGPKULGPKU DGPUKP [CPI FKRGTFCICPIMCP FK UGMKVCT NKPIMWPICPP[C )WTW
OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI CPIMC QMVCP RCFC OCUKPIOCUKPI DGPUKP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK FCP OGPIJWDWPIMCP MCKVCPP[C FGPICP
RGPLCDCTCP CPIMC QMVCP OCUKPIOCUKPI DGPUKP
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK OWVW
DGPUKP [CPI UWFCJ FKCOCVKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC OGPGPVWMCP OWVW DGPUKP!
D
#RC RGPIGTVKCP CPIMC QMVCP!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC OCWRWP KPHQTOCUK
VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP CPIMC QMVCP FCP OGPECVCVP[C RCFC VWICU MGNQORQM FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH
-KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI OWVW DGPUKP
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
PKNCK QMVCP FCP \CV CFKVKH DGPUKP
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

21

/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI PKNCK QMVCP FCP \CV CFKVKH DGPUKP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI CPIMC QMVCP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI \CV CFKVKH DGPUKP
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI PKNCK QMVCP FCP \CV CFKVKH DGPUKP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP PKNCK QMVCP FCP \CV CFKVKH DGPUKP FK FGRCP MGNCU )WTW
OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGOCJCOK OCVGTK VGPVCPI
FCORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM
FCNCO OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI FCORCM VGTJCFCR NKPIMWPICP FCP MGUGJCVCP UGTVC ECTC
OGPICVCUKP[C
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK FCP OGPIJWDWPIMCP MCKVCPP[C FGPICP
TGCMUK RGODCMCTCP UGORWTPC FCP RGODCMCTCP VKFCM UGORWTPC UGTVC FCORCMP[C VGTJCFCR
NKPIMWPICP FCP MGUGJCVCP
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
OCUUC LGNCIC [CPI UWFCJ FKCOCVKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC JWDWPICP OCUUC LGNCIC FCP DKNCPICP QMVCP!
D
#RC FCORCM [CPI FKVKODWNMCP FCTK RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT!
E
$CICKOCPC ECTC OGPICVCUKP[C!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI WPVWM
OGNCMWMCP MGIKCVCP FKUMWUK RCFC VWICU MGNQORQM FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI
C FCORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT VGTJCFCR NKPIMWPICP FCP MGUGJCVCP UGTVC D
ECTC OGPICVCUK FCORCM VGTUGDWV
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI MCLKCP FK CVCU
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI FCORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT VGTJCFCR NKPIMWPICP FCP
MGUGJCVCP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI ECTC OGPICVCUK FCORCM VGTUGDWV
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI FCORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP FCORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GTVGOWCP
-GIKCVCP
7NCPICP *CTKCP
OGPKV
C
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8#
2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP

22

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

D
E

/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC UGLWONCJ


/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WTCKCP UGLWONCJ DWVKT UQCN

DWVKT UQCN

-GIKCVCP
7NCPICP 6GPICJ 5GOGUVGT
OGPKV
C
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP VGPICJ UGOGUVGT RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP
%8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
D
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC UGLWONCJ
DWVKT UQCN
E
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WTCKCP UGLWONCJ DWVKT UQCN
+

2GPKNCKCP
5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN
C

6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP QDUGTXCUK

$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP NGODCT QDUGTXCUK

-KUKMKUK
0Q

5KMCR 0KNCK

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

-GOCORWCP WPVWM OGPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC


[CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC
CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C OGNCNWK MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
-GOCORWCP WPVWM DGTU[WMWT CVCU MGMC[CCP CNCO +PFQPGUKC

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


5KMCR 5QUKCN
C

6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP RGPKNCKCP IWTW

$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP UMCNC UKMCR

-KUKMKUK
0Q

5KMCR 0KNCK

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

$GTUKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO OGTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP FCP FKUMWUK


2GFWNK NKPIMWPICP FCNCO OGOCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C CNCO
$GTUKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP
OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

+PUVTWOGP

NKJCV NCORKTCP

2GPIGVCJWCP
C

6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP VGU VGTVWNKU

$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC FCP WTCKCP

-KUKMKUK
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

+FGPVKHKMCUK CVQO % FCP *


-GMJCUCP CVQO MCTDQP
5GP[CYC CNMCPC FCTK UVTWMVWT UKHCV MGMJCUCP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
5GP[CYC CNMGPC FCTK UVTWMVWT UKHCV MGMJCUCP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
5GP[CYC CNMWPC FCTK UVTWMVWT UKHCV MGMJCUCP FCP RGPIIQNQPICP
2GODGPVWMCP OKP[CM DWOK
6GMPKM RGOKUCJCP FCP HTCMUK OKP[CM DWOK UGTVC MGIWPCCPP[C
-WCNKVCU OWVW DGPUKP
&CORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


-GVGTCORKNCP
C

6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP FKUMWUK

$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP NGODCT RGPKNCKCP FKUMWUK

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

23

-KUKMKUK
0Q

2GPKNCKCP

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

/GNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI CFCP[C CVQO % * FCP 1


/GPFKUMWUKMCP UGP[CYC CNMCPC CNMGPC CNMWPC FCTK UVTWMVWT UKHCV MGMJCUCP FCP
RGPIIQNQPICP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP JCUKN RGPICOCVCP FCP FKUMWUK VGTMCKV UGP[CYC CNMCPC
CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC
/GORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN RGPICOCVCP FCP FKUMWUK VGTMCKV UGP[CYC CNMCPC
CNMGPC FCP CNMWPC
/GPFKUMWUKMCP FCP OGP[CLKMCP RGOCJCOCP VGPVCPI RTQUGU RGODGPVWMCP
OKP[CM DWOK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP FCP OGP[CLKMCP RGOCJCOCP VGPVCPI VGMPKM RGOKUCJCP HTCMUK OKP[CM
DWOK FCP MGIWPCCPP[C
/GPFKUMWUKMCP FCP OGP[CLKMCP JCUKN GXCNWCUK FCORCM RGODCMCTCP DCJCP DCMCT

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
/GP[GVWLWK
-GRCNC 5GMQNCJ

)WTW /CVC 2GNCLCTCP

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0+2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0+2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

24

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

.#/2+4#0
.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN
.GODCT 1DUGTXCUK 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN
0Q

2GTKNCMW [CPI &KJCTCRMCP

5MQT

/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP WPVWM OGPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC [CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C
DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C OGNCNWK
MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP WPVWM DGTU[WMWT CVCU MGMC[CCP CNCO +PFQPGUKC
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

0KNCK UKMCR URKTKVWCN

,WONCJ UMQT
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

.GODCT 1DUGTXCUK 5KMCR 5QUKCN


0Q

2GTKNCMW [CPI &KJCTCRMCP

5MQT

/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP FCNCO DGTUKMCR KNOKCJ WPVWM OGTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP FCP FKUMWUK
/GOKNKMK MGRGFWNKCP VGTJCFCR NKPIMWPICP FCNCO OGOCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C CNCO
/GOKNKMK UKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP OGODWCV
MGRWVWUCP
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

0KNCK UKMCR UQUKCN

,WONCJ UMQT
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN


5MQT

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH
5CPICV $CKM
$CKM
%WMWR
-WTCPI

4WDTKM 2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN


4GPVCPI 5MQT

0KNCK

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH

5$

$CKM

%WMWR

-WTCPI

5CPICV $CKM

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

25

.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP 2GPIGVCJWCP
.GODCT 2GPKNCKCP 2GPIGVCJWCP
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT 5QCN

+FGPVKHKMCUK #VQO % FCP *

2KNKJCP ICPFC

# #
7TCKCP

-GMJCUCP #VQO -CTDQP

2KNKJCP ICPFC

#
7TCKCP

5GP[CYC #NMCPC FCTK


5VTWMVWT 5KHCV -GMJCUCP
FCP 2GPIIQNQPICP

2KNKJCP ICPFC

# # # #
7TCKCP

5GP[CYC #NMGPC FCTK


5VTWMVWT 5KHCV -GMJCUCP
FCP 2GPIIQNQPICP

2KNKJCP ICPFC

5GP[CYC #NMWPC FCTK


5VTWMVWT 5KHCV -GMJCUCP
FCP 2GPIIQNQPICP

2KNKJCP ICPFC

2GODGPVWMCP /KP[CM $WOK

2KNKJCP ICPFC

6GMPKM 2GOKUCJCP FCP


(TCMUK /KP[CM $WOK UGTVC
-GIWPCCPP[C

2KNKJCP ICPFC

# #
7TCKCP

$ $

-WCNKVCU /WVW $GPUKP

2KNKJCP ICPFC

#
#

&CORCM 2GODCMCTCP
$CJCP $CMCT

2KNKJCP ICPFC

# #

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5QCN 2KNKJCP )CPFC


0QOQT 5QCN

$QDQV 5QCN

,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN


0KNCK

5MQT RGTQNGJCP
5MQT OCMUKOCN

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5QCN 7TCKCP

0Q

$WVKT 2GTVCP[CCP
5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

$QDQV
5QCN

,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

,WONCJ PKNCK CMJKT

26

5MQT RKNKJCP ICPFC UMQT WTCKCP

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

-TKVGTKC
5MQT

0KNCK

.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP -GVGTCORKNCP
+PUVTWOGP 2GPKNCKCP &KUMWUK -GNQORQM
5KMCR 0KNCK
0Q

0COC
5KMCR

-GCMVKHCP

-GVGTCPICP
0KNCK OCMUKOCN
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORGTQNGJ PKNCK
$CKM UGMCNK CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
$CKM
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
%WMWR
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
-WTCPI
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT

