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THIS IS A REPORT

PRESENTED IN THE PARTIAL


FULFILLMENT OF THE COURSE

COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING


(DMT3022)

BSC HONOURS MECHATRONICS


BY
OGBATA OSMUND
STUDENT Nọ: 0504303

LECTURER: TIM WARD

15 NOVEMBER 2009

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ABSTRACT
This is report writing on the various roles computers play during manufacture. Here an analysis was carried out
based on the input of computer in various manufacturing application that involves control of machines,
coordination of manufacturing processes, planning and allocation of resources in a manufacturing process as well
as assisting in the dynamic or static design of a production system. All this was analyzed based on their key
functions, strength for adaptability as well as various demerits inherent in using computers in such application.
This research was done using various electronic resources as well as books and as such information on the above
named processes were gathered and analyzed critically. At the concluding part, one of the roles were analyzed
more extensively under these sub-headings namely: the general role computer plays in that role, where it fits with
surrounding equipments, systems and people, the rational for using computer in this application and lastly the
business benefits that results from its use which in this report was partly analyzed in its monetary contribution.
Then after, a conclusion and recommendation as regards the report at large.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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CHAPTER ONE
APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER IN VARIOUS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

Application One: Computer’s role in manufacturing processes that involves control of a machine that moves, cut or
join one or more work piece…………………………………………………4

Application Two: Computer’s role in planning, allocation of resources and purchase of materials so as to beat
delivery deadline……………………………………………………………..5

Application Three: Computer’s role in machines coordination in manufacturing operation so that components are
made according to a detailed plan……………………………………........5-6

Application Four: Computer’s role in assisting in the dynamic or static design of a production system (rough cut
capacity planning)………………………………………………………….6-7

Similarities and Differences in these applications…………………………..7

CHAPTER TWO
APPLICATION 1 REVIEW……………………………………………..8- 11

CHAPTER THREE
Conclusions………………………………………………………………….12

Recommendations…………………………………………………………. 12

Appendices…………………………………………………………………13-16

References……………………………………………………………………17

Bibliography………………………………………………………………….18

CHAPTER ONE
APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER IN VARIOUS MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
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In the context of this chapter, I did an appraisal of various roles computer play during manufacturing as
enumerated in the table content and thus these roles in the context of this research will be referred to as
applications 1 – 4 as the case maybe. Also these applications will be analyzed categorically under three headings,
namely; KEY FUNCTIONS, ITS STRENGTH FOR ADAPTABILITY and POTENTIAL WEAKNESS whereas
their similarities and differences will be generally summarized.
1.1 ………………..APPLICATION 1

KEY FUNCTIONS – In this application, a detailed step of plan is needed to coordinate the machine to perfectly
execute a required task. The required task is complex, so précised defined steps are needed to achieve this. That is
where the computer comes into play, firstly it breaks down the task into; defining materials needed, stock size
requirements, plot coordinates and simulates the machine (milling machine, lathe, grinding machine etc) intended
for the task. All this as vague as they may sound or look are executed due to versatility of computer’s
understanding of various software used in these processes, which are also understood by the machine tool being
used. This is largely seen in the Computer Numerical Control machines (CNC), as the name implies, its
fundamental concept of Numerical Control (NC) utilizes a dedicated stored computer program with the machine
tools Machine Control Unit (MCU). This enables computer controlled activities such as conceptual designs of new
products done entirely within the frame work of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, to be fed into the
machine for either milling, drilling, machining as the case may be. Apart from all task listed above the computer
also helps in determining these factors which helps the machine to enhance cutter compensation, optimize
machining conditions, enhance machine and computer communication, comprehensive machine diagnostics for
design fault or machine anomaly, as well as manage information within the manufacturing framework. See
Appendix page 13, figure 1.
STRENGTHS FOR ADAPTABILITY – If you are familiar with CNC machine tools, one thing worthy to be noted
is the total absence of flywheels, its control is now purely dedicated to a computerized control system by which its
name originated. Its control system can be broadly seen to perform three main tasks. These tasks are as follows:
firstly, it helps the operator to identify the machine tool current status and position of various machine tool
features; secondly, it facilitates manual or semi-manual control of the machine tool movements and lastly, it creates
a platform that enables the machine tool to be programmed. With its computing capabilities, the mode of the CNC
can be selected based on their availability with the most common mode being Manual Data Input (MDI). This is
where the machinist can be allowed to either enter a program or edit the former one. Talking about CAD software,
which in the past, is only used to develop design which is now manually converted into a drafted paper drawing,
detailing instructions for its manufacture but various advancement in computer usage makes it possible for
Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) software like Pro-Engineer, Solid-Works, Edge-Cam to convert 3D models
generated in CAD into a set of basic operating machine language known as G-Code which is a type of
programming language understood by a CNC machine. This bridges the gap between the conceptual design and the
manufacture of finished product. Due to computer’s having large memory, it can be linked with the CNC machine
via a Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable, where there is a case of a large program which a CNC memory cannot
contain then from there the CNC machine can comfortably execute the command which is solely based on their
compatibility.
POTENTIAL WEAKNESS – (a) Initial high capital cost for equipments, installation and maintenance. (b) A new
discipline, so either employ specialist or retrain existing workers. (c) Undoubtedly, jobs will be lost on shop floors.
(d) Wrong preplanning of both human and technical issue might cause serious and lasting problems.

