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Power*Tools

for Windows

I*SIM Reference Manual


Electrical Engineering Analysis Software
for Windows
Copyright 2008, SKM Systems Analysis, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

Information in this document is subject to change without notice. No part of this document may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without the express written consent of SKM
Systems Analysis, Inc. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein.
Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this manual, the publisher and author assume no
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information contained herein. For information, address SKM Systems Analysis, Inc., PO Box 3376, Manhattan
Beach, CA 90266-1376, USA.
2008 SKM Systems Analysis, Inc. All rights reserved.
Power*Tools, CAPTOR and DAPPER are registered trademarks and HI_WAVE and I*SIM are trademarks of
SKM Systems Analysis, Inc.
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Contents
1 I*SIM STUDY

1-1

1.1. Introduction ...........................................................................................................1-2


1.2. Prepare Static System Data ..................................................................................1-4
1.3. Open the I*SIM Study Manager..........................................................................1-4
1.4. Create Dynamic Simulation Events .....................................................................1-6
1.4.1. Cases and Studies .............................................................................................1-7
1.4.2. Choose Components .........................................................................................1-9
1.5. Assign Models and Events to Components........................................................1-11
1.5.1. About System Damping..................................................................................1-14
1.5.2. Source Models and Events .............................................................................1-15
Source Models......................................................................................................1-16
Source Events .......................................................................................................1-16
1.5.3. Motors ............................................................................................................1-20
Motor Models.......................................................................................................1-22
Synchronous Motor Events...................................................................................1-34
Induction Motor Events ........................................................................................1-34
1.5.4. Buses ..............................................................................................................1-19
Bus Models...........................................................................................................1-35
Bus Events............................................................................................................1-36
1.5.5. Branches .........................................................................................................1-37
Branch Events.......................................................................................................1-37
1.5.6. Relays .............................................................................................................1-38
Relay Models........................................................................................................1-38
Relay Events.........................................................................................................1-38
1.5.7. Choose Channels ............................................................................................1-40
Source Plot Channels............................................................................................1-41
Motor Plot Channels.............................................................................................1-42
Bus Plot Channels.................................................................................................1-42
Branch Plot Channels ...........................................................................................1-43
1.6. Run Dynamic Simulation to Produce Data .......................................................1-44
1.6.1. Points to consider when running the Simulation.............................................1-45
1.6.2. Solution Parameter Event ...............................................................................1-49
1.6.3. I*SIM Study Setup options.............................................................................1-51
Use Global /Case Study Setup ..............................................................................1-51
Angle Reference Machine ....................................................................................1-52
Maximum Simulation Time..................................................................................1-52
Simulation Time Step ...........................................................................................1-52
Model Frequency Dependent Network.................................................................1-52
1.6.4. LF Setup Options............................................................................................1-52
Load Specification................................................................................................1-53
Directly Connected Loads ................................................................................1-54

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From Demand Load Study ............................................................................... 1-54


Solution Criteria................................................................................................... 1-54
Generation Acceleration Factor, Load Acceleration Factor............................. 1-54
Bus Voltage Drop, Branch Voltage Drop ........................................................ 1-55
1.6.5. Automatically-Generated Reports.................................................................. 1-55
Input Report ......................................................................................................... 1-56
Demand Load Report........................................................................................... 1-56
Load Flow Report ................................................................................................ 1-57
Dynamic Report ................................................................................................... 1-57
Log Report ........................................................................................................... 1-58
1.7. Convergence Failure and Other Errors............................................................ 1-60
1.7.1. Initialization Error.......................................................................................... 1-60
1.7.2. Convergence Failure ...................................................................................... 1-62
1.7.3. Other Common Causes of Errors ................................................................... 1-62
1.8. Plot Simulation Curves....................................................................................... 1-64
1.8.1. Working with Plots ........................................................................................ 1-65
1.8.2. Understanding Axes....................................................................................... 1-71
1.1.1. Taking Components to the Component Editor............................................... 1-73
1.1.2. Taking Components to a One-Line Diagram ................................................. 1-74
1.1.3. Zooming In and Out....................................................................................... 1-74
1.1.4. Adding Annotations to a plot ......................................................................... 1-74
1.1.5. Exporting a plot as text or as a graphic .......................................................... 1-77
1.1.6. Changing Colors and Sizes ............................................................................ 1-77
1.1.7. Printing Plots ................................................................................................. 1-82
1.9. Examples.............................................................................................................. 1-83
1.9.1. Single Machine (Isimprj1).......................................................................... 1-83
Calculations ......................................................................................................... 1-84
Conclusions.......................................................................................................... 1-87
1.9.2. Nine Bus (Isimprj2).................................................................................... 1-87
Case One .............................................................................................................. 1-91
Case Two ............................................................................................................. 1-93
1.9.3. Fast Transfer Switching (Isimprj3)............................................................. 1-95
Conclusions.......................................................................................................... 1-97
1.9.4. Using Multiple Scenarios (Isimprj4) ........................................................ 1-100
1.9.5. Generator Sizing ((Isimprj5) .................................................................... 1-104
1.10. Works Cited .................................................................................................... 1-107

2 USING I*SIMS LIBRARY

2-1

2.1. General Library Usage......................................................................................... 2-2


2.1.1. Editing an Existing Model ............................................................................... 2-4
2.1.2. Adding a New Model....................................................................................... 2-4
2.1.3. Copying an Existing Model ............................................................................. 2-5
2.1.4. Metric Units ..................................................................................................... 2-5
2.2. General Information for Machines (Utilities, Generators, and Motors).......... 2-5
2.2.1. Norton Equivalent............................................................................................ 2-5
2.2.2. Sub-Transient Saliency Effect.......................................................................... 2-7
2.2.3. Generalized Machine Block Diagram.............................................................. 2-8
2.2.4. Damping and Torque Equation ........................................................................ 2-9
2.2.5. Inertia............................................................................................................. 2-10
2.2.6. Machine Saturation ........................................................................................ 2-11

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I*SIM iii

2.3. Source Machine Models......................................................................................2-11


2.3.1. Round Rotor Fossil Steam < 300 MVA .........................................................2-12
2.3.2. Round Rotor Fossil Steam > 300 MVA .........................................................2-15
2.3.3. Round Rotor Nuclear Unit..............................................................................2-15
2.3.4. Round Rotor Gas Turbine Unit ......................................................................2-15
2.3.5. Round Rotor General......................................................................................2-15
2.3.6. Salient Pole Hydro Unit..................................................................................2-16
2.3.7. Salient Pole Condensers < 200 MVA.............................................................2-17
2.3.8. Salient Pole Condensers > 200 MVA.............................................................2-17
2.3.9. Salient Pole Synchronous ...............................................................................2-17
2.3.10. Salient Pole General .....................................................................................2-17
2.3.11. Single Cage Induction Generator..................................................................2-17
2.3.12. Double Cage Induction Generator ................................................................2-19
2.3.13. Diesel Generator...........................................................................................2-19
2.3.14. Classical .......................................................................................................2-22
2.3.15. Infinite Bus ...................................................................................................2-22
2.4. Synchronous Motor Models ...............................................................................2-23
2.4.1. Round Rotor Sub-Transient Level Synchronous Motor .................................2-26
2.4.2. Salient Pole Sub-Transient Level Synchronous Motor...................................2-25
2.5. Induction Motor Models.....................................................................................2-28
2.5.1. Single Cage Flux Level Induction Motor .......................................................2-28
Integration Time Step ...........................................................................................2-30
VAR Estimate and Mismatch ...............................................................................2-30
Damping Factor for the Motor..............................................................................2-31
Induction Motor Saturation ..................................................................................2-31
Conversion Between the Single Cage Flux and the Single Cage Algebraic Motor
Models..................................................................................................................2-32
2.5.2. Double Cage Flux Level Induction Motor......................................................2-33
Conversion Between the Double Cage Flux and the Double Cage Type I Algebraic
Motor Models.......................................................................................................2-33
Conversion Between the Double Cage Flux and the Double Cage Type II Algebraic
Motor Models.......................................................................................................2-35
2.6. Exciter Models .....................................................................................................2-49
2.6.1. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type DC2............................................................2-49
2.6.2. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC1 ............................................................2-52
2.6.3. 1981 Modified IEEE Recommended Type AC1 ............................................2-55
2.6.4. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC2 ............................................................2-58
2.6.5. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type DC3............................................................2-61
2.6.6. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC3 ............................................................2-63
2.6.7. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC4 ............................................................2-66
2.6.8. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST1.............................................................2-68
2.6.9. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST2.............................................................2-70
2.6.10. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST3...........................................................2-72
2.6.11. 1979 IEEE Standard Type 1.........................................................................2-74
2.6.12. 1979 IEEE Standard Type 2.........................................................................2-76
2.6.13. 1979 Modified IEEE Standard Type 2 .........................................................2-80
2.6.14. 1979 IEEE Standard Type 3.........................................................................2-82
2.6.15. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.........................................................................2-85
2.6.16. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Westinghouse Mag-A-Stat..............................2-87
2.6.17. 1968 IEEE Type 1 Westinghouse Rotating-Rectifier (3600 RPM) ..............2-87
2.6.18. 1968 IEEE Type 1 Westinghouse Rotating-Rectifier (1800 RPM) ..............2-87
2.6.19. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Westinghouse Rotorol ....................................2-87

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2.6.20. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Westinghouse Silverstat ................................. 2-87


2.6.21. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Westinghouse TRA ........................................ 2-88
2.6.22. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Amplidyne NA101 ......................................... 2-88
2.6.23. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Amplidyne NA108 ......................................... 2-88
2.6.24. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Amplidyne NA143 (< 5 kW ) ........................ 2-88
2.6.25. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Amplidyne NA143 (>5 kW) .......................... 2-88
2.6.26. 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1......................................................... 2-88
2.6.27. 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1S with Bus Fed ................................ 2-90
2.6.28. 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1S with Solid Fed .............................. 2-91
2.6.29. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 2 ........................................................................ 2-92
2.6.30. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3 ........................................................................ 2-95
2.6.31. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 4 ........................................................................ 2-98
2.6.32. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 5 ...................................................................... 2-100
2.6.33. 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 5....................................................... 2-102
2.6.34. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 8 ...................................................................... 2-104
2.6.35. Simplified................................................................................................... 2-107
2.6.36. Simplified SCR Static with Bus Fed .......................................................... 2-108
2.6.37. Simplified SCR Static with Solid Fed........................................................ 2-109
2.7. Turbine Governor Models ............................................................................... 2-109
2.7.1. Standard Steam ............................................................................................ 2-109
2.7.2. Standard Hydro ............................................................................................ 2-110
2.7.3. Simplified Gas ............................................................................................. 2-112
2.7.4. Isochronous Diesel....................................................................................... 2-114
2.7.5. Synchronous Diesel...................................................................................... 2-116
2.7.6. General Purpose........................................................................................... 2-117
2.8. Relay Models ..................................................................................................... 2-118
2.8.1. Time Inverse Overcurrent ............................................................................ 2-118
2.8.2. Under Frequency Load Shedding................................................................. 2-119
2.8.3. Under Frequency and dF / dt Load Shedding .............................................. 2-120
2.8.4. Time Inverse Under Frequency Load Shedding........................................... 2-120
2.8.5. Rate of Change of Power ............................................................................. 2-121
2.9. Bus Load Models............................................................................................... 2-122
2.9.1. Frequency Sensitive Bus Load..................................................................... 2-122
2.10. IEEE Bus Load ............................................................................................. 2-122
Single Valued Load Characteristic..................................................................... 2-123

Index

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I*SIM i

1 I*SIM Study

IN THIS CHAPTER

The Industrial Simulation (I*SIM) Study module is a state-of-the-art computer simulation


which helps you analyze the effect of balanced network disturbances on a power system.
I*SIM can simulate all types of balanced network disturbances including utility isolation,
fast transfer, motor starting, fault study, loss of generation, relay operation, and much
more. As with all PTW Study modules, I*SIM uses the same database, so you can
examine all your existing Projects.

1.1. Introduction
1.2. Prepare Static System Data
1.3. Open the I*SIM Study Manager
1.4. Create Dynamic Simulation Events
1.5. Assign Models and Events to Components
1.6. Run Dynamic Simulation to Produce Data
1.7. Convergence Failure and Other Errors
1.8. Plot Simulation Curves
1.9. Examples
1.10. Works Cited

1-2
1-4
1-4
1-6
1-11
1-44
1-60
1-64
1-83
1-107

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Reference Manual

1.1. Introduction
A common problem in the management of three-phase power systems is the instability
caused by balanced network disturbances. The Industrial Simulation (I*SIM) Study
module helps you overcome these problems by providing a clear picture of the impact
these disturbances will have on your power system.
I*SIM can simulate all types of balanced network disturbances including isolation from
the utility; fast transfer switching; motor starting, tripping, and reclosing; loss of
generation; loss of excitation; blocked governors; tie-line oscillations; load rejection; load
shedding; and system split-up, among others. Since I*SIM is designed specifically to
simulate the electro-mechanical dynamic behavior of power systems, there are some
events which occur outside I*SIMs analysis range, as shown in Fig. 1-1:

Lightning Overvoltages

Line Switching Voltages

Subsynchronous Resonance

I*SIM Dynamic Simulation Range


Transient & Dynamic Stability

First Swing Analysis


Boiler Response & Controls

Load Frequency Controls

Long Term Dynamics

10

-7

10

-6

10

-5

10

-4

10

-3

-2

10

0.1

10

10

10

10

Time Scale, sec.

1 microsec

1 degree

at 60 Hertz

1 cycle

1 sec

1 min

1 hr

Fig. 1-1. The range of I*SIMs simulation capabilities.

As Fig. 1-1 indicates, I*SIMs scope lies between that of events such as lightning overvoltage and boiler response.
The following flowchart illustrates the steps involved in running an I*SIM Study.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-3

Flowchart of the steps in an I*SIM Study


Prepare Data
Enter static system data (cables, transformers, loads, motors, and
so on).
Return to the
Component Editor to
modify the static
portion of the system.

Connect at least once swing bus to every isolated portion of the


electrical system. In PTW, a swing bus is one of two things: 1) a
utility component; 2) a generator component whose Schedule type
(found on the first subview of the Component Editor) is set to "Volts
& Angle (SB)."
Check that you have entered data in the Rated MVA and Rated
Voltage boxes in the Component Editor for utility components,
particularly if you are using a Project from an older version of PTW
(older versions of PTW did not have these data fields).

Switch I*SIM back to


Event Mode to modify
Dynamic Events,
create new Cases,
choose different
Dynamic Models, or to
pick different channels
to create data for.

Create Dynamic Events


With the I*SIM Study Manager in Event Mode, create or select a
Study.
Create or select a Case.
Select components to be included in the Case. You must include
at least one swing bus (defined in "Prepare Data," above).
Assign I*SIM Library models to each component.
Define Dynamic events for each component (starting time, etc.).
Select channels to be saved during simulation (speed, torque, etc.).

Run Dynamic Simulation

Check Log Report


Open and examine the Log Report for any errors (if
Project didn't converge, check in the Log Report which
bus the convergence failure occurred at).

Troubleshoot Project
and re-run.

Errors

No Errors

Plot Curves
Switch the I*SIM Study Manager to Plot Mode to display the curves.

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1.2. Prepare Static System Data


Before you open the I*SIM Study Manager, you must be sure that the electrical system is
complete. By complete, we mean that all the necessary elements of your electrical
system are in place and that the appropriate Studies have been run. Take the following
steps to ensure the system is complete:

Check that every isolated portion of the system has at least one swing bus
connected to it. In PTW, a swing bus is one of two things: 1) a utility
component; 2) a generator component whose Schedule type (found on the first
subview of the Component Editor) is set to Volts & Angle (SB). Typically
your Project will only contain one swing bus because the Project contains a
single, complete electrical system. However, if your Project contains isolated
portions that arent connected to one another, then every one of those portions
must contain a swing bus. (A swing bus schedules voltage magnitude and
voltage angle, while allowing real power and reactive power to vary. Swing
buses are useful for simulating transfer switching between different sources with
known bus voltages and angles: for example, transfer switching between two
different utility bus connections.)

Run the Demand Load Study and the Load Flow Study (these Studies come with
the DAPPER Study Module). In addition to preparing the system, running these
Studies will help you verify that your steady state system has the correct data
entered.

Check that sizes are entered in the Component Editor for all the cables,
transformers, motors, utilities, and generators.

If the electrical system is not complete, I*SIM will report an error and will not run.
Note: The System Base Frequency is determined by the Engineering Standard
chosen in the Application Options. If the Engineering Standard is ANSI, then the
System Base Frequency=60 hz. Conversely, if the Engineering Standard is IEC,
then the System Base Frequency=50 hz.

1.3. Open the I*SIM Study Manager


Note: Whenever you work in I*SIM, the electrical system in your Project does not
change. This is because, when you use I*SIM, you set up and analyze the dynamic
portion of your system, not the static portion. In terms of the software, this means
that I*SIM creates and keeps track of its own supplemental information, and will not
modify your Project at all.
Now that you have a complete electrical system (discussed in Prepare Static System
Data, above), you can open the I*SIM Study Manager to begin analysis.
 To open the I*SIM Study Manager
1.

To begin, do one of the following:

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From the Run menu, click Industrial Simulation (I*SIM).

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-5

On the Toolbar, click the I*SIM button.

The I*SIM Study Manager will appear.

Tip: You can also use the Go to I*SIM command from the Window menu to take
components from a One-Line Diagram or the Component Editor to I*SIM. When
youre on a One-Line Diagram, the selected (that is, highlighted) components will be
taken to I*SIM, whereas when youre in the Component Editor, all the components
currently shown will be taken to I*SIM. You can then create a new Study and Case
or pick an existing Study and Case in which to place the components.