9CYCUCP

-GOCORWCP
/GPIGOWMCMCP
2GPFCRCV

6QVCN 0KNCK

2TGUGPVCUK

-GTLC 5COC

2GPKNCKCP -KPGTLC /GNCMWMCP 2TCMVKMWO


0Q

2GPKNCKCP

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH
/GTCPIMCK CNCV
2GPICOCVCP
&CVC [CPI FKRGTQNGJ
-GUKORWNCP

4WDTKM 2GPKNCKCP -GVGTCORKNCP


2GPKNCKCP

#URGM [CPI &KPKNCK


/GTCPIMCK CNCV

4CPIMCKCP CNCV VKFCM


DGPCT

4CPIMCKCP CNCV DGPCT


VGVCRK VKFCM TCRK CVCW
VKFCM OGORGTJCVKMCP
MGUGNCOCVCP MGTLC

4CPIMCKCP CNCV DGPCT


TCRK FCP
OGORGTJCVKMCP
MGUGNCOCVCP MGTLC

2GPICOCVCP

2GPICOCVCP VKFCM
EGTOCV

2GPICOCVCP EGTOCV
VGVCRK OGPICPFWPI
KPVGTRTGVCUK

2GPICOCVCP EGTOCV
FCP DGDCU KPVGTRTGVCUK

&CVC [CPI FKRGTQNGJ

&CVC VKFCM NGPIMCR

&CVC NGPIMCR VGVCRK


VKFCM VGTQTICPKUKT CVCW
CFC [CPI UCNCJ VWNKU

&CVC NGPIMCR
VGTQTICPKUKT FCP FKVWNKU
FGPICP DGPCT

-GUKORWNCP

6KFCM DGPCT CVCW VKFCM


UGUWCK VWLWCP

5GDCIKCP MGUKORWNCP
CFC [CPI UCNCJ CVCW
VKFCM UGUWCK VWLWCP

5GOWC DGPCT CVCW


UGUWCK VWLWCP

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

27

4'0%#0# 2'.#-5#0##0 2'/$'.#,#4#0 422


5CVWCP 2GPFKFKMCP

5/- /#-

/CVC 2GNCLCTCP

-KOKC

-GNCU 5GOGUVGT

:+

/CVGTK 2QMQM

6GTOQMKOKC

#NQMCUK 9CMVW

RGTVGOWCP

,2

-QORGVGPUK +PVK
/GPIJC[CVK FCP OGPICOCNMCP CLCTCP CICOC [CPI FKCPWVP[C
/GPIJC[CVK FCP OGPICOCNMCP RGTKNCMW LWLWT FKUKRNKP VCPIIWPI LCYCD RGFWNK IQVQPI TQ[QPI MGTLC UCOC
VQNGTCPUK FCOCK UCPVWP TGURQPUKH FCP RTQCMVKH FCP OGPWPLWMMCP UKMCR UGDCICK DCIKCP FCTK UQNWUK CVCU
DGTDCICK RGTOCUCNCJCP FCNCO DGTKPVGTCMUK UGECTC GHGMVKH FGPICP NKPIMWPICP UQUKCN CNCO UGTVC FCNCO
OGPGORCVMCP FKTK UGDCICK EGTOKPCP DCPIUC FCNCO RGTICWNCP FWPKC
/GOCJCOK OGPGTCRMCP OGPICPCNKUKU RGPIGVCJWCP HCMVWCN MQPUGRVWCN RTQUGFWTCN FCP OGVCMQIPKVKH
DGTFCUCTMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJWP[C VGPVCPI KNOW RGPIGVCJWCP VGMPQNQIK UGPK DWFC[C FCP JWOCPKQTC FGPICP
YCYCUCP MGOCPWUKCCP MGDCPIUCCP MGPGICTCCP RGTCFCDCP VGTMCKV RGP[GDCD HGPQOGPC FCP MGLCFKCP
FCNCO DKFCPI MGTLC URGUKHKM WPVWM OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ
/GPIQNCJ OGPCNCT FCP OGP[CLK FCNCO TCPCJ MQPMTGV FCP TCPCJ CDUVTCM VGTMCKV FGPICP RGPIGODCPICP FCTK [CPI
FKRGNCLCTKP[C FK UGMQNCJ UGECTC OCPFKTK DGTVKPFCM UGECTC GHGMVKH FCP MTGCVKH FCP OCORW OGNCMUCPCMCP
VWICU URGUKHKM FK DCYCJ RGPICYCUCP NCPIUWPI

-QORGVGPUK &CUCT FCP +PFKMCVQT 2GPECRCKCP -QORGVGPUK


-+

-QORGVGPUK &CUCT
/GP[CFCTK CFCP[C MGVGTCVWTCP FCTK UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
VGTOQMKOKC NCLW TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP MKOKC NCTWVCP MQNQKF
UGP[CYC MCTDQP FCP RQNKOGT UGDCICK YWLWF MGDGUCTCP 6WJCP
;CPI /CJC 'UC FCP RGPIGVCJWCP VGPVCPI CFCP[C MGVGTCVWTCP
VGTUGDWV UGDCICK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC [CPI
MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH

/GPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC


[CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM
6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C
OGNCNWK MGVGTCVWTCP VGTOQMKOKC
/GPICOCNMCP PKNCKPKNCK CICOC FCNCO DGTRKMKT MTGCVKH

/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW KNOKCJ OGOKNKMK TCUC KPIKP VCJW FKUKRNKP


LWLWT QDLGMVKH VGTDWMC OCORW OGODGFCMCP HCMVC FCP QRKPK
WNGV VGNKVK DGTVCPIIWPI LCYCD MTKVKU MTGCVKH KPQXCVKH
FGOQMTCVKU FCP MQOWPKMCVKH FCNCO OGTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP
RGTEQDCCP UGTVC DGTFKUMWUK [CPI FKYWLWFMCP FCNCO UKMCR

/GPIIWPCMCP UKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO RGTEQDCCP FCP


DGTFKUMWUK
$GMGTLC UCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK FCP EKPVC FCOCK FCNCO
OGNCMWMCP MGIKCVCP DGTUCOC

UGJCTKJCTK
/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW MGTLC UCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK EKPVC
FCOCK FCP RGFWNK NKPIMWPICP UGTVC JGOCV FCNCO OG
OCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C CNCO

+PFKMCVQT 2GPECRCKCP -QORGVGPUK

$GTUKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO


OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

/GODGFCMCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO DGTFCUCTMCP


JCUKN RGTEQDCCP FCP FKCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK
/GOCJCOK TGCMUK DGTFCUCTMCP JWMWO *GUU

/GPFKUMWUKMCP RGPIGTVKCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP


/GPFKUMWUKMCP MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
/GPIKFGPVKHKMCUK RGTDGFCCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP
GPFQVGTO
/GPIJKVWPI RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK

/GODWMVKMCP RTQUGU VGTLCFKP[C TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP TGCMUK


GPFQVGTO
/GPIIWPCMCP *WMWO *GUU WPVWM OGPIJKVWPI UWCVW TGCMUK

/GNCMWMCP TCPECPICP FCP RGTEQDCCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP


TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
/GNCMWMCP TCPECPICP FCP RGTEQDCCP RGPGPVWCP*
TGCMUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP NCRQTCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP

6WLWCP 2GODGNCLCTCP
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GOCJCOK RGPIGTVKCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP FCTK MCLKCP NKVGTCVWT
/GPFKUMWUKMCP RGPIGTVKCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP
OGODCPFKPIMCP RGTDGFCCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP
/GOCJCOK MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
/GOCJCOK TGCMUK GMUQVGTO

28

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

/GPICPCNKUKU FKCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK FCP CNKTCP MCNQT WPVWM OGPGPVWMCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP NCRQTCP RGTEQDCCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
/GOCJCOK TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
/GPICPCNKUKU FKCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK FCP CNKTCP MCNQT WPVWM OGPGPVWMCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP NCRQTCP RGTEQDCCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GOCJCOK LGPKULGPKCU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
/GPIJKVWPI RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK DGTFCUCTMCP GMURGTKOGP
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP MCNQTKOGVGT
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP NCRQTCP RGTEQDCCP RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP MCNQTKOGVGT
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GPIJWDWPIMCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP GPGTIK KMCVCP
/GPIJKVWPI RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK DGTFCUCTMCP GMRUGTKOGP JWMWO *GUU FCVC RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT FCP GPGTIK KMCVCP
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP
&

/CVGTK 2GODGNCLCTCP
2GTVGOWCP
C
5KUVGO FCP .KPIMWPICP
D
-CNQT
E
*WMWO -GMGMCNCP 'PGTIK
4GCMUK 'MUQVGTO
4GCMUK 'PFQVGTO
2GTVGOWCP
C
,GPKU 2GTWDCJCP 'PVCNRK
D
2GTWDCJCP #PVCNRK 2GODGPVWMCP 5VCPFCT
E
2GTWDCJCP #PVCNRK 2GPIWTCKCP 5VCPFCT
F
2GTWDCJCP #PVCNRK 2GODCMCTCP 5VCPFCT
G
2GTWDCJCP #PVCNRK 2GNCTWVCP 5VCPFCT
H
2GPGPVWCP* 4GCMUK $GTFCUCTMCP -CNQTKOGVGT
2GTVGOWCP
C
2GPGPVWCP* 4GCMUK $GTFCUCTMCP *WMWO *GUU
D
2GPGPVWCP* 4GCMUK $GTFCUCTMCP 2GTWDCJCP 'PVCNRK 2GODGPVWMCP 5VCPFCT
E
2GPGPVWCP* 4GCMUK $GTFCUCTMCP &CVC 'PGTIK +MCVCP
2GTVGOWCP
7NCPICP JCTKCP

'

/GVQFG 2GODGNCLCTCP
/GVQFG UCKPVKHKM
2GODGNCLCTCP MQQRGTCVKH
2GODGNCLCTCP FKUEQXGT[

2GODGNCLCTCP DGTDCUKU OCUCNCJ


2GODGNCLCTCP MQPVGMUVWCN

5WODGT $GNCLCT
$WMW RCMGV -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5//QFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
$WMW RGNCLCTCP -KOKC [CPI TGNGXCP
$WMWDWMW NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP

/GFKC 2GODGNCLCTCP
/GFKC
C
5KMNWU CNKTCP MCNQT TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP

VGTDKVCP %8 8+8#

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

29

&KCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP
%8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
E
)CODCT KNWUVTCUK TGCMUK CPVCTC /I FCP *%N TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
F
5KMNWU CNKTCP MCNQT TGCMUK GPFQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8#
2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
G &KCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK TGCMUK GPFQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP
%8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
H
)CODCT KNWUVTCUK TGCMUK CPVCTC 0* %N FCP $C 1* TGCMUK GPFQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC
-GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
I &KCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK RGODGPVWMCP \CV & FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
J
/GFKC NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP
#NCV FCP $CJCP
C
2GTCNCVCP FCP DCJCP NCDQTCVQTKWO
D
/GFKC EGVCM FCP GNGMVTQPKM
E
#NCV FCP DCJCP NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP
*

.CPIMCJ.CPIMCJ -GIKCVCP 2GODGNCLCTCP


2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
D
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
E
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
F
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP FCP MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK TGCMUK
GMUQVGTO FCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
G
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI MGIKCVCP [CPI CMCP
FKNCMWMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGP[GNGUCKMCP RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU VGPVCPI UKUVGO FCP
NKPIMWPICP FCP MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
-GIKCVCP +PVK
OGPKV
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGIMCLK DGDGTCRC
NKVGTCVWT VGPVCPI UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP MCLKCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK FCP OGPIJWDWPIMCP MCKVCPP[C FGPICP
RGTDGFCCP CPVCTC UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP [CPI UWFCJ FKMCLKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC RGPIGTVKCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP!
D
#RC RGTDGFCCP CPVCTC UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK FCTK NKVGTCVWT [CPI
FKIWPCMCP WPVWM OGPIMCLK VGPVCPI UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP MGIKCVCP OGPIMCLK NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP VGTUGDWV 5GVKCR
RGUGTVC FKFKM OGPIWORWNMCP DGDGTCRC KPHQTOCUK WPVWM OGODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI UKUVGO FCP
NKPIMWPICP

30

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

/GPICUQUKCUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI RGTDGFCCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP VGPVCPI UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP FK FGRCP MGNCU )WTW
OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGOCJCOCP RCFC OCVGTK MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGOCJCOCPCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK MCNQT
FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC RGPIGTVKCP MCNQT KVW!
D
$CICKOCPC DWP[K JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK!
E
#RC MCKVCPP[C JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK FGPICP MCNQT!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI MCNQT FCP
JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
F

/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI MCNQT
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI GPVCNRK
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP MCNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK FK FGRCP
MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP RCFC UKMNWU CNKTCP MCNQT TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP RCFC FKCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP RCFC ICODCT KNWUVTCUK TGCMUK /I FCP *%N FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI
C RGPIGTVKCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
E EKTK TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP
D JCTIC GPVCNRK TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
F RGTUCOCCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

31

/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC RGPIGTVKCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO!
D
$CICKOCPC OGPGTLGOCJMCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO RCFC FKCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK!
E
#RC EKTK TGCMUK GMUQVGTO!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI TGCMUK
GMUQVGTO
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP FCP EKTK MJWUWU TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
VGTLCFKP[C TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI JCTIC GPVCNRK TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI EKTK TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP RCFC UKMNWU CNKTCP MCNQT TGCMUK GPFQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP RCFC FKCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK TGCMUK GPFQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP RCFC ICODCT KNWUVTCUK TGCMUK 0* %N FCP $C 1* FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC
-GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI
C RGPIGTVKCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
D JCTIC GPVCNRK TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
E EKTK TGCMUK GPFQVGTO FCP
F RGTUCOCCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC RGPIGTVKCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO!
D
$CICKOCPC OGPGTLGOCJMCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO RCFC FKCITCO VKPIMCV GPGTIK!
E
#RC EKTK TGCMUK GPFQVGTO!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI TGCMUK
GPFQVGTO

32

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP FCP EKTK MJWUWU TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
VGTLCFKP[C TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI JCTIC GPVCNRK TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI EKTK TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGTDGFCCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI TGCMUK GPFQVGTO
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP

G
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP GPFQVGTO WPVWM
RGTVGOWCP DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP UCNCO FCP OGPCP[CMCP MCDCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
D
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
LGPKU GPVCNRK
E
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
RGTEQDCCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP MCNQTKOGVGT
F
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
G
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK LGPKU GPVCNRK FCP RGTEQDCCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP MCNQTKOGVGT
H
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
I
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI LGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
FCP RGTEQDCCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP MCNQTKOGVGT
-GIKCVCP +PVK
-GIKCVCP
C

OGPKV

/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP TGCMUK VGTOQMKOKC RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8#
2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI LGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
C RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT
D RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGPIWTCKCP UVCPFCT
E RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODCMCTCP UVCPFCT FCP F
RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGNCTWVCP UVCPFCT
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
LGPKULGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

33

)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#FC DGTCRC LGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK!
D
$CICKOCPC NCODCPI FCTK LGPKULGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E

/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI
LGPKULGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK NGDKJ
LCWJ VGPVCPI LGPKULGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
LGPKULGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI LGPKULGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGPIWTCKCP UVCPFCT
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODCMCTCP UVCPFCT
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGNCTWVCP UVCPFCT
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
C
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI LGPKULGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
D
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP LGPKULGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FK FGRCP MGNCU
E
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C

34

/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGOCJCOCP OCVGTK VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP* TGCMUK DGTFCUCTMCP GMURGTKOGP RCFC OQFWN
(QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP MCNQTKOGVGT
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
TCPECPICP FCP RGTEQDCCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP MCNQTKOGVGT
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC MCNQTKOGVGT KVW!
D
$CICKOCPC ECTC OGPGPVWMCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRKP[C!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI
TCPECPICP FCP RGTEQDCCP MCNQTKOGVGT
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGODWCV JKRQVGUC FCP XCTKCDGN [CPI CMCP FKIWPCMCP
WPVWM RGTEQDCCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
VWICU RTQ[GM VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP MCNQTKOGVGT RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH
-KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGTCPECPI RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI MCNQTKOGVGT
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC RGTEQDCCP FCP KPHQTOCUK FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM
OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI JCUKN RGTEQDCCP [CPI FKFCRCVMCP
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI FCVC JCUKN RGPICOCVCP FCP RGTOCUCNCJCP [CPI CFC FCNCO VWICU
MGNQORQM
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP MCNQTKOGVGT
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP
MCNQTKOGVGT
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP
MCNQTKOGVGT FK FGRCP MGNCU WPVWM OGPFCRCVMCP OCUWMCP FCTK MGNQORQM NCKP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV NCRQTCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP UGUWCK FGPICP HQTOCV NCRQTCP [CPI FKDGTKMCP QNGJ
IWTW )WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD FCP NCRQTCP RGTEQDCCP UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT
RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
G
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP RGTEQDCCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP
MCNQTKOGVGT WPVWM RGTVGOWCP DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP UCNCO FCP OGPCP[CMCP MCDCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
D
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
RGPGPVWCP JCTIC RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
E
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
F
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK RGPGPVWCP JCTIC RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
G
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI LGPKU RGPGPVWCP*
TGCMUK
-GIKCVCP +PVK
OGPKV
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGOCJCOCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK FGPICP JWMWO *GUU DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC
RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK KMCVCP RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH
-KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI LGPKU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
C RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK DGTFCUCTMCP JWMWO *GUU
D RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODGPVWMCP
UVCPFCT UGTVC
E RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK KMCVCP
D /GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK FGPICP JWMWO *GUU DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT UGTVC DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK KMCVCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC OGPGPVWMCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP JWMWO *GUU RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK!
D
$CICKOCPC OGPGPVWMCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK FGPICP FCVC GPGTIK KMCVCP!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI
RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK FGPICP JWMWO *GUU DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT UGTVC DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK KMCVCP
H

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

35

2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM FCP UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK NGDKJ
LCWJ VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK FGPICP JWMWO *GUU DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC
RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT FCP DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK KMCVCP
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK FGPICP JWMWO *GUU DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK
RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT FCP DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK KMCVCP
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK FGPICP JWMWO *GUU DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC
RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT FCP DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK KMCVCP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK DGTFCUCTMCP JWMWO *GUU
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC
RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK
KMCVCP
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK FGPICP JWMWO
*GUU DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT FCP DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK
KMCVCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP RGPGPVWCP RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK TGCMUK FGPICP JWMWO
*GUU DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK RGODGPVWMCP UVCPFCT FCP DGTFCUCTMCP FCVC GPGTIK
KMCVCP FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
G
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GTVGOWCP
7NCPICP *CTKCP
OGPKV
C /GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8#
2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
D
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC UGLWONCJ
DWVKT UQCN
E
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WTCKCP UGLWONCJ
DWVKT UQCN
2GODCJCUCP
C
/GODCJCU UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP
D
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
+

2GPKNCKCP
5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP QDUGTXCUK
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP NGODCT QDUGTXCUK
E
-KUKMKUK
0Q

5KMCR 0KNCK
-GOCORWCP WPVWM OGPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC
[CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC
CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C OGNCNWK MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
-GOCORWCP WPVWM OGPICOCNMCP PKNCKPKNCK CICOC FCNCO DGTRKMKT MTGCVKH

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


5KMCR 5QUKCN
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP RGPKNCKCP IWTW
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP UMCNC UKMCR

36

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

-KUKMKUK
0Q

5KMCR 0KNCK

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

/GPIIWPCMCP UKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO RGTEQDCCP FCP DGTFKUMWUK


$GMGTLCUCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK FCP EKPVC FCOCK FCNCO OGNCMWMCP MGIKCVCP
DGTUCOC
$GTUKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP
OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

+PUVTWOGP
2GPIGVCJWCP
C
D
E

NKJCV NCORKTCP

6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP VGU VGTVWNKU


$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC FCP WTCKCP
-KUKMKUK
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

2GPIGTVKCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP


-CNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
4GCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP GPFQVGTO
/GPIJKVWPI RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


-GVGTCORKNCP
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP FKUMWUK
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP NGODCT RGPKNCKCP FKUMWUK
E
-KUKMKUK
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

/GNCMWMCP TCPECPICP FCP RGTEQDCCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP TGCMUK GPFQVGTO


/GNCMWMCP TCPECPICP FCP RGTEQDCCP RGPGPVWCP * TGCMUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP NCRQTCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
/GP[GVWLWK
-GRCNC 5GMQNCJ

)WTW /CVC 2GNCLCTCP

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0+2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0+2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

37

.#/2+4#0
.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN
.GODCT 1DUGTXCUK 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN
0Q

2GTKNCMW [CPI &KJCTCRMCP

5MQT

/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP WPVWM OGPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC [CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C
DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C OGNCNWK
MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP WPVWM DGTU[WMWT CVCU MGMC[CCP CNCO +PFQPGUKC
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

0KNCK UKMCR URKTKVWCN

,WONCJ UMQT
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

.GODCT 1DUGTXCUK 5KMCR 5QUKCN


0Q

2GTKNCMW [CPI &KJCTCRMCP


/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP FCNCO DGTUKMCR KNOKCJ WPVWM OGTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP FCP FKUMWUK
/GOKNKMK MGRGFWNKCP VGTJCFCR NKPIMWPICP FCNCO OGOCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C CNCO
/GOKNKMK UKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP OGODWCV
MGRWVWUCP
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

0KNCK UKMCR UQUKCN

,WONCJ UMQT
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN


5MQT

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH
5CPICV $CKM
$CKM
%WMWR
-WTCPI

4WDTKM 2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN


4GPVCPI 5MQT

0KNCK

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH

5$

$CKM

%WMWR

-WTCPI

38

5CPICV $CKM

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

5MQT

.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP 2GPIGVCJWCP
.GODCT 2GPKNCKCP 2GPIGVCJWCP
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT 5QCN

2GPIGTVKCP 5KUVGO FCP


.KPIMWPICP

2KNKJCP ICPFC
7TCKCP

4GCMUK 'MUQVGTO FCP


'PFQVGTO

2KNKJCP ICPFC
# #
7TCKCP

/GPIJKVWPI 2GTWDCJCP
'PVCNRK

2KNKJCP ICPFC
# # # # # #
# #
7TCKCP

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5QCN 2KNKJCP )CPFC


0QOQT 5QCN

$QDQV 5QCN

,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN


0KNCK

5MQT RGTQNGJCP
5MQT OCMUKOCN

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5QCN 7TCKCP

0Q

$WVKT 2GTVCP[CCP
5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

$QDQV
5QCN

-TKVGTKC

0KNCK
5MQT

,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

,WONCJ PKNCK CMJKT

5MQT RKNKJCP ICPFC UMQT WTCKCP

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

39

.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP -GVGTCORKNCP
+PUVTWOGP 2GPKNCKCP &KUMWUK -GNQORQM
5KMCR 0KNCK
0Q

0COC
5KMCR

-GCMVKHCP

-GVGTCPICP
0KNCK OCMUKOCN
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORGTQNGJ PKNCK
$CKM UGMCNK CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
$CKM
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
%WMWR
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
-WTCPI
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT

9CYCUCP

-GOCORWCP
/GPIGOWMCMCP
2GPFCRCV

6QVCN 0KNCK
-GTLC 5COC

2GPKNCKCP -KPGTLC /GNCMWMCP 2TCMVKMWO


0Q

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH

2GPKNCKCP

/GTCPIMCK CNCV
2GPICOCVCP
&CVC [CPI FKRGTQNGJ
-GUKORWNCP

4WDTKM 2GPKNCKCP -GVGTCORKNCP


2GPKNCKCP

#URGM [CPI &KPKNCK


/GTCPIMCK CNCV

4CPIMCKCP CNCV VKFCM


DGPCT

4CPIMCKCP CNCV DGPCT


VGVCRK VKFCM TCRK CVCW
VKFCM OGORGTJCVKMCP
MGUGNCOCVCP MGTLC

4CPIMCKCP CNCV DGPCT


TCRK FCP
OGORGTJCVKMCP
MGUGNCOCVCP MGTLC

2GPICOCVCP

2GPICOCVCP VKFCM
EGTOCV

2GPICOCVCP EGTOCV
VGVCRK OGPICPFWPI
KPVGTRTGVCUK

2GPICOCVCP EGTOCV
FCP DGDCU KPVGTRTGVCUK

&CVC [CPI FKRGTQNGJ

&CVC VKFCM NGPIMCR

&CVC NGPIMCR VGVCRK


VKFCM VGTQTICPKUKT CVCW
CFC [CPI UCNCJ VWNKU

&CVC NGPIMCR
VGTQTICPKUKT FCP FKVWNKU
FGPICP DGPCT

-GUKORWNCP

6KFCM DGPCT CVCW VKFCM


UGUWCK VWLWCP

5GDCIKCP MGUKORWNCP
CFC [CPI UCNCJ CVCW
VKFCM UGUWCK VWLWCP

5GOWC DGPCT CVCW


UGUWCK VWLWCP

40

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

2TGUGPVCUK

4'0%#0# 2'.#-5#0##0 2'/$'.#,#4#0 422


5CVWCP 2GPFKFKMCP
/CVC 2GNCLCTCP

-KOKC

-GNCU 5GOGUVGT

:+

/CVGTK 2QMQM

.CLW 4GCMUK

#NQMCUK 9CMVW

5/- /#-

RGTVGOWCP

,2

-QORGVGPUK +PVK
/GPIJC[CVK FCP OGPICOCNMCP CLCTCP CICOC [CPI FKCPWVP[C
/GPIJC[CVK FCP OGPICOCNMCP RGTKNCMW LWLWT FKUKRNKP VCPIIWPI LCYCD RGFWNK IQVQPI TQ[QPI MGTLC
UCOC VQNGTCPUK FCOCK UCPVWP TGURQPUKH FCP RTQCMVKH FCP OGPWPLWMMCP UKMCR UGDCICK DCIKCP FCTK
UQNWUK CVCU DGTDCICK RGTOCUCNCJCP FCNCO DGTKPVGTCMUK UGECTC GHGMVKH FGPICP NKPIMWPICP UQUKCN CNCO UGTVC
FCNCO OGPGORCVMCP FKTK UGDCICK EGTOKPCP DCPIUC FCNCO RGTICWNCP FWPKC
/GOCJCOK OGPGTCRMCP OGPICPCNKUKU RGPIGVCJWCP HCMVWCN MQPUGRVWCN RTQUGFWTCN FCP OGVCMQIPKVKH
DGTFCUCTMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJWP[C VGPVCPI KNOW RGPIGVCJWCP VGMPQNQIK UGPK DWFC[C FCP JWOCPKQTC
FGPICP YCYCUCP MGOCPWUKCCP MGDCPIUCCP MGPGICTCCP RGTCFCDCP VGTMCKV RGP[GDCD HGPQOGPC FCP
MGLCFKCP FCNCO DKFCPI MGTLC URGUKHKM WPVWM OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ
/GPIQNCJ OGPCNCT FCP OGP[CLK FCNCO TCPCJ MQPMTGV FCP TCPCJ CDUVTCM VGTMCKV FGPICP RGPIGODCPICP FCTK
[CPI FKRGNCLCTKP[C FK UGMQNCJ UGECTC OCPFKTK DGTVKPFCM UGECTC GHGMVKH FCP MTGCVKH FCP OCORW
OGNCMUCPCMCP VWICU URGUKHKM FK DCYCJ RGPICYCUCP NCPIUWPI

