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Small Cell LTE

Deployments
Tightly Integrating Access and
Backhaul
Paul Trubridge
VP Product Management, Airspan
November 2012

A definition of Small Cells


There are many different definitions for small
cells - this is ours!

Comprehensive Suite of Flexible

In this classification there are three types of


small cells
1.

2.

Residential and Business Femto

Flexible Assembly

Indoor, Low Power (typically 100mW), Closed


User Groups

These are traditional 3G Femto Cells

Transport
2

Radio

Open Enterprise-Class Femtos and Picos

Outdoor and Indoor Cells, Open Access, Higher


power (1W)

These are cells I focused on in this presentation


(and perhaps the future of Mobile Cellular
Networks)

3
3.

Copper

MicroWave

Micro and Compact Macro Cells

All-in-One Outdoor Base Stations

Much higher power (2-10W), Open Access

Optimized for non-traditional deployment


locations (Rooftops, Sides of Buildings etc)

Small Cell
MW / TDD B

Optical

FE / POE

ADSL / VDS

Airspan is focused on Type 2 and Type 3 Small Cells


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In case of no wir
line backhaul 2

Small Cell HetNets = Network Capacity Enhancement


Small Cells will deliver huge network capacity increases
Macro-only
LTE Network

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HetNet LTE
Network

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Capacity Enhancement comes from


Aggressive Frequency Re-use
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The Power of LTE-Advanced: eICIC and SON


LTE-A eICIC and SON enables
aggressive deployment of LTE
small cells
Allowing Time and Frequency
resource block re-use.

Dynamic
Resource Block
Allocation

All
Resource
Blocks

Frequency
All
Resource
Blocks

Closely Coupled (Macros)


Time

Typically a Tri-Sectored Base


Station sectors share the same
frequency. X2 communication over
Closely Coupled:
Ethernet or internal messages
Sectors at same cell location
between sector RRMs

Loosely Coupled (Small Cells)


Auto-Optimizing and Configuring
cells that share the same spectrum
(i.e. N=1 re-use). X2
communications over wide-area
backhaul to other cells
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Dynamic
Resource Block
Allocation

All
Resource
Blocks

Loosely Coupled: Omni


Cells at different locations

LTE-Advanced: Small Cell Deployment Life Cycle


Small cell deployment requires
LTE-Advanced eICIC and SON.

Elimination of co-channel
Interference by inter-cell
coordination

capacity enhancement by optimal


UE to eNodeB mapping

Remove the need for Frequency


Planning by Self Optimisation and
Self Configuration

Cells automatically get


configured by SON server as
they become active.

Without impacting / interfering with


existing network
Removes the need for complex
network design ahead of deployment

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Step 1:
Typical Tri-Sector Macro-cell
deployment. Release 8/9 ICIC auto
configures sector radio interfaces using
X2 comms between sectors and
dynamically schedules traffic. SON not
required. Uses SFR

Step 2:
Omni small cells added to the
deployment. Small cells impact
resource block mapping. Static SON
and eICIC re-configs to ensure optimal
mapping. Uses ABS Patterns in areas
of co-channel overlap.

Step 3:
Mass deployment of Omni small cells.
Dynamic SON and eICIC also drive Tx
powers and Range Extension bias to
best optimize resources across the
network. Uses ABS Patterns in areas
of co-channel overlap.

LTE-Advanced X2 Communications for eICIC


At the heart of this LTE-Advanced eICIC is
extensive use of the X2 interface which
allows communications between RRMs
within each eNodeB.

X2

X2

The X2AP interface was enhanced in Release 10


explicitly for eICIC and ABS
X2

X2 requires communications occur between


Macro and Pico, and Pico to Pico.

The eICIC process ensures that traffic


scheduling by Macro and Pico eliminates
co-channel interference

By stop simultaneously use of time/frequency


resource blocks in locations where interference
would occur.

X2 communications are
critical to LTE-A eICIC and
Small cell deployment.
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Release 10/11/12:
eICIC and SON

Small Cell Networks: Capacity Enhancement


20x
18x
16x
14x
12x
10x
8x
6x
4x
2x
0x

Macro
Cell Edge
Median

Assumptions*:
N=1 reuse 10 MHz FDD
4 Pico cells per Macro cell
eICIC, SON, High Power
Macro, Hotspot Deployment

Downlink

Uplink

LTE-Advanced eICIC and SON technology can deliver large capacity gains with even limited
numbers of Pico cells

Macro cell footprint DL traffic boosted from 33Mbit/s to >130Mbit/s (with 4 Picos) in Busy Hour

Actual gains vary significantly depending on number of Pico cells deployed per Macro cell,
location of Pico cells, Busy Hour, versus Non-Busy Hour traffic patterns.
4x Gains using 4 Pico Cell per Macro Cell in Same Spectrum Allocation
* 3GPP TS 36.814, Macro ISD 1500m, Full Buffer Model, Even UE Distribution, Cell Range Extension (12dB), 10 MHz (FDD) at 2.6 GHz
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Small Cell Backhaul Requirements


200
180

Busy Hour

160

Non Busy Hour


Average per Pico

Mbit/s

140

Peak per Pico (90%)

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Macro Only

1 Pico

2 Pico

3 Pico

4 Pico

Assumptions: LTE-A eICIC, Hot Spots Deployment, Urban Model

Busy Hour vs. Non Busy Hour with statistical sharing of backhaul

Typical Backhaul for LTE Small Cells is around 40 Mbit/s (for 10 MHz FDD)

Non Busy Hour Pico backhaul traffic typically ~1.3 times Busy Hour

Backhaul needed per Pico decreases as number of Pico increases

* 3GPP TS 36.814, Macro ISD 1500m, Full Buffer Model, Even UE Distribution, Cell Range Extension (12dB), 10 MHz (FDD) at 2.6 GHz

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Small Cells and Frequency Re-use: eICIC at Work


Macro Cell

Macro Cell
Pico Cells

Small cell capacity gains come from better frequency re-use.

