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Flare Stack Design

01/20/2015

CALCULATION FOR RATING GIVEN FLARE STACK DIMENSIONS


THREE METHODS USED
1) FROM API RP 521, 3rd Edition, Nov., 1990
2) FROM CF BRAUN PUBLISHED IN HYDROCARBON PROCESSING, JAN 1967
3) BRZUSTOWSKI AND SOMMERS AS MODIFIED IN API 521 , 3rd Edition, Nov., 1990
A Rating Basis: Case 1: BCon & Reactor - External Fire - RV = 8"x10" T to 16" Sch 40 Stack
Heat Intensity At Ground Level - 1 "T" Orifice Ignited - As A Bent Over Flare
Are Thermal Conseq acceptable by API-521 Criteria - (U.S. Threshold Of Pain at 150 ft.)
INPUT DATA
Material Flowing In Stack =
Flow Rate, W =
Average Molecular Weight =
Flowing Temperature, T =
Heat Of Combustion, Hc =
Specific Heat Ratio, k = Cp/Cv =
Flowing Pressure At The Flare Tip, P =
Design Mach Number For Flare =
Design Wind Velocity, U =
Fraction Of Heat Radiated, F =
Fraction Of Heat Intensity Transmitted, Tau =
Max Allowable Radiation, K, at Dist R =
Distance, R, To Max Allowable Radiation =
Lower Explosive Limit, CL, =
Ambient Air Temperature, Ta =
Compressibility factor, Z, At Pipe Outlet =
Solar Radiation Level On Clear Sunniy Day =

Plant X
Cyclohexane
502,085
84.16
960
18,700
1.09
17.37
1.0000
33.554
0.3
1
7,680.00
150
0.012
560
0.965
300

REQUIRED BY
LB/HR
DEG R
BTU/LB
PSIA
Perturb
MPH
Calc by BLEVE
0.80
BTU/HR SQFT
FT
MOLE FRAC
DEG R

ALL
ALL
ALL
ALL
ALL
ALL
ALL
API , B&S
API , B&S
API , B&S
ALL
ALL
B&S
B&S

BTU/hr/sf

RESULTS

Diameter Specified (Inches) =


Calculated Diameter Of Flare Stack

(Inches) =

Flame Center (X,Y) Coordinates From Tip Of Stack


X COORDINATE
(FT)
Y COORDINATE
(FT)
Calculated PSV Vent Height (Ft.) =
Specified PSV Vent Height (Ft.) =
GROUND DISTANCE, R, FROM FLARE (FT)
0
25
50
75
100