Aside from modifying static system data (such as changing bus voltages, modifying
transformer taps, and so on) in the Component Editor, you run the entire I*SIM Study
using the I*SIM Study Manager. To understand how the I*SIM Study Manager works,
keep in mind that it only has three main purposes:
1.

To help you create dynamic events;

2.

To simulate the progression of these events;

3.

To graphically plot the effect of these events on components and buses throughout the
electrical system.

Therefore, the I*SIM Study Manager operates in three distinct modes, each of which
corresponds to these goals. To switch to a mode, click one of the three buttons at the
bottom of the I*SIM Study Manager:
1.
2.

To begin, use Event Mode to create the motor starting events;


Next, use Run Mode to perform the Simulation (this simulation occurs
internally, as I*SIM analyzes the system, calculates data, and generates plotting
points);

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3.

/
Lastly, use Plot Mode to graphically plot the results of the
Simulation (the Plot button lets you create new Plots or select different Plots, while
the Graph button returns to the most recently shown Plot).
Note: When you open the I*SIM Study Manager, the Event button will be disabled
(that is, grayed out). This indicates that I*SIM is already in Event Mode. Similarly,
when you switch to Plot Mode, the Graph button will be disabled to indicate that
I*SIM is in Plot Mode.

The first step, then, is to create the dynamic simulation events, as discussed in the next
section.

1.4. Create Dynamic Simulation Events


The first thing you may have noticed is the three distinct panes, or views, in the I*SIM
Study Manager. Each view serves a purpose in the creation of the dynamic simulation
events.





Parts of the I*SIM Study Manager while in Event mode:

The Study-Case View keeps track of the Cases you set up.
The Event View keeps track of the events you set up for each component.
The Data Channel View keeps track of the channels in each Case that you want to
generate data for.

Be sure you are in Event mode by clicking the Event button


corner.

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in the lower-left

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-7

Tip: You can also find many of I*SIMs commands by clicking the right mouse
button.

1.4.1. Cases and Studies


Lets begin with the Study-Case View. When you first open I*SIM, you will not see a
series of folders, Cases, and components stacked neatly in a hierarchy as shown in picture
, but a single folder called Study1 underneath Industrial Simulation. You may
wonder, why is my Study-Case View so empty? Actually, its not completely empty
I*SIM has a Case ready for you, hiding under Study1. To display the Case, click the box
next to folder Study1, like this:

Click the box next to Study1. . .

to display the Case.

Although you can run I*SIM using just one Case, you will find it beneficial to create lots
of Cases, because, as we will demonstrate, Cases provide the real power of I*SIM.
Lets say you have an electrical system on which you want to examine various
disturbances. For example, youd like to see how Branch A will react to a blocked
governor on a generator followed by a loss of excitation, as opposed to how Branch A will
react to a 6-cycle fault on a bus. In single-simulation programs, you would first have to
run the simulation for the generators blocked generator and loss of excitation, then plot
the results. After that, you would have to re-run the simulation for the fault at the bus,
then plot the results. Even worse, there would be no easy way to compare the plots.
In I*SIM, you can actually run numerous simulations at once. In the above example, you
could create two Cases, one Case with the generators governor being blocked at 2
seconds followed by a loss of excitation at 3 seconds, and another Case with the bus fault
occurring at 0.1 seconds and being cleared at 0.2 seconds, then let I*SIM simulate them
simultaneously, and compare their curves. In fact, you could create ten, twenty or even
fifty Cases if you wanted. How is this simultaneous simulation possible? Its possible
because each Case represents a distinct what if speculation about a series of dynamic
events.
Think of a Case as a hypothetical span of time, beginning at 0 seconds, in which you start
motors, perform load changes, create bus faults, and so on. Cases are not linked to one
anothereach Case represents a distinct span of time. Therefore, a single component may
appear in a number of Cases, since each Case represents its own span of time, and assigns
its own set of dynamic events (such as starting time, load change, etc.) to that component.
In the above example, the blocked governor at 2 seconds is one event, the loss of
excitation at 3 seconds is another event, and the two events together make up a Case.
Dont presume that a particular component has to appear in every case; in fact, each Case
can have an entirely different set of components. Also, you can assign numerous events to
a single component; you arent limited to just one event per component.

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With regard to Studies, they merely provide a storage place for Cases; Studies have
nothing to do with the dynamic events. Within a Study you may have multiple Cases, or
you may create a new Study for every Case. Whether you place all your Cases in one
Study or every Case in a separate Study doesnt affect the Cases at all.
To summarize, you can have multiple Cases within a Study, and you can have multiple
Studies within the I*SIM Study.
Tip: Studies provide an easy way to organize Cases based on different network
configurations. This will be discussed more thoroughly in Section 1.6, Run
Dynamic Simulation to Produce Data.
 To create a new Case
1. With a folder highlighted, select New Case from the Case menu or click the New
Case button
on the toolbar. A new Case will appear. A new Case will appear.
Also, a window similar to the one below will show up.

The window above allows the user to select the sources, motors, buses, and branches
to be include in the case.

Once you select the New Case command. . .

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a new Case will appear.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-9

 To move a Case to a different Study


1.

With a Case highlighted, select Cut from the Edit menu, then highlight a different
Study and select Paste from the Edit menu. You can also drag the Case to a different
Study. (When you move a Case, the channels wont retain their data. See section
1.8.1 for more information on how to determine when channels have data.)

 To copy a Case
1.

With a Case highlighted, select Copy from the Edit menu, then highlight a different
Study and select Paste from the Edit menu. You may paste Cases to the same Study
or to a different Study. (When you copy a Case, the channels you picked wont retain
their data. See section 1.8.1 for more information on how to determine when channels
have data.)
Tip: An easy way to compare Cases with only slight differences is to copy and
paste a Case, then make the changes. For example, lets say you have a Case which
simulates a 6-cycle fault, and you want to analyze the same Case (same components,
same Library models, and so on) but for 9-cycles instead of 6. Instead of re-creating
the whole Case, you can simply copy and paste the Case, then modify the Apply
Fault and Clear Fault event times for the bus so its 9-cycles long instead of 6.

 To rename a Case
1.

Highlight a Case by single-clicking it with the left mouse button. With the Case
highlighted, select Rename from the Case menu.

2.

When the cursor appears, type a new name.

3.

Click the mouse button elsewhere to lock in the new name.

 To delete a Case
1.

With a Case highlighted, hit the DEL key.

 To create a new Study


1.

With Industrial Simulation highlighted, select New Study from the Case menu. A
new Study will appear.

Once you select the New Study command. . .

a new Study will appear.

 To rename a Study
1.

Highlight a Study by single-clicking it with the left mouse button. With the Study
highlighted, select Rename from the Case menu.

2.

When the cursor appears, type a new name.

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3.

Click the mouse button elsewhere to lock in the new name.

 To delete a Study
1.

With a Study highlighted, hit the DEL key.

1.4.2. Choose Components


For a given Case, your first step is to add the sources (utilities and generators), motors
(induction motors and synchronous motors), buses, branches (cables, two-winding
transformers, pi impedances, and transformer lines), and relays that you want to analyze
for that Case.
 To add components to a Case
1.

With a Case highlighted, choose Select Components from the Case menu, or click
the Select Components button
on the toolbar. You can also right mouse click
on the case and then select the Select Components command. The Select
Components dialog box will appear.

2.

In the Select Components dialog box, choose the components for this Case. You must
select at least one source (utility or generator) for each Case. You select components
of different types by switching to the appropriate tab (for example, to add a
transmission line, switch to the Branch tab).

Click on the arrow button or double-click on the


components name itself. . .

and the selected components are added to the


Case.

Tip: You can also use the Go to I*SIM command from the Window menu to take
components from a One-Line Diagram or the Component Editor to I*SIM. When
youre on a One-Line Diagram, the selected (that is, highlighted) components will be
taken to I*SIM, whereas when youre in the Component Editor, all the components
currently shown will be taken to I*SIM. You can then create a new Study and Case
or pick an existing Study and Case in which to place the components.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-11

When finished, click the OK button. Note that the components you selected now appear
under the Case, as shown in Fig. 1-2:

Fig. 1-2

Important: Any components that are Out of Service will not appear in Select
Components dialog box.

 To remove components from a Case


1.

Removing components from a Case involves the same procedure as adding them.
With a Case highlighted, choose Select Components from the Case menu, or click
the Select Components button
on the toolbar. The Select Components dialog
box will appear.

2.

In the Select Components dialog box, choose the components on the right, then click
the left arrow button (or simply double-click the components themselves) to remove
them.

1.5. Assign Models and Events to


Components
Because I*SIM analyzes the dynamic portion of the electrical system, we need to supply
I*SIM with two types of information about each component:

A Library model which supplies additional information about the component and its
reaction characteristics during a disturbance (the branch componentscables, pi
impedances two-winding transformers, and transmission linesdo not use Library
models);

A Event or series of Events (such as load tripping and reduction, fault applying and
clearing, branch tripping and reclosing, and motor starting) that you want to simulate
occurring for that component.

Beginning the process of applying Models and Events is the same for all components:

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 To add Dynamic Events to a component

1.

With a component highlighted,

select Model Setup &

Dynamic Events from the Case menu, or click the Events button
on the toolbar.
The dialog box for that component type will appear. Since each component has its
own Models and Dynamic Events, see the individual sections beginning with Source
Models and Events on section 1.5.2.
Note: There is a special type of event, called a Solution Parameter event, that you
can add to a Case. Typically you wont need to use the Solution Parameter Event
only when the Case has a problem converging. See Solution Parameter Event on
Section 1.6.2 for more information on the Solution Parameter Event.
To quickly check the dynamic events assigned to a motor, simply select (that is, highlight)
a Case or a component. When a Case is highlighted, the events for all the components in
that Case appear; when a component is highlighted, only the events for that component
appear. When Industrial Simulation or a Study is highlighted, no events appear. Refer to
the following illustrations:

When Industrial
Simulation is highlighted,

no events will appear in the Event Window.

When a Study is
highlighted,

no events will appear in the Event Window.

When a Case is
highlighted,

the events for all the components in that Case will appear in the
Event Window.

Click a category button to


quickly sort by that
category. This is useful
to alternate between
seeing the events in time
order and seeing them by
owner (that is, by the
component the events
belong to).

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-13

When a component is
highlighted,

the events for only that component will appear in the Event
Window.

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Selecting Library models is also the same for all components.


 To apply Library Models to a component
1.

Click the Library button.

The Select a Model dialog box appears.

The categories under


"ISIM Library will change
depending on the type of
component you are
applying models to. This
picture shows the
categories for a source
(utility or generator)

Click the Apply button or double-click on the


name to apply a model to the component.

Choose the Close button to close the


Select a Model dialog box.

Model Description indicates the type of model.


Models may have different names, but as long
as they have the same model type then they
have the same characteristics.

When you select a category, its models appear in the right half of the Select a Model
dialog box. You may then apply a model to the component by clicking the Apply button.
Note: A single Library model may be applied to as many components as you want.
For example, even though the Library only contains a single Infinite Bus source
model, this single source model may be applied to numerous utilities and generators;
Library models merely provide a blueprint of the components data. If you want to
edit a Library model, you have to open the Library by selecting Library from the
Document menu. See Chapter 2, Using I*SIMs Library, for more information
about editing the Library.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-15

Keep in mind that Library models are in per unit values on the components rated kVA
base. Library models merely provide the characteristics of the component in per unit
values, which are converted to real values based on the rated kVA and rated voltage of the
component the model is applied to.
You can tell which components do not have models assigned to them because an
exclamation point appears over their icons:

1.5.1. About System Damping


If you plan to represent system damping in your system, be sure to do so for each part of
the system in the same degree of detail. If the damping of one device is included, the
damping of all sources in the entire system being studied must be included, since the net
damping is important in determining the behavior of a system after a disturbance. System
damping arises from many sources including prime movers, speed governor generator
damper windings, exciters, electrical loads, and circuit resistances. In traditional stability
programs, net system damping has been assumed positive; stability studies have been
used to determine whether or not a particular disturbance would cause any generator angle
to swing so far beyond the maximum torque limit that it could not return1. However, the
traditional assumptions are not always true. High-response controllers in the system
introduce negative damping; hydraulic turbine speed governing systems also contribute
negative damping due to the large phase lag produced by water inertia. Clearly, net
system damping cannot be assumed positive.

see C. Concordia, pp. 68-80.

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1.5.2. Source Models and Events


The Source category comprises two types of components: utilities and generators. You
use the following dialog box to apply Models and Dynamic Events to sources (see To add
Dynamic Events to a component on Section 1.5 for instructions on opening the Dynamic
Events dialog box):
Click the Library
button to apply
Library models.

Choose an Event Type,


enter an Event Time, and
click the Create Event
button to create a
dynamic event.

 To assign a model to a source

1.

With a generator or utility component selected, select Model Setup & Dynamic
Events from the Case Menu. A window similar to the one below will appear:

Click here to choose a


Source model from the
TMS Library.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-17

2.

Here the user can click on the library button to assign the machine model, exciter
model, governor, and power system stabilizer model.

3.

For instance, click on the Machine Model and the list of all machine models in
the library will show up on the right side of the screen. Here, click on the
machine model you want and click on the apply button.

4.

Repeat step 3 for the exciter model and governor model.

5.

Choose the Close button to close the Select Library window

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Each Case may contain up to 10 swing buses, 50 PQ machines, and 10 PV machines:

Swing Bus. In PTW, a swing bus is one of two things: 1) a utility component; 2) a

generator component whose Schedule type (found on the first subview of the
Component Editor) is set to Volts & Angle (SB). A swing bus schedules voltage
magnitude and voltage angle, while allowing real power and reactive power to vary.
Swing buses are useful for simulating transfer switching between different sources
with known bus voltages and angles; for example, transfer switching between two
different utility bus connections.

PQ Machines. In PTW, a PQ machine is one of two things: 1) a motor component


that has been added to the Case and has a Library model applied to it; 2) a generator
component whose Schedule type (found on the first subview of the Component
Editor) is set to kW & kvar (PQ). A PQ machine schedules real power and reactive
power, while allowing voltage magnitude and voltage angle to vary.

PV Machines. In PTW, a PV machine is a generator component whose Schedule type


(found on the first subview of the Component Editor) is set to kW & Volts (PV). A
PV machine schedules voltage magnitude and real power while allowing voltage
angle and reactive power to vary. The PV machine is useful for maintaining voltage
control throughout the power system. PV machines require the specification of a
reactive power participation factor when multiple generators at a bus participate in
controlling the bus voltage.

Source Models
You apply Machine, Exciter, and Turbine models to the utility or generator by clicking the
Library button. (See To apply Library Models to a component on Section 1.5 for
instructions on using the Library button.) Some machine models have strict requirements,
as shown here:

The Salient Pole Hydro Unit machine model should be matched with a Standard
Hydro Turbine Governor model and any exciter.

The Single Cage Induction Generator & Double Cage Induction Generator
machine models should have any turbine governor but no exciter model.

The Classical Machine & Infinite Machine models should have neither a turbine
governor nor an exciter model with them, since the classical machine model assumes
a constant excitation behind the generator terminal impedance, and no active governor
controls.

When you are performing a preliminary study without specific model information, we
suggest you select a Round Rotor Fossil Steam machine model with a Standard Steam
governor and an IEEE Type 1 exciter model to form a generation unit. These models will
provide useful results for a preliminary study without introducing unnecessary
complications in model compatibility.

Source Events
Source components allow you to simulate a loss of excitation, a blocked governor, or a
tripped governor. When creating events for a source component, keep these guidelines in
mind:

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-19

Each event must have a unique time; you cannot apply two events with the same time.

You may only create one instance of each event type.

Any source which is Out of Service (either the source itself is set to Out of Service in
the Component Editor, or an upstream bus or branch is Out of Service) will be
considered off-line, even if you assign events to the source.

You cannot create a Blocked Governor or a Loss of Excitation event at a later time
than a Trip Generator event. This is because a tripped generator no longer
contributes power, so the other two events become irrelevant.

The Blocked Governor event simulates a governor being completely blocked so no


current flows.

The Loss of Excitation event simulates a complete loss of excitation voltage.

Any source which does not have a Library Model assigned to it will not have data
generated for it, regardless of whether you have created Dynamic Events for it.

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1.5.3. Motors
Induction Motors and Synchronous Motors use slightly different Model Setup & Dynamic
Events dialog boxes, as shown in the following pictures.
To assign model to a motor

select Model Setup & Dynamic Events


1. With a motor highlighted,
from the Case menu. A window similar to the one shown below will appear.

Click here to choose


a motor model and a
load model from the
I*SIM/TMS Library.

Enter Moment of Inertia


and Controller data here
(see Moment of Inertia
and Choose a
Controller, following).

Notice that in the window above, there is a Model tab and Dynamic Events tab. Click
on the Models tab to supply detailed data about the motor.
The Save As Default and Get Default Setting functions are designed to make the
process of assigning motor, load, and controller for multiple I*SIM cases easier.
Save As Default button
When the user clicks on this button, all the information in the "Models" tab page will be
save as the default settings for the selected motor. These values will be used whenever the
user assigns the same motor to an existing case or onto a new case for the project.
Get Default Setting button
When the user clicks on this button, all the information in the "Models" tab page will be
filled in by the default settings.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-21

2.

Click on the Library button. The select library button will show up.

Here you will see that there are three categories available model that you can associate a
motor for the TMS library: Flux Induction model, Motor Model, and Load Model
Each category has sub-category. You can see the sub-category by clicking on the expand
box.

3.

You can click on a sub-category and a list of the models will appear on the right side.

Click the Apply button or double-click


on the name to apply the motor and
load models to the motor.