1.2.........................APPLICATION TWO
KEY FUNCTIONS – In this application, the role of computer is unarguably important, in that, it is quite an
arduous task to coordinate and implement various manufacturing process manually and comprehensibly as it does,
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in light of various advancement and competition in the manufacturing sector, especially when time is the prize. Its
role involves helping in planning work orders, create manufacturing plan, scheduling, release work order, close
orders, arrange shipping and logistics, detailed production order as well as material details. It also helps in
monitoring real time events and alerts, order status, charge rate, life of inventory, yields completion and usage, start
and stop times, organizing quality and laboratory data, processes events history, analyze best practice deviations,
efficiency and downtime tracking, as well as help in the reworking or reuse of scraps.
All this is achievable by the use of enterprising applications such as SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS AND
PRODUCTS IN DATA PROCESSING (SAP), ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP), SUPPLY
CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM) or PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT (PLM). All this broad roles
played by computer enables a manufacturer to coordinate production across the entire enterprise, ensuring the
highest level of customer responsiveness and satisfaction, achieve overall compliance with government regulations
as well as meet quality objectives.
STRENGTHS FOR ADAPTABILITY – As a composite application, SAP accesses and unifies data from a full
spectrum of enterprise resources which include document management systems, Customer Relationship
Management systems, project management systems as well as other desktop applications such as Microsoft office,
AutoCAD, proE, edgecam and many more; creating new cross functional business processes which is centered on
optimizing front end product definition. It also integrates with third party application thereby lowering cost. It is
quite an indispensable device as regards a highly efficient manufacturing process. See Appendix page13, figure 2.
Its usefulness gave a pedestal for achieving capitalization on best ideas, development of products that meets market
needs and also in-line with corporate strategy; ameliorate the risk to research and developmental pipeline through
timely go kill decisions and planning and lastly it helps in achieving time to market goal because constraint were
already identified earlier in the manufacturing process.
DEMERITS – Though this is a high spec manufacturing process as regards computer usage, the prize of procuring
such high efficient system is capital intensive; it also cut down manpower involvement in some manufacturing
process there by rendering those jobless; it needs highly trained personnel to run and lastly if miss-interpreted will
lead to extensive loss because all processes are interwoven.
1.3.........................APPLICATION THREE
KEY FUNCTIONS - In the context of this application, the thought of coordinating several machines in a
manufacturing process, in order to produce one or more components according to a detailed plan cannot be
misconstrued for any other thing rather than a FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM (FMS), with the spot
light on the basic roles computer plays to achieve the required task. Now its time to understand what a flexible
manufacturing system is, it can said to be a manufacturing system consisting of a set of identical numerical
controlled machines attached with a material storing and handling units and all this are controlled by a dedicated
computer. In other words it can be a group of highly automated Group Technology (GT) machine cells, which
comprises of processing workstations usually CNC machine tools. Its flexibility is derived from the fact that it can
simultaneously process a variety of different part styles and also the ability to adjust the quantity to be produced in