R.A. Hawrelak

API

BRAUN

B&S

15.00
15.00

15.00
15.14

15.00
15.00

124.06
93.87
74.99
75.00
< -------Btu/hr/sf
5,405
6,148
6,893
7,549
8,005

0.00
75.70
85.76
Check Min. In Stk Ht
Qrad+Q solar

Btu/hr/sf
16,476
15,994
14,705
12,971
11,144

31.42
54.16
68.82

------->
Btu/hr/sf
14,212
15,080
14,789
13,467
11,605

Flare Stack Design

01/20/2015

125
150
175
200
300
500
Average for 50 to 200 ft. in 10 seconds =

8,161
7,980
7,505
6,839
4,069
1,620
7,677.8
24.21

9,448
7,980
6,756
5,753
3,282
1,517
Btu/hr/sf
kW/m2

DISCUSSION OF METHODS:
The three methods are similar though there are a few key differences. The
Braun method is for still air only, while the Brzustowski and Sommers (B&S)
method is for use in a wind field only. The API method can be used with or
without wind. Both the API and B&S methods take into account the bend in the
flame due to wind velocity. All three methods determine stack diameter to give
an exit velocity that is a fraction of the sonic velocity.
The length of the flame is calculated in the API report as a log-log function
of heat release while in the Braun method the flame length is directly related
to stack diameter. In all methods the point that the radiation emits from is the
centre of the flame. However, the calculation of this centre is different in each
case. API uses an arithmetic average of the flame length which is then added to
the stack height. The Braun method uses a geometric average of the stack
height and the stack height plus the flame length. The third method (B&S) uses
a two parameter correlation to determine the centre of the flame. These
parameters are a lower explosive limit concentration parameter and a
parameter for jet thrust and wind speed. The distances found from the
correlation are then added to the stack height.
The radiant heat reaching the ground is dependent on the fraction of the
heat generated that is radiated. Both API and B&S use a fixed factor. Braun uses
a correlation for the emissivity of the gas as a function of molecular weight.
This emissivity is then used as the fraction radiated.
DOW DESIGN PRINCIPLES:
See LPP 14.2
Flare stack height should be based on a maximum heat intensity of 3000
Btu/hr sq ft at the base and personnel restricted from the area where radiation
exceeds 1500 Btu/hr sq ft (including solar radiation of 400 Btu/hr sq ft).
LPP14.2 recommends the use of API 521.

Flare Radiation Intensity


9000
8000
7000
BTU/HR/SF

6000
5000
4000

3000
R.A. Hawrelak
2000
1000

Level 2 Eqt Damage By TNO


(7,927
BTU/hr/sf - 30 Minutes)

9,686
7,980
6,572
5,448
2,869
1,255

8000
Level 2 Eqt Damage By TNO
(7,927
BTU/hr/sf - 30 Minutes)

7000
BTU/HR/SF

Flare Stack6000
Design

01/20/2015

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

100

200

300

400

Ground Distance From Base Of Stack, Ft.

R.A. Hawrelak

500

600

Cht

Flare Radiation Intensity

10000
9000
8000
7000

BTU/hr/sf

6000

Avg Flux
L2 Eqt Damage

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

100

200

300

400

Ground Distance From Base Of Flare, Ft.


Page 4

500

600

2000
1000

Cht

0
0

100

200

300

400

Ground Distance From Base Of Flare, Ft.

Page 5

500

600

Thermal Radiation Hazards

Example

01/20/2015

A Rating Basis: Case 1: BCon & Reactor - External Fire - RV = 8"x10" T to 16" Sch 40 Stack

TNO

TNO

Code No. =

Ist Burns
1

Time, secs =
kW/m2 =
BTU/hr/sf
Radn Dose =
Probit =

0-50% Fat
50-100% F
Total % =
Comments

Probit Note

2nd Burns
2

TNO
Lethal
Unptotected
3

TNO
Lethal
Protected
4

Eisenberg
5

10
24.21
7,678
7.01E+06

10
24.21
7,678
7.01E+06

10
24.21
7,678
7.01E+06

10
24.21
7,678
7.01E+06

10
24.21
7,678
7.01E+06

7.7496

4.4396

3.9711

3.1211

1.8726

% Population % Population % Population % Population


0.00%
28.76%
15.20%
3.06%
99.56%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
99.56%
28.76%
15.20%
3.06%
Results not acceptable by API-521 criteria.
Affected Percentage Of Total Population
TNO 1-3
TNO 4
First degree Burns =
99.56%
Second Degree Burns =
28.76%
3rd Degree - Lethal =
15.20%
3.06%
Total =
143.52%

k1 =
k2 =
n=

R.A. Hawrelak

% Fatality
0.70%
0.00%
0.70%

Eisenberg

0.70%

For Code No. 5, Eisenberg, Probit = k1 + k2 [ LN { (t)(kW/m2)^1.333333 } ]


For Probits < 2.67, % = (Probit*0.37453184+0)/100
For TNO constants, Probit = k1 + k2 [ LN { (t)(1000*kW/m2)^1.333333 } ]