-QORGVGPUK &CUCT FCP +PFKMCVQT 2GPECRCKCP -QORGVGPUK


-+

-QORGVGPUK &CUCT

+PFKMCVQT 2GPECRCKCP -QORGVGPUK

/GP[CFCTK CFCP[C MGVGTCVWTCP FCTK UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP


VGTOQMKOKC NCLW TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP MKOKC NCTWVCP MQNQKF
UGP[CYC MCTDQP FCP RQNKOGT UGDCICK YWLWF MGDGUCTCP 6WJCP
;CPI /CJC 'UC FCP RGPIGVCJWCP VGPVCPI CFCP[C MGVGTCVWTCP
VGTUGDWV UGDCICK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC [CPI
MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH
/GPU[WMWTK MGMC[CCP CNCO +PFQPGUKC DGTWRC OKP[CM DWOK
DCVWDCTC FCP ICU CNCO UGDCICK CPWIGTCJ 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC
'UC FCP FCRCV FKIWPCMCP WPVWM MGOCMOWTCP TCM[CV
+PFQPGUKC

/GPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC


[CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM
6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C
OGNCNWK MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
$GTU[WMWT CVCU MGMC[CCP CNCO +PFQPGUKC

/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW KNOKCJ OGOKNKMK TCUC KPIKP VCJW FKUKRNKP


LWLWT QDLGMVKH VGTDWMC OCORW OGODGFCMCP HCMVC FCP QRKPK
WNGV VGNKVK DGTVCPIIWPI LCYCD MTKVKU MTGCVKH KPQXCVKH
FGOQMTCVKU FCP MQOWPKMCVKH FCNCO OGTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP
RGTEQDCCP UGTVC DGTFKUMWUK [CPI FKYWLWFMCP FCNCO UKMCR
UGJCTKJCTK
/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW MGTLC UCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK EKPVC
FCOCK FCP RGFWNK NKPIMWPICP UGTVC JGOCV FCNCO OG
OCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C CNCO
/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW TGURQPUKH FCP RTQCMVKH UGTVC DKLCMUCPC
UGDCICK YWLWF MGOCORWCP OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP
OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

/GPIIWPCMCP UKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO OGTCPECPI FCP


OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP FCP FKUMWUK
2GFWNK NKPIMWPICP FCNCO OGOCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C
CNCO

/GOCJCOK VGQTK VWODWMCP VCDTCMCP WPVWM OGPLGNCUMCP


TGCMUK MKOKC
/GPICPCNKUKU HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK

/GOCJCOK RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK


/GPICPCNKUKU VGQTK VWODWMCP FCNCO NCLW TGCMUK /GPICPCNKUKU
HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK /GPGPVWMCP QTFG
TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK /GPICPCNKUKU RGPGTCRCP
NCLW TGCMUK

/GPIGXCNWCUK VGTLCFKP[C TGCMUK MKOKC FGPICP OGPIIWPCMCP


VGQTK VWODWMCP VCDTCMCP
/GODWMVKMCP RTQUGU NCLW TGCMUK FCTK DGTDCICK HCMVQT [CPI
OGOGPICTWJKP[C

/GPIQNCJ JCUKN CPCNKUKU VGQTK VWODWMCP WPVWM OGP


LGNCUMCP TGCMUK MKOKC
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI
OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP OGP[CLKMCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP
HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK

$GTUKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO


OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

41

6WLWCP 2GODGNCLCTCP
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GOCJCOK RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK
/GODWCV TWOWU WOWO VGPVCPI NCLW TGCMUK
/GODWCV RGTUCOCCP WPIMCRCP NCLW TGCMUK
/GODWCV ITCHKM NCLW TGCMUK
/GOCJCOK VGQTK VWODWMCP WPVWM OGORGTLGNCU TGCMUK MKOKC
/GOCJCOK GPGTIK CMVKXCUK CVCW GPGTIK RGPICMVKHCP
/GOCJCOK HCMVQT RGPGPVW NCLW TGCMUK DGTFCUCTMCP VGQTK VWODWMCP
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ NWCU RGTOWMCCP DKFCPI UGPVWJ VGTJCFCR NCLW TGCMUK
/GP[KORWNMCP FCP OGNCRQTMCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ NWCU RGTOWMCCP DKFCPI UGPVWJ VGTJCFCR
NCLW TGCMUK
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ MQPUGPVTCUK VGTJCFCR NCLW TGCMUK
/GP[KORWNMCP FCP OGNCRQTMCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ MQPUGPVTCUK VGTJCFCR NCLW TGCMUK
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ UWJW FCP MCVCNKU VGTJCFCR NCLW TGCMUK
/GP[KORWNMCP FCP OGNCRQTMCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ UWJW FCP MCVCNKU VGTJCFCR NCLW TGCMUK
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GOCJCOK QTFG TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
/GPGPVWMCP QTFG TGCMUK
/GPGPVWMCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP

&

/CVGTK 2GODGNCLCTCP
2GTVGOWCP
C
2GPIGTVKCP .CLW 4GCMUK
D
6GQTK 6WODWMCP
2GTVGOWCP
C
.WCU 2GTOWMCCP $KFCPI 5GPVWJ
D
-QPUGPVTCUK 2GTGCMUK
E
5WJW 6GORGTCVWT
F
-CVCNKU
2GTVGOWCP
1TFG 4GCMUK FCP 2GTUCOCCP .CLW 4GCMUK
2GTVGOWCP
7NCPICP *CTKCP

'

/GVQFG 2GODGNCLCTCP
/GVQFG UCKPVKHKM
2GODGNCLCTCP MQQRGTCVKH
2GODGNCLCTCP FKUEQXGT[
2GODGNCLCTCP

DGTDCUKU

OCUCNCJ

2GODGNCLCTCP MQPVGMUVWCN
5WODGT $GNCLCT
$WMW RCMGV -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5//QFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
$WMW RGNCLCTCP -KOKC [CPI TGNGXCP
$WMWDWMW NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP

42

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1

JCNCOCP

/GFKC 2GODGNCLCTCP
/GFKC
C
)CODCT MGODCPI CRK FCP MCTCV RCFC DGUK FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP
%8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
D
)CODCT KNWUVTCUK VWODWMCP [CPI VKFCM GHGMVKH FCP VWODWMCP [CPI GHGMVKH FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH
-KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
E &KCITCO GPGTIK RGPICMVKHCP WPVWM TGCMUK GPFQVGTO FCP TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH
-KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
F &KCITCO JWDWPICP GPGTIK RGPICMVKHCP FGPICP MCVCNKU WPVWM TGCMUK GMUQVGTO FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH
-KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
G
/GFKC NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP
#NCV FCP $CJCP
C
/GFKC EGVCM FCP GNGMVTQPKM
D
#NCV FCP DCJCP NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP

.CPIMCJ.CPIMCJ -GIKCVCP 2GODGNCLCTCP


2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK FCP VGQTK VWODWMCP
D
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
E
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK FCP VGQTK VWODWMCP
F
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
G
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI MGIKCVCP [CPI CMCP
FKNCMWMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGP[GNGUCKMCP RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP NCLW
TGCMUK FCP VGQTK VWODWMCP
-GIKCVCP +PVK
OGPKV
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK ICODCT
RGTKUVKYC MGODCPI CRK FCP MCTCV RCFC DGUK FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP MCLKCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK FCP OGPIJWDWPIMCP MCKVCPP[C FGPICP
RGTUCOCCP WPIMCRCP NCLW TGCMUK
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK [CPI UWFCJ FKMCLKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK!
D
$CICKOCPC OGPWNKUMCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK!
E
$CICKOCPC OGPIWPIMCRMCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK FCTK NKVGTCVWTG [CPI
FKIWPCMCP WPVWM OGPIMCLK VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK FCP
RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP MGIKCVCP OGPIMCLK NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK VGTUGDWV 5GVKCR
RGUGTVC FKFKM OGPIWORWNMCP DGDGTCRC KPHQTOCUK WPVWM OGODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP
NCLW TGCMUK
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

43

/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK


/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI RGTUCOCCP WPIMCRCP NCLW TGCMUK
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP NCLW TGCMUK FK FGRCP MGNCU )WTW
OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP RCFC ICODCT VGPVCPI VWODWMCP [CPI VKFCM GHGMVKH FCP VWODWMCP [CPI GHGMVKH
FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP RCFC FKCITCO GPGTIK RGPICMVKHCP FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP RCFC FKCITCO JWDWPICP GPGTIK RGPICMVKHCP FGPICP MCVCNKU WPVWM TGCMUK GMUQVGTO
FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI
C RGPLGNCUCP GPGTIK RGPICMVKHCP
D RGPLGNCUCP VWODWMCP RCFC TGCMUK UWCVW \CV FCP
E VGQTK VWODWMCP FCNCO OGPLGNCUMCP DGDGTCRC HCMVQT RGPGPVW NCLW TGCMUK [CKVW MQPUGPVTCUK
NWCU RGTOWMCCP UWJW FCP MCVCNKU
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK VGQTK
VWODWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC UWCVW TGCMUK FCRCV VGTLCFK!
D
$CICKOCPC MQPUGPVTCUK FCRCV OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK!
E
$CICKOCPC NWCU RGTOWMCCP FCRCV OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK!
F
$CICKOCPC UWJW FCRCV OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK!
G
$CICKOCPC MCVCNKU FCRCV OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI VGQTK
VWODWMCP [CPI OGPLGNCUMCP VGTLCFKP[C UWCVW TGCMUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI
C RGPLGNCUCP GPGTIK RGPICMVKHCP
D RGPLGNCUCP VWODWMCP RCFC TGCMUK UWCVW \CV FCP
E VGQTK VWODWMCP FCNCO OGPLGNCUMCP DGDGTCRC HCMVQT RGPGPVW NCLW TGCMUK [CKVW MQPUGPVTCUK
NWCU RGTOWMCCP UWJW FCP MCVCNKU
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
VGQTK VWODWMCP FCNCO TGCMUK
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI GPGTIK RGPICMVKHCP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI VWODWMCP RCFC TGCMUK UWCVW \CV
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI VGQTK VWODWMCP FCNCO OGPLGNCUMCP DGDGTCRC HCMVQT RGPGPVW NCLW
TGCMUK [CKVW MQPUGPVTCUK NWCU RGTOWMCCP UWJW FCP MCVCNKU
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI VGQTK VWODWMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP VGQTK VWODWMCP FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM

44

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
G )WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
H )WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK NCLW
TGCMUK WPVWM RGTVGOWCP DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
OGTCPECPI FCP RGTEQDCCP WPVWM OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK
D
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
E
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGTCPECPI FCP RGTEQDCCP WPVWM OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK
F
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
G
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI MGIKCVCP [CPI CMCP
FKNCMWMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGP[GNGUCKMCP RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU OGTCPECPI FCP RGTEQDCCP
WPVWM OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK
H
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM WPVWM OGODWCV TCPECPICP FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP
WPVWM OGP[GNKFKMK RGPICTWJ NWCU RGTOWMCCP MQPUGPVTCUK UWJW FCP MCVCNKU VGTJCFCR NCLW TGCMUK
I
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKKPICVMCP NCPIMCJNCPIMCJ FCNCO OGTCPECPI OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP FCP OGP[KORWNMCP
UGUWCK FGPICP OGVQFG KNOKCJ OGNCNWK DCICP CVCW RGVC MQPUGR NCPIMCJNCPIMCJ OGVQFG KNOKCJ
-GIKCVCP +PVK
C

OGPKV

/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VGPVCPI VWLWCP TCPECPICP FCP RGTEQDCCP VGTUGDWV
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI XCTKCDGN [CPI FKIWPCMCP FCNCO RGTEQDCCP
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGTWOWUMCP RGTVCP[CCP
UGDCICK OCUCNCJ FCNCO RGTEQDCCP
&CTK RGTOUCNCJCP VGTUGDWV RGUGTVC FKFKM OGTWOWUMCP JKRQVGUKU TCPECPICP RGTEQDCCP
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKDWCV
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
2GUGTVC FKFKM DGMGTLC FCNCO MGNQORQM WPVWM OGTCPECPI RGTEQDCCP DGTFCUCTMCP JKRQVGUKU [CPI
VGNCJ OGTGMC DWCV RCFC VWICU MGNQORQM FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC :+ 5GOGUVGT
VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI MGNQORQM [CPI OGPICNCOK MGUWNKVCP
-GNQORQM OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP UGUWCK FGPICP TCPECPICP [CPI VGNCJ OGTGMC DWCV FGPICP
DKODKPICP IWTW
/GPICUQUKCUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM DGTFKUMWUK WPVWM OGPICPCNKUKU JCUKN RGTEQDCCP FGPICP OGPIIWPCMCP VCDGN JCUKN
MGTLC
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCTK VWLWCP RGTEQDCCP [CPI VGNCJ FKNCMWMCP
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI JCUKN RGTEQDCCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP NWCU RGTOWMCCP VGTJCFCR NCLW TGCMUK FK FGRCP
MGNCU
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV NCRQTCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

45

2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
G
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP QTFG TGCMUK WPVWM RGTVGOWCP DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP UCNCO FCP OGPCP[CMCP MCDCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
D
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
QTFG TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
E
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
F
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK QTFG TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
G
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI QTFG TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP
NCLW TGCMUK
-GIKCVCP +PVK
C

46

OGPKV

/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK QTFG
TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP
%8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI
C RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK UGECTC WOWO FCP D
ECTC OGPGPVWMCP QTFG NCLW TGCMUK
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK QTFG
TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC RGPIGTVKCP QTFG TGCMUK!
D
$CICKOCPC ECTC OGPGPVWMCP QTFG TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI QTFG
TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI QTFG TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI QTFG
TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI QTFG TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP QTFG TGCMUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI ECTC OGPGPVWMCP QTFG TGCMUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI ECTC OGPWNKUMCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI QTFG TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP QTFG TGCMUK FCP RGTUCOCCP NCLW TGCMUK FK FGRCP
MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
G
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
H )WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP WNCPICP JCTKCP WPVWM RGTVGOWCP DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
7NCPICP *CTKCP
OGPKV
C
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8
8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
D
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC UGLWONCJ
DWVKT UQCN
E
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WTCKCP UGLWONCJ DWVKT UQCN
2GODCJCUCP OGPKV
C
/GODCJCU UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP
D
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
+

2GPKNCKCP
5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP QDUGTXCUK
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP NGODCT QDUGTXCUK
E
-KUKMKUK
0Q

5KMCR 0KNCK

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

-GOCORWCP WPVWM OGPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC


[CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC
CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C OGNCNWK MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
-GOCORWCP WPVWM OGPICOCNMCP PKNCKPKNCK CICOC FCNCO DGTRKMKT MTGCVKH

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


5KMCR 5QUKCN
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP RGPKNCKCP IWTW
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP UMCNC UKMCR
E
-KUKMKUK
0Q

5KMCR 0KNCK

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

/GPIIWPMCP UKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO RGTEQDCCP FCP DGTFKUMWUK


$GMGTLC UCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK FCP EKPVC FCOCK FCNCO OGNCMWMCP MGIKCVCP
DGTUCOC
$GTUKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP
OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

+PUVTWOGP

NKJCV NCORKTCP

2GPIGVCJWCP
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP VGU VGTVWNKU
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC FCP WTCKCP
E
-KUKMKUK
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

2GPIGTVKCP UKUVGO FCP NKPIMWPICP


-CNQT FCP JWMWO MGMGMCNCP GPGTIK
4GCMUK GMUQVGTO FCP GPFQVGTO
/GPIJKVWPI RGTWDCJCP GPVCNRK

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

47

-GVGTCORKNCP
C
D
E

6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP FKUMWUK


$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP NGODCT RGPKNCKCP FKUMWUK
-KUKMKUK
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

/GPIQNCJ JCUKN CPCNKUKU VGQTK VWODWMCP WPVWM OGPLGNCUMCP TGCMUK MKOKC


/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP OGP[CLKMCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI
OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
/GP[GVWLWK
-GRCNC 5GMQNCJ

)WTW /CVC 2GNCLCTCP

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0+2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0+2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

48

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

.#/2+4#0
.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN
.GODCT 1DUGTXCUK 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN
0Q

2GTKNCMW [CPI &KJCTCRMCP

5MQT

/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP WPVWM OGPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC [CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C
DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C OGNCNWK
MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP WPVWM OGPICOCNMCP PKNCKPKNCK CICOC FCNCO DGTRKMKT MTGCVKH
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

0KNCK UKMCR URKTKVWCN

,WONCJ UMQT
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

.GODCT 1DUGTXCUK 5KMCR 5QUKCN


0Q

2GTKNCMW [CPI &KJCTCRMCP

5MQT

/GNCMWMCP UKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO RGTEQDCCP FCP DGTFKUMWUK


/GPWPLWMMCP DGMGTLC UCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK FCP EKPVC FCOCK FCNCO OGNCMWMCP MGIKCVCP DGTUCOC
/GPWPLWMMCP UKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP OGODWCV
MGRWVWUCP
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

0KNCK UKMCR UQUKCN

,WONCJ UMQT
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN


5MQT

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH
5CPICV $CKM
$CKM
%WMWR
-WTCPI

4WDTKM 2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN


4GPVCPI 5MQT

0KNCK

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH

5$

$CKM

%WMWR

-WTCPI

5CPICV $CKM

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

49

.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP 2GPIGVCJWCP
.GODCT 2GPKNCKCP 2GPIGVCJWCP
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT 5QCN

2GPIGTVKCP .CLW 4GCMUK

2KNKJCP ICPFC

# #

6GQTK 6WODWMCP FCNCO .CLW


4GCMUK (CMVQT(CMVQT [CPI
/GOGPICTWJK .CLW 4GCMUK

2KNKJCP ICPFC
# # # # # # #

1TFG 4GCMUK FCP 2GTUCOC


CP NCLW TGCMUK

2KNKJCP ICPFC

# #

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5QCN 2KNKJCP )CPFC


0QOQT 5QCN

$QDQV 5QCN

,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN


0KNCK

5MQT RGTQNGJCP
5MQT OCMUKOCN

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5QCN 7TCKCP

0Q

$WVKT 2GTVCP[CCP
5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

5QCN WTCKCP PQ

7NCPICP *CTKCP

$QDQV
5QCN

,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

,WONCJ PKNCK CMJKT

50

5MQT RKNKJCP ICPFC UMQT WTCKCP

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

-TKVGTKC

0KNCK
5MQT

.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP -GVGTCORKNCP
+PUVTWOGP 2GPKNCKCP &KUMWUK -GNQORQM
5KMCR 0KNCK
0Q

0COC
5KMCR

-GCMVKHCP

-GVGTCPICP
0KNCK OCMUKOCN
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORGTQNGJ PKNCK
$CKM UGMCNK CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
$CKM
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
%WMWR
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
-WTCPI
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT

9CYCUCP

-GOCORWCP
/GPIGOWMCMCP
2GPFCRCV

6QVCN 0KNCK

2TGUGPVCUK

-GTLC 5COC

2GPKNCKCP -KPGTLC /GNCMWMCP 2TCMVKMWO


0Q

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH

2GPKNCKCP

/GTCPIMCK CNCV
2GPICOCVCP
&CVC [CPI FKRGTQNGJ
-GUKORWNCP

4WDTKM 2GPKNCKCP -GVGTCORKNCP


2GPKNCKCP

#URGM [CPI &KPKNCK


/GTCPIMCK CNCV

4CPIMCKCP CNCV VKFCM


DGPCT

4CPIMCKCP CNCV DGPCT


VGVCRK VKFCM TCRK CVCW
VKFCM OGORGTJCVKMCP
MGUGNCOCVCP MGTLC

4CPIMCKCP CNCV DGPCT


TCRK FCP
OGORGTJCVKMCP
MGUGNCOCVCP MGTLC

2GPICOCVCP

2GPICOCVCP VKFCM
EGTOCV

2GPICOCVCP EGTOCV
VGVCRK OGPICPFWPI
KPVGTRTGVCUK

2GPICOCVCP EGTOCV
FCP DGDCU KPVGTRTGVCUK

&CVC [CPI FKRGTQNGJ

&CVC VKFCM NGPIMCR

&CVC NGPIMCR VGVCRK


VKFCM VGTQTICPKUKT CVCW
CFC [CPI UCNCJ VWNKU

&CVC NGPIMCR
VGTQTICPKUKT FCP FKVWNKU
FGPICP DGPCT

-GUKORWNCP

6KFCM DGPCT CVCW VKFCM


UGUWCK VWLWCP

5GDCIKCP MGUKORWNCP
CFC [CPI UCNCJ CVCW
VKFCM UGUWCK VWLWCP

5GOWC DGPCT CVCW


UGUWCK VWLWCP

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

51

4'0%#0# 2'.#-5#0##0 2'/$'.#,#4#0 422


5CVWCP 2GPFKFKMCP

5/- /#-

/CVC 2GNCLCTCP

-KOKC

-GNCU 5GOGUVGT

:+

/CVGTK 2QMQM

-GUGVKODCPICP -KOKC

#NQMCUK 9CMVW

RGTVGOWCP

,2

-QORGVGPUK +PVK
/GPIJC[CVK FCP OGPICOCNMCP CLCTCP CICOC [CPI FKCPWVP[C
/GPIJC[CVK FCP OGPICOCNMCP RGTKNCMW LWLWT FKUKRNKP VCPIIWPI LCYCD RGFWNK IQVQPI TQ[QPI MGTLC UCOC
VQNGTCPUK FCOCK UCPVWP TGURQPUKH FCP RTQCMVKH FCP OGPWPLWMMCP UKMCR UGDCICK DCIKCP FCTK UQNWUK CVCU
DGTDCICK RGTOCUCNCJCP FCNCO DGTKPVGTCMUK UGECTC GHGMVKH FGPICP NKPIMWPICP UQUKCN CNCO UGTVC FCNCO
OGPGORCVMCP FKTK UGDCICK EGTOKPCP DCPIUC FCNCO RGTICWNCP FWPKC
/GOCJCOK OGPGTCRMCP OGPICPCNKUKU RGPIGVCJWCP HCMVWCN MQPUGRVWCN RTQUGFWTCN FCP OGVCMQIPKVKH
DGTFCUCTMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJWP[C VGPVCPI KNOW RGPIGVCJWCP VGMPQNQIK UGPK DWFC[C FCP JWOCPKQTC FGPICP
YCYCUCP MGOCPWUKCCP MGDCPIUCCP MGPGICTCCP RGTCFCDCP VGTMCKV RGP[GDCD HGPQOGPC FCP MGLCFKCP
FCNCO DKFCPI MGTLC URGUKHKM WPVWM OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ
/GPIQNCJ OGPCNCT FCP OGP[CLK FCNCO TCPCJ MQPMTGV FCP TCPCJ CDUVTCM VGTMCKV FGPICP RGPIGODCPICP FCTK [CPI
FKRGNCLCTKP[C FK UGMQNCJ UGECTC OCPFKTK DGTVKPFCM UGECTC GHGMVKH FCP MTGCVKH FCP OCORW OGNCMUCPCMCP
VWICU URGUKHKM FK DCYCJ RGPICYCUCP NCPIUWPI