response to change in demand pattern. See appendix page , figure
Now let’s discuss the roles computers play in this application, from the definition it can be seen that all the
processes involved in this application is interwoven and controlled by a dedicated computer and thus we deduce
the followings: that computers role is hierarchal, thus it is divided into two namely; the plant floor computer
(which focuses on departmental control, e.g. synchronization of processes, downloading data and program for
process control and analysis of results) and process control computers (which focuses on control of specific
processes for e.g. program storage and execution, sensor analysis, actuator control, process modeling, time
constraint observation). All this hitherto boils down to this various rudimentary roles computer plays, that is; (a)
Computer helps to store the numerical control program needed for the required task. (b) It also helps in part
program distribution to individual machine tools which include post processing for specific machine formats. (c)
Computer also plan production by making decisions for part mix, rates and inputs to system parts, it also manages
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information on data, for example, desired production parts per day, number of available raw work parts, number
and type of pallets needed as well as routes for loading and unloading, it also instructs operator about desired parts
through a Data Entry Unit (DEU) (d) It regulates material traffic which ensures that parts are moved to the desired
workstations. (e) It facilitates shuttle control, which is moving parts between stations and main conveyor as well as
coordinate action between machines and primary handling units. (f) It monitors work handling units which includes
both parts and pallets. (g) It provides tool information at all time based on monitoring tool life, which it does by
tracking tools at each workstation and diverts or reroute parts if necessary or informs operator to change or install
another. (h) It facilitates system monitoring, evaluation and reporting which it uses to generate management report.
STRENGTHS FOR ADAPTABILITY – As earlier stated, the roles of computer in this application gave added
strength to its adaptability in this application. The modern NC machine tool is an automated system and as such
any NC machine has at least two axes of motion whereas some has five axes of motion. The control system of any
FMS is either a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) or Direct Numerical Control (DNC); since control is the main
focus of this application, therefore whether it is continuous, discrete or both some basic requirements are common
to both. It should be noted that both are concerned with the need to communicate and interact with the various
machinery in the process, on a real time basis. So since this application involves coordination of machines so as to
produce according to a detailed local plan, it then means that the need for real time control is glaring. It is also
known that, the controller should have the ability to respond to a process within a short enough time period at
which will not adversely affect the process performance. Then there is no gainsaying in the fact that it is only a
computer that has that capability to deliver within the set requirement.
What are those basic or set requirements? These requirements help to determine whether the controller can deliver
as required, these requirement are as follows: (a) The speed of the controller’s central processing unit and
associated interface. (b) The operating system. (c) The design of the application software. (d) The number of
different input or output events to which it can respond to on real time basis, that is multitasking capabilities. As I
earlier mentioned, this factors or requirement can only be associated or executed by a computer and as such those
are its strengths that makes it suitable for this role because we are dealing with coordination of machinery in
manufacturing on real time basis. See Appendix