4.

Click the Deselect button or doubleclick on the name to deselect the


motor and load models to the motor.

Choose the Close button to close the


Select Library window

Once the devices appear in the right half of the Select a Device dialog box, you may
select a motor model and a load model and apply their data to the motor.

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There are three categories of motor models:


1.

Single Rotor

2.

Double Rotor

3.

Graphic Motor

Similarly, there are four categories of load models:


1.

Exponential

2.

Graphic Load

3.

Polynomial

4.

Damping

Flux Induction Motor model has no category.

Note: A single Library model may be applied to as many motors as you want. For
example, even though the Library only contains a single NEMA A motor model, this
single motor model may be applied to numerous motors; Library models merely
provide a blueprint of the motors data.
Keep in mind that motor models are in per unit values, whereas load models are in
absolute values. Motor models merely provide the starting characteristics of the motor in
per unit values, which are converted to real values based on the voltage, current, and
RPMs of the specific motor the model is applied to. The following section illustrates this
behavior.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-23

How motor model works


Fig. 1-1 below shows a Motor model in the TMS library:

Current curve

Torque curve
Power Factor curve

Fig. 1-1
Note that the three curvesTorque (T), Power Factor (PF), and Current (I)are not
plotted on absolute axes, but rather represent a percent of the base amount (all three motor
model curves use the motors Synchronous RPMs for their X axis, while eachTorque,
Power Factor, and Currenthas its own base for the Y axis).
The base amounts (that is, the values at 100%) come from the Models window specified
in the case for that specific motor. The Torque and Current base amount comes from the
Models window specified in the case for that specific motor as shown in Fig 1-2., while
the Power Factor and Synchronous RPM base amounts come from the Induction Motor
subview, as shown in Fig. 1-3

Fig. 1-2

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Fig. 1-3
Therefore, if we apply the Library Motor model shown in Fig. 1-1 to this motor, the per
unit starting characteristics for Torque, Power Factor, and Current will be converted to
actual values based on this motors data.
For example, note in Fig. 1-3 that this motors Synchronous RPMs are 3600, which is the
motors operating speed at 100%. When the Library Motor model shown in Fig. 1-1 is
applied to this motor, the X axis (labeled Speed) now uses a base of 3600 RPMs, so that
the actual values for the models X axis are 0 to 3600 RPMs. (If we changed the
motorsRPMs to 1800, the Library models X axis would now use a base of 1800, even
though inper unit terms the Library model doesnt change.)
Using a hypothetical Project with minimal impedance, we can demonstrate how the motor
model and the actual values from the Component Editor work together.

Figure 1-4
The plot shown in the figure 1-4 displays the Motor Speed and Motor Torque curves for
the motor in figure 1-2 and figure 1-3 As you can see, the motor reaches its RPMs of
3600, or 100% of its Speed Base, after about 2.5 seconds. Therefore, the motor model
(shown in figure 1-1) that we have applied to this motor uses an X axis of 0 to 2.5 seconds,
since this is the time it takes the motor to reach 3600 RPMs.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-25

If we look at the Torque curve for the motor model shown in 1-1,we can see that, at 50%
of the Speed Base, the Torque reaches just over 100% of the Torque Base, then jumps to
250% and finally settles to 100% as the motor gets up to speed. In actual values, this
means that the motors Torque should reach just over its actual base of 147.81 ft-lbs at the
time when the motor reaches 1800 RPMs (50% of the Speed Base), then jump to about
370 ft-lbs and finally settle to 147.81 ft-lbs.
Indeed, when we look at the plot shown in figure 1-4, the motors torque behaves as
expected. The motor reaches 1800 RPMs at about 1.4 seconds, and the Torque curve does
indeed reach about 160 ft-lbs, just over the 100% base of 147.81. The Torque curve then
jumps to about 370 ft-lbs about 250% of the base of 147.81. By the time the motor gets up
to speed, the Torque curve does finally settle to about 147.81 ft-lbs., just the as motor
model in figure 1-1 shows.
Naturally, you will seldom see such a direct one-to-one correlation between the base
values and the actual plot as in our simplified Project; real systems contain numerous
factors that will alter the starting curves. Nevertheless, the general principle demonstrated
here is the same.

Moment of Inertia

You will notice that a value has already been entered in this box. The value you see is an
approximate value, calculated by PTW based on the motors size, rpm, and so on. If you
do not know the motors moment of inertia, you may use this default value. Otherwise,
enter the motors moment of inertia in Wk 2 . Do not enter this in per unit. The motors
moment of inertia must be set here (instead of in the Library) because it is not a per unit
amount, but an absolute amount. (The loads moment of inertia value, on the other hand,
is a per unit value and thus is set in the Library.)
Important: Once you have entered a value, if you change your mind and want to
use an Approximate value instead, you need to click the Approximate button to
recalculate the Moment of Inertia. Similarly, if you change the motors Rated Size,
you should click the Approximate button to recalculate the Moment of Inertia.
PTW calculates the approximate Moment of Inertia value based on the motor's Pole Pairs
(which you enter in the Induction Motor subview of the Component Editor):
For 4 or more Pole Pairs,

Moment of Inertia = 10

((1.18912log10 Rated HP) - 0.35712)

For 3 Pole Pairs,

Moment of Inertia = 10

((1.19724log10 Rated HP) - 0.62992)

For 2 Pole Pairs,

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Moment of Inertia = 10

((1.19036log10 Rated HP) - 0.83800)

For 1 Pole Pair,

Moment of Inertia = 10

((1.00609log10 Rated HP) - 0.76484)

where
Rated HP is the value entered in the first subview of the Component Editor.
The motors RPMs are listed in the first subview next to Pole Pairs, and are
calculated by

RPM =

60 Frequency
Pole Pairs

where Pole Pairs is the value entered in the first subview, and Frequency is 60 Hz if
the Engineering Standard is set to ANSI in the Project Options, or 50 Hz if the
Engineering Standard is set to IEC.

Torque Base and Current Base

As with the Moment of Inertia, you will notice that values have already been entered in
these boxes. If the Link with Rated checkbox is checked, PTW calculates these values
using the following formulas:
The Current Base is calculated by

Current Base =

Rated kVA 1000


Rated Voltage 3

where Rated kVA and Rated Voltage are the values entered in the first subview of the
Component Editor.
The Torque Base is calculated by

Torque Base =

5252 Rated HP
0.987 Synchronous RPM

where
Rated HP is the value entered in the first subview of the Component Editor and the
motors RPMs are listed in the first subview next to Pole Pairs.
The Torque Base is calculated with the assumption that the rated slip is 1.3%. You may
enter different values for the Current Base or the Torque Base if needed.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-27

Important: If you enter a different value for the Torque Base or Current Base, then
want to return to the calculated value, you need to enter a 0, then select Save from
the Document menu or click the Save button on the toolbar so the values will be
recalculated. Also, if you switch to the Induction Motor subview and change the
motors Rated Size, you will need to enter zeros for both the Torque Base and the
Current Base and click Save so PTW can recalculate them.

Choose a Controller
Choose a Controller type and, if applicable, enter data for its functions. Keep in mind that
in reviewing controller action, it is best to consider bus voltage, motor voltage, and motor
current together and to take note of whether the motor terminal is on the line or load side
of the controller.
Note: The Series Resistance, Series Reactance, Shunt Capacitor, Star Delta, Part
Winding, and Auto Transformer controllers have Speed and Voltage control function
options in addition to the Time option. While real controllers may not actually have
speed- or voltage-type controls in a motor starting mode, these additional functions
were included to help you determine the correct time at which the motor will reach a
particular speed. To do so, you would run the Study and examine the plot, then
return to the Models window, change the Control Function to time, and enter the
correct times based on the speed or voltage.

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Full Voltage (Square)

No data needs to be entered for this


controller.
Solid State Current Ramp

This controller provides current at the


time the motor switches on-line,
gradually increasing it from the I
begin amount to the I end amount
over the T ramp period of time. Note
that the control function time is
related to the time the motor was
switched on-line, not the time from
the beginning of the Study. For
example, if the motor switches on-line
at three seconds, and you have entered
T ramp as 5 seconds, the controller
will increase the current over time
from three seconds to eight seconds.
Solid State Voltage Ramp

This controller provides voltage at the


time the motor switches on-line,
gradually increasing it from the V
begin amount to the V end amount
over the T ramp period of time. Note
that the control function time is
related to the time the motor was
switched on-line, not the time from
the beginning of the Study. For
example, if the motor switches on-line
at three seconds, and you have entered
T ramp as 5 seconds, the controller
will increase the voltage over time
from three seconds to eight seconds.
Solid State Current Limit

This controller sets the motors


current limit to the I limit value.

Series Reactance

This controller reduces the amount of


series reactance in up to three steps.
These steps are controlled as a
function of time, motor speed, or
motor voltage. The control function
time is related to the time the motor
was switched on-line, not the time
from the beginning of the Study. For

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-29

example, if the motor switches on-line


at three seconds, and you have entered
T1 as one second, the reduction will
occur at four seconds into the Study.
If your controller only has two steps,
leave the third box blank.

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Series Resistance

This controller reduces the amount of


series impedance in up to three steps.
These steps are controlled as a
function of time, motor speed, or
motor voltage. The control function
time is related to the time the motor
was switched on-line, not the time
from the beginning of the Study. For
example, if the motor switches on-line
at three seconds, and you have entered
T1 as one second, the reduction will
occur at four seconds into the Study.
If your controller only has two steps,
leave the third box blank.
Shunt Capacitors

This controller reduces the amount of


supplied reactive power in up to three
steps. These steps are controlled as a
function of time, motor speed, or
motor voltage. The control function
time is related to the time the motor
was switched on-line, not the time
from the beginning of the Study. For
example, if the motor switches on-line
at three seconds, and you have entered
T1 as one second, the reduction will
occur at four seconds into the Study.
If your controller only has two steps,
leave the third box blank.
Star Delta

This controller switches the motor


from star-connected back to deltaconnected at the time, motor speed, or
motor voltage specified.
Part Winding

This controller modifies the tap


settings in up to three steps. These
steps are controlled as a function of
time, motor speed, or motor voltage.
The control function time is related to
the time the motor was switched online, not the time from the beginning
of the Study. For example, if the
motor switches on-line at three
seconds, and you have entered T1 as
one second, the change will occur at
four seconds into the Study. If your
controller only has two steps, leave
the third box blank.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-31

Auto Transformer

This controller modifies the tap


setting at the time, motor speed, or
motor voltage specified.
Variable Frequency Drive

This controller provides controls the


motor frequency or voltage from the
time the motor switches on-line,
gradually increasing it from the
predetermine beginning pu value to
the predetermined ending pu over
the T ramp period of time. The
variable frequency drives allow the
motor to start and operate on a
constant volt per hertz level, i.e.,

Therefore, the voltage and frequency


applied to the motor terminal are
varied correspondingly and their ratio
is constant. For example, if the motor
terminal voltage is 480v at 60Hz, the
motor terminal voltage with a VFD is
48V. Note that the control function
time is related to the time the motor
was switched on-line, not the time
from the beginning of the Study. For
example, if the motor switches on-line
at three seconds, and you have entered
T ramp as 5 seconds, the controller
will increase the voltage or frequency
over time from three seconds to eight
seconds.

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To add events to a motor

2.

With a motor highlighted,


select Model Setup & Dynamic Events
from the Case menu. A window similar to the one shown below will appear.

Click on the Dynamic Events tab.

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3.

You will now see a screen similar to the one below

4.

Type a time at which the event will occur in the Event Time box.

5.

Select one of the five event types: Start Motor (Time Dependent), Load Change, Trip
Motor (Time Dependent), Start Motor (Voltage Dependent), or Trip Motor (Voltage
Dependent). For Load Change, be sure to type a multiplier value, not a percent (for

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-33

example, to increase by 20%, enter 1.2; to decrease by 50%, enter 0.5). For the
Voltage-Dependent Start Motor event, be sure to choose a bus you want to monitor.
For the Voltage-Dependent Trip Motor event, be sure to choose a bus you want to
monitor and to enter the voltage value in per unit, between 0.0 and 2.0.
6.

The last step, once you have chosen an event type, is to choose whether the motor will
be on- or off-line before the event occurs.

7.

Repeat the above steps until you have added all the events you want to, then click the
OK button. The dynamic events will now appear in the Event Window.

To quickly check the dynamic events assigned to a motor, simply select (that is, highlight)
a Case or a motor. When a Case is highlighted, the events for all the motors in that Case
appear; when a motor is highlighted, only the events for that motor appear. When
Transient Motor Starting or a Case Folder is highlighted, no events appear. Refer to the
following illustrations:

When Transient Motor


Starting is highlighted. . .

no events will appear in the Event Window.

When a Case Folder is


highlighted. . .

no events will appear in the Event Window.

When a Case is
highlighted. . .

the events for all the motors in that Case will appear in the Event
Window.

When a motor is
highlighted. . .

the events for only that motor will appear in the Event Window.

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Notes: Synchronous motors


For a synchronous motors that are include in a TMS case, you can assign a
synchronous motor library to it only, if the initial status is set to on line in the
Dynamic Event window.
For synchronous motors are in a TMS case, users will to select at least a motor
model.
Also to simulate a synchronous motor starting as an induction motor, users will
need to first change the initial status to off line from the Dynamic Event
window. Then in the Models page, the user can then select the induction motor
model from the library for starting.

Each Case may contain up to 50 PQ Machines. In PTW, a PQ machine is one of two


things: 1) a motor component that has been added to the Case and has a Library model
applied to it; 2) a generator component whose Schedule type (fofund on the first subview
of the Component Editor) is set to kW & kvar (PQ). A PQ machine schedules real
power and reactive power, while allowing voltage magnitude and voltage angle to vary.
Note: Any induction motor not added to a Case, or one which is in the Case but
does not have a Model assigned to it, will be treated as a constant kVA load. You
should always try to assign Models to induction motors, because the Case may have
trouble converging if there are too many induction motors being treated as constant
kVA loads at a bus. See Convergence Failure on section 1.7.2 for more
information about fixing convergence problems such as this.

Induction Motor Events


When you assign an induction motors dynamic events, keep these guidelines in mind:
Each event must have a unique time; you cannot apply two events to an induction motor
with the same time.
Any induction motor which is Out of Service (either the induction motor itself is set to Out
of Service in the Component Editor, or an upstream bus or branch is Out of Service) will
be considered off-line, even if you assign events to the induction motor.
Any induction motor in the Case which does not have an event assigned to it will still have
a default initial status of On-Line (unless you change it to Off-Line) and thus will have an
effect on I*SIMs results.
If the induction motor has its initial status set to On-Line, it cant be started unless it is
tripped first (since a running motor cannot be started).
If the induction motor has its initial status set to Off-Line, it cant be tripped or have a
load changed unless it is started first (since an idle motor cannot be tripped).
You can start, trip, and restart an induction motor repeatedly as long as the times dont
conflict. When tripped, the motor will still be spinning and its internal electromagnetic
transient will still be integrating. If you restart the motor while it is still slowing down, it

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will speed up and the speed and internal electromagnetic flux of the motor immediately
prior to restarting will be used as the starting point for the continuing integration.
The Initial Status of On-Line or Off-Line refers to the moment before the Simulation
begins, whereas an event occurring at 0 seconds refers to the moment at which the
Simulation begins. In other words, an induction motor which is set with an Initial Status
of On-Line and has an event which trips the motor at 0 seconds will still have an effect
that wouldnt have occurred had that motor not been in the Case at all.
If an induction motor actually represents multiple motors (that is, if the Number of
Motors box on the Induction Motor subview has a number greater than one), I*SIM will
consider the motor accordingly. For example, if a motor actually represents 3 motors,
I*SIM will triple its starting requirements.

1.5.4. Buses
You use the following dialog box to apply Models and Dynamic Events to buses (see To
add Dynamic Events to a component on section 1.5 for instructions on opening the
Dynamic Events dialog box):
Click the Library
button to apply Bus
Library models.

Choose an
Event Type,
enter an
Event Time,
and click the
Create Event
button to
create a
dynamic

The Load Change


data boxes are used
for the Load Change
event.

Bus Models
You apply Bus models to the bus by clicking the Library button. When choosing a bus
model, you should be aware of the following:
The Frequency Sensitive Bus Load model affects only the constant PQ and constant
current load of that bus.
The IEEE Bus Load model affects only the constant PQ load of that bus.

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Bus Events
Bus components allow you to simulate a three-phase fault, the cessation (clearing) of the
three-phase fault, and a load change. When creating events for a bus, keep these
guidelines in mind:
Each event must have a unique time; you cannot apply two events with the same time.
Any bus which is Out of Service (either the bus itself is set to Out of Service in the
Component Editor, or an upstream bus or branch is Out of Service) will be considered offline, even if you assign events to the bus.
To create a Clear Fault event, you must create an Apply Fault event with an earlier time
(because you cannot clear a fault that never occurred).
You may create multiple Apply Fault events, but you must clear each preceding fault
using a Clear Fault event.
When using the Apply Fault event, you can either specify fault impedance in R
(resistance) and X (reactance), or leave both set to zero to simulate a bolted fault. Enter the
R and X in per unit impedances on 100 MVA base and the buss voltage base.
When using the Load Change event, be sure to enter the new load value, not the change
in load. For example, if its changing from 100 to 150, enter 150, not 50. You may create
multiple Load Change events. (You may notice that values already appear in the Load
Change boxes. These are values from the last time the Load Flow Study was run, and
appear to help you remember what the initial load values are. If you find them helpful,
just be sure to run the Load Flow Study immediately before starting I*SIM so these values
will be current. In any case, be sure to delete these values and enter your own when
creating a Load Change event.)
Load Change events have a direct effect on system damping (see About System
Damping on section 1.5.1 for more information about system damping). The more the
load changes with frequency, the more stable the system becomes. Varying the reactive
portion of the load directly affects the voltage; the change in voltage then affects the
amount of change of active power. Therefore, the change has an indirect impact on
system stability. As the reactive portion of the load changes negatively with regard to
frequency, the system becomes increasingly stable.
Important: While DAPPERs Load Flow Study treats both non-motor loads and
motors as loads, I*SIMs Load Flow Study (which gets run when you run the
Dynamic Simulation) treats non-motor loads as loads and motors as machines.
Depending on which was run more recently, the values which appear in the Load
Change boxes will or will not include motors as loads. The distinction does not
render your Load Change value incorrect, but it may seem confusing if you pay
attention to the values that initially appear in the boxes.