-QORGVGPUK &CUCT FCP +PFKMCVQT 2GPECRCKCP -QORGVGPUK


-+

52

-QORGVGPUK &CUCT

+PFKMCVQT 2GPECRCKCP -QORGVGPUK

/GP[CFCTK CFCP[C MGVGTCVWTCP FCTK UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP


VGTOQMKOKC NCLW TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP MKOKC NCTWVCP MQNQKF
UGP[CYC MCTDQP FCP RQNKOGT UGDCICK YWLWF MGDGUCTCP 6WJCP
;CPI /CJC 'UC FCP RGPIGVCJWCP VGPVCPI CFCP[C MGVGTCVWTCP
VGTUGDWV UGDCICK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC [CPI
MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH
/GPU[WMWTK MGMC[CCP CNCO +PFQPGUKC DGTWRC OKP[CM DWOK
DCVWDCTC FCP ICU CNCO UGDCICK CPWIGTCJ 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC
'UC FCP FCRCV FKIWPCMCP WPVWM MGOCMOWTCP TCM[CV
+PFQPGUKC

/GPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC


[CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM
6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C
OGNCNWK MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
$GTU[WMWT CVCU MGMC[CCP CNCO +PFQPGUKC

/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW KNOKCJ OGOKNKMK TCUC KPIKP VCJW FKUKRNKP


LWLWT QDLGMVKH VGTDWMC OCORW OGODGFCMCP HCMVC FCP QRKPK
WNGV VGNKVK DGTVCPIIWPI LCYCD MTKVKU MTGCVKH KPQXCVKH
FGOQMTCVKU FCP MQOWPKMCVKH FCNCO OGTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP
RGTEQDCCP UGTVC DGTFKUMWUK [CPI FKYWLWFMCP FCNCO UKMCR
UGJCTKJCTK
/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW MGTLC UCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK EKPVC
FCOCK FCP RGFWNK NKPIMWPICP UGTVC JGOCV FCNCO OG
OCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C CNCO
/GPWPLWMMCP RGTKNCMW TGURQPUKH FCP RTQCMVKH UGTVC DKLCMUCPC
UGDCICK YWLWF MGOCORWCP OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP
OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

/GPIIWPCMCP UKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO OGTCPECPI FCP


OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP FCP FKUMWUK
2GFWNK NKPIMWPICP FCNCO OGOCPHCCVMCP UWODGT FC[C
CNCO
$GTUKMCR TGURQPUK RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO
OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

/GOCJCOK VGQTK VWODWMCP VCDTCMCP WPVWM OGPLGNCUMCP


TGCMUK MKOKC
/GPICPCNKUKU HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK NCLW TGCMUK

/GOCJCOK RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU


/GPICPCNKUKU RGTIGUGTCP CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP
/GPICPCNKUKU MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTK
JCTK FCP KPFWUVTK
/GPGPVWMCP VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP -E FCP -R

/GPIGXCNWCUK VGTLCFKP[C TGCMUK MKOKC FGPICP OGPIIWPCMCP


VGQTK VWODWMCP VCDTCMCP
/GODWMVKMCP RTQUGU NCLW TGCMUK FCTK DGTDCICK HCMVQT [CPI
OGOGPICTWJKP[C

/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGTLCFKP[C TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP FCP


LGPKUP[C
/GPIQNCJ JCUKN CPCNKUKU RGTIGUGTCP CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI
OGOGPICTWJK RGTIGUGTCP CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP
/GPFKUMWUKMCP OCUCNCJ FCNCO TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP
MKOKC

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

6WLWCP 2GODGNCLCTCP
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GOCJCOK RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU
/GOCJCOK EKTKEKTK MGUGVKODCPICP
/GOCJCOK VGTLCFKP[C TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP FCP LGPKULGPKUP[C
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GOCJCOK RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP MQPUGPVTCUK FCNCO RGTIGUGTCP MGUGVKODCPICP
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP MQPUGPVTCUK FCNCO RGTIGUGTCP
MGUGVKODCPICP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP NCRQTCP VGPVCPI RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP MQPUGPVTCUK FCNCO
RGTIGUGTCP MGUGVKODCPICP
/GOCJCOK RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP UWJW FCNCO RGTIGUGTCP MGUGVKODCPICP
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP UWJW FCNCO RGTIGUGTCP
MGUGVKODCPICP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP NCRQTCP VGPVCPI RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP UWJW FCNCO RGTIGUGTCP
MGUGVKODCPICP
/GOCJCOK RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP VGMCPCP FCP XQNWOG FCNCO RGTIGUGTCP MGUGVKODCPICP
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP VGPVCPI RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP VGMCPCP FCP XQNWOG FCNCO
RGTIGUGTCP MGUGVKODCPICP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCP NCRQTCP VGPVCPI RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP VGMCPCP FCP XQNWOG FCNCO
RGTIGUGTCP MGUGVKODCPICP
/GPICRNKMCUKMCP HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGPIIGUGT CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK
/GPICRNKMCUKMCP HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGPIIGUGT CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP WPVWM OGPFCRCVMCP JCUKN [CPI
QRVKOCN FCNCO KPFWUVTK
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV
/GPGPVWMCP MQORQUKUK \CV FCNCO MGCFCCP UGVKODCPI
/GPGPVWMCP MGUGVKODCPICP DGTFCUCTMCP MQPUGPVTCUK
-E
/GPGPVWMCP VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP WPVWM TGCMUK JQOQIGP
/GPGPVWMCP VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP WPVWM TGCMUK JGVGTQIGP
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP
2GTVGOWCP
5GVGNCJ OGPIKMWVK UGTCPIMCKCP MGIKCVCP RGODGNCLCTCP RGUGTVC FKFKM FCRCV OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP CMJKT
UGOGUVGT

&

/CVGTK 2GODGNCLCTCP
2GTVGOWCP
C
-GUGVKODCPICP &KPCOKU
D
%KTK%KTK -GUGVKODCPICP &KPCOKU
E
,GPKU,GPKU -GUGVKODCPICP
2GTVGOWCP
C
2GTIGUGTCP #TCJ -GUGVKODCPICP -CTGPC 2GTWDCJCP -QPUGPVTCUK
D
2GTIGUGTCP #TCJ -GUGVKODCPICP -CTGPC 2GTWDCJCP 5WJW
E
-QPUGPVTCUK 2GTGCMUK 2GTIGUGTCP #TCJ -GUGVKODCPICP MCTGPC 2GTWDCJCP 6GMCPCP FCP 8QNWOG
F
-GUGVKODCPICP FCNCO -GJKFWRCP 5GJCTK*CTK
G
-GUGVKODCPICP FCNCO +PFWUVTK
2GTVGOWCP
C
6GVCRCP -GUGVKODCPICP $GTFCUCTMCP -QPUGPVTCUK
-E
D
6GVCRCP -GUGVKODCPICP 4GCMUK *QOQIGP FCP *GVGTQIGP
E
6GVCRCP -GUGVKODCPICP $GTFCUCTMCP 6GMCPCP 2CTUKCN
-R
F
*WDWPICP -E FCP -R
G &KUQUKCUK
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

53

2GTVGOWCP
7NCPICP *CTKCP
2GTVGOWCP
7NCPICP #MJKT 5GOGUVGT
'

/GVQFG 2GODGNCLCTCP
/GVQFG UCKPVKHKM
2GODGNCLCTCP MQQRGTCVKH
2GODGNCLCTCP FKUEQXGT[
2GODGNCLCTCP DGTDCUKU
2GODGNCLCTCP MQPVGMUVWCN

OCUCNCJ

5WODGT $GNCLCT
$WMW RCMGV -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5//QFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
$WMW RGNCLCTCP -KOKC [CPI TGNGXCP
$WMWDWMW NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP

/GFKC 2GODGNCLCTCP
/GFKC
C
#TVKMGN FGOQPUVTCUK TGCMUK RCFC DGUK FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP
%8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP

D
2GTUCOCCP TGCMUK VWICU MGNQORQM FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP
%8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
E
)CODCT KNWUVTCUK RCTVKMGN RCFC MGUGVKODCPICP [CPI FKRGPICTWJK QNGJ VGMCPCP FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH
-KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
F
)CODCT KNUWVTCUK RCTVKMGN RCFC MGUGVKODCPICP [CPI FKRGPICTWJK QNGJ XQNWOG FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH
-KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
G
/GFKC NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP
#NCV FCP $CJCP
C
#NCV FCP DCJCP RGTEQDCCP [CPI FKRGTNWMCP
D
/GFKC EGVCM FCP GNGMVTQPKM
E
#NCV FCP DCJCP NCKP [CPI TGNGXCP

.CPIMCJ.CPIMCJ -GIKCVCP 2GODGNCLCTCP


2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU
D
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
E
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU
F
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
G
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI MGIKCVCP [CPI CMCP
FKNCMWMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGP[GNGUCKMCP RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU VGPVCPI MGUGVKODCPICP
FKPCOKU
-GIKCVCP +PVK
OGPKV
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPEGTOCVK CTVKMGN
VGPVCPI FGOQPUVTCUK TGCMUK 2D51 FGPICP NCTWVCP 0C+ FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP MCLKCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK FCP OGPIJWDWPIMCP MCKVCPP[C FGPICP
MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU [CPI UWFCJ FKMCLKP[C

54

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
/GPICRC VGTLCFK TGCMUK DCNKM!
D
#RC RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK FCTK NKVGTCVWT [CPI
FKIWPCMCP WPVWM OGPIMCLK VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU
EKTKEKTK
MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU FCP LGPKULGPKU MGUGVKODCPICP
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU EKTKEKTK MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU FCP
LGPKULGPKU MGUGVKODCPICP VGTUGDWV
5GVKCR RGUGTVC FKFKM OGPIWORWNMCP DGDGTCRC KPHQTOCUK WPVWM OGODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI
RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU EKTKEKTK MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU FCP LGPKULGPKU
MGUGVKODCPICP
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP RGTOCUCNCJCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU EKTKEKTK
MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU FCP LGPKULGPKU MGUGVKODCPICP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI EKTKEKTK MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU /GODWCV
MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI LGPKULGPKU MGUGVKODCPICP
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU EKTKEKTK
MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU FCP LGPKULGPKU MGUGVKODCPICP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP VGPVCPI RGPIGTVKCP MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU
EKTKEKTK MGUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU FCP LGPKULGPKU MGUGVKODCPICP FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPEGTOCVK
RGTUCOCCP TGCMUK VWICU MGNQORQM FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP
%8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP MCLKCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI LGPKU MGUGVKODCPICP JQOQIGP FCP MGUGVKODCPICP
JGVGTQIGP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPICOCVK FCP OGPIJWDWPIMCP MCKVCPP[C FGPICP
MGUGVKODCPICP JQOQIGP FCP MGUGVKODCPICP JGVGTQIGP
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
RGTUCOCCP TGCMUK [CPI UWFCJ FKMCLKP[C
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
#RC EKTK MJCU MGUGVKODCPICP JQOQIGP!
D
#RC EKTK MJCU MGUGVKODCPICP JGVGTQIGP!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK FCTK NKVGTCVWT [CPI
FKIWPCMCP WPVWM OGPGPVWMCP LGPKU MGUGVKODCPICP
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPGPVWMCP
RGTUCOCCP TGCMUK [CPI VGTOCUWM DWMCP MGUGVKODCPICP MGUGVKODCPICP JQOQIGP FCP
MGUGVKODCPICP JGVGTQIGP
5GVKCR RGUGTVC FKFKM OGPIWORWNMCP DGDGTCRC KPHQTOCUK WPVWM OGODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI
DWMCP MGUGVKODCPICP MGUGVKODCPICP JQOQIGP FCP MGUGVKODCPICP JGVGTQIGP
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