1.4.........................APPLICATION FOUR
KEY FUNCTION – The computer is an integral part of this application also known as Production Planning and
Control (PPC) and this is concerned with the logistic problem encountered during manufacture, which includes the
management of what, when and how products are produced. It also involves obtaining raw materials, parts and
resources to manufacture those products. All this tremendous amount of data required to coordinate these activities,
reconcile technical details with desired production schedule using computers. This broad topic encompasses two
main topics namely; Production Planning and Production Control. In Production Planning the computer determines
which products to make, quantity needed and time for completion; it also schedules facilitates deliver or production
of product; it determines the manpower and equipment to be used and all this is done within four main scope of
production planning which are (a) Aggregate Production Planning (APP) – planning involving product design,
marketing and sales. (b) Master Production Planning (MPP) – converts aggregate production plan into Master
Production Schedule (MPS), which determines which determines quantity to be produced in each product line. (c)
Master Requirement Planning (MRP) – purely computer data processing which interprets the MPS of end product
into a detailed schedule for raw materials allocation and finally, (d) Capacity Planning (CP) – here the computer
determines the required labor and equipment needed to execute the master schedule. In Production Control, here
the computer determines if every necessary materials and detail needed to execute the master schedule is available
and if not it will tend to adjust for the deficiencies. Importantly, it is generally concerned with shop floor control,
inventory control, manufacturing resource planning and just-in-time production system. See appendix page 15 and
16, figure 4 and 5.
STRENGTHS FOR ADAPTABILITY – Let us now delve into why only the computer can perform this task.
Firstly looking at the Master Requirement Planning (MRP), in a more specific term it is a computational technique
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that converts the master schedule for end products into a detailed schedule for the raw materials and components
used in the end products. Its implementation is quite cumbersome as regards an enormous amount of data required
to execute or implement the master schedule. To implement the MRP program, data from several files are collated
in the MRP processor and these files are from the following sources: Master Production Schedule (MPS), Bill Of
Material (BOM) file including other engineering and manufacturing data and inventory record files. Then
secondly, Capacity Planning (CP) which its main objective is to determine and compute the feasibility of the MPS
using available equipment and labor as regards the work at hand in a long time basis. This is done in two stages,
when the MPS is known and MRP computed then a Rough Cut Capacity Planning (RCCP) is calculated to
ascertain the validity of the MPS. If the RCCP is not properly implemented, then a second calculation known as
Capacity Requirement Planning (CRP) is made during the computation of MRP, to ascertain the actual facts. It can
be seen that this is beyond manual computation as such, requires sophiscated computer program to execute because
if wrongly done will lead to an excessive loss of time and materials.
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
It can seen that application one involves the use of computer to control a machine that cuts or move work piece
from one process to another, in application two its more of seeing how computer can integrate a wide variety of
manufacturing process where time is the prize whereas in application three computer is used to produce as we have
seen a flexible manufacturing system, where it can control a wide variety of equipment ranging from robots, CNC
machines (milling, lathe etc) while maintaining adhering to a laid down procedure and finally application four is
similar to application two in the sense that both are time driven application but in application four it can be seen
that it involves direct overview of how feasible a production plan is by determining various parameters rather that
the more complex application which can even integrate CAD, AutoCAD and coming to the similarities, virtually
all the processes are capital intensive, require specialist to operate and that every one of them involves in an
automated system and lastly they can all be employed in any manufacturing system where time and
professionalism in production is the order of the day.