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1.5.5. Branches
The Branch category comprises four types of components: cables, two-winding
transformers, pi impedances, and transmission lines. You use the following dialog box to
apply Models and Dynamic Events to branches (see To add Dynamic Events to a
component on section 1.7.2 for instructions on opening the Dynamic Events dialog box):
Choose whether to
trip, recluse, apply
fault, or clear the fault
of the branch.

Set the data for the tripping or


reclosing event:
- Transformers use Impedance
and Transformer Tap;
- Cables use Impedance;
- Pi impedances/ Trans. lines use
Impedance and Shunt Admittance.

Choose whether the


branch will initially be
on-line or off-line.

Type a time that you want the


tripping or reclosing event to
occur.

Branch Events
Branch components allow you to simulate a tripping, reclosing, applying a fault, or
clearing a fault of the branch. In doing so, you may modify characteristics of the branch.
These characteristics are different depending on the branch: for a two-winding
transformer, you may change its impedance and its tap setting; for a cable, you may
change its impedance; and for a pi impedance or a transmission line, you may change its
impedance and its shunt admittance. When creating events for a branch component, you
should keep these guidelines in mind:
Each event must have a unique time; you cannot apply two events with the same time.
The Initial Status of On-Line or Off-Line refers to the moment before the Simulation
begins, whereas an event occurring at 0 seconds refers to the moment at which the
Simulation begins. In other words, a branch which is set with an Initial Status of On-Line
and has an event which trips it at 0 seconds will still have an effect that wouldnt have
occurred had that branch not been in the Case at all.
Any branch in the Case which does not have an event assigned to it will still have a default
initial status of On-Line (unless you change it to Off-Line) and thus will affect I*SIMs
results.
If the branch has its initial status set to On-Line, it cant be reclosed unless it is tripped
first (since a closed branch cannot be reclosed).
If the branch has its initial status set to Off-Line, it cant be tripped unless it is reclosed
first (since an open branch cannot be tripped).

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As long as its times dont conflict, you can trip, reclose, and re-trip a branch repeatedly.
Any branch which is Out of Service (either the branch itself is set to Out of Service in the
Component Editor, or an upstream bus or branch is Out of Service) will be considered offline, even if you assign events to the branch. The Out of Service setting supersedes the
Reclose Branch event, so this event will not put the branch back In Service (I*SIM does
not modify the static portion of your system anyway, which means it does not change any
of the settings in the Component Editor).
A two-winding transformer is assumed to be delta-wye connected, regardless of its
connection in the Component Editor. It is also assumed to be radial to the system and its
impedance is on the machine base.

1.5.6. Relays
You use the following dialog box to apply Models and Dynamic Events to relays .

Click the Library button


to apply Relay Library
models.

Relay Models
You apply a Relay model to the relay by clicking the Library button.

Relay Events
Relay components allow you to simulate a fraction of the bus load being shed, and to trip
up to three different branches anywhere in the system. When creating events for a relay,
keep these guidelines in mind:
Each event must have a unique time; you cannot apply two events with the same time.
Any relay which is Out of Service (either the relay itself is set to Out of Service in the
Component Editor, or an upstream bus or branch is Out of Service) will be considered offline, even if you assign events to the relay.

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To trip a branch, you must use the Time Inverse Overcurrent or the Rate of Change of
Power model, and the relay must be connected in a branch which has buses at both ends,
as shown in Fig. 1-3. Note that you dont specify any time or current information for the
relays tripping operation because a relay operates based on the trip curve of the Library
model that you have applied to the relay. If you want to edit the relays Library model,
you must open the I*SIM Library (see Chapter 2 for instructions on editing the I*SIM
Library).

Fig. 1-3. When using a relay to trip a branch or to shed the load at a bus, if the Model
type is Time Inverse Overcurrent or Rate of Change of Power, be sure the relay
is connected in a branch which has buses at both ends.

To shed a percent of load on a bus, you can use any of the models. However, depending
on which model you use, you will have to connect the relay in a specific way:
If you use either the Time Inverse Overcurrent or the Rate of Change of Power model,
the relay must be connected in a branch which has buses at both ends, as shown in Fig.
1-3. With these models, you can trip any bus in the system.
If you use the Under Frequency Load Shedding model, the Time Inverse Under
Frequency Load Shedding model, or the Under Frequency and dF/dt Load Shedding
model, the relay must be connected to the same bus where the loads are and must have its
bottom node open, as shown in Fig. 1-4.
Regardless of the Model type, you dont specify any time or current information for the
relays shedding operation because a relay operates based on the trip curve of the Library
model that you have applied to the relay. Similarly, you do not specify a percent of bus
load to shed because the value (85% by default) comes from the Library model. Only the
non-motor loads are subject to the load shedding; to shed an induction motor or
synchronous motor load, apply a Trip Motor event directly to the motor instead. If you
want to edit the relays Library model, you must open the I*SIM Library (see Chapter 2
for instructions on editing the I*SIM Library).

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Fig. 1-4. When using any of the three Load Shedding model types,
be sure the relays bottom node is left unconnected.

1.5.7. Choose Channels


Once you have created these events, you must choose the channels for the curves you
want to view. Channel is just a fancy name for the curves storage space. In technical
terms, the channel is the place in your computers memory where I*SIM stores all the
graph points that make up the curve; however, you only need to understand that one
channel equals one curve. When you switch the I*SIM Study Manager to Plot mode, you
will display the channel in the form of a curve. The terms channel and curve refer to
the same eventual product: a curve. Channel, however, refers to the storage place for all
the data points that make up the curve, while curve refers to the actual graphic display of
those points on the plot. Therefore, when you run the Dynamic Simulation, you choose
the channels you want to generate data for, whereas when you operate I*SIM in Plot
Mode, you choose the curves you want to display or hide.
In summary, when we say you must choose the channels, we merely mean you must
choose, for each component in the Case, what types of data, such as mechanical power and
excitation voltage, that you want to view curves for when it comes time to plot them.
Keep in mind that the more channels you choose, the larger the resultant file will be and
the longer the Dynamic Simulation will take to run.
Tip: If you are generating data for just a few components, feel free to choose all
the channels. If you are generating data for a large number of components, for
efficiency you may want to just choose the channels youre interested in, since each
channel takes time to generate and takes up space in your computers memory and
on the disk.

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To choose the channels you want to generate, place checks in the appropriate boxes in the
Channel Window:

Place checks
for the
channels you
want to
generate for
each motor.

These are the categories in which you may generate data. Each category is called a
channel, and each channel will produce one curve on the plot.

Source Plot Channels

Speed Deviation: speed deviation of a particular machine at a particular bus (RPM).


Rotor Angle in Degrees: the rotor angle of a particular machine at a particular bus. The
units are in degrees.
Terminal Voltage: the terminal voltage of a particular machine at a particular bus (Volts).
The terminal voltage is the machine terminal voltage behind the machine transient
reactance X.
Excitation Voltage: the excitation voltage of a particular machine at a particular bus
(Volts). The base excitation voltage is defined as the synchronous machine field voltage
required to produce rated voltage on the air gap line of the synchronous machine with the
field winding at either of the settings described in A or B: A.) 75 C for field windings
designed to operate at rating, with a temperature rise of 60 C or less. B.) 100 C field
windings designed to operate at rating, with a temperature rise greater than 60 C.
Mechanical Power: the mechanical power of a particular machine at a particular bus
(KW).
Electrical Real Power: the electrical real power looking from a particular machine at a
particular bus back to the system (KW).
Electrical Reactive Power: the electrical reactive power looking from a particular machine
at a particular bus back to the system (kVar)
Mechanical Torque: The mechanical torque output of the source (ft-lbs).
Electrical Torque: The electrical torque output of the source (ft-lbs).

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Ed: D-Axis Subtransient Voltage (Volts).


Eq: Q-Axis Subtransient Voltage (Volts).
Ed: D-Axis transient Voltage (Volts).
Eq: Q-Axis Transient Voltage (Volts).
Line Current: The current on line side of the machine (Amps).
Stator Current: The current on the stator of the machine (Amps).
Rotor Current: The current on the rotor of the machine (Amps).

Motor Plot Channels


These are the same as the source plot channels.

Bus Plot Channels

Bus VA: The voltage on phase A of the bus (Volts).


Bus VA : The voltage angle on phase A of the bus (Degrees).
Bus VB: The voltage on phase B of the bus (Volts).
Bus VB : The voltage angle on phase B of the bus (Degrees).
Bus VC: The voltage on phase C of the bus (Volts).
Bus VC : The voltage angle on phase C of the bus (Degrees).
Bus V1: The positive sequence voltage on the bus (Volts).
Bus V1 : The positive sequence voltage angle of the bus (Degrees).
Bus V2: The negative sequence voltage on the bus (Volts).
Bus V2 : The negative sequence voltage angle of the bus (Degrees).
Bus V0: The zero sequence voltage on the bus (Volts).
Bus V0 : The zero sequence voltage angle of the bus (Degrees).

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Bus Frequency Deviation: the bus frequency deviation (HZ). The base is on the system
base frequency. (The System Base Frequency is determined by the Engineering Standard
chosen in the Application Options. If the Engineering Standard is ANSI, then the System
Base Frequency=60 hz. Conversely, if the Engineering Standard is IEC, then the System
Base Frequency=50 hz.60 Hz or 50 Hz.)

Branch Plot Channels

P (From/To): the real part of the branch power flow between two particular buses (kW).
Q (From/To): the reactive part of the branch power flow between two particular buses
(kVar).
IA (From/To): The branch flow current on phase A between two particular buses (Amps).
IB (From/To): The branch flow current on phase B between two particular buses (Amps).
IC (From/To): The branch flow current on phase B between two particular buses (Amps).
I1 (From/To): The positive sequence branch flow current between two particular buses
(Amps).
I2 (From/To): The negative sequence branch flow current between two particular buses
(Amps).
I0 (From/To): The zero sequence branch flow current between two particular buses
(Amps).
Apparent R (From/To): The branch apparent resistance between two particular buses
(Ohms).
Apparent X (From/To): The branch apparent reactance between two particular buses
(Ohms).

Tip: To quickly check an entire row, simply double-click to the left of the row.
You may also single-click to select the row, then use the Check Selected Row
command from the Case menu. (You can also click the right-mouse button to find
this command.) To uncheck an entire row, single-click to select the row, then use
the Uncheck Selected Row command from the Case menu.

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1.6. Run Dynamic Simulation to Produce Data


The final step is to run the Dynamic Simulation to produce data for the channels. This
process takes place internally; that is, it takes place behind the scenes.
When you run the Dynamic Simulation, I*SIM actually performs a steady state load flow
(similar to DAPPERs Load Flow) and a pre-disturbance load flow to prepare the data,
then performs the Dynamic Simulation.
Steady State Load Flow. I*SIM uses a current injection method to solve the load flow,

based on solving the set of equations: [I] = [E][Y]. The set of nodal voltages [E] is
evaluated based on a set of nodal currents [I] and the bus admittance matrix [Y] through
sparse matrix techniques employing triangularized decomposition methods. This
computational method achieves the highest accuracy in the shortest times known. It is
also extremely robust in representing all types of loads for both radial and networked
configurations as found in most industrial and commercial applications.
The load flow convergence is determined by the worst real or reactive bus power
mismatch. In order to maximize the accuracy for both large and small systems, the
solution convergence criteria is scaled to 1/20,000th of the largest scheduled load or
generator. For example, a utility system with the largest load or generator of 500 MVA
would have a convergence criteria of .03 MVA, whereas an industrial system having a
largest load or generator of 1000 kVA would have a convergence criteria of .05 kVA.
Pre-disturbance Load Flow. Pre-disturbance load flows used in studying the dynamic

behavior of a system require much more detail than steady state load flows. In steady state
load flows, generating units are represented as constant PQ sources. In fact, any P and Q
amounts can be specified, as long as the load flow solution converges. Other than the
somewhat artificial Qmax and Qmin, no constraints are imposed on the generating units.
In steady state conditions, it is assumed that all controllers have calmed and that no limits
of any kind are being challenged. As such, power plants and loads are usually represented
rather simply when performing a load flow. Clearly this representation cannot be used in
studying the dynamic behavior of the system. Therefore, I*SIM combines the steady state
load representations with the dynamic models, such as induction motors, synchronous
motors, and other user defined dynamic load models from the I*SIM library, and changes
load representations into different combinations of load mixtures. Also, instead of
constant PQ sources and swing buses, internal representations are rendered as a Norton
current source. The associated Norton equivalent impedance is given by:

1
R a + jL
where
Ra

machine armature resistance;

machine sub-transient reactance.

Other data used by the pre-disturbance load flow include the individual machine VAR
participation information within a plant; the machine base MVA (kVA), armature
resistance, and sub-transient reactance L; and step-up transformer resistance, reactance,
and off-nominal turns ratio. (L is often referred to as X. Their values are the same only
at nominal frequency. More appropriately, L = 1/2 (Ld + Lq).)

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Dynamic Simulation. The solution method used in the Dynamic Simulation is quite
different from the steady state load flow solution method; the solution method is based on
performing iterative Gaussian Elimination of the network by repeatedly performing
forward and backward substitutions on the factorized network impedance matrix. The
convergence criteria is based on network voltage error and can achieve a far tighter
tolerance than those attainable in the steady state load flow.

1.6.1. Points to consider when running the Simulation


As long as you know what occurs when you click the Run button, you wont be surprised
by the results. Consider these points:

When you click the Run button, I*SIM calculates data based on what Case or
Study is selected (that is, highlighted). See the following illustrations. If you
have Industrial Simulation highlighted, data will be generated for all the Cases
in all the Studies. If you have a Study highlighted, data will be generated for all
the Cases in that Folder. If you have either a Case or a component highlighted,
data will be generated for only that Case.

Runs all Cases in all


Studies.

Runs all Cases in the


Isolation folder.

Runs only the


6Cycles case in the
Isolation folder.

Runs only the


6Cycles case in the
Isolation folder.

To analyze Cases that use the same electrical system topology (same bus
voltages, same transformer tap settings, etc.): set up all the Cases first, then run
the Dynamic Simulation to generate data for all the Cases by highlighting
Industrial Simulation.

To analyze Cases that use different electrical system topologies: set up the Cases,
then flip back and forth between the Component Editor/One-Line Diagram and
I*SIM, alternately changing the topology then running the Dynamic Simulation
for each specific Case by highlighting it.
Tip: Since Cases with different requirements for the static portion of the system
(for example, different transformer sizes or components in/out of service) must be
run separately, a good idea is to put all the Cases that are based on the same
electrical system configuration in their own Study. This way, you can quickly
switch to the Component Editor or One-Line Diagram, make the changes you need,
then switch back to I*SIM and run the Dynamic Simulation for the whole Study.

If the Dynamic Simulation encounters a problem when running, it may not


generate data for some or all of the channels. You can tell what channels have
data created for them because their backgrounds will appear dark green. This
behavior is discussed more thoroughly in Working with Plots on Section 1.8.1.
Has data

Doesnt have data:

Even though a channel has data generated for it, the data may not be current. For
example, if you switch to the Component Editor, change the rated size for a
utility, then return to I*SIM, the channel data will be outdated. Any change in the

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static portion of the electrical system (that is, anything you control outside of
I*SIM) will make all data in the dynamic portion of the electrical system (that is,
anything you control within I*SIM) obsolete and you will have to re-generate it
by re-running the Dynamic Simulation. This occurs because channels are
generated based on the state of the electrical system at the moment the Run
button is clicked. If that state changes at all, the channels will be based on the
previous network configuration. You can use this to your benefit, though, to
compare results between different network configurations.

Running the Dynamic Simulation means letting I*SIM create the channel data;
it is a separate step from plotting the starting curves, which you control using the
I*SIM Study Manager in Plot Mode.

If you have any components that are Out of Service, data will not be generated
for them, even if they have Dynamic Events assigned to them.

If a motor actually represents multiple motors (that is, if the Number of Motors
box in the Component Editor has a number greater than one), I*SIM will consider
the motor accordingly. For example, if a motor actually represents 3 motors,
I*SIM will triple its starting requirements.

 To run the Dynamic Simulation


1.

To begin, do one of the following:

From the Case menu, click Run Study.

On the Toolbar, click the Run Study button

In the lower-left corner of the I*SIM Study Manager, click the Run button
.

2.

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The following dialog box will appear:

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-47

Click here to
modify the Load
Flow portion of the
Type report names here

Change I*SIM's
Configurations here

3.

Type names for the Reports. If you select the Overwrite Existing Report check box,
the Reports will replace any that already exist with that name. If you clear the
Overwrite Existing Report check box, you will get a warning that those Reports
already exist. (PTW generates one Report for each run of the Motor Starting
Simulation.) Furthermore, TMS also generates Excel Data Point Report. This report
shows the data points of the channels against time. The Excel will have the following
format name: <Report name>_<Case folder name>_<Case name>_Channel.xls

4.