TNO Constants

Code No. =

CPQRA

New Green Book, P-19, Chapter 1


TNO

TNO

Ist Burns
1

2nd Burns
2

-39.83
3.0186
1.333333

-43.14
3.0186
1.333333

TNO
Lethal
Unptotected
3
-36.38
2.56
1.333333

04:58:56

TNO
Lethal
Protected
4
-37.23
2.56
1.333333

CPQRA
Eisenberg
5
-14.9
2.56
1.333333

Thermal Radiation Hazards

01/20/2015

re - RV = 8"x10" T to 16" Sch 40 Stack

TNO
Glasstone
Eisenberg
6
10
24.21
7,678
7.01E+06
1.8711
% Fatality
0.70%
0.00%
0.70%

(kW/m2)^1.333333 } ]

kW/m2)^1.333333 } ]

TNO
Glasstone
Eisenberg
6
-38.48
2.56
1.333333

R.A. Hawrelak

04:58:56

Eisenberg

Eisenberg Pool And Flash Fire Thermal Radiation Hazards - 1975 CPQRA,

Exposure Time, Secs

100

10

1
1

10

100

Incident Thermal Flux, kW/m2

Page 8

100

Eisenberg

Hazards - 1975 CPQRA, P-160

100% Fatality
90% Fatality
50% Fatality
10% Fatality
2nd Burns
1st Burns
U.S. Pain TH
Data Pt

1000

Page 9

Hymes

Hymes Thermal Radiation Chart

Incident Heat Flux - kW/m2

1,000.00

100.00

10.00

1.00
1

10
Exposure Time - Secs

Page 10

100

Hymes

Chart

Pain
Lwr Blister
Upper Blister
Start 2 Burns
LC01 Avg Clthg
LC50 Avg Clthg
3 Burns 2mm thk
Data Pt.

100

Page 11

Mudan

Fig 2.33: Serious Injury/Fatality Levels For Thermal Radiations (Mudan 1984, CP

Exposure Time, Seconds

100.0

10.0

1.0

0.1
1

10
100
Incident Thermal Flux, kW/m2

Page 12

100

Mudan

ations (Mudan 1984, CPQRA, p-161)

100% Fatality
50% Fatality
1% Fatality
1st Deg Burns
Pain Threshold
Data Pt

1000

Page 13

Prugh

Richard E. Prugh Thermal Radiation Chart


10000

Exposure Time, Seconds

1000

Ist Deg Burns - S


1 - 2 Deg Burns
2 Deg Burns - S
3 Burns - LC01
LC50 - 3 Burns
LC100 - 3 Burn
Data Pt.

100

10

0.1
0.1

10

Incident Thermal Flux, kW/m2

Page 14

100

1000

Prugh

ation Chart

Ist Deg Burns - Sunburn


1 - 2 Deg Burns - Pain Threshold
2 Deg Burns - Skin Blisters
3 Burns - LC01 - 10% Skin Area
LC50 - 3 Burns - 50% Skin Area
LC100 - 3 Burns - 90% Skin Area
Data Pt.

1000

Page 15

V1.7 Dense Gas Stack Heights

01/20/2015

Determine Vent Heights for Emergency Releases of Heavy Gases From Stacks
Method By F.T. Bodurtha, Plant/Operations Progress (Vol 7, No. 2) April, 1988, P-122

A Rating Basis: Case 1: BCon & Reactor - External Fire - RV = 8"x10" T to 16" Sch 4

Nozzle or Hole Diameter, D


Wind Velocity (Set = 2.23 mph)
Molecular Weigh of Vapor, Mo
Molecular Weight of Air, Ma
Source Concentration, Xs
Temperature of Vapor, To
Ambient Temperature, Ta
Max Flow (Only if Sub-Sonic)
Atmospheric Pressure
Momentary Conc Multiplier, B =
Lower Flammable Limit, L
Terrain ( 1 = Rural, 2 = Urban)
Weather Class (1 to 6)
Short Term Duration

15.00
2.24
84.16
28.84
100.00%
500
100
502,085
14.7
2.5
1.20%
1
6
15

inches
mph
Propane

Vol %
deg F
deg F
lb/hr
psia
Min = 2.5, Max = 5.0, by Bodurth
Vol %
Rural Terrain
F - Very Stable
Minutes

Results for a Point Sorce Release at Ground Level With Zero Momentum & No Plume Rise:
Vf, Volume of Fuel in Flammable
C.L. Distance to LEL
Mass From 100% to LEL

#NAME?
#NAME?
#NAME?