CHAPTER TWO
APPLICATION 1 REVIEW

KEY FUNCTIONS – From my initial appraisal, it can be seen that the role of computer in this application are
numerous which means that within the context of this report, I will tend to lay more emphasis specifically on the
main role in a broader scope but to an understanding of other people outside the discipline. Coming back to the
review, the computerized control of machines that cut, join or move a work-piece in a manufacturing process
started with the Numerical Control (NC), whereby the machine tool automation is operated by an abstract program
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command contained in a storage unit using servomechanisms. But the advent of analogue and digital computers
made possible the augmentation of the NC machine to achieve a Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machine.
The CNC can now be used for many machine processes that involves series of movements and operations, for
example laser cutting, welding, ultrasonic welding, flame and plasma cutting, bending, spinning, pinning, gluing,
fabric cutting, sewing, tape and fabric cutting, sewing, tape and placement, routing, picking and placing, and
sawing.

Before we proceed, let us look at the basic functions of its control unit. These are: (a) Storing programs: the control
unit has the ability to either partly store in its storage unit or connect to an auxiliary computer attached to it. It can
hold more than one program and can switch between them as desired. Availability of a battery backup which
support only the memory, facilitates the ability to retain program in the control unit. (b) Editing: computer makes it
possible to carry out editing on a part program held in the control unit or the entire program itself. This means that
general system updates and upgrades can be done in the control unit. (c) Storing patterns: the computer enables the
operator to create a user defined environment such as roughing cycles or startup routine, common routine such as
holes on a pitch circle, pocketing sequences, drilling and tapping can be built in, which is retrievable when there is
need for it. The control unit enables certain parameters to be defined while working out subsequent calculations
and actions to be taken. (d) Sub-program: since the program stored in the control unit is available, the repetitive
machining sequence can be done since there is no need of repeating part of an identical program code. (e)
Enhanced cutter compensation: here the control unit has the ability to initiate program modification if there is need
to alter job specification which might arise due to unavailability of machine tool needed for a particular job or
undue tool breakage. (f) Optimized machining conditions: due to the control unit ability to compute sophiscated
calculation as well as extreme fast response in data processing, this added feature facilitates enhanced machining
condition. This invariably means that the control unit can constantly monitor activities such as spindle speed on
lathe and other CNC machine tool machines, which can be precisely matched and automatically readjusted. It also
facilitates optimization of feed rates by monitoring power consumption. (g) Communication facilities: here the
control system can facilitate the interaction between the machine tools and other host computer using te Ethernet
cable via Universal Serial Bus (USB) or RS-232 controller, whereby part program can be download from a data
base and then executed from that storage unit. (h): the control system can run a self diagnostic process on its
electronics operations because it contains comprehensive pre-installed diagnostic software for machine anomalies
or updates.

In a broader and more technical analysis let us delve more into these control roles played by computer in a CNC
machine tool, these control roles can be broadly classified under there headings. Firstly, its ability to determine at
any given time, the current status of the machine tool and the positions of its various features. Secondly, it also
offers facility that prompts manual or semi-manual control. Thirdly, it enables the machine to be programmed. Lets
now discuss them one after another.

STATUS INDICATOR: The first thing computer helps to identify to establish is to identify the various movements
it will make according to the fed program. The basic control standard designation or most common machining
centers is X (longitudinal), Y (transverse) and Z (vertical plane), and only X (radial) and Z (axial) for turning
centers, that is in turning and cylindrical grinding machines and all their directions of movement is denoted by
either plus (+) or minus (-) from an established datum. The diagrammatic representation of this axis in various
machines can be seen in appendix page. The right hand rule is used to show the relative positions of these axes as
shown in appendix page 16, figure 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. The computer helps the operator to determine this
position by either a simple digital readout which, will be allocated to each axis or simply through a Visual Display
Unit (VDU). Through the VDU the operator can view, edit or search part programs, examine tool information,

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show graphical plots of the tool part via computer graphics and run diagnostic processes. The machine tool axis
will be shown in two ways, it is left for the operator to select the desired mode. In some Machine Control Unit
(MCU), the absolute position from the machine datum is constantly shown whereas the incremental movement is
shown if need be. Other parameters controlled by the computer which might be seen in the VDU is the power
consumed, spindle speed and other set of indicator lamps and warnings.

MANUAL/SEMI-MANUAL CONTROLS: Here we tend to look at some task which require physical human
contact like loading or changing tools, trying out and proving part programs, cleaning and maintenance, unloading,
setting the work pieces or establishing machine datum etc, the need arises for the machine to be run either
manually or semi-manual as the case maybe without being on full automatic. Axis movement can be altered and be
placed on either rapid traverse or feed through jog mode also known as inch or step mode. When the jog mode
button on the MCU is hit the appropriate axis will, move the machine slide by a predetermined amount of steps
either 1-unit, 0.1-unit or 0.01-unit. It is used to set datums and ‘pick-up’ component features. During part program
execution, it is always likely to be executed one block at a time and stop when finished by hitting a button on the
MCU this is called single-step operation which is an equivalent of semi- automatic control. There are times the
machine might be running on full automatic; this does not means that adjustments cannot be made, the computer
sees to that by proving some manual override facilities which can be invoke whine machining is going on. Feed
override and spindle speed override are two main manual overrides that are common in CNC machines. This
override allows up to 120% modification of programmed value, thereby enabling the operator to fine tune the
cutting operation according to the present machining conditions. Full stoppage and start of a programmed can be
invoked.