Click the Run button to begin the Dynamic Simulation. You will see the Run Study
dialog box as it displays the progress of the Study:

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Since I*SIM will not generate data if it does not reach convergence, you should watch
carefully the messages which appear as I*SIM runs. If you see the message ISIM study
did not converge, study terminated (as shown in Fig. 1-5), you should begin
troubleshooting. See Convergence Failure on section 1.7.2 for help with
troubleshooting convergence failures.

Fig. 1-5. Message which appears when I*SIM does not converge.

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1.6.2. Solution Parameter Event


As discussed in Source Models and Events, in the beginning of section 1.5.2, each
component has a distinct set of events that you may apply to it. I*SIM also has another
kind of event, called a Solution Parameter Event, that works differently from all the
other events. The Solution Parameter Event is unique in that you dont apply it to a
particular component, but rather to a Case. As with other events, you specify a time for
the Solution Parameter Event to occur; however, since you apply it to the Case instead of a
specific component, the Solution Parameter Event affects how the Dynamic Simulation
runs for the Case, which ends up affecting all the components within the Case, not just a
specific component.
Important: Dont try to incorporate the Solution Parameter Event into every Case
you create. It is not meant to be used in standard practice. Rather, the Solution
Parameter Event helps to achieve convergence when I*SIM doesnt converge.
The Solution Parameter Event works by changing the parameters (such as Acceleration
Factor or Maximum Number of Iterations) for how the Dynamic Simulation runs. Most of
the time, the default parameters that are built into I*SIM will work just fine and I*SIM
will converge; however, in those occasional instances when I*SIM doesnt converge, you
will have to figure out what has gone awry and change it. If youre lucky, the Dynamic
Simulation just needs a little adjustment, a nudge in the right directionwhat a sailor
might call a minor rudder correctionwhich is what the Solution Parameter Event does.
(If the Solution Parameter Event doesnt help, you probably have an error in your system
topology or a Library Model and will have to browse the Component Editor or I*SIM
Library to fix the problems. See Convergence Failure and Other Errors on Section 1.7
for help troubleshooting convergence failure.)
 To create a Solution Parameter Event

1.

With a Case highlighted,

select Change Solution

Parameters
from the Case menu. The following dialog box will appear:

2.

Using the guidelines below, enter values, then enter an Event Time at which you want
the change in Solution Parameters to occur.

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3.

Click the Create Event button to create the parameter change event, then click the
Close button.

When creating events for a Solution Parameter Event, keep these guidelines in mind:
Acceleration FactorThe acceleration factor affects the convergence property. A typical
value for the acceleration factor is 0.7. If I*SIM is not converging, try a smaller
acceleration factor. A smaller acceleration factor decelerates the solution process, and
provides a possible means of correcting an iteration solution which is diverging. Usually,
the acceleration factor should not be less than 0.1, since the computation time increases
significantly as the acceleration factor decreases. A larger acceleration factor provides
less information regarding the solution convergence.
Maximum Number IterationsTypically, 25 iterations are appropriate. If the Network
Not Converged message still appears in the Log Report, increase the maximum number of
iterations. Generally, the number of iterations would be less than 100, since the
computation time increases as the number of iterations increases. If I*SIM is not
converging, try a larger limit on the number of iterations.
Convergence ToleranceThe convergence tolerance in a simulation is the per unit voltage
change. A typical convergence tolerance value is 0.00001. A tolerance value which is
dramatically lower is unnecessary and wastes computation time. If I*SIM is not
converging, try a larger convergence tolerance.
Time Step/ Plotted PointsI*SIM allows you to choose the number of time steps per
plotted point. I*SIM allows a maximum of 1000 plotted values per plot, and
automatically adjusts this entry if more than 1000 plotted values will be generated. We
recommend that you select enough plotted points to make an engineering judgment
without specifying excessive plotted points.

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1.6.3. I*SIM Study Setup options


Use the Study Setup options to control various options.

Use Global /Case Study Setup


Typically, you should use the Use Global Study Setup option because it is easier and
will run the Dynamic Simulation with the same settings for all the Cases.
If you ever want to run multiple cases with different Study Setup settings, you can use the
Use Case Study Setup option. When using this option, be sure that all the Cases have
the Setup options that you want. Follow these steps to assign Study Setup options to each
Case:
 To assign Case Study Setup options

1.

With a Case highlighted,

select Case Study Setup from

the
Case menu. The following dialog box will appear:

2.

The data boxes themselves are the same as those for the Global Study Setup.

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Angle Reference Machine


Choose a source (utility or generator) whose machine rotor angle you want used as a
reference; a common choice is a swing bus (see section 1.2 for the definition of a swing
bus). If the Angle Reference Machine is not None, any rotor angle plotted will show the
difference between its own angle and that of the reference machines. If youre using the
Global Study Setup, be sure to choose a source that is common to all Cases. If youre
using the Case Study Setup, be sure to choose a source that is in the Case.

Maximum Simulation Time


The simulation run time for a complete dynamic simulation usually will not exceed 30
seconds for studies in the electro-mechanical frequency spectrum. The run time must be
specified in seconds.

Simulation Time Step


The size of the simulation time step is usually determined by the integration method being
used. For the I*SIM integration method, a time step of no greater than 1/4 of the smallest
closed loop time constant in the system should be used. Since all of the time constants in
the model library represent the open loop time constant, and since the closed loop time
constant is very hard to determine because it depends upon the type and location of the
disturbance being applied, the recommended time step is 1/2 cycle or less for general
analysis in the electro-mechanical frequency spectrum. In studies with induction motors,
the recommended time step is 1/16 cycle or less. I*SIM allows the time step to be
specified as 1/64, 1/32, 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, and 1, to allow for varying system conditions.

Model Frequency Dependent Network


Modeling the frequency dependent network causes I*SIM to include the effect in which
the network impedance changes as the frequency changes (X = jL). Including this model
will increase the accuracy for some cases, such as starting induction motors, in which the
frequency may deviate significantly from the nominal frequency. However, including this
model will increase the total run time.
The constant impedance portion of the load adjusts to the local frequency if the network
frequency dependent effect has been included, but is not affected by the load models.
In traditional stability programs X (reactance) and L (inductance) or C (capacitance) may
have been used indiscriminately. It has been assumed that the network frequency is very
1

close to nominal and that 0 = 1. Since X = L or c , then X L or 1/C. This is


normally the case in very large systems where the frequency cannot possibly deviate
significantly from nominal. However, if the system to be simulated does suffer from large
frequency fluctuations and does not require motor starting or islanding studies, then it is
imperative to include the network frequency dependence model in the study. In fact, if the
flux induction motor is to be used, then it is virtually mandatory that this model be
included in the representation.

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1.6.4. LF Setup Options


Use the LF Study Setup dialog box to choose how you want the Load Flow portion of the
Dynamic Simulation to create data.

Essentially, these are the same setup options as those for DAPPERs Load Flow Study.
Note that I*SIM uses the Ra and X in the Source Model Library as the utility impedance.
Important: When I*SIM runs the Load Flow Study, it treats some components
differently depending on how you have set up their models and events (see Assign
Models and Events to Components on section 1.5 for model or event setup):
An induction motor which has a model applied to it will be reported as a PQ
generator, not as a motor.
An induction motor whose Initial Status is set to off-line will not be reported at all.
A branch whose Initial Status is set to off-line will be treated as an unconnected
component.

It is recommended that you run the Study using the Exact (Iterative) Solution method first.
This is because the solution method usually converges on most power systems. In the
unlikely event that the steady-state load flow solution does not converge, you should rerun the Study using the Approximate Solution method. If it does not converge, a message
in the Study Message dialog box will notify you of the problem. When the Approximate
Solution method is selected, PTW temporarily converts all loads to constant impedance
type characteristics, making these system losses smaller than if constant kVA type loads
were modeled. An output report is then written, and data is sent to the database. Although
it is an approximate solution (since the load characteristic is approximated), this solution
method may help to identify the reasons for the non-convergence.
If you have a non-convergent solution, examine the Log Reports bus voltage mismatch
values and bus mismatch location, as there may be a data input problem that has caused
the non-convergence. Check specifically for excessive voltage drop and multiple PV

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generators separated by small impedance values. If the voltage drops are within a
reasonable range, try adjusting the Solution Criteria. See Solution Criteria, following.

Load Specification
These options control how the Study handles load data.
Directly Connected Loads

When either of these two options is selected, the load flow solution calculates the load at
P jQ
each bus, then solves the steady state load flow equation
= [Y][V] . Neither of
[V]*

LM b
N

g OP
Q

these options uses results from the Demand Load Study, so I*SIM runs the Load Flow
Study but not the Demand Load Study.
When the Connected Load option button is selected, the I*SIM Dynamic Simulation
calculates the loads without considering any load or demand factors. If motor loads are
identified, and if multiple motors are modeled in a single motor load object, the total
motor connected load is the number of motors multiplied by the motors rated size.
Otherwise, the load rated size is the connected load value. Motors expressed in
horsepower are converted to kVA units by dividing by the efficiency, power factor, etc.
When the 1st Level Demand or Energy Factor option button is selected, the I*SIM Starting
Simulation calculates the loads using the first level demand factors and energy audit load
factors, as appropriate. If a non-motor load is identified with both an energy audit load
factor and a demand load category, then the Study will use both the energy audit load
factor and the first level demand load factor multiplied by the loads rated size. For motor
loads, the load is calculated as the number of motors multiplied by the motor rated size
multiplied by the motor load factor. Load diversity resulting from identifying multiple
levels of demand load factors is not taken into consideration.
From Demand Load Study

These options use the calculated demand load values from the Demand Load Study, so
I*SIM runs both the Load Flow Study and the Demand Load Study. Upon creating a new
Project, the Demand Load Study includes the results from all non-motor loads by default,
unless you selected either the Include Only Demand Loads or Include Only Energy Audit
Loads option button before running the Demand Load Study. Demand loads with multiple
levels of demand factors, such as receptacle loads where the first 10 kVA of load have a
100% demand factor and the remaining receptacle load has a 50% demand factor result in
a non-coincident demand (diversity) load that is unique. This diversity load is calculated
at each branch within the load flow solution.

Solution Criteria
These options control the solution data.
Generation Acceleration Factor, Load Acceleration Factor

The two Acceleration Factor text boxes allow you to control how the I*SIM Dynamic
Simulation converges upon the solution. Generally, the Acceleration Factors do not need
to be changed from their default values. However, if a non-convergent solution occurs,
even after an Approximate Solution method has been run, try changing the Generation
Acceleration Factor and/or the Load Acceleration Factor from their default of 1.0 to a
factor between 0.1 and 1.0. The smaller the factor, the smaller the step change used in the
iteration solution.

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Bus Voltage Drop, Branch Voltage Drop

These provide a quick method to flag excessive voltage drops in the output report. In the
report, PTW flags with a dollar sign ($) any bus or branch voltage drop value that exceeds
the limits set in these text boxes. Upon creating a new Project, the default values are a 5%
bus voltage drop, and a 3% branch voltage drop. However, you can change these
percentages by typing a percent value in the appropriate text box.
Important: The I*SIM Dynamic Simulation only takes into account the primary
tap setting for transformers; it does not consider the phase shift or the secondary tap
settings (these are all set on the first subview for transformers). If you want to
model a transformer with a secondary tap setting, add a minus sign to the setting and
enter the value in the primary tap box. For example, to model a secondary tap
setting of 3, enter a -3 into the primary tap box; similarly, to model a secondary tap
setting of -2, enter a 2 into the primary tap box.

1.6.5. Automatically-Generated Reports


I*SIM generates a number of reports when it runs:

Input ReportContains static system data (that is, the data you enter in the
Component Editor and the One-Line Diagram).

Demand Load ReportContains results of the Demand Load Study that I*SIM
runs (I*SIM only runs the Demand Load Study only runs the Demand Load
Study if you select either of the two From Demand Load Study options in the
Load Flow setup).

Load Flow ReportContains results of the Load Flow Study that I*SIM runs.

Dynamic ReportContains dynamic system data (that is, the data you enter in
I*SIM).

Log ReportContains messages about the running of the Dynamic Simulation,


including any error messages about convergence failures.

Each of these Reports will be discussed in detail.


Tip: If you are trying to fix a convergence error, skip to Convergence Failure on
section 1.7.2.

 To Open a Report
1.

2.

Do one of the following:

From the Document menu, choose Report.

Click the Report button


button.

on the toolbar. Then click on the Text Report

In the Open Report dialog box, choose the name of the I*SIM report you created.

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Input Report
The Input Report contains a detailed breakdown of each components structural, or static,
data, such as the components it connects to, its voltage, and its size (in essence, the Input
Report contains all the data that you have input using the Component Editor and One-Line
Diagram).
The following example shows part of a typical Input Report:
FEEDER INPUT DATA
FEEDER FROM
NAME

FEEDER TO
NAME

QTY VOLTS LENGTH


/PH L-L

003-HV SWGR
004-TX B PRI
1 13800 200.0
+/- Impedance: 0.5100 + J 0.0636 OHMS/M Length
Z0 Impedance: 0.8108 + J 0.1618 OHMS/M Length

FEEDER DESCRIPTION
SIZE TYPE DUCT INSUL
FT
6 C N
XLP
0.0536 + J 0.0067 PU
0.0851 + J 0.0170 PU

TRANSFORMER INPUT DATA


PRIMARY RECORD VOLTS * SECONDARY RECORD VOLTS FULL-LOAD NOMINAL
NO NAME
L-L
NO NAME
L-L
KVA
KVA
===========================================================================
002-TX A PRI D 69000.0 003-HV SWGR
YG 12900.0 25000.0 20000.0
Pos. Seq. Z%:
0.140 + J 0.410 0.007 + j 0.020 PU
Zero Seq. Z%:
0.140 + J 0.410 0.007 + j 0.020 PU
Taps Pri. -4.99 % Sec. 0.000 % Phase Shift (Pri. Leading Sec.): 30.00 Deg.

Demand Load Report


The Demand Load Report lists the results of the running of the Demand Load Study,
which calculates the connected, demand, and design load values for each bus, including
the effects of load diversity.
Note: I*SIM only runs the Demand Load Study if you have selected one of the
three From Demand Load Study options in the Load Flow Setup. We do not
recommend that you use any of these three options, but instead use either of the two
Directly Connected Loads options. However, if you do one of the From Demand
Load Study options, the Study will use the setup options from the DAPPER
Demand Load Study setup.
The following example shows part of a typical Demand Load Report:
LOAD SUMMARY
LOAD SCHEDULE FOR 001-UTILITY CO
69000. VOLTS LINE TO LINE
SOURCE OF PWR
SOURCE BUS
ITEM DESCRIPTION * CONNECTED LOAD * DEMAND LOAD * DESIGN LOAD * %
KVA
AMPS
KVA
AMPS
KVA AMPS P F
END USE LOADS
BRANCH LOADS
002-TX A PRI 23003.5
192.5 14123.3
118.2 15401.5 128.9 95.09
TOTALS 23003.5
192.5 14123.3
118.2 15401.5
128.9 95.09
END USE LOADS
KVA TYPE MTR
64.1
77.1
64.1
77.1
64.1
77.1 80.00
LARGEST KVA MTR 29.1
35.1
29.1
35.1
36.4
43.8 80.00
BRANCH LOADS
018-RA
124.5
149.7
124.5
149.7
130.6
157.1 88.76
TOTALS
217.0
261.1
217.0
261.1
230.4
277.1 85.23

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Load Flow Report


The Load Flow Report lists the results of the running of the Load Flow Study, which
calculates the voltage drop through each branch impedance component, and the associated
voltages at each bus or node in the electrical system.
If you expect to see data for certain components but dont, here are some possible reasons
why:
An induction motor which has a model applied to it will be reported as a PQ generator, not
as a motor.
An induction motor whose Initial Status is set to off-line will not be reported at all.
A branch whose Initial Status is set to off-line will be treated as an unconnected
component.
The following example shows part of a typical Load Flow Report:
BALANCED VOLTAGE DROP AND LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS
VOLTAGE EFFECT ON LOADS MODELED
VOLTAGE DROP CRITERIA: BRANCH = 3.00 % BUS = 5.00
==== BUS: 028-BUS 28 DESIGN VOLTS:
480 BUS VOLTS:
439 %VD: 8.59$
======================= PU BUS VOLTAGE: 0.914
ANGLE: -2.8 DEGREES
**** PQ TYPE MACHINE:IND-028
-800.0 KW -600.0 KVAR
LOAD FROM: 027-TX B PRI FEEDER AMPS:1315.7 VOLTAGE DROP: 9. %VD: 1.81
PROJECTED POWER FLOW: 800.0 KW 600.0 KVAR 1000.0 KVA PF: 0.80 LAGGING
LOSSES THRU FEEDER: 13.3 KW
15.3 KVAR
20.3 KVA

Dynamic Report
The Dynamic Report lists the components dynamic data (that is, the data you enter in
I*SIM, as opposed to static data, which you enter in the Component Editor) including the
models you have applied and the Dynamic Eventssuch as Load Change, Apply Fault,
and so onwithin all the Cases that you have run the Dynamic Simulation for. See
Assign Models and Events to Components on section 1.5 for a review of creating
Dynamic Events.
Note: The Dynamic Report does not contain the actual results of the dynamic
simulation; you view the results by plotting the curves, as discussed in Plot
Simulation Curves on section 1.8.
The following example shows part of a typical Dynamic Report:

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System Frequency: 60
<< Fault - Bus 24 >>
Time Step: 0.0010
Angle Reference Bus: EDISON-001
Frequency Dependent Network Modeled: YES

The first part of the report lists


data for the model you have
applied to the component.

The second part of the report lists


the Dynamic Events that you
have created for each
component.

The third part of the report lists


the channels (that is, the curves)
that you placed checks next to.

