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Common Lexic in Romanian and Albanian.

Substrate and Loanwords

Dan Ungureanu, Charles University, Prague


Department of Balkanic Studies
Chair of Romanian Language

The following is a list of common words between Romanian and Albanian. We used the Albanian
Etymological Dictionary of Vladimir Orel, Brill, Leiden, 1998.
We must add we do not share all the etymologies proposed by the Russian author. For instance,
he considers the words shared by Albanian and Romanian, but without a Slavic or Latin origin, as being
loanwords from Albanian into Romanian. We have added, in a second list, the words common to Albanian
and Romanian. Most are present in Arumanian as well.
So the hypothesis of Orel is, somehow, not unlikely. But it is just a statement, as words common
to Romanian and Albanian come, in Romanian, from the Dacian substrate.
So are they loanwords or substrate ? As we have shown in our article about the substrate, with
examples from many languages, the words common to Romanian, Arumanian and Albanian are,
typologically, substrate in many languages. A few of them, of course, are Wanderwrter.
Difficult cases
Rom. a altoi , Alb. mltoj to graft . Both look alike. The Romanian word is considered as being of
Hungarian origin, oltvny, olt, itself of Ugric etymology. The Albanian term is deduced from Lat. maritare.
Unclear. Possible coincidence. As long as we do not have the decisive Arumanian term (there are different
synonyms for grafting in Arumanian) we should accept the traditional etymologies.
Romanian biat, boy belongs to a semantically unstable category, with many synonyms, each
easily replaced. Italian has more than thirty different dialectal terms. We found Emiliano-Romagnolo
Mantovan bagaet ragazzo, boy but, among so many variants to chose from, it may be a coincidence.
boy is an affectionate/expressive word, and, like all affectionate words, belongs to a rich list of everreplaced terms.
Rom. dop cork, bottle stopper, bouchon was usually derived from Saxon dop, but, as Albanian and
Arumanian show, it must be Dacian or late Latin.

In the table below, the Romanian meaning is indicated only when different from the Albanian one.

10

20

30

Albanian
agjroj
argsh
argjend
ark
arqit
ashk
avull
balt
bardh
bark
bark
bashk
begat
bij
bishtaj
blude
braz(d)
brek
breshk
brez
brushtull
brym
bukur
bulbr
bullog
bung
but
buz
cic
cjap
as
et
etin

dalt
derdh

Albanian meaning
to fast
crude raft ; harrow
silver
a bow
willow
wood splinter
steam, vapor
swamp, marsh
white
belly, abdomen
boat
fleece, wool
rich
daughter
pod, hull, pea
wooden bowl
furrow
pants
tortoise
belt
heather
frost
beautiful
dust
dragon s den ; den
oak, Quercus sessiliflora
big barrel
lip, edge
breast, nipple
he-goat
time
clan, armed group
pine-tree
what
chisel
to pour out

Romanian
a ajuna
Arge
argint
arc
rchit
achie
abur
balt
barz Ciconia sp.
burt
barc
basc
bogat
cf. biat boy
pstaie pod
blid
brazd
a se mbrca, brcinari
broasc frog
bru, brne
brusture
brum
bucuros happy
pulbere
brlog
bunget
bute
buz

ap
ceas
ceat, group
cetin, fir needles
ce
dalt
(derdelu ?) frozen slope

Origin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Latin
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Latin
Dacian
Slavic
Dacian
Dacian
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Slavic
Dacian
Latin
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Slavic
Slavic
Dacian
Latin
Slavic
Dacian

detyr
drmoj

40

50

60

70

dobis
dojk
drejt
dru
edh
engjll
ergjnd
eshk
fam
faqe
fark
fat
femr
fmij
flak, pl. flakra
flojere
flok
flutur
fraq
frashr
fre
fruer
fryt
fshat
fshik, pshik
ftuj (vtul)
furk
fytyr
gamule
gardh
gatuaj
gavr
glbaz
grmadh
gilc
glas
gozhup
grabis
gradin
grazhd