LTE-Advanced protocols map UEs to the optimal cell (Macro or Pico), i.e. with the best signal
conditions (better MCS and MIMO). Mapping is independent of RSSI (with Cell Range Extension).

Small cells are typically Buried in the clutter, so that propagation is contained and extensive reuse of frequencies can happen.

LTE-Advanced eICIC and Almost Blank Sub-frames (ABS) features ensures potential areas of
interference between Macro-Pico, and Pico to Pico are mapped out.

Small Cells are deployed in locations that are generally Non-Line-of-Sight


from Macro Cells, or other Pico Cells to maximize capacity gains
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4G Traffic: Everything is becoming real-time


Mobile Broadband data consumption is growing rapidly Its important
we understand why.

Whats driving this growth?

Smartphone adoption

Introduction of tablets and Post-PC devices

Broadband interfaces in non-PC devices (Gaming, Appliances, Cars)

Cloud Computing

New Social Networking Applications and Networks

Streaming Video and the death of the traditional broadcast TV

Standard definition content becoming HD content

Email and Messaging Multiplication

Speech recognition (Siri and Google Voice)

etc etc

Most of todays content must be delivered in real-time.


This forces carriers care about Quality of Service. If they dont, a
lot of applications stop working or become unusable.

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QoS: Supporting Real Time Traffic


Large percentage of traffic over a 4G network needs to have sub 300ms
response
QoS classifications of traffic over the radio interface have become critical to
end user experience and service satisfaction.

Small Pico cells, need to deliver traffic associated with LTE QoS Classes
(QCIs) just like Macro cells do
Guaranteed Bit Rate Services, Allocation and Retention Priority, Maximum Bit Rate
(MBR), Aggregate MBR, etc

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Contended Backhaul and QoS

If the backhaul randomly introduces latency and/or reduces the


capacity allocated to service flows (especially GBR), the service is
negatively impacted.
THIS IS UNACCEPTABLE TO CARRIERS

Therefore, any backhaul solution must ensure that the


LTE radio-interface QoS is respected and maintained
across contented backhaul.
Typically this requires a detailed understanding of the LTE AirInterface

Not something that can easily be done using code-point markings,


or other simple packet marking (ToS bits)

Any contention based scheduling must take LTE Air-Interface QoS


needs into account.
Ensuring Signaling gets and Real-Time / GBR service gets
served first

eNodeB
Traffic

Backhaul

Non Real-Time and


Non-GBR Services

S1 and X2,
Sync, Mgmt

service reliability delivered over the LTE Uu interface


becomes impaired.

Real-Time and GBR


Services

If backhaul is contented (in any way), the QoS and

Instantaneous
Offered Load

Instantaneous
Backhaul
Capacity

LTE QoS must be supported by any contented


backhaul solution for LTE Small Cells
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Small Cell Backhaul with End-to-End QoS


The ideal arrangement for Small Cell
backhaul is a combination of LOS P-P links
and/or Fiber, feeding P-MP NLOS backhaul
links to the small cells

Best economics with excellent ROI

However, unless LTE Signaling and Real-

NLOS P-MP

NLOS P-MP

Time and GBR traffic is properly managed


and prioritized, ensuring QoS is honored the
solution is flawed.

By tightly combining LTE Small Cell Access


technology of NLOS backhaul technology
the QoS can be solved

The solution requires visibility of LTE QoS QCIs on a


service flow basis to be available to the P-MP NLOS
backhaul (and for LOS or Fiber to be uncontended)

Uncontended
Metro Ethernet

Fiber

We call this technology Cooperative QoS

Solution to Small Cell Backhaul is Tightly


coupled NLOS Backhaul technology
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P-MP NLOS Backhaul: Cooperative QoS


Real-Time LTE
QCI Service Flow
Data
LTE Pico
Access
Coverage

LTE Pico
Access
Coverage

LTE QCI
Scheduler
Information

Fiber

NLOS Wireless
Backhaul
Coverage

P-MP NLOS
Backhaul Base
Station Node

LTE Pico
Access
Coverage

In Cooperative QoS mode the P-MP NLOS backhaul Scheduler maintains visibility of LTE Small Cell
scheduling requirements for UEs, tracking QoS commitments on bandwidth, latency and priority

In addition the Backhaul Scheduler also has visibility of the iBridge backhaul radio interface and its
interference environment.

The scheduling by the Pico cells takes accounts of both requirements to deliver high performance over
the backhaul and end-to-end QoS over the 4G LTE Pico access interface

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Summary and Conclusions


LTE-Advanced Small Cells can dramatically increase the capacity of Macro
LTE Networks

X2 communications are increasingly important to achieve this.

The enabling technology for LTE small cells is small-cell backhaul

Unless the backhaul costs are right, small cell deployment wont happen.

Outdoor LTE Small Cells will mainly be deployed in NLOS locations

Requires NLOS Backhaul technology, as Fiber based solution uneconomic

A small amount (10-20MHz) of 2.x,3.x or 4.9GHz licensed spectrum can backhaul a network with
10-20 small-cells per macro-cell.

Contended small-cell backhaul demands end to end QoS

The backhaul requires access class latency aware QoS

LTE and backhaul QoS must work cooperatively to deliver the ever increasing levels of real time
services.

The Core of any Small Cell deployment is NLOS P-MP Backhaul


Technology with QoS support augmented with Fiber and
P-P LOS Wireless Backhaul.
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Thank you for your time!

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