PROGRAMMING CONTROLS: MCU’s has the capability to store part programs in its memory which can be
selected upon request according to the specified task. This is possible through Manual data Input (MDI), this
enables the operator to enter or edit a program and this is achieved through the attached computer keyboard with
required functions. There are other mode of input that are available, these are magnetic disc or tape, punched tape
(from a tape reader or teletype device) or maybe direct from a host computer via an RS232C interface or computer
Ethernet cable via Universal Serial Bus (USB).

AUXILIARY FACILITIES: With the advent of computer controlled machines comes another outstanding feature
that enables extensive guarding of the machine. This is due to the fact that the spindle speed creates high forces on
components, machine tools and cutting tools and as such, a lot of swarfs and coolants are thrown around in the
cutting zones. All this are dangerous both to the operator and the machine itself because it might cause tool
breakage or serious collision. That is why the guard is interlocked with the control system through limit switches,
which the computer activates once the guard closes and as an added feature, once not properly positioned
machining cannot take place. Other auxiliary facilities also include an automatic lubrication facility which
minimizes wear due to high constant machining operation as well as enhances tool life. Automatic Tool Changer

(ATC), Automatic Chuck Jaw Changer, Automatic Component Loading facilities as the name implies they works
under program control without manning. It can also facilitate adaptive control, dual set-ups, component feeder or
Automatic Pallet Changers (APC). With the computerization of its MCU, many of these facilities are made
possible via software controls which are embedded in the CNC unit itself. You can alter the program by simply
changing a printed circuit board or chip.

WHERE THE COMPUTER FITS IN WITH PEOPLE, SURROUNDING EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM

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Since computer in this application is all about control, then in the context of this subheading we are discussing
system management rather than machine operation. Considering the loading or changing tools, trying out and
proving part programs, cleaning and maintenance, unloading, setting the work pieces or establishing machine
datum etc still needs manning, therefore computerized automation becomes feasible and not necessarily desirable.
The big issue here is the content of work available thereby eliminating need for trade skills. There are now more
pressure on office based skills, design and production engineering skills. The impact is quite tremendous because
there is reduced need for skilled workers or semi-skilled workers and as a result shortens working week and
eliminate entirely the need to work unsociable hours. Since computers and robots cannot see there are no needs for
lights and this saves a lot of money in energy cost. It also reduces manning need to technicians and engineers of the
highest skills in the field of tool design, tool setting and changing using CAD/CAM techniques. Due to its ability to
interact with remote host, makes CNC machines operation flexible because if networked will directly integrate
management into production processes which enables operation planning and logistic for a specific product to be
directly interwoven production process for example machining because they can operate the CNC machine
remotely without the need for additional support. They also have self diagnostic system that alerts for increased
interaction with system, people and Surrounding equipments.

THE RATIONALE OF USING COMPUTER IN THIS WAY

In the context of this subheading I took a look at the justification of the use of computer in CNC machines, from
the aspect of being able to execute task that are humanly impossible, but if done, will take a very long time, but
with the advent of CNC many complex and intricate products are now feasible. Imagine the machining of the core
and cavity in an injection mold, a car engine block or an aircraft turbine manufactured with a 5 axis milling
machine or , this type of machining was done previously in a tracer mill as shown in which clearly shows how
difficult or near impossible to machine that to certain degree of perfection. But with CNC it involves only the
writing of a simple program provides the command to machine those complex shapes. Another complex task is that
CNC machines has the ability to bring work-piece closer to inspection due to the fact that it can handle more than
one machining operation in one setup. This was achieved by including a live tooling mechanism on turning centers,
which means that some machining commonly done on a milling machine, rotary table and indexers can now be
done on lathe because it can now rotate the work-piece exposing multiple parts to the spindle for machining and
with also the inclusion of a computerized spindle probe as shown in makes it possible to accurately and
automatically locate key surface on cylindrical or spherical shapes.