debt, duty
to plummet down, cut in
pieces
to win
wet-nurse
straight, right
tree, wood
he-goat
angel
silver
fungus
fame, reputation
face, cheek
smithy ; from lat. fabrica
friend (not from fatum)
woman
child, family, spouse
flame
flute
hair
butterfly
biting cold
ash-tree
bridle
February
fruit
village
blister
one year old she-goat
fork, distaff
face
heap, mound
fence
make ready, prepare
hole
liver fluke
ruin
sinew, groin
birds droppings
lambskin waistcoat
to steal, rob
garden
manger

datorie
a drma tear off

Latin
Latin

a dobndi
doic
drept
druete (archaic)
ied kid
nger
argint
iasc
faim
fa
faur, smith from faber
ft
(femeie)
femeie
flacr
fluier
floc
fluture
frig
frasin
frie
furar
frupt
sat
bic
vtui
furc distaff, fork,
fptur body
mgur
gard
a gti
gaur
glbeaz
grmad heap
glci
gina
cojoc
a grbi (arch. to steal)
grdin
grajd horse stall

Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian, not Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Dacian
Slavic
Dacian
Dacian
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic

80

90

grebash
grop
grun
gurmaz
gush
gjelbn
gjob
harabel
harmshor
hirr /*ksira
iriq
kaule
kade
kal
kalibe

rake
hole, grave
wheat
gullet
crop, not throat
green
fine, penalty
sparrow
stallion, stud
whey
hedgehog
hood
barrel
horse
hut

grebl
groap
grne wheat
grumaz
gu
galben yellow
gloab
vrabie
armsar
zer
arici
cciul
cad
cal
colib

kangjel
kapruall
karrabisht
kastravet
katund

song
roebuck
earwig
cucumber
village (old Wanderwort)
Mongol, Ainu qotan
spleen inflammation, liver
fluke
shirt
to sing
song
sole
mushroom
tick
to seek, to look for
bad augury
hip, thigh coxa
mane
bastard
raven
skythe
plait
to mow
small skythe
basket
Lent, Quadragesima
foliage, brushwood, leaves

cntec, cntecel
cprior, cprioar
crbu bug
castravete
ctun

kelbaz

100

110

kmish
kndoj
kng
kput
kpurdh
kpush
krkoj
kob
kofsh
kom
kopil
korb
kos
kos
kosis
kosore
kosh
kreshm
krnd

glbeaz

Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Dacian
Dacian
Latin
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Greek or Dacian
or Wanderwort
Latin
Latin
Latin or Greek
Slavic
Dacian or
Wanderwort
Dacian

cma
a cnta
cntec
cput
ciuperc
cpu
a cerca
cobe
coaps
coam
copil
corb
coas
cosi
a cosi
cosor pruning knife
co
presimi
creang, crng

Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Dacian
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
unknown
Latin
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Dacian

120

130

140

150

krushk
kryq
kujtoj
kuk
kukut
kula
kulm
kulpr, Geg
kurpn
kulloshtr
kumtr

as fodder
unmarried relative
cross
to remember, to think
alone
fennel
pancake
ridge, peak
ivy, clematis

kunat
kund
kungoj
kung

beestings, colostrum
godfather (analogically from
commater)
brother-in-law
somewhere
to communicate
(Orthodox) altar

kunj
kunjoj
kuptoj
kup
kuror, kunor
kurt
kurv
kushri
kut
kuvend
labrgoj

peg, wedge
to close a sack with a peg
to understand
heap, pile
crown
yard
whore
cousin
cubitus, length of a foot
speech
to undo, to untie

laj
lak
lakm
lapush

to wash
trap, snare, rope
greedy
big-eared

larushk
lardh
larg
lart, nalt
latyr
ledh
lel
lepr

wild vine
fat bacon, lard
far (away)
high
rinse water
mud, clay
dirty woman, slut
leprosy

cuscru
cruce
a cugeta
(singur) cuc
cucut (cicuta)
colac, colaci
culme
curpeni vines

Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Slavic
Latin
Dacian

colastr, corasl
cumtru

Latin
Latin

cumnat
unde where

Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin

a cumineca to take
communion
cui, Banat cun' nail
a ncuia to lock up
cumpt good judgement
cup haystack
cunun
curte
curv
cusurin (Arum.) cousin
cot
cuvnt word
a lbra to get large,
untied
a la
la snare, slipknot
lacom
Lbu dog name, reetymologized from lab paw
luruc Vitis silvestris
lard (Transylvania)
larg wide
nalt
lturi
lut clay
lele ; slut ; aunt
lepr

Latin
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Latin

160

170

lepur
lngoj
lshoj
li, pl. linj
lic

hare
weaken, languish
to let, to leave, to free
flax, linen
flax tow, cli

liktyr

rope for binding a bundle of


wood
linen shirt
woof, weft
shovel, oar
tendrils of vine
altar
lion
water-melon
battle, fight
sheep
boat
rainbow
to miss
tongue, language
cat (not Slavic)
mallet
donkey

linj
liq
lopat
loze
lter
luan
lubenic
luft
lukr
lundr
lylyver
lipsem
llap
mac
macoll
magar

mahnis
mal
180

makar
martes
martoj

to stupefy
mountain ; also mal tip,
summit
at least
marriage
to marry

mashkull
mashurk,
modhull
matk
matuk

male, man
green bean, pod

mazatore
mbltoj

one year old heifer


to plant

queen bee
mattock

iepure
lingoare
a lsa
in
ie Latin licium, usually
only the plural licia, warp.
legtur, a tie

Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin

ie, linen shirt


ie warp
lopat shovel, oar
loz vine
altar
leu
lubeni
lupt fight, battle
lucru thing, work
luntre
curcubeu
a lipsi
limb
m
mai, mallet, malleolus
mgar

Latin
Latin
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Greek
Latin
Slavic
Latin
Dacian or
Wanderwort or
Balkanism
Slavic
Dacian

a mhni to get sad


mal shore, bank

Latin

mcar at least
mriti marriage
a mrita to marry (about
women)
mascur male pig, boar, hog
mazre green pea

Greek
Latin
Latin

matc
mciuc (all three, and
French massue < mauge
(Rashi) and Sl. matka
from Lat. *matteuca
mnzat veal
a mplnta

Slavic
Latin

Latin
Dacian

Dacian
Latin

190

mbloj
mbret
mend
mezhd
mkat
mltoj
mllag
mllenj
mllez

200

210

220

mng
mngoj
mrehem
mrgoj
mri, mni
mrkur
mrmris
mrqinj
mru, pl.
mrur
mrzej
msoj
mshik
mshir
mshoj/ pshoj
mshtekn
mshtekohem
mz
mij
mishkonj
mit
mjegull/njegull
mjer
mjeshtr
mjezdit
mesnat
mooj
modhull
mol
molik

to fill
king, emperor
mind
baulk, strip of land between
fields
sin
to graft plants (lat. maritare)

a umple
mprat
minte
mejdin

Latin
Latin
Latin
Slavic

pcat
a altoi

Latin
Latin or
Hungarian

marsh mallow, Malva sp.


black bird
Ostrya carpinifolia, hophornbeam, charme-houblon
sleeve, armful
to rise early
to be charmed, fascinated
to drive away
hate, wrath
Wednesday
to murmur (not from Slavic)
briar, thorny bush
handle

nalb (pre-Indo-eur.)
mierl
molid < *molizi r. meleze

Latin
Dacian

mnec sleeve
a mneca (obsolete)
a se mira, to wonder
a merge to go away
mnie
miercuri
a murmura
mrcini scrub, maquis
mner handle

Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin

to rest at noon (of animals)


to teach, to train
blister, bladder
pity, mercy
to be heavy, to bear down
birch
to rave, to rage
foal
thousand
gnat, midge
bribe
cloud

id.
a nva to teach, to learn
bic blister, bladder
mesereare (archaic)
a psa
mesteacn
a mesteca to chew, to mix
mnz foal
mie
mconi midge (dial.)
mit
negur mist

unhappy, unfortunate
master, builder
noon
midnight
to insult, to offend
chick-pea
moth
silver fir (not from Sl.

misear (archaic)
miestru
miazzi
miaznoapte
a mustra
mazre green pea
molie
molid

Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Dacian or Lat.
nebula
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Slavic
Dacian

230

moll
more, bre
mort
mosh
mrezh
mug
mugull
mulli
murg
musht
myshk
myj
neprk

240

250

260

nevoj
nmroj
ngarkoj
Ngop
ngujoj
ngusht
nip
notoj
njegull
oborr
ograj
okoll
oping
orok
osht
otav
pakzoj
palnj
paq
pashk
patkua
pelin
pendar
peng
peshk
pllmb
pllumb

against Orel)
apple, apple tree
vocative used to call a man
death
age
fishing net
twilight
shoot, bud, sprout
mill
dark
new wine, Fr. mot
moss
medulla
adder, viper (not from
Slavic)
need
to number
to load, to charge
to sate, to cram
to enclose, to lock in
narrow
grandson, nephew
to swim
fog, mist
yard, court
pasture
around
shoe
term, limit, appointment
pole, drawbar
second crop of hay
baptise
maple
peace
Easter
horseshoe
Absinthium, wormwood
watchman
fetters for horse
fish
palm
pigeon, dove

mr apple, apple tree


mre, bre (Balkanic)
moarte
mo very old man
mreaj
amurg evening
mugur
moar
murg brown (horse)

Latin
Dacian
Latin
Dacian
Slavic
Dacian
Dacian
Latin
Dacian

must
muchi
mduv medulla
nprc

Latin
Latin ?
Latin
Dacian

nevoie
a numra
a ncrca
a ndopa
a ncuia
ngust
nepot
a nota
negur
obor
ograd, yard
ocol
opinc
soroc
oite, cart-pole
otav
a boteza
paltin
pace
Pate
potcoav
pelin
pndar
piedic
pete
palm
porumbel

Slavic
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin

270

280

290

300

prgjoj
przhish
prall

to pry, peep, spy


to roast
tale, story, parabola

prrua
psoj
pik
pirr
pis
pjepr / -n
plep
plug
pluhur
plumb
pllaj
pllaz
pllosk
pod
pojat
polic
poll
popull
porosit
port
postaf
postat
praf
prag
prashis
pre
prndver
prift
prill
prind
pul
pulp
punjashe
pup(z)
pyll
qartoj
qarr
qep

brook, river-bed
suffer, to endure
drop
rye-grass
cat
melon
poplar
plow
powder
lead
upland, gentle slope
sole of plow
flat wooden bottle
story, floor, cellar
shack, cattle-pen
shelf
apron
people
to order, demand
door
(stone) trough
garden plot
dust, powder
threshold
to hoe over, rake over
prey, booty, plunder
spring
priest
April
parent
hen
calf (of leg)
purse
hoopoe (lat. upupa)
forest
to quarrel
bitter oak
onion

a priveghea
a prji

Latin
Slavic

absent in Rom.
(palavr is a late, independent
loan from Greek )

pru
a pi
picur
pir
pisic
pepene
plop
plug
pulbere
plumb
plai
plaz
plosc
pod
poiat
poli
poale
popor
a porunci
poart
postav
postat
praf
prag
a pri
prad
primvar
preot
Prier
printe
(pui)
pulp
(pung)
pupz
pdure
a se certa
cer
ceap