Component Name: IND-025


Bus Connected: 025-BUS 25
Library Model Name: Double Cage Flux
Machine Modal Data:
3.64900E-001 T Transient time constant
4.80000E-003 T Sub-transient time constant
1.00000E+000 H Inertia constant
3.82900E+000 X Steady-state armature reactance
2.75000E-001 X Transient motor reactance
1.75000E-001 X Sub-transient motor reactance
1.12000E-001 Xl Leakage reactance
1.00000E+000 E1 First sample voltage
3.00000E-002 Se(E1) Saturation factor at E1
1.20000E+000 E2 Second sample voltage
1.20000E-001 Se(E2) Saturation factor at E2
2.00000E+000 D Load damping factor
-1.00000E+000 Tnominal Nominal Torque
Component Name: 024-MV SWG
SWITCHING EVENTS - Sorted by time in seconds
PLOT EVERY 1 TIME STEP
0.1000 024-MV SWG
Fault the Bus
0.2000 024-MV SWG
Clear the Fault
MAXIMUM STUDY TIME: 2.5000
PLOT CHANNEL SCHEDULE
MACHINE: ROTOR SPD: IN PU Dev.
AT BUS: 020-DS SWG3
MACHINE: REL. ANGLE: IN Rel Degree AT BUS: 020-DS SWG3
MACHINE: E FIELD:
IN Per Unit AT BUS: 020-DS SWG3
BUS:
003-HV SWGR
VOLTAGE (PU) AND ANGLE (Degrees)
BRANCH:
002-TX A PRI
TO 003-HV SWGR
P + jQ (PU)

Log Report
The Log Report contains information about the running of the Dynamic Simulation itself.
You will probably spend more time reviewing the Log Report than any of the other
Reports, particularly if the Dynamic Simulation fails to converge.

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The first part of the Log Report


contains the pre-disturbance load
flow condition.

Iter |deltaV|/tol
Bus
1
12016.350 023-MTR 23
2
3563.198 023-MTR 23
3
1095.051 023-MTR 23
4
341.007 023-MTR 23
5
106.572 023-MTR 23
6
33.321 023-MTR 23
7
10.413 023-MTR 23
8
3.259 023-MTR 23
9
1.013 023-MTR 23
10
0.314 023-MTR 23

|deltaV|
0.1202
0.0356
0.0110
0.0034
0.0011
0.0003
0.0001
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

Converged in 10 iterations
maximum mismatch: -2.32 kw
.08 kvar
2.32 kva-bus
013-DS SWG2
Total absolute mismatch: 7.45 KVA for the whole system
bus
028-MTR 28 A unit 1--slip= .22565e-01 var mismatch= .22938e-03pu
bus
025-MTR 25 unit 1--slip= .21446e-01 var mismatch= -.41787e-02pu
bus
020-DS SWG3 unit 1--slip= .33526e-02 var mismatch= .77621e-02pu
Time Iter |deltaV|/Tol
Bus
deltaV
-0.002
1
0.009 023-MTR 23
0.0000
DEMONSTRATION STUDY FOR POWER*TOOLS FOR WINDOWS
Initial condition load flow solution converged in

The second part of the Log


Report contains the machine
initial conditions.

1 iterations

Machine initial conditions

Bus
Component
Vterm
EFD
Pelec
Qelec
Mbase P.F. Angle

001-UTILITY CO U1
1.0020 1.0069 15026.1 4665.0 100000.0 .96
1.
003-HV SWGR
M10
1.0170 1.6505 -3090.9 -324.0 3076.3 -.99 -49.
008-DS SWG1
G1
.9741 1.8383
508.7
274.7
750.0 .88 23.
020-DS SWG3
M3
.9496 .0000 -2061.2 -509.9 2966.6 -.97

020-DS SWG3
G2
.9496 2.1212
1076.0
863.7 1500.0 .78 21.
025-MTR 25
M25
1.0165 .0000 -1637.8 -1297.7 1956.5 -.78

028-MTR 28 A M 28 # 1&2
.9588 .0000
-390.3 -182.5
500.0 -.91

Error messages will appear here,


if any exist. Pay keen attention to
this portion of the Report.
Time Iter |deltaV|/Tol
Bus
deltaV
-0.002
1
0.002 013-DS SWG2
0.0000
No significant state variable movement detected.
The last part of the Log Report
lists the convergence behavior.
Use the Bus which is circled
as a troubleshooting starting point
if the Case doesn't converge.

/*
/*
/*
/*

SWITCHING INTERFACE FILE FOR ISIM


SET DEFAULT # POINTS TO PLOT
0.1000 002-TX A PRI
BRANCH OUT OF SERVICE
0.2000 002-TX A PRI
BRANCH IN SERVICE

003-HV SWGR
003-HV SWGR

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New Excel report for group motor acceleration/starting.

New Excel report for I*SIM study results of all selected plot channels at user-defined
interval.

1.7. Convergence Failure and Other Errors


When you run I*SIM, chances are good that, from time to time, your Case will fail to
converge or some other error will prevent I*SIM from generating valid data. This section
provides some ways to correct these errors.

1.7.1. Initialization Error


I*SIM alerts you to an initialization error with this message:

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This problem usually occurs because an Exciter or Governor has reached its limit.
To begin troubleshooting, check the Log Report for any error messages. If the Exciter or
Governor reached its limit, you will see a message like this:
standard governor at bus

GEN-0001 machine *** initialized out of limits, vr val= 1.0037

When the Dynamic Simulation starts, I*SIM analyzes the pre-disturbance load flow.
From there, I*SIM works backward from output to input to determine the necessary
controller output and steady state status. If the pre-disturbance load flow is unreasonable
or if data errors exist in the dynamic models, then it is likely that some controller limits
will be immediately challenged or that some controllers will start to move before any
disturbance has been applied. Since this cannot occur in the real world, I*SIM responds
with the error message in the Log Report.
To fix this problem you need to determine whether it was a faulty Library Model or a
badly configured electrical system, then fix the problem and re-run the Dynamic
Simulation. Look first for typographical errors (such as entering 200 instead of 2000),
but also look for components whose sizes dont match one another. Heres an example of
a situation in which, even though all the components have reasonable sizes, a governor
reaches its limit and causes an initialization error:

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1.7.2. Convergence Failure


I*SIM alerts you to convergence failure with this error message:

An excessive amount of constant kVA load at the bus frequently causes this problem. To
determine which bus the problem occurred at, look for a line similar to this at the end of
the Log Report and find the bus name:
Time Iter |deltaV|/Tol
Bus
-0.002
1
0.004 027-DSB 3

deltaV
0.0000

Using either the Component Editor or the One-Line Diagram, first check how many
induction motors you have connected to the Bus (in this case, Bus 027-DSB 3). If any
of these induction motors do not have Library Models applied to them, you should apply
models to them because I*SIM treats Induction Motors without Library Models as
constant kVA loads. I*SIM will calculate them more accurately if they have Models.
If the Induction Motors already have models assigned to them, try adding a Solution
Parameter Event to the Case. Frequently a Solution Parameter Event will help the Case to
converge. See Solution Parameter Event on section 1.6.2 for more information about
adding a Solution Parameter Event to a Case.

1.7.3. Other Common Causes of Errors


Here are some other possible causes of errors:
Problem: Unreasonable excitation (Efd) demand resulting from an unreasonable

combination of initial condition voltage. The generators minimum and maximum kVAR
limits force the Exciter Model to reach its limit. This condition could also be the result of
exciter saturation or of inappropriate voltage regulator data.
Solution: Modify the generator minimum and maximum kVAR in the Component Editor.
Problem: Unreasonable mechanical power, Pmech, demand resulting from unreasonable

generator power.

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Solution: Check the initial condition P (labeled kW onscreen in the Component Editor for
the generator) relative to the machine rated size (kVA) of the corresponding unit. You
may also have to check the Governor Model in the Library, as the problem could also
result from bad governor limit data.
Problem: Excessive var mismatch in the Log Report. Var mismatch itself is not a

problem, just an excess of it. Some var mismatch will almost always occur because of the
difference between the steady states calculation methods and I*SIMs. Since the steady
state load flow does not know the machines internal characteristics (because it doesnt use
the Dynamic Model), it makes assumptions that closely, but not precisely, estimate the var
consumed by the motor. When the Dynamic Simulation runs it does know the machines
internal characteristics because it uses the Dynamic Model, so it can more precisely
determine the var consumed. As a result, you will usually find in the Log Report a slight
mismatch between the actual var consumed and the estimated var consumed. The model
then creates a shunt at its terminal in order to compensate for this mismatch. In
compensating for the mismatch, I*SIM does not need to carry induction machine internal
resistances and reactance into the load flow calculations. Unfortunately, if the Dynamic
Model has inaccurate data, a very large internally held shunt capacitor could be created; if
this shunt is large enough, a self-excitation phenomena could occur. Such occurrences are
rare, but not impossible.
Solution: Check the Induction Motor Model for inaccurate data.
Problem: Too much constant PQ load in the system prevents convergence.
Solution: Create a Solution Parameter Event (see Solution Parameter Event on section

1.6.2). If you wonder why too much constant PQ load can cause non-convergence, this
explanation should help. The more independent a load is on the voltage, the more power
the load will draw from the system during a fault, the weaker the ties holding the
generators become, and the less stable the system becomes. This instability is not merely
due to the constant PQ load affecting the convergence property in dynamic solution.
Actually, the constant PQ load causes the system to appear less stable than it really is.
Problem: Conditions in the simulation may be changing too rapidly, preventing

convergence. This often occurs during faults, switching, and rapid controller actions.
Solution: Create a Solution Parameter Event (see Solution Parameter Event on section

1.6.2).
Problem: Too large of an acceleration factor.
Solution: Create a Solution Parameter Event (see Solution Parameter Event on section

1.6.2).

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1.8. Plot Simulation Curves


Once you have run the Dynamic Simulation, you can switch to Plot View to view the
curves.
The first time you switch to Plot View, you need to type a name for the plot file. To do so,
from the Case menu, select the Plot command (you can also click the Plot button
in the lower-left corner). The following dialog box will appear:

Type a name for the plot and click the OK button.


I*SIM will now be running in Plot Mode. Note that while views 1 and 3 look the same as
those while in Event Mode, they are in fact slightly different in their operation. Also, note
that view 2 looks entirely different.





Parts of I*SIM while in Plot mode:

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The Study-Case View shows the Cases and Studies.


The Plot Graph View shows the active plot.
The Plot Variable View shows the channels (that is, the curves) you may display or
hide on the plot for the currently selected Case.
Note: The I*SIM Study Manager runs in three modes: Event, Run, and Plot. While
in the Event mode, you prepare the Cases that you want to plot. While in Run mode,
I*SIM generates data for the Cases. While in Plot mode, you plot the Cases.
Anytime you want to modify Cases or create new Cases, you need to switch to Event
mode.
Feel free to flip back and forth between Event mode and Plot mode. The Plot file will not
disappear. Use the

button whenever you want to make a new Plot or to pick a

different one, and use the


forth.

button whenever you want to quickly flip back and

1.8.1. Working with Plots


The grid you see in the upper-right area of the I*SIM Study Manager shows the contents
of the active plot (the plot is the file you named in the previous section). You may create
as many plots as you want, but only one plot will be displayed at a time.
Important: A plot is not linked to any particular Case, but is merely a place to
display motor starting curves. This means that you may display curves from
multiple Cases in a single plot.
Think of the plot as a bulletin board to which you add or remove curves. For example,
you can add the Rotor Angle and Excitation Voltage curves for Motor1 from Case One
and Case Two. You can also remove curves if you wish. Keep in mind, though, that once
you add a curve to a plot, it will remain there until you remove it; it will still be displayed
even if you switch to another Case which doesnt have any curves displayed.
To add curves to a plot, place checks in the gray check box squares. When you place a
check in a channels square, a curve will appear for that channel.

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Place checks for the


curves you want to add to
the plot. When you add a
check to a channel. . .

that channel's curve and


the curve's axis appear
on the plot.

You may display up to six curves at a time on a plot, but you may find the plot more
legible if you display no more than four at a time.

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You may have noticed that check box squares appear for some of the plot channels but not
all of them, which can seem confusing. Why, when I*SIM is in Event Mode, do check
box squares appear for all of the channels, but when I*SIM is in Plot Mode, squares
appear for only some of the channels? The answer is that check box squares will only
appear for those channels which have data. If a channel has no data generated for it, no
plot can be displayed for that channel, and thus a check box square will not appear.

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The following example illustrates this behavior:


Fig. 1-6 shows the Channel Window while I*SIM is in Event Mode. Note that we have
placed checks for three channels: Speed Deviation, Terminal Voltage, and Mechanical
Power. However, only the first two, Speed Deviation and Terminal Voltage, display a
green shaded background, which means only these two channels currently contain data
from a previous run of the Dynamic Simulation. The third channel, Mechanical Power,
does not contain any data.

Fig. 1-6

Therefore, when we switch I*SIM to Plot Mode, as shown in Fig. 1-7, check box squares
only appear for the channels which have data: Speed Deviation and Terminal Voltage.
Although the Mechanical Power channel displays a check mark while I*SIM is in Event
Mode, until the Dynamic Simulation is run again the Mechanical Power channel will not
be available to display a plot for that channel when I*SIM is in Plot Mode because the
channel does not contain any data. (If a component is Out of Service, no data will be
generated for any of its channels, even if all are selected.)

Fig. 1-7

In order to generate data for the Mechanical Power channel, you would need to re-run the
Dynamic Simulation, as discussed in Section 1.6, Run Dynamic Simulation to Produce
Data.
You can tell which Case a plot came from by placing the mouse pointer over it so a hand
appears, then clicking the mouse button. The channel that the curve came from will
then be highlighted. Refer to the following illustration:

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When you click


the mouse
pointer on a
curve. . .

the channel for


that curve will be
highlighted. (The
Case that the
curve came from
will also be
highlighted in the
Study-Case
View.)

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 To create a new Plot


1.

From the Case menu, choose the Plot command or click the

2.

Type a name for the new Plot and click the New button.

button.

 To open an existing Plot


1.

From the Case menu, choose the Plot command or click the

2.

Select an existing Plot and click the Open button.

button.

 To rename an existing Plot


1.

From the Case menu, choose the Plot command or click the

button.

2.

Highlight a Plot and click the Rename button. (Note: You cannot rename a Plot when
it is open. If only one Plot exists, that Plot will always be open, since I*SIM always
displays a Plot. Therefore, if only one Plot exists and you want to rename it, create a
new Plot by clicking the New button, at which point you can rename the previous
Plot.)

3.

Type a new name for the Plot. You may use more than 8 characters and include
spaces in the name if you want.

Tip: Use the Plot command from the Case menu or the Plot button
in the
lower-left corner whenever you want to create a new Plot, and use the View Plot
toolbar button
or the
button in the lower-left corner when you are just
flipping back and forth between Event mode and Plot mode.

 To delete a Plot

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1.

From the Case menu, choose the Plot command or click the

button.

2.

Highlight a Plot and click the Delete button. (Note: You cannot delete a Plot when it
is open. If only one Plot exists, that Plot will always be open, since I*SIM always
displays a Plot. Therefore, if only one Plot exists and you want to delete it, create a
new Plot by clicking the New button, at which point you can delete the previous Plot.)

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-71

1.8.2. Understanding Axes


Each curve type on an I*SIM plot has its own associated Y axis. When you display a
curve, if a curve of that type has not already been placed on the plot, then that curve types
Y axis, including the units that it displays with, will appear to the left. Similarly, when
you remove a curve from the plot, if that is the only curve of that type on the plot, then its
Y axis, including the units that it displays with, will disappear. (There is no individual X
axis for each curve; all curves use Time in Seconds.) There are 14 axis types which
correspond to the 14 channels (Speed Deviation, Rotor Angle, and so on; note that Sources
and Motors use the same seven types of axes).
If you have five curves displayed, and each is a different curve type, you will see five axes
to the left. Conversely, if you have five curves displayed, and they are all of the same
type, you will see one axis to the left. Curves of the same type use the same axis.
This means that, while curves may lie next to one another, if they are of a different type
then they are not plotted on the same axis. In the following picture, for example,

the mechanical torque is higher than electrical torque around 0.3 seconds. However, the
mechanical torque uses a smaller scale axis, which means that its curve actually lies far
below the electrical torque curve. The default behavior of an axis is to show only the
range for the displayed curve or curves that use that axis. This explains why the
mechanical torque axis ranges from -0.867 ft-lbs to -0.825 ft-lbs while the electrical torque
axis ranges fro -4.217 ft-lbs to 0.562 ft-lbs. You can change this default behavior using
the Properties command from the Plot menu. Using the above picture as an example, if
we change the range for both axes so they span from -4.217 ft-lbs to 0.562 ft-lbs, we get a
picture that shows their true axial relation to one another:

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The Axis Range dialog box looks like this:

To toggle the axes between their standard values and per unit values, check on the PU
checkbox. Also depending on the channel type, you can change the unit type as well. For
instance you change the units used for the terminal voltage from Volts to kV. Its dialog
box looks like this:

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You can use the indicator in the upper-left corner to show you the exact coordinates of the
mouse pointer on the plot. If you want the view the coordinates for a point on a particular
curve, point to the curve with the mouse pointer and, when a hand
appears, look at the
indicator to see that points coordinates using that curves Y axis (the X axis is always
displayed in seconds). When you are not pointing at a curve, the indicator will show the
coordinates using the axis closest to the curve by default (if you are using the Show One
option for the Y Axis command, the indicator will show the coordinates using the axis that
would be closest to the curve). To change how many decimal places are shown in the
indicators coordinates, use the Numeric Precision command on the Case menu.