Short Term Correction Factor


Pipe Cross Sectional Area
Vapor Density at Pipe Exit
Cubic Ft. / sec vapor
Vapor Velocity From Nozzle, Vs
Air Density, lb/cf =

2.0562
1.2272
0.1201
1,161.24
946.26
0.0706

Short Term Sampling Time =


sq ft
lb/cf
cf/sec
ft/sec
lb/cf

Nozzle Diam, D =
Exit Stack Temp, Ts =
Wind Velocity, u =
Stack exit Velocity, vs =
Vapor Specific Gravity, SG =
A = SG^0.6667/(SG - 1)^0.333
Lower Flammable Limit, L =
Source Conc, Xs =

381.00
533.33
1.00
288.43
1.70
1.60
1.20%
100.00%

mm
K
meters/sec
meters/sec

R.A. HAWRELAK

04:58:57

cubic ft.
Feet
lbs

A factor
v/v%
v/v%

V1.7 Dense Gas Stack Heights

01/20/2015

Stack Height, hs =
Momentary Conc Multiplier, B =
By Eq 4, p-122, Fr =
Plume Rise (Eq 2), H =

22.11
2.50
232.30
149.86

Max Conc (Eq 1), Xm =

meters
Min = 2.5, Max = 5.0, by Bodurth
Froude No.
meters

0.1377 v/v% @ Grade

Critical Stk Vel, (Eq 6), Vs =

22.43 m/s

Stk Ht. @ Vs crit, (Eq 7), hs =

22.11 m

Fr No. with Vs = Vs crit =


Plume Rise, H with Vs = Vs crit =
Max Xm with Vs, Eq 1, = Vs crit =

18.07 Froude No.


11.66 m/s
0.4876 v/v% @ Grade

Touchdown Distance by Hoot and Meroney as presented by Gerry Havens


u air =
Initial Jet Velocity, Uj
RHO, Initial Jet Density
RHO air =
Jet Diameter, Dj
Froude No.
Horizontal Froude No. = Ffh =
Plume Rise, H =
X bar =
Stack Height =

1.0014
288.4250
1.9238
1.1302
0.3810
232.30
0.62
149.86
71.38
22.11

C.L. Touchdown Distance


Concentration at Touchdown =

R.A. HAWRELAK

m/s
m/s
kgm/cu.m.
kgm/cu.m.
meters

meters
meters
meters

252.22 meters
1,377 ppmv

04:58:57

V1.7 Dense Gas Stack Heights

01/20/2015

ses of Heavy Gases From Stacks


(Vol 7, No. 2) April, 1988, P-122

ernal Fire - RV = 8"x10" T to 16" Sch 40 Stack

0.381
1.00

meters
meters/sec

For Pure Component Releases


533.33
deg K
311.11
deg K
63.26
kgms/sec
Min = 2.5, Max = 5.0, by Bodurtha in 1989

(Between 15 and 60 Minutes)

ith Zero Momentum & No Plume Rise:


#NAME?
#NAME?
#NAME?

cubic meters
meters
kgms

Short Term Sampling Time =


1.92
32.8839
288.43
1.13

15
kgm/cm
cubic m/s
meters/sec

A < 1.15 - Correlations OK

R.A. HAWRELAK

04:58:57

V1.7 Dense Gas Stack Heights

01/20/2015

Min = 2.5, Max = 5.0, by Bodurtha in 1989

73.60

ft./sec

72.53

ft.

g=

R.A. HAWRELAK

9.8146793465

04:58:57

Sketch

Figure C-1:

Dimensional References For Sizing A Flare Stack

Page 86

dX

Yc

Xc
D
H

R'
R

Page 20

Sketch

dY

Page 21