Dacian
Latin
Latin
Latin < Gr.
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Slavic
Latin
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin

310

320

330

340

qershi
qet
q
qytet
rend
raqit
rmr/n
rr
rshin
ris
rob
robtisa
rois
roi
ros
rungaj/rungoj
rrall
rrazbitem

cherry
quiet
which, that
city
row
broom (bush)
Valachian, shepherd
sand
resin
lynx
serf, prisoner
to make work hard
(bees) to swarm
swarm of bees
duck
avalanche/to weed
rare
to weaken

rrnd
rrnoj
rrshaj
rrip
rrogoz
rrojb
rrot
sabje
saj /sanj
sembr
sit
sfejk
sfurk
sill
simotr
skopit
sorr
sovajk
stan

rennet
to ruin
Pentecost, Rosalia
precipice
reed mat
Carthamus
wheel
sword
sledge
two peasants using common
cattle
sieve
beet
rake
power, force
colleague, fellow
to castrate
crow
shuttle
stall, herd

strvin
stog
stopan

corpse
haystack
chief shepherd (Iran. word)

cirea
ncet
ce
cetate
rnd
rchit
romn
arin (dial.)
rin
rs
rob
a roboti
a roi
roi
ra
a arunca
rar
a rzbi to break,
to defeat
rnz
a urni
Rusalii
rp
rogoz, rogojin
roib madder
roat
sabie
sanie
smbr

Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Slavic
Latin
Latin
Latin
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Slavic
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Slav

sit
sfecl
furc
sil
cumtru
a scopi
cioar
suveic
stn

Slav
Slav
Latin
Slav
Latin
Slav
Dacian
Slav
Dacian or
unknown
Slav
Slav
Slav

strv
stog
stpn master

Dacian
Latin
Latin
Slav
Latin
Latin
Slav
Slav
Dacian

350

360

370

380

streh
strug
sut
shenj
shndosh
shigjet
shkardh
shkmbej
shkndij
shkors
shkruaj
shkrumb
shkurt
short
shpatull
shpuz
shqepoj
shtag
shterp
shtrg
shtrat
shtrembr
shtrngoj
shtrung
shurdr
tang
tend
trfoj
trsir
tin
tis
toill
topr
tort
trajst
treg
trubull
trup
tuf
turm
turtull
thark

eaves of roof
a plane (instrument)
female deer, doe
sign
healthy
arrow
dog chain
to change
spark
rug made of goat wool
to write
thing burned to black ashes
short
lot
shoulder
hot ashes
to be lame
pole, stick
barren, sterile
stork
bed, layer
crooked, curved
to press, to squeeze
milking enclosure
deaf
resentment, prejudice,
damnation
tent
trefoil
rope (made of genista)
slime, mud
yew
whetstone
small axe
rope
knapsack, sack Wanderwort
market
turbid
corpse
bundle
herd
turtle-dove
enclosure (for milking

streain
strung
ciut, ut.
semn
sntos
sgeat
zgard
a schimba
scnteie
scoar rug
a scrie
scrum
scurt
soart
spate
spuz
chiop
(tang)
stearp
strc
strat
strmb
a strnge
strung
surd
tnguire grief

Slav
Slav
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Slav
Dacian
Slav
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Dacian

tind, entry room


trifoi
trsn
tin
tis
tocil
topor
tort yearn
traist
trg
tulbure
trup, body
tuf bush
turm
turturea
arc

Latin
Latin
Dacian
Dacian
Slav
Slav
Slav
Latin
Dacian
Slav
Latin
Slav
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian

390

400

410

420

verbr, verb
verdh
ver
ver/ven
verig
veshkt
veshtull
vrs
vrshoj
vrtet
vrtit
vrtyt
vidr
virgjr
vishnje
vitrk

sheep)
point, cog, tooth
crumb
nipple
button (the two are not
clearly related)
fallow land
to shout, howl
uncle
cheese made from whey
to wish luck, to congratulate
big vessel without handles
to hate
soldier
lard
valley
wave
fire-place, hearth
pail (for milk)
woolen blanket (Balkanic
word, borrowed by Alban
from Gr from Sl. according
to Orel)
blind
yellow
summer
wine
chain ring
faded, withered
mistletoe
age
to flood, overflow
truth
to turn
strenght
otter
maiden, virgin
cherry
stepfather

vjersh
vjetr
vrah

poem
old
pile of sheaves

thep
thrrime fem. pl.
thith
thumbull
ugar
ulrij
ungj
urdh
uroj
urtund
urrej
ushtar
ushunj
val
val
vatr
vedr
velenx

eap
frme fem.pl.

smbure (stone of fruit)

Dacian
Dacian
Latin
Dacian

ogor
a urla to shout, howl
unchi
urd
a ura, to wish
rotund round
a ur
otean soldier
osnz
vale
val
vatr
vadr
velin

Slav
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Slav

orb
verde green
var
vin
verig
veted
vsc
vrst
a vrsa to pour
adevr
a nvrti
vrtute
vidr
vergur (obsolete)
viin
vitreg (stepmother or
father)
vier
btrn
vraf pile

Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Latin
Slav
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin
Slav
Latin
Slav
Latin
Latin
Latin
Slav

430
432

10

20

vrazhd
vurkollak
zbavit
zan
zgurdhe
zgjebe
zgjyr
zid

unfriendly
werewolf
to scatter
goddess of forests, fairy
rectum
itch, scab
rust
wall

vrajb enmity
vrcolac
a izbvi to save
zn
zgu
zgaib scab
zgur
zid

Albanian

Albanian meaning

Romanian

argsh
avull
balt
bardh
bark
bashk
bij
bishtaj
breshk
brez
brushtull
bukur
bung
buz
cic
cjap
etin
derdh
dru
flojere
flutur
ftuj (vtul)
gamule
gardh
gavr /zgaver
glbaz /kgurmaz
gush

crude raft ; harrow


steam, vapor
swamp, marsh
white
belly, abdomen
fleece, wool
daughter
pod, hull, pea
tortoise
belt
heather
beautiful
oak, Quercus sessiliflora
lip, edge
breast, nipple
he-goat
pine-tree
to pour out
tree, wood
flute
butterfly
one year old she-goat
heap, mound
fence
hole
liver fluke
gullet
crop, not throat

Arge
abur
balt
barz Ciconia sp.
burt
basc
cf. biat boy
pstaie pod
broasc frog
bru, brne
brusture
bucuros happy
bunget
buz

ap
cetin, fir needles
derdelu frozen slope
druete (archaic)
fluier
fluture
vtui
mgur
gard
gaur
glbeaz
grumaz
gu

Slav
Slav
Slav
Latin
Dacian
Latin
Slav

Arumanian

abur
balt
bardzu
pstalji
broasc
brnu
broshturu
bucurilji
budz
tsts
tsapu
-

filjioar
vitulju
mgur
gardu
gavr
glbadz
grumazu
gushi

Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian

30

hirr /*ksira
kaule
katund
kpurdh
kpush
kob
kopil

krnd

40

kuk
kulpr, Geg
kurpn
labrgoj

zer
cciul
ctun

dzru
cciul
ctunu

Dacian
Dacian
Dacian

ciuperc
cpu
cobe
copil

ciupernic
cpushi
cob
copil

foliage, brushwood, leaves


as fodder
alone
ivy, clematis

creang, crng

grang

Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian or
Wanderwort
or Slavic
Dacian

(singur) cuc
curpeni vines

curpanu

Dacian
Dacian

to undo, to untie

a lbra to get large,


untied
Lbu dog name, reetymologized from lab
paw
curcubeu
mgar

Dacian
Dacian

mal shore, bank

leap,
ureche de
saric
curcubeu
yumaru
(from
Greek ? )
-

mazre green pea

madzri

Dacian

mnzat veal
molid < *molizi r.
meleze

mndzatu
dar muliftu

Dacian
Dacian

mrcini scrub, maquis


mnz foal
negur mist
molid or molift

mndzu
negur
molift ?

Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian

mre, bre (Balkanic)


mo very old man
amurg evening
mugur
murg brown (horse)

id.
mushicu
murgu
amurgu
murgu

Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian

lapush

big-eared

lylyver
magar

rainbow
donkey

mal

mountain ; also mal tip,


summit
green bean, pod ; chickpea
one year old heifer
Ostrya carpinifolia, hophornbeam, charmehoublon
briar, thorny bush
foal
cloud
silver fir (not from Sl.
against Orel)
vocative used to call a man
age
twilight
shoot, bud, sprout
dark

mashurk,
modhull
mazatore
mllez

50

whey
hood
village (Wanderwort)
mongol, Ainu qotan
mushroom
tick
bad augury
bastard

mrqinj
mz
mjegull/njegull
molik
more, bre
mosh
mug
mugull
murg

Dacian
Dacian or
Balkanism
Dacian

neprk
60

Ngop
njegull
prrua
ros
rrnd
sembr
sorr
stan

70

sut
shkardh
shkors
shkrumb
shterp
shtrung
tang
trsir
tin
trajst
thark

80

85

thep
thrrime fem.
pl.
thumbull
urdh
vatr
verig
zgurdhe

Orel's dictionary.

adder, viper (not from


Slavic)
to sate, to cram
fog, mist

nprc

nprtic

Dacian

a ndopa
negur

andopu
negur

brook, river-bed
duck
rennet
two peasants using
common cattle
crow
stall, herd

pru
ra
rnz
smbr

cljeagu

Dacian
Dacian or
Lat. nebula
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian

cioar
stn

stani

female deer, doe


dog chain
rug made of goat wool
thing burned to black
ashes
barren, sterile

ciut, ut.
zgard
scoar rug
scrum

ciut, -

stearp

stearp

milking enclosure
resentment, prejudice,
damnation
rope (made of genista)
slime, mud
knapsack, sack
Wanderwort
enclosure (for milking
sheep)
point, cog, tooth
crumb

strung
tnguire grief

strung
-

Dacian or
Latin
Dacian
Dacian

tastru,
trastiru
-

Dacian
Dacian
Dacian or
Wanderwort
Dacian

eap
frme fem.pl.

Dacian
Dacian

button (the two are not


clearly related)
cheese made from whey
fire-place, hearth
chain ring
rectum

smbure (stone of fruit)

smburi

Dacian

urd
vatr
verig
zgu

urd
vatr
(a)veriga

Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian or
coincidence

trsn
tin
traist
arc

scrumu

Dacian
Dacian or
unknown
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian
Dacian

Some etymologies in Orel's dictionary are disputed or wrong. For instance,

Albanese gar comes from Italian gara, competition, race. It is a recent loanword.

Albanese fraq cold, frost comes, probably, from Lat. frigus, cold, friget, it is cold. Lithuaniani and
Latvian words are phonetically and semantically far-fetched.

The vocabulary pertaining to sheep husbandry is heavy with substrate words. It is most unlikely
that Albanians, sedentary shepherds, have learned anything about sheep husbandry from the immigrant
Slavs. French douve, Rom. glbeaz, liver fluke, Greek
flukes worm are all
substrate. And, if it is a Slavic loanwords, why would Albanians not borrow the Slavic word for fluke, and
chose the name of the sausage ? In the overwhelming majority, loanwords keep a literal meaning.
Albanian could not borrow this word neither from Bulgarian (in Bulgarian, sausage is lukanika, a
Greek word) nor from Serbian : the Serbian form is kobasica.