1.1.1. Taking Components to the Component Editor


You may use the Go to Component Editor command to quickly take the components in
a case to the Component Editor (this command will only be active when a case or a
component is highlighted).
 To take the components in a case to the Component Editor
1.

With a component or a case highlighted, do one of the following:

On the toolbar, click the Go to Component Editor button

From the Window menu, choose the Go to Component Editor command.

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1.1.2. Taking Components to a One-Line Diagram


You may use the Go to One-Line Diagram command to quickly take the components in
a case to the associated One-Line Diagram (this command will only be active when a case
or a component is highlighted). To change which One-Line is associated with the Case,
use the Associate One-Line Diagram command from the Case menu.
 To take the components in a case to a One-Line Diagram
1.

With a component or a case highlighted, do one of the following:

On the toolbar, click the Go to One-Line Diagram button

From the Window menu, choose the Go to One-Line Diagram command.

1.1.3. Zooming In and Out


You can magnify an area of the plot using the same Zoom tools that you use on a OneLine Diagram.
 To magnify an area of the plot
1.

on the toolbar or select Zoom Area from the


Either click the Zoom Area button
View menu. Next, while holding down the mouse button, draw a box around the area
you want to magnify.

 To zoom out after magnifying an area of the plot


1.

Do one of the following:

On the toolbar, click the Zoom All button

From the View menu, choose the Zoom All command.

 To maximize the plot to the entire size of the screen


1.

From the Plot menu, choose the Maximize command.

1.1.4. Adding Annotations to a plot


Annotations provide a way to put text next to each curve. You are not limited to just one
annotation per curve; you may put as many annotations as you want on the plot. You must
have at least one curve displayed, however, in order to create and display annotations,
since annotations are tied to axes.
To determine an annotations Y coordinates, you use the axis that the annotation is
associated with (there is no individual X axis for each annotationthey share the Time in
Seconds X axis, as curves do). Annotations are associated with the same axes that curves
are. For example, Excitation Voltage curves share the same Excitation Voltage axis. In
the same way, all annotations associated with the Excitation Voltage axis use the

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-75


Excitation Voltage downslope

Excitation Voltage axis for their Y coordinates. You choose which axis you want to
associate an annotation with when you create the annotation. Therefore, the number of
axes available to associate stems from the number of curves presently displayed.
Lets say you want to put the words Excitation Voltage pu on the Plot, as shown:

To begin, choose the Annotation tab command from the Chart Properties window. The
following dialog box will appear:

Click here
to create a
new
annotation.

Next, click the New button to create a new annotation. (The New button will not be
available if no curves are displayed on the plot.) The following dialog box will appear:

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Choose an axis to associate with the


annotation. You can choose from the axes
that are presently displayed on the plot. In
this example, two axes will appear in this list
box: Motor Torque and Load Torque.

Type the text for the annotation here.


Type the coordinates for the
annotation based on its axis.

Be sure to enter the Y coordinate based on the correct axis. Note that we associated this
annotation with the Excitation Voltage axis, which means that the Y coordinate must be
entered based on the Excitation Voltage axis, not the Terminal Voltage axis. If we based
our Y coordinate on the Terminal Voltage axis and erroneously entered 13865 instead of
7000, the annotation would not appear because it would be offscreen, far above the
location we wanted it.
When an axis disappears because all curves of its type are removed, all annotations that
are associated with that axis will disappear, too. The annotation will also disappear from
the Edit Annotation dialog box when the axis is not visible, but the annotation still exists.
In fact, when the annotations axis reappears, the annotation will reappear, too. Once you
have created an annotation, it becomes linked to its axis and will always appear with the
axis unless you delete the annotation by clicking the Delete button in the Edit Annotation
dialog box. If you want to delete the annotation, be sure that the curve is displayed so the
annotations name will appear in the Edit Annotation dialog box; if its name does not
appear, you cannot highlight it and click the Delete button.
Annotations are specific to a plot. Therefore, in our example, the Excitation Voltage
annotation we created is only linked to the Excitation Voltage axis for that particular plot.
If we create a new plot for this same case, then display the Excitation Voltage and
Terminal Voltage curves, the same two curves will appear, but the annotation will not,
since it is only linked to the Excitation Voltage axis in the other plot, not in all plots.
To hide all the annotations on a plot, use the Show Annotations command from the Plot
menu, which toggles them on or off.
To control the font size for the Annotations, use the Graph Fonts command from the Plot
menu (discussed in Section 1.1.6, Changing Colors and Sizes).
Tip: You may want to wait until you are ready to print to create Annotations. That
way, you can minimize having to move them around.

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1.1.5. Exporting a plot as text or as a graphic


You can export the plot to a Windows Metafile (WMF) or a Bitmap (BMP), or as text.
 To export a plot
1.

From the Plot menu, choose the Export command.

2.

Choose whether you want to export as a Windows Metafile (WMF), as a Bitmap


(BMP), JPG, PNG, or as text. Because the Windows Metafile is vector-based, as
opposed to the Bitmap, which is raster-based, the Windows Metafile will produce
much crisper curves when it is printed, particularly if you stretch it to a larger size.
However, if you want to edit the exported plot picture in a painting program, you will
need to use the Bitmap format. If you export as text, be sure that you have set the
number of decimals places you want using the Numeric Precision command from the
Chart Properties window.

3.

Choose a Destination. If you choose Clipboard, a picture of the plot will be placed on
the Windows Clipboard. You can then switch to another program to paste the plot
picture. (When you export to the Clipboard, you are not saving to a file, but merely
placing the plot picture in temporary memory.) If you choose File, select a location
and name for the file. The extension will automatically be set as WMF, BMP, JPG,
PNG, or DAT depending on your selection for the Export option.

4.

Choose an Object Size. In most cases you neednt modify these settings, and in fact
you may compromise the quality of the graphic by doing so. Also, since Windows
Metafiles are vector-based, they may be resized with no loss of sharpness anyway, so
there is no need to type a different size. For Bitmaps, though, sharpness will be lost if
they are resized, so if you know the size that the graphic must be, and you must use a
Bitmap, you can type a size in pixels. If you do so, though, be sure to maintain the
ratio of width to height (for example, if the default is 300 points width and 100 points
height, and you change the width to 900 points, be sure to change the height to 300
points to maintain the 3:1 width-to-height ratio).

5.

Click the Export button.

1.1.6. Changing Colors and Sizes


I*SIM provides virtually limitless ways to change the plot windows colors, styles, and
fonts. The most significant way to change how the Plot looks, though, is to change the
Viewing Style.
Located on the Graph Color tab window, the Viewing Style command determines how
the plot curves will be drawn and whether the background will be color or monochrome
(that is, black-and-white). If you will be printing to a black-and-white printer and the plot
has less than four curves shown, the Monochrome setting will work well; however, if the
plot has four or more curves shown, you should use the Monochrome with Symbols mode
to help distinguish the curves.
Which style you should use depends on the line style you prefer for the curves and
whether you prefer color or monochrome (that is, black-and-white):

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ColorThis mode displays the curves and the plot window using user-definable
colors. For the Line and Spline curve styles, this viewing style uses more points
to draw the curve so it appears brighter. For the other line styles, however, this
viewing style inundates the curve with points, transforming the curve into an
excessively thick line.

Color with Fewer PointsAs with the Color Viewing Style, this Viewing Style
also displays the curves and the plot window using user-definable colors.
However, less points are used to draw the curves. For the Line and Spline styles,
the Color with Fewer Points Viewing Style uses less points to draw the curve and
the curve appears faint. For the other line styles, however, this viewing style
allows the individual points to be seen more clearly.

MonochromeThis mode displays the curves and the plot window in black-andwhite.

Monochrome with SymbolsThis mode also displays the curves and the plot
window in black-and-white, but adds identifying symbols to the curves to help
distinguish them from one another (if only one curve is displayed, no symbols are
used, and the single curve will look like the Monochrome style).

To change the colors of the curves and their accompanying axes, and to change the curve
styles, use the Plot Styles tab from the Char Properties window. Here are the available
styles:

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Points+LineWhen viewing in color, this style


looks better with the Color with Fewer Points
Viewing Style instead of the Color Viewing
Style.

BarWhen viewing in color, this style looks


better with the Color with Fewer Points Viewing
Style instead of the Color Viewing Style. The
Data Shadows command works with this style.

AreaWhen viewing in color, this style looks


better with the Color with Fewer Points Viewing
Style instead of the Color Viewing Style. The
Mark Data Points command and the Data
Shadows command work with this style.

StickWhen viewing in color, this style


looks better with the Color with Fewer
Points Viewing Style instead of the Color
Viewing Style. The Mark Data Points
command works with this style.

Points+Best Fit LineWhen viewing in color,


this style looks better with the Color with Fewer
Points Viewing Style instead of the Color
Viewing Style.

Points+Best Fit CurveWhen viewing in


color, this style looks better with the Color with
Fewer Points Viewing Style instead of the Color
Viewing Style.

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Points+SplineWhen viewing in color, this


style looks better with the Color with Fewer
Points Viewing Style instead of the Color
Viewing Style.

SplineWhen viewing in color, this style looks


better with the Color Viewing Style instead of
the Color with Fewer Points Viewing Style. The
Mark Data Points command works with this
style.

The Mark Data Points check box in the Plot Style tab of the Chart Properties window
works for the Plot Styles that dont show individual data points (Line, Area, Stick, and
Spline). It displays or hides the individual data points of the curve. Be sure to use the
Color with Fewer Data Points viewing style instead of Color, or an excess of points will
make the curve become a thick, unwieldy line.
The Data Shadows check box in the Plot Style tab of the Chart Properties window
displays or hides data shadows on the plot for the Bar and Area styles. The shadows will
not appear if you use black as the background color because the shadows are also black.
The Line Styles option in the Plot Style tab of the Chart Properties window changes the
line thickness for all the curves on the plot.
The Grid Lines options in the Grid tab in the Chart Properties window, displays vertical
grid lines, horizontal grid lines, both vertical and horizontal grid lines, or no grid lines on
the plot.
The Grid in Front checkbox in the Grid tab of the Chart Properties window places the
grid lines in front of or behind the curves.
The Grid Style options in the Grid tab of the Chart Properties window changes the style
of the grid lines to thick, thin, dotted, or dashed. If you have the Grid Lines command set
to No Grid, this command is irrelevant.
The Legend options in the Axis Range tab of the Chart Properties window displays
either all the legends, just the selected one, or none. (The legend helps you identify each
curve by using a color key, and tells you what Case each curve came from and what motor
it represents.)
The Image Size options, in the Graph Fonts tab of the Chart Properties window,
controls the size of the graph and also governs how big the text will be (since the text uses
whatever space is left from the graph). Generally, you should keep the Image Size set to
Large or Medium, particularly when printing; however, the Small size works well if you
only have one or two curves showing at a time, or if you need to make the text easier to
read.
The Colors options, in the Graph Color tab of the Chart Properties window, changes the
colors of the graph itself, including the foreground and background, along with the axes
and annotations.

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Desktop BackgroundThis changes the background color of the plot window.


This does not change the background color of the graph itself.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-81

Desktop ForegroundThis changes the color for the title text, the legend text,
and the X axis (seconds) text.

Shadow ColorThis changes the color of the shadow that appears behind the
graph.

Graph BackgroundThis changes the background color of the graph itself.


This does not change the background color of the rest of the plot window.

Graph ForegroundThis changes the color of the gridlines, the annotation text,
and the tick marks on the X and Y axes. If you have the Grid Lines command set
to No Grid, you wont be able to see this color on the gridlines.

The Save Settings as Default command on the Plot menu sets the default appearance
settings for the plot to whatever setting you are presently using. When you reset the
default values by using this command, you do not affect the appearance of any existing
plots, but any new plots that you create will use your new default values. For example,
lets say you create a new plot and set the background color to green, then click the Save
Settings as Default command. All the existing plots that were created when the
background color was black (the previous default color) will still have a black
background. However, any new plots that you create will now have a green background,
since green is now the default color. This command sets a default color and style for each
curve type, too. For example, lets say you create a new plot and set the Motor Torque
curve to use the Bar line style to use the color pink. All the existing plots which have the
Motor Torque curve displayed on them will maintain whatever style and color was chosen
for the Motor Torque curves, but on any new plot that you create the Motor Torque curve,
when you display it, will now use the Bar line style and will be colored pink.
The Fonts Size option, in the Graph Fonts tab, lets you set the fonts and font sizes for the
Plot Window. When setting the font sizes, you are not setting fixed point sizes, but rather
allotting percents of the available space; I*SIM will determine the best font sizes using its
automatic scaling capability. (It wouldnt make sense to set fixed point sizes since the
graph and axes scale up or down based on the number of axes you have displayed.)
The Image Size option is the primary controller of the font sizes, since it governs how
much space the graph uses (and thus how much space is left for the legend, title, and
axes). Generally, you should keep the Image Size set to Large or Medium, particularly
when printing; however, the Small size works well if you only have one or two curves
showing at a time, or if you need to make the text easier to read. To set the font size
percentages, follow these simple rules of thumb:
Global determines what percent of the remaining space (after the Image Size) you want
the Legend, Title, Axes, and Annotations to use.
Legend and Title determine how big you want the Legend and the Title to be. Since the
axes use whatever space is left, the larger you make the Legend and Title the smaller the
axes will be.
Annotations determines the font size of the Annotations. See Section 1.1.4, Adding
Annotations to a plot for more information on creating Annotations.

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1.1.7. Printing Plots


You can print the active plot to a printer.
 To print the active plot
1.

From the Document menu, choose Print.

 To print the active plot using a Form


1.

From the Document menu, choose Form Print.

Tip: You can use Forms to print I*SIM plots alongside I*SIM Reports, One-Line
Diagrams, and other documents such as Datablock Reports. Forms give you great
power and flexibility for printing from PTW, especially when you want high-quality
formatting for presentations. For more information on Forms, see the Printing
chapter in the PTW Users Guide.

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1.9. Examples
All of the following examples can be found in the Projects folder with PTW (if you
cannot find them, try re-running the PTW installation; be sure to check the Sample
Projects option). The name of the sample Project appears in parentheses after the Section
title.

1.9.1. Single Machine (Isimprj1)

In this one-line diagram a single machine is connected to a load through a cable. The
machine at bus 1 is represented by a classical machine model with H = 5, D = 2 and a
machine base of 100 MVA. The load at bus 2 has a constant P = 20 MW and a constant Q
= 15 MVAR, initially. The cable has an impedance of Z = 0.01 + j 0.03 on a 100 MVA
base. A constant power load of 10 MW is added to bus 2 at time = 0.1 seconds.
Here is how the General Study Criteria has been set:

(Connected Load is selected for the Load Specification under LF Setup.)

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Here are the Library Models that have been assigned to the components:
Component

Library Model

UTIL-001

001-MACHINE

Machine ModelClassical Machine (Classical).


Exciter Modelnone.
Turbine Governor Modelnone.
Bus Load Modelnone.

002-LOAD

Bus Load Modelnone.

A Load Change event has been assigned to the 002-LOAD bus:

Calculations
The following figure shows the basic relationship between the mechanical torque Tm,
electrical torque Te , frequency deviation , and inertia H in per unit form for a classical
machine.

T
T

Sha f t
Load

This relationship can be mathematically expressed as:

Tm Te = 2H

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b g

d
dt

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-85

= 2H

d 2
dt 2

where

Tm
Te

electrical angle;
mechanical torque;
electrical torque;

frequency deviation;
inertia.

H is defined as:

H=

0.231 WR 2 rpm 2 10 6
KW - sec
in
base kVA
kVA

The acceleration torque Ta is defined as:


Ta = Tm - Te
therefore:
d
d 2
Ta = Tm Te = 2H 2 = 2H
dt
dt

b g

Since torque and power share the same value in per unit form, and since in steady state:
Tm0 = Te0
and
Pm0 = Pe0
therefore:

g b

Tm Te = Pm Pe = Pm 0 + Pm Pe0 + Pe = Pm Pe
Pm Pe = 2H

b g

d
dt

The above equation can be expressed in s domain as:

bg

bg

bg

Pm s Pe s = 2Hs s

The following figure shows a block diagram for a classical machine model in which the
mechanical power and electrical power are taken as the input.

Pm (s )

Pe (s )

1
2 Hs

(s )

Applying the relationship between Pe and Pl :

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Pe = Pl + P
The following figure shows a block diagram for a classical machine model in which the
mechanical power and load power are taken as the input.

Pm (s )

PL (s )

(s )

2Hs

Since a classical machine lacks an active governor control:

Pm = 0
Therefore, the per unit frequency deviation (s) or f(s) can be expressed as:

1
PL
PL 2 Hs
1
( s ) =
=
Ds 1 + 1
Ds 1 + s 2 H
D 2 Hs
D
therefore:

bg

bg

t = f t =

F
GH

t
Pl
1 e 2H
D

I
JK

Apply a step change of Pl =10 MW:

10
2

t
100
2

t = f t =
1 e 5 = 5% 1 e 0.2 t
2

bg

F
GH

bg

When t is large enough:

bg

f t = 5% 1 e = 5%

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-87

Conclusions
The I*SIM simulation results are shown following. The resulting frequency deviation
of -5% per unit perfectly matches the result derived from the last equation.

1.9.2. Nine Bus (Isimprj2)


The IEEE Nine Bus project is taken from P. M. Andersons Power System Control And
Stability.2 It is provided with the I*SIM sample projects in order to demonstrate that the
I*SIM simulation results are the same as those found by Anderson in his sample project.
Both projects include a steady state load flow study and two dynamic simulations. The
first study simulates a three phase fault, and the second study simulates a step load change.
The results of the I*SIM study and Andersons study are compared in the conclusion of
this section.
A one-line diagram for the IEEE Nine Bus sample project is shown following. All of the
data are on a system base of 100 MVA.