Analyzing from a view point of a product producing process; Firstly, CNC machines there is that consistency in
work-piece production because once the program is written, it will execute in the same fashion as many times as
possible without any visible or geometric form disparity whereas manually done on a conventional machine will
increase the chance of disparity by 80% to 90%. Secondly, it facilitates faster work cycles which was achieved by
the inclusion of automated swarf and coolant guard, which now reduce the man hour used to carter for the chips
and coolant being throwing around in the work area, thereby enhancing efficient cutting conditions for best cycle
times. There is maximum time utility when CNC machines because time invested in writing programs which can
be used one million times over will be realized since there is no additional work to be done if there should be
repeated order from same product.

BUSINESS BENEFITS THAT RESULTS FROM COMPUTER IN THIS APPLICATION

Let me start by saying that CNC machines are not exorbitant as they use to be, for £15,000 one can procure a very
capable entry-level machining centers and turning centers, which can be managed on a sole proprietary basis when
the demands are relatively small and high quality finishing needed. Not considering the relative cheap prize of the
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CNC machine, the shop rate for machine tool ranges between fro about £15 an hour for a smaller and less costly
machine to up to £100 an hour for more costly and larger machines. This means that a company can generate about
£100,000 per annum, if the machine works for an average rate of £100 per hour, for eight hours shift per day or
forty hours of one working week, when all other factors are maintained. By this considering the average tool life of
a conventional machine which is about five years, the CNC’s lifespan is about ten years because it has got those
computerized added features which enables the machine work in a more smoother environment if properly
maintained, bearing this in mind you don’t need a soothsayer to make you understand that it will be a viable
business to undertook.

The ease of operation of CNC makes it possible for lesser skill to needed for machinist since they don’t write the
program but monitor minor processes using VDU which is utterly self explanatory with little training. Let us divert
a bit into how important machine tools are, using China as an example, it is already known that they will be among
the first countries that will be out of this current recession faster than others, this is partly thanks to its large
involvement in machine tool processes, with its estimated £418.4 billion pounds economic stimuli for 2009/2010
fiscal year, economic growth was at about 8% with their main focus on automotive, mechanical engineering, steel
working, aviation and aerospace industries with their machine tool department in mind. This was according to the
recent metal working and CNC machine tool show held between 7th to 9th November 2009. This can significantly
prove that with the advent of CNC machine the fate and future of the machine tool industries was recreated.

Michael Cassell, North American CNC product manager for Holz-Her US, says and I quote; that while the range of
benefits provided by CNC technology are numerous, "the ability to perform a number of machining functions in a
single setup is one of the most significant. The successful use of CNC technology eliminates the movement of parts
to separate machines to perform individual, single functions." As it really facilitates the maximum utility derivate
from the machine.

CHAPTER THREE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
From the context of this report in as much as there is a huge benefit brought about by the use of computer in various
application, there is no gainsaying that to run such a process is quite capital intensive as such a small group of the population
especially the large companies benefit from such venture. From a layman point of view, it is not worth considering because
of the strenuous and tedious arrangement to facilitate those processes. I hereby implore that various financial institution as
well as the government knowing how beneficial these applications are should prioritize the setting up of voluntary training
centre since CNC machine requires a lesser skilled personnel to operate rather than the conventional ones. This will engage a
lot of jobless people at this time of recession and also serve as big revenue earner as could have seen in the Chinese economy
statistics.

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APPENDIX 1

Figure 1 CADCAM SIMPLIFIED

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Figure 2 SAP PLM INTEGRATION WITH SOLIDWORKS

13
APPENDIX 2

Figure 3 FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

Figure 4 MANFACTURING PLANNING AND CONTROL SYSTEM

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APPENDIX 3

Figure 5 DETERMINE REQUIRED RESOURCES AND


PROPOSED WORKLOAD (ROUGH CUT CAPACITY PLANNING
RCCP)