55

/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP RGTOCUCNCJCP VGPVCPI DWMCP MGUGVKODCPICP MGUGVKODCPICP JQOQIGP FCP
MGUGVKODCPICP JGVGTQIGP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI EKTK MGUGVKODCPICP JQOQIGP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP MCLKCP VGPVCPI EKTKEKTK MGUGVKODCPICP JGVGTQIGP
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI MGUGVKODCPICP JQOQIGP FCP MGUGVKODCPICP
JGVGTQIGP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP VGPVCPI MGUGVKODCPICP JQOQIGP FCP
MGUGVKODCPICP JGVGTQIGP FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
G
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP RGTIGUGTCP CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP WPVWM
RGTVGOWCP DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
RGTEQDCCP WPVWM OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP TGCMUK
D
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK FCP KPFWUVTK
E
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
F
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK RGTEQDCCP WPVWM OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK CTCJ MG
UGVKODCPICP TGCMUK
G
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI MGIKCVCP [CPI CMCP
FKNCMWMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGP[GNGUCKMCP RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU VGPVCPI RGTEQDCCP WPVWM
OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP TGCMUK
I
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM WPVWM OGODWCV TCPECPICP FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP
WPVWM OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP TGCMUK
J
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKKPICVMCP NCPIMCJNCPIMCJ FCNCO OGTCPECPI OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP FCP OGP[KORWNMCP
UGUWCK FGPICP OGVQFG KNOKCJ OGNCNWK DCICP CVCW RGVC MQPUGR NCPIMCJNCPIMCJ OGVQFG KNOKCJ
-GIKCVCP +PVK
-GIKCVCP
C

56

OGPKV

/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP VGPVCPI VWLWCP TCPECPICP FCP RGTEQDCCP WPVWM OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI
OGOGPICTWJK CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP TGCMUK
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI XCTKCDGN [CPI FKIWPCMCP FCNCO RGTEQDCCP WPVWM
OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP TGCMUK
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGTWOWUMCP RGTVCP[CCP
UGDCICK OCUCNCJ FCNCO RGTEQDCCP
&CTK RGTOCUCNCJCP VGTUGDWV RGUGTVC FKFKM OGTWOWUMCP JKRQVGUKU VGPVCPI RGTEQDCCP WPVWM
OGP[GNKFKMK HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP TGCMUK
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKDWCV
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
2GUGTVC FKFKM DGMGTLC FCNCO MGNQORQM WPVWM OGTCPECPI RGTEQDCCP DGTFCUCTMCP JKRQVGUKU [CPI
VGNCJ OGTGMC DWCV
)WTW OGODKODKPI MGNQORQM [CPI OGPICNCOK MGUWNKVCP
-GNQORQM OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP UGUWCK FGPICP TCPECPICP [CPI VGNCJ OGTGMC DWCV FGPICP
DKODKPICP IWTW
/GPICUQUKCUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM DGTFKUMWUK WPVKWM OGPICPCNKUKU JCUKN RGTEQDCCP FGPICP OGPIIWPCMCP VCDGN JCUKN
MGTLC FCP RGTOCUCNCJCP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP FCTK VWLWCP RGTEQDCCP [CPI VGNCJ FKNCMWMCP
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI JCUKN RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP
MQPUGPVTCUK VGTJCFCR MGUGVKODCPICP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ RGTWDCJCP MQPUGPVTCUK VGTJCFCR
MGUGVKODCPICP FK FGRCP MGNCU
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV NCRQTCP JCUKN RGTEQDCCP
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM

-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGNCMWMCP
RGPICOCVCP MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK FCP KPFWUVTK FK UGMKVCTP[C
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI
C MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK FCP
D MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP KPFWUVTK CICT FKRGTQNGJ JCUKN [CPI QRVKOWO
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK FCP KPFWUVTK
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC ECTC OGPFCRCVMCP JCUKN QRVKOWO FCNCO RTQFWMUK KPFWUVTK!
D
#RCMCJ RGOCPCUCP CKT FCNCO YCFCJ VGTVWVWR LWIC VGTOCUWM MGUGVKODCPICP!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI
MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK FCP KPFWUVTK
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPIMCLK
NGDKJ LCWJ VGPVCPI
C MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK FCP
D MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP KPFWUVTK CICT FKRGTQNGJ JCUKN [CPI QRVKOWO
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI
MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK FCP KPFWUVTK
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK FCP KPFWUVTK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP KPFWUVTK CICT FKRGTQNGJ JCUKN [CPI
QRVKOWO
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTK JCTK
FCP KPFWUVTK
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTKJCTK FCP
KPFWUVTK FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

57

2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
G
)WTW OGODGTKMCP VWICU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIGTLCMCP UQCN TGXKGY FCP RGPGTCRCP
RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP TGPECPC RGODGNCLCTCP WPVWM DCJCUCP RGTEQDCCP RGPICTWJ UWJW WPVWM
RGTVGOWCP DGTKMWVP[C
2GTVGOWCP
2GPFCJWNWCP OGPKV
C
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP UCNCO FCP OGPCP[CMCP MCDCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
D
)WTW OGP[KCRMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM UGECTC RUKMKU FCP HKUKM WPVWM OGPIKMWVK RTQUGU RGODGNCLCTCP VGPVCPI
VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP DGTFCUCTMCP MQPUGPVTCUK
E
)WTW OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCPRGTVCP[CCP VGPVCPI OCVGTK [CPI UWFCJ FKRGNCLCTK FCP VGTMCKV FGPICP
OCVGTK [CPI CMCP FKRGNCLCTK
F
)WTW OGPICPVCTMCP RGUGTVC FKFKM MGRCFC UWCVW RGTOCUCNCJCP CVCW VWICU [CPI CMCP FKNCMWMCP
WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP DGTFCUCTMCP MQPUGPVTCUK
G
)WTW OGPLGNCUMCP VWLWCP RGODGNCLCTCP CVCW MQORGVGPUK FCUCT [CPI CMCP FKECRCK
H
)WTW OGP[CORCKMCP ICTKU DGUCT ECMWRCP OCVGTK FCP RGPLGNCUCP VGPVCPI VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP
DGTFCUCTMCP MQPUGPVTCUK
-GIKCVCP +PVK
OGPKV
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM RGPICOCVCP VCDGN
RGTEQDCCP FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1
JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI
C OGPWNKUMCP RGTUCOCCP VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP FCP
D JWDWPICP VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP UCVW TGCMUK FGPICP TGCMUK NCKPP[C
D
/GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP DGTFCUCTMCP MQPUGPVTCUK
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
C
$CICKOCPC ECTC OGPWNKUMCP RGTUCOCCP VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP!
D
$CICKOCPC VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP WPVWM LGPKU TGCMUK JQOQIGP FCP JGVGTQIGP!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
E
/GPIWORWNMCP &CVC
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPIICNK FCP OGPIWORWNMCP KPHQTOCUK VGPVCPI VGVCRCP
MGUGVKODCPICP DGTFCUCTMCP MQPUGPVTCUK
2GUGTVC FKFKM FKDCIK OGPLCFK DGDGTCRC MGNQORQM UGVKCR MGNQORQM QTCPI WPVWM OGPWNKUMCP
TWOWU VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP FCTK TGCMUK [CPI CFC FCP OGPWNKUMCP RGTUCOCCP TGCMUK
MGUGVKODCPICP FCTK TWOWU VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP
5GVKCR MGNQORQM OGPIWORWNMCP FCVC FCTK DGTDCICK UWODGT WPVWM OGPFKUMWUKMCP JCUKN
MGIKCVCP MGNQORQM
F
/GPICUQUKCUK
/GPFKUMWUKMCP VGPVCPI TWOWU VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP FCP RGTUCOCCP TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI TWOWU VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP
/GODWCV MGUKORWNCP VGPVCPI RGTUCOCCP TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP
G
/GPIQOWPKMCUKMCP
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGP[WUWP DCJCP RCRCTCP VGPVCPI TWOWU VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP FCP RGTUCOCCP
TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP

58

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORTGUGPVCUKMCP JCUKN MGIKCVCP TWOWU VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP FCP RGTUCOCCP
TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP FK FGRCP MGNCU
)WTW OGPKNCK JCUKN RTGUGPVCUK FCP VCP[C LCYCD UGDCICK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK
VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP DGTFCUCTMCP VGMCPCP RCTUKCN FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+
5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI
C OGPWNKUMCP RGTUCOCCP VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP FCP
D OGPGPVWMCP VGMCPCP RCTUKCN OCUKPIOCUKPI \CV
D /GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP DGTFCUCTMCP VGMCPCP RCTUKCN
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
DCICKOCPC ECTC OGPWNKUMCP RGTUCOCCP VGVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
-GIKCVCP
C
/GPICOCVK
)WTW OGODWMC UGECTC NWCU FCP DGTXCTKCUK MGUGORCVCP RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGORGNCLCTK OCVGTK
JWDWPICP -E FCP -R UGTVC FKUQUKCUK FCNCO OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP
%8 8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
)WTW OGOHCUKNKVCUK RGUGTVC FKFKM OGNCMWMCP RGPICOCVCP WPVWM OGNCVKJ RGUGTVC FKFKM FCNCO
OGORGTJCVKMCP JCN RGPVKPI VGPVCPI
C OGPGPVWMCP JWDWPICP -E FCP -R FCP D
OGPGPVWMCP FKUQUKCUK
D /GPCP[C
)WTW OGODWMC MGUGORCVCP UGECTC NWCU MGRCFC RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM DGTVCP[C OGPIGPCK
JWDWPICP -E FCP -R UGTVC FKUQUKCUK
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM FCRCV OGPICLWMCP RGTVCP[CCP UGECTC OCPFKTK UGRGTVK
DCICKOCPC ECTC OGPGPVWMCP JWDWPICP -E FCP -R UGTVC FKUQUKCUK!
)WTW OGPIGODCPIMCP TCUC KPIKP VCJW RGUGTVC FKFKM FCTK RGTVCP[CCP [CPI VGNCJ FKCLWMCP
)WTW OGODKODKPI RGUGTVC FKFKM WPVWM OGPECTK KPHQTOCUK [CPI NGDKJ NCPLWV FCP DGTCICO FCTK
DGTDCICK UWODGT
-GIKCVCP
7NCPICP *CTKCP
C
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP JCTKCP RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8
8+8# 2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
D
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC UGLWONCJ
DWVKT UQCN
E
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WTCKCP UGLWONCJ DWVKT UQCN
2GPWVWR OGPKV
C
)WTW DGTUCOC FGPICP RGUGTVC FKFKM OGODWCV TCPIMWOCP UKORWNCP RGNCLCTCP
D
)WTW OGNCMWMCP RGPKNCKCP FCP CVCW TGHNGMUK VGTJCFCR MGIKCVCP [CPI UWFCJ FKNCMUCPCMCP UGECTC
MQPUKUVGP FCP VGTRTQITCO
E
)WTW OGODGTKMCP WORCP DCNKM VGTJCFCR RTQUGU FCP JCUKN RGODGNCLCTCP
F
)WTW OGTGPECPCMCP MGIKCVCP VKPFCM NCPLWV FCNCO DGPVWM RGODGNCLCTCP TGOGFK RTQITCO RGPIC[CCP
NC[CPCP MQPUGNKPI FCP CVCW VWICU KPFKXKFWCN CVCW MGNQORQM UGUWCK JCUKN DGNCLCT RGUGTVC FKFKM
2GTVGOWCP
7NCPICP #MJKT 5GOGUVGT
OGPKV
C
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WNCPICP CMJKT UGOGUVGT RCFC OQFWN (QTOCVKH -KOKC -GNCU :+ 5GOGUVGT VGTDKVCP %8 8+8#
2#-#4+0&1 JCNCOCP
D
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC UGLWONCJ
DWVKT UQCN
E
/GPIGTLCMCP UQCN WTCKCP UGLWONCJ DWVKT UQCN
Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