Figure 6 MAIN COMPONENTS OF NC SYSTEM

15
APPENDIX 4

Figure 8 CENTRE LATHE


Figure 7 DRILLING MACHINE

Figure 9 CYLINDRICAL GRINDING


MACHINE
Figure 10 MILLING
MACHINE

Figure 12 RELATIVE
POSITION AND
DIRECTION OF Figure 11 RIGHT HAND RULE
ON STANDARD AXIS
MOVEMENTS

REFERENCES

B OOKS

(1) Barry
Leatham-
Jones. 1990. Introduction to computer and numerical control. 1st
ed. Pitman and Wliey.
(2) Mikell P. Groover. 2001. Automation Production Systems and Computer Integrated Manufacturing. 2nd ed.
Prentice Hall.
(3) Roger Timings, Steve Wilkinson. 2003. E-manufacture, Application of advanced Technology To
manufacturing Processes. 1st ed. Prentice Hall.
(4) Edward Kafrissen, Mark Stephans.1984. Industrial Robots and Robotics. 1st ed. Prentice Hall, Virginia.

WEBSITES

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(1)BPC, Articles and Glossary (CAM: Computer Aided Manufacturing) [online] (update not available)
Available at: http://www.bestpricecomputers.co.uk/glossary/computer-aided-
manufacturing.htm
Date Visited: accessed on 18 October 2009.

(2) The Challenges of Accounting Techniques Posed by New Approaches To Manufacturing.


[online] (Presented to the BAA NAG conference, Durham Sept 1989). Author: Kimble C.
Available at: http://www.chris-kimble.com/Publications/Documents/Kimble_1989.pdf
Date Visited: accessed on 19 October 2009.

(3) CIM and Manufacturing Industry in the North East of England. [online] a Survey of some Current Issues in
Ergonomics of Advanced Manufacturing Systems. Ed H. R. PARSAEI and W. KARWOWSKI. Pub Elsevier
publications, 1988. Author: Kimble C. & Prabhu B.V.
Available at: http://www.chris-kimble.com/Publications/Documents/Kimble_1988.pd

Date Visited: accessed on 19 October 2009.

(4) Computer Aided a Manufacturing Laboratory at WPI. [online](update on 11/27/2009


14:03:05)
Available at: http://www.me.wpi.edu/research/CAMLab/pemsindex.htm
Date Visited: accessed on 19 October 2009.

(5) CNC Information.(CAD/CAM Setup) [online] (update not available).


Available at: www. cncinformation.com/computer-aided-manufacturing-camcad-
cam/include-setup-as-part of- cad-cam-2
Date Visited: accessed on 19 October 2009.

(6) Rough Cut Capacity Planning. (MIT; Coaching, Consulting and Training) [Online] (Update
not available).Available at: http://www. mcts.com/RCCP.html
Date Visited: accessed on 19 November 2009.

(7) Machining Technology [online] (Machine Tools and Operations)(Updated on Jan 2008)
Authors: Helmi Youssef A., Hassan El-Hofy
Available at: www.scribd.com
Date Visited: accessed on 25 November 2009.

(8) SAP Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) [Online] (updated 2009).


Available at: http://www.sap.com/solutions/business-suite/plm/index.epx
Date Visited: accessed on 25 November 2009.

DIAGRAMS

Figure 1: Available from: Lecture Note (NC to CAM) (2009). Author: Tim Ward MSc CEng MIET.
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Figure 2: Available from: http://www.sap.com/solutions/business-suite/plm/index.epx.

Figure 3: Available from: http://me.emu.edu.tr/majid/IENG447/FMS.ppt

Figure 4 & 5: Available from: http://www. mcts.com/RCCP.html

Figure 6 – 12: Available from: Machining Technology [online] (Machine Tools and
Operations)(Updated on Jan 2008) Authors: Helmi Youssef A., Hassan El-Hofy. Available
at: www.scribd.com.

BIBLOGRAPHY

(1) Black S.C., Chiles V., Lissaman A.J., Martin S.J. Principles of Engineering Automation. 3rd ed. Arnold.
(2) Rembold U., Nnaji B.O., Storr A. Computer Integrated and Manufacturing Engineering. 1st ed. Addison
Wesley.

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