59

2GPKNCKCP
5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP QDUGTXCUK
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP NGODCT QDUGTXCUK
E
-KUKMKUK
0Q

5KMCR 0KNCK

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

-GOCORWCP WPVWM OGPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC


[CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC
CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C OGNCNWK MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
-GOCORWCP WPVWM OGPICOCNMCP PKNCKPKNCK CICOC FCNCO DGTRKMKT MTGCVKH

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


5KMCR 5QUKCN
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP RGPKNCKCP IWTW
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP UMCNC UKMCR
E
-KUKMKUK
0Q

5KMCR 0KNCK

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

/GPIIWPCMCP UKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO RGTEQDCCP FCP DGTFKUMWUK


$GMGTLC UCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK FCP EKPVC FCOCK FCNCO OGNCMWMCP MGIKCVCP
DGTUCOC
$GTUKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP
OGODWCV MGRWVWUCP

+PUVTWOGP

NKJCV NCORKTCP

2GPIGVCJWCP
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP VGU VGTVWNKU
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP UQCN RKNKJCP ICPFC FCP WTCKCP
E
-KUKMKUK
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

-GUGVKODCPICP FKPCOKU
2GTIGUGTCP CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP FCP MGUGVKODCPICP FCNCO MGJKFWRCP UGJCTK JCTK
FCP KPFWUVTK
6GVCRCP MGUGVKODCPICP

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


-GVGTCORKNCP
C
6GMPKM RGPKNCKCP FKUMWUK
D
$GPVWM KPUVTWOGP NGODCT RGPKNCKCP FKUMWUK
E
-KUKMKUK
0Q

+PFKMCVQT

$WVKT +PUVTWOGP

$GTFKUMWUK VGTLCFKP[C TGCMUK MGUGVKODCPICP FCP LGPKUP[C


/GPIQNCJ JCUKN CPCNKUKU RGTIGUGTCP CTCJ MGUGVKODCPICP
/GTCPECPI FCP OGNCMWMCP RGTEQDCCP HCMVQTHCMVQT [CPI OGOGPICTWJK
MGUGVKODCPICPMGUGVKODCPICP MKOKC

+PUVTWOGP NKJCV NCORKTCP


AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
/GP[GVWLWK
-GRCNC 5GMQNCJ

)WTW /CVC 2GNCLCTCP

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0+2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0+2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

60

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

.#/2+4#0
.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN
.GODCT 1DUGTXCUK 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN
0Q

2GTKNCMW [CPI &KJCTCRMCP

5MQT

/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP WPVWM OGPIGPCNK FCP OGP[CFCTK JCUKN RGOKMKTCP MTGCVKH OCPWUKC [CPI MGDGPCTCPP[C
DGTUKHCV VGPVCVKH UGDCICK OCMJNWM 6WJCP ;CPI /CJC 'UC CVCU MGDGUCTCP FCP EKRVCCP0[C OGNCNWK
MGVGTCVWTCP UKHCV JKFTQMCTDQP
/GOKNKMK MGOCORWCP WPVWM OGPICOCNMCP PKNCKPKNCK CICOC FCNCO DGTRKMKT MTGCVKH
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

0KNCK UKMCR URKTKVWCN

,WONCJ UMQT
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

.GODCT 1DUGTXCUK 5KMCR 5QUKCN


0Q

2GTKNCMW [CPI &KJCTCRMCP

5MQT

/GNCMWMCP UKMCR KNOKCJ FCNCO RGTEQDCCP FCP DGTFKUMWUK


/GPWPLWMMCP DGTMGTLC UCOC UCPVWP VQNGTCPUK FCP EKPVC FCOCK FCNCO OGNCMWMCP MGIKCVCP DGTUCOC
/GPWPLWMMCP UKMCR TGURQPUKH RTQCMVKH FCP DKLCMUCPC FCNCO OGOGECJMCP OCUCNCJ FCP OGODWCV
MGRWVWUCP
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

0KNCK UKMCR UQUKCN

,WONCJ UMQT
,WONCJ UMQT OCMUKOCN

2GVWPLWM 2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN


5MQT

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH
5CPICV $CKM
$CKM
%WMWR
-WTCPI

4WDTKM 2GPKNCKCP 5KMCR 5RKTKVWCN FCP 5QUKCN


4GPVCPI 5MQT

0KNCK

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH

5$

$CKM

%WMWR

-WTCPI

5CPICV $CKM

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

61

62

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

.CORKTCP
2GPKNCKCP -GVGTCORKNCP
+PUVTWOGP 2GPKNCKCP &KUMWUK -GNQORQM
5KMCR 0KNCK
0Q

0COC
5KMCR

-GCMVKHCP

-GVGTCPICP
0KNCK OCMUKOCN
2GUGTVC FKFKM OGORGTQNGJ PKNCK
$CKM UGMCNK CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
$CKM
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
%WMWR
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT
-WTCPI
CRCDKNC OGORGTQNGJ UMQT

9CYCUCP

-GOCORWCP
/GPIGOWMCMCP
2GPFCRCV

6QVCN 0KNCK

2TGUGPVCUK

-GTLC 5COC

2GPKNCKCP -KPGTLC /GNCMWMCP 2TCMVKMWO


0Q

0KNCK -WCNKVCVKH

2GPKNCKCP

/GTCPIMCK CNCV
2GPICOCVCP
&CVC [CPI FKRGTQNGJ
-GUKORWNCP

4WDTKM 2GPKNCKCP -GVGTCORKNCP


2GPKNCKCP

#URGM [CPI &KPKNCK


/GTCPIMCK CNCV

4CPIMCKCP CNCV VKFCM


DGPCT

4CPIMCKCP CNCV DGPCT


VGVCRK VKFCM TCRK CVCW
VKFCM OGORGTJCVKMCP
MGUGNCOCVCP MGTLC

4CPIMCKCP CNCV DGPCT


TCRK FCP
OGORGTJCVKMCP
MGUGNCOCVCP MGTLC

2GPICOCVCP

2GPICOCVCP VKFCM
EGTOCV

2GPICOCVCP EGTOCV
VGVCRK OGPICPFWPI
KPVGTRTGVCUK

2GPICOCVCP EGTOCV
FCP DGDCU KPVGTRTGVCUK

&CVC [CPI FKRGTQNGJ

&CVC VKFCM NGPIMCR

&CVC NGPIMCR VGVCRK


VKFCM VGTQTICPKUKT CVCW
CFC [CPI UCNCJ VWNKU

&CVC NGPIMCR
VGTQTICPKUKT FCP FKVWNKU
FGPICP DGPCT

-GUKORWNCP

6KFCM DGPCT CVCW VKFCM


UGUWCK VWLWCP

5GDCIKCP MGUKORWNCP
CFC [CPI UCNCJ CVCW
VKFCM UGUWCK VWLWCP

5GOWC DGPCT CVCW


UGUWCK VWLWCP

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

63

BAB 1

%*

%* %* %* %* %*

%* %* %* %*

%* %* %* %*

RGPVGPC
RGPVGPC

OGVKN

RGPVGPC

REVIEW DAN PENERAPAN 1

%*

5GP[CYC JKFTQMCTDQP CFCNCJ UGP[CYC [CPI FKUWUWP QNGJ


CVQO * FCP %
&GPICP OGNCMWMCP WLK GODWP UCORGN FGPICP MGTVCU
MQDCNV [CPI DGTWDCJ FCTK YCTPC DKTW OGPLCFK OGTCJ OWFC
-QPHKIWTCUK GNGMVTQP %
OGORWP[CK GNGMVTQP
XCNGPUK
UGJKPIIC RGPECRCKCP QMVGV MGUVCDKNCP
OGOGTNWMCP
GNGMVTQP FCTK CVQO NCKPP[C FGPICP
OGODGPVWM KMCVCP MQXCNGP
#VQO MCTDQP FGPICP GNGMVTQP XCNGPUK FCRCV OGODGPVWM
KMCVCP CPVCTCVQO MCTDQP DGTWRC KMCVCP VWPIICN KMCVCP
TCPIMCR FWC CVCW TCPIMCR VKIC 5GJKPIIC JCN KPK
OGP[GDCDMCP LWONCJ UGP[CYC MCTDQP UCPICV DCP[CM
#VQO % RTKOGT

GVKN

+UQOGT TCPVCK KUQOGT DGTFCUCTMCP NGVCM ECDCPI RCFC


TCPVCK WVCOC
+UQOGT IGQOGVTK KUQOGT DGTFCUCTMCP RGTDGFCCP MG
FWFWMCP IWIWUIWIWU UGLGPKU [CPI
FKKMCV % %
4GCMUK CNMGPC FGPICP CUCO JCNQIGPKFC CMCP OGPI
JCUKNMCP UGP[CYC JCNQCNMCPC
%* %* %*

N
MNQTQRTQRCPC

#VQO % VGTUKGT

REVIEW DAN PENERAPAN 4

#VQO % MWCTVGPGT
C

REVIEW DAN PENERAPAN 2


C

$GTGCMUK FGPICP WPUWTWPUWT JCNQIGP

/GPICNCOK TGCMUK QMUKFCUK

/GPICNCOK TGCMUK GNKOKPCUK

%* %* %*
N
%*
OGVKN RTQRCPC
%*
+
%* %* % %*
N

%* %*
VTKOGVKN DWVCPC
C &CTK UWMW MG UCORCK MG DGTWRC ICU
D
E

5WMW MG UCORCK MG DGTWRC \CV ECKT 5GP[CYC


P[C DGTWRC RCFCV
/CMKP DCP[CM CVQO % VKVKM FKFKJ OCMKP VKPIIK
FKOGVKN JGRVCPC

%* %* %* %* %* %* %*
DWVCPC

%* *

DWVGPC

REVIEW DAN PENERAPAN 3


C

/GOKNKMK UKHCV JCORKT UCOC FGPICP CNMCPC

#NMGPC FCRCV OGPICNCOK CFKUK RGPIWDCJCP KMCVCP


VKFCM LGPWJ OGPLCFK LGPWJ FGPICP ECTC OGPCPIMCR
CVQOCVQO NCKP

64

Kimia XIa SMK/MAK

*%+ %* %* %*
%+

#VQO % UGMWPFGT

DWVGPC

+UQOGT RQUKUK KUQOGT DGTFCUCTMCP KMCVCP TCPIMCR [CPI


DGTDGFC

%* %* %* % %*
N
%*
D %* %* %* % %*
N
N
%* %*
C
FKOGVKN GVKN JGRVWPC
D
FKOGVKN JGMUWPC
%* % %* %* %* %* JGMUWPC
%* % % %* %* %*
JGMUWPC
%* %* % % %* %*
JGMUWPC
%* % %* %* %* OGVKN JGMUWPC
N
%*
%* % %* %* %* OGVKN JGMUWPC
N
%*
%*
N
%* % % %*
FKOGVKN JGMUWPC
N
%*
%* % % %* %* OGVKN JGMUWPC
N
%*
C DWVWPC *
%* %* %* *%* %* %* %*
D DWVWPC *%N
%* %* % %* *%N %* %* % %*
N
%N

C
D
E

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MQPUGPVTCUK 2%N
2GODWCVCP 0* OGTWRCMCP RTQUGU GMUQVGTO UGJKPIIC
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