P.M. Anderson and A.A. Fouad, p. 38..

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Load C

230 kV

18 kV

2
2

0.0085 + j0.072

0.0119 + j0.1008

B/2 = j0.0745

B/2 = j0.1045

18/230

230 kV

13.8 kV

3
230/13.8

j0.0625

j0.0586

9
0.039 + j0.170

0.032 + j0.161
B/2 = j0.153

B/2 = j0.179

0.010 + j0.085

0.017 + j0.092

B/2 = j0.088

Load A

Load B

B/2 = j0.079
230 kV
4

16.5/230
j0.0576
16.5 kV

Machines 1, 2 and 3 are classical machines. Anderson lists their data on a 100 MVA base,
as shown here:
Classical machine 1:
Classical machine 2:
Classical machine 3:

Mbase1 = 247.5 MVA


Mbase2 = 192.0 MVA
Mbase3 = 128.0 MVA

H 1 = 23.64
H 2 = 6.4
H 3 = 3.01

Xd 1 = 0.0608
Xd 2 = 0.1198
Xd 3 = 0.1813

In I*SIM calculations, machine data must be entered on the machine base. Therefore, a
base conversion is needed as shown:
S base
H1
= H1

M base
S base
M base

X1 M base = X1 S base

M base
S base

H 1= 23.65 100/247.5 = 9.55


H 2 = 6.40 100/192.0 = 3.33
H 3 = 3.01 100/128.0 = 2.35

Xd 1 = 0.0608 247.5/100 = 0.1504


Xd 2 = 0.1198 192.0/100 = 0.232
Xd 3 = 0.1813 128.0/100 = 0.232

The results are per unit values on the machine base.


There are three constant PQ loads in this case. One hundred percent constant PQ loads
result in poor convergence properties and require small acceleration factors. Therefore,
the conversion process is given to convert the constant PQ loads to constant impedance
loads.
Given a constant PQ load = P + jQ and a bus voltage E, the current I can be calculated as

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-89

I=

P jQ
E

The impedance is

Z=

E
I

where
I
E
Z

current;
voltage;
impedance.

The constant impedance load to be entered in the load flow should be the PQ value at a
voltage V of 1 per unit and 0 degrees. Therefore:
2

P + jQ constant impedance load

v
1
E
=
= =
Z
Z P jQ constant PQ load

Apply this equation to Loads A, B, and C. The equivalent constant impedance loads are:
Load

Constant PQ load

Constant impedance load

Load A:
Load B:
Load C:

125 MW, 50 MVAR


90 MW, 30 MVAR
100 MW, 35 MVAR

125.84 MW, 50.33 MVAR


96.9 MW, 33.91 MVAR
87.68 MW, 29.22 MVAR

A load flow study is conducted to ensure that the I*SIM dynamic simulation starts with
the same steady state operating point as Andersons case. Figures Fig. 1-8 and Fig. 1-9
show the bus voltages resulting from the load flow from Andersons study and from the
I*SIM study respectively. The results match to the third decimal point.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-90

Reference Manual

230 kV

18 kV

100.0 MW
(35.0) MVAR

Load C

230 kV

13.8 kV

2
163.0 MW
(6.7) MVAR

2
1.025
9.3

1.016
0.7

per unit

1.025
4.7

per unit

1.026
3.7

85.0 MW
(-10.9) MVAR
per unit

1.032
2.0

per unit

125.0 MW
(50.0) MVAR

0.996
-4.0

per unit

per unit

90.0 MW
(30.0) MVAR

Load A

1.013
3.7

per unit

Load B
230 kV

1.026
4
-2.2

16.5 kV

1.040
0.0

per unit

per unit

71.6 MW
(27) MVAR

Fig. 1-8. Andersons case study: Nine bus system load flow diagram showing prefault conditions; all flows are in MW and MVAR. All per unit values are on a 100 MVA
base.
100.0 MW
(35.0) MVAR

18 kV

Load C
13.8 kV

G3

163.0 MW
(6.7) MVAR

1.025
9.28

1.016
0.73

per unit

1.025
4.67

per unit

1.026
3.73

85.0 MW
(-10.9) MVAR
per unit

1.0325
1.97

per unit

5
125.0 MW
(50.0) MVAR

0.996
-3.97

per unit

per unit

90.0 MW
(30.0) MVAR

Load A

1.013
3.68

per unit

Load B
230 kV

1
G

1.040
per unit
0.0

71.4 MW
(27) MVAR

Fig. 1-9. I*SIMs study: Nine bus system load flow diagram showing pre-fault
conditions: all flows are in MW and MVAR.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-91

Case One
In this dynamic simulation, a three phase fault is applied on bus 7 and the fault is cleared 5
cycles later, then the pi impedance, which represents branches 5 through 7, is opened:

Fig. 1-10. The Apply Fault, Clear Fault, and Trip Branch events for Case 1.

The following graphs compare the results from Andersons study with the I*SIM results to
show how closely I*SIMs results match Andersons results.
Fig. 1-11 is the simulation result from Andersons study. This figure plots the relative
angles of the machines at buses 2 and 3, using the angle of the machine at bus 1 as the
reference angle.
Fig. 1-12 is the simulation result from the I*SIM study. This figure plots the relative
angles of the machines at buses 2 and 3, using the angle of the machine at bus 1 as the
reference angle.
The relative machine angles, or differences, are shown in Fig. 1-11 and Fig. 1-12. The
results demonstrate that the system is stable. Andersons results predict that the maximum
relative angle is about 85 and I*SIM predicts that the maximum relative angle is 84.78 .
Both I*SIM and Anderson predict that the maximum relative angle will occur at 0.43
seconds. For a complete discussion on this case, refer to Andersons study3.
o

P.M. Anderson and A.A. Fouad, pp. 18-45.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-92

Reference Manual

90.000

Degrees

0.000
0.000

Time in Seconds

Fig. 1-11. Andersons study: Plot of differences versus time.

Fig. 1-12. I*SIMs study: Plot of differences versus time.

06/26/2008

2.000

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-93

Case Two
In this dynamic simulation, a 10% load change is applied at bus 8:

Fig. 1-13. The Load Change event for Case 2.

Figures Fig. 1-14 and Fig. 1-15 show the absolute machine angles from Andersons study
and from I*SIM, respectively.

(20.000)

24.000
13.000
2.000

Angle in Degrees

(-90.000)
-97.000
0.000

Time in Seconds

2.500

Fig. 1-14. Andersons study: Unregulated response of the nine bus system to a
sudden load application at bus 8; angles relative to .

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-94

Reference Manual

Fig. 1-15. I*SIMs study: Unregulated response of the nine bus system to a sudden
load application at bus 8; angles relative to .

Figures Fig. 1-16 and Fig. 1-17 show the per unit speed deviation of the three machines
from Andersons study and from I*SIM, respectively.

0.0

0.1

1.0

2.0

2.5

-.003

Fig. 1-16. Andersons case study: Speed deviation following application of a 10 per
unit resistive load at bus 8.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-95

Fig. 1-17. I*SIMs study: Speed deviation following application of a 10 per unit
resistive load at bus 8.

The original figure shown in Andersons Power System Control and Stability was simply a
speed deviation graph. Fig. 1-16 is represented as a per unit speed deviation graph in order
to facilitate the comparison with I*SIMs results, which are shown in per unit form.

1.9.3. Fast Transfer Switching (Isimprj3)


This project demonstrates how to perform a fast transfer switching study. In it, the
engineer examines the branch power flow, the mechanical power, and the electrical power
of the motor in the local power plant, and the bus frequency deviation at the utility
connection.
Fig. 1-18 shows the one line diagram for a typical industrial power plant, which will be
used for fast transfer switching study. Normally, the plant is connected with the utility,
Source 1. Under emergency conditions, the plant will be switched to Source 2. The effect
of the fast transfer switching on the local synchronous motor will be demonstrated.

Fig. 1-18. One-line diagram for the fast transfer switching.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-96

Reference Manual

Note: As you can see in Fig. 1-18, the cable labeled CBL 2-5 has both its nodes
connected. However, in the I*SIM Study, the initial status of this cable is set to OffLine, which treats the cable as though its disconnected, thus overriding the
connection you see.
Here is how the General Study Criteria have been set:

(Connected Load is selected for the Load Specification under LF Setup.)


Here are the Library Models that have been assigned to the components:
Component

Library Model

UTIL @Bus-001

Machine ModelInfinite Machine (Infinite Bus).


Exciter Modelnone.
Turbine Governor Modelnone.
Machine ModelSynchronous Machine (Round Rotor Fossil
Steam < 300MVA).
Exciter ModelIEEET1 1968 (1968 IEEE Standard Type 1).
Turbine Governor ModelStandard Steam Turbine (Standard
Steam).
Motor ModelSynchronous Motor (Salient Pole Sub-Transient
Level Synchronous Motor).
Exciter Model1979 IEEE Type 1 (1979 IEEE Standard Type 1).

UTIL @Bus3

SynMtr @Bus4

002-SWITCH

Bus Load Modelnone.

004-SYN MOTOR

Bus Load Modelnone.

The Dynamic Events, shown in Fig. 1-19, include the tripping of the branch between bus 1
and bus 2 at 0.1 seconds followed by the reclosing of the branch between bus 2 and bus 5
after 6 cycles (we can reclose it because its initial status was set to Off-Line).

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-97

Fig. 1-19. The Dynamic Events for sample Project 3.

You may have also noticed that this project includes a Solution Parameter Event. The
purpose of the Solution Parameter Event, as discussed in Solution Parameter Event on
section 1.6.2, is to help the project to converge. This Solution Parameter Event reduces
the Acceleration Factor from 1.0 to 0.7, as shown in Fig. 1-20:

Fig. 1-20. This Solution Parameter Event reduces the Acceleration Factor from 1.0
(the default at the start of the Simulation), to 0.7, which helps the Simulation to
converge.

Conclusions
The branch P and Q flows from bus 2 to bus 4 are shown in Fig. 1-21. Notice that both the
P and Q flows become zero after the plant is disconnected from Source 1, and they regain
power after the plant is connected to Source 2.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-98

Reference Manual

Fig. 1-21. Branch P and Q flow from bus 2 to bus 4.

The per unit mechanical power on the machine base and the per unit electrical power on
the 100 MVA system base of the synchronous motor at bus 4 are shown in Fig. 1-22. The
mechanical power of the motor is a constant; the real and reactive electrical power of the
motor become zero after the plant is disconnected from Source 1, and regain electrical
power after the plant is connected to Source 2.

Fig. 1-22. Per unit mechanical power and electrical power of the synchronous motor.

The per unit frequency deviation at bus 2, the per unit speed deviation of the synchronous
motor at bus 4, and the per unit voltage at bus 2 are shown in Fig. 1-23 (with a simulation
time of 2.5 seconds) and in Fig. 1-24 (with a simulation time of 25 seconds). Figure Fig.
1-23 shows the adjustment dominated by the controller action on the frequency and speed,
and Fig. 1-24 shows the adjustment dominated by the natural response of the machine and
motor themselves. The voltage at bus 2 drops while the plant is disconnected from Source
1 and recovers after the plant is connected to Source 2.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-99

Fig. 1-23. Per unit frequency deviation at bus 2, and per unit speed deviation of
synchronous motor and per unit voltage at bus 2 (run for 2.5 seconds).

Fig. 1-24. Per unit frequency deviation at bus 2, and per unit speed deviation of
synchronous motor and per unit voltage at bus 2 (run for 25 seconds).

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-100 Reference Manual

1.9.4. Using Multiple Scenarios (Isimprj4)


Tip: This sample Project shows how you can copy and paste similar Cases that
have only slight differences in Event duration.

This Project demonstrates how you use multiple Studies to focus on different disturbances.
The Projects One-Line Diagram is shown following:
EDISON-001

001-UTILITY CO
PI-0001

002-TX A PRI
Relay 2-3

XF2-0001

003-HV SWGR

CBL-0003

CBL-0001

CBL-0002

CBL-0004

PD @Bus3
SYN A-003
006-TX3 PRI

SYN B-003

Relay 3-7
004-TX B PRI

XF3-0001
LOAD-0001

007-TX E PRI

005-TXD PRI
012-TX3 TER

XF2-0005
GEN 1-008

GEN 2-020

XF2-0002

CBL-0008
011-TX3 SEC

024-MV SWG

008-DS SWG1

CBL-0005

CBL-0006

009-TX C PRI

010-MTR 10

LOAD-0002

020-DS SWG3
CBL-0010

CBL-0011

026-TX G PRI

025-BUS 25

CBL-0009
IND-020
021-TX F PRI
XF2-0007
XF2-0006
IND-025

IND-010

CBL-0019

027-TX B PRI
022-DSB 2
CBL-0013
CBL-0012

XF2-0004
LOAD-0005
028-BUS 28
023-MTR 23
029-TX D SEC

IND-028
MTRI-0014

IND-023

SYN-023

Fig. 1-25. One-Line Diagram for Project 4.

This Project demonstrates how an engineer can analyze a number of unrelated


disturbances without having to make changes to the One-Line Diagram.
As shown in Fig. 1-26, we have grouped the various Cases together under appropriatelynamed Studies.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-101

Fig. 1-26. Cases grouped together by Study.

In the Isolation Study, we wanted to compare the effect of a 6-cycle branch trip to the
effect of a 9-cycle branch trip. Aside from the difference in the number of cycles, the two
Cases were identical, so after creating the 6Cycles Case we used the handy Copy/Paste
feature to quickly duplicate it, then renamed it and changed the event time:

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-102 Reference Manual

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-103

Fig. 1-27. Four simple steps to duplicating a Case and changing the cycle duration:
1) Copy the Case; 2) Paste it (be sure the Study is highlighted); 3) Rename it (in the
sample Project we named it 9Cycles); 4) Change the time duration (in the sample
Project the branch recloses at 0.2 seconds in the 6Cycles Case, so we changed the
reclosing time to 0.25 in the 9Cycles Case).

Since I*SIM allows us to plot results from different Cases on the same graph, we can
examine the difference in bus voltage:

Fig. 1-28. Comparison of Bus Voltage curves from two different Cases.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-104 Reference Manual

1.9.5. Generator Sizing ((Isimprj5)


Tip: This sample Project shows how you can compare duplicate Cases which have
differences in the static portion of the system.

This project demonstrates sizing a generator so that it is large enough to support existing
loads as well as a new load. In addition this Study demonstrates how a diesel governor
operates and how to choose its parameters.

Fig. 1-29. The One-Line Diagram for Isimprj5.

In this Project, we have a 350 kVA motor (MTRI-0001) and a constant impedance load
(LOAD-0001) of 45 kW and 22 kVAR which are both connected to local diesel generators
under emergency conditions. In this study, the generator must be sized so that it is large
enough to support the existing loads plus start another 350 kVA motor (MTRI-0002).
Also, the generator sizing criteria states that during the motor starting, the maximum
voltage drop should be less than 0.2 per unit. It is known that the generator has an
X=0.18 per unit and an inertia of H=2. Both motors have a starting current of 6.5 per
unit, a starting torque of 1.5 per unit and a maximum torque of 2.3 per unit.
In order to determine a generator size, we will create three Cases, one with the generator
sized at 2000 kVA, another with it sized at 3000 kVA, and a third with it sized at 4000
kVA. In all three Cases we will start the motor MTRI-0002 at 0.1 seconds. But this
Project presents an interesting challenge: how do we compare different Cases when the
Cases themselves dont change at all? Remember, we are comparing different generator
sizes, and generator sizes are changed in the static portion of the system (this is, outside of
I*SIM), not the dynamic portion (that is, within I*SIM).
It turns out that comparing Cases with different electrical topologies is simpleyou just
have to remember to run the Cases one at a time, flipping back and forth between the
Component Editor and I*SIM to change the generator size for each Case:

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-105

Begin by making the Case, then copying and pasting it twice. Next, flip to the Component
Editor and change the generator size for the first Case, as shown:

Now flip back to I*SIM and run the


Simulation for the Case. Be sure that only
one Case is selected: We want each Case
to have its channel data generated based on
a different network topology.
Now flip back to the Component Editor and
change the generator size to 3000, then flip
back to I*SIM and run the Simulation for
the next Case:

Now flip back to the Component Editor and


change the generator size to 2000, then flip
back to I*SIM and run the Simulation one
last time:

Each of our three Cases now has channel data based on a different generator size, and we
can plot the channels to compare them.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-106 Reference Manual

Voltage Comparison
Generator Sizing - Size=3000kVA - 002-MOTOR

Generator Sizing - Size=2000kVA - 002-MOTOR

Generator Sizing - Size=4000kVA - 002-MOTOR

Bus Voltage (pu)

1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
-0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0
2.5
3.0
Time (Seconds)

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

Fig. 1-30. Per unit voltage deviations at bus 2 with generator sizes of 2000 kVA, 3000
kVA, and 4000 kVA.

The plot in Fig. 1-30 demonstrates that larger generators show less voltage drop and less
frequency deviation during the starting of motor 2. The 3000 kVA generator has a
maximum voltage drop of 0.2 per unit, meeting the sizing criterion.
Freauence Comparison
Generator Sizing - Size=3000kVA - 002-MOTOR
0.000

Generator Sizing - Size=4000kVA - 002-MOTOR

Generator Sizing - Size=2000kVA - 002-MOTOR

Bus Frequency (pu)

-0.025
-0.050
-0.075
-0.100
-0.125
-0.150
-0.175
-0.200
-0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5
3.0
Time (Seconds)

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

Fig. 1-31. Per unit frequency deviations at bus 2 with generator sizes of 2000 kVA,
3000 kVA, and 4000 kVA.

Since the diesel governor is functioning as an open loop control, the frequency will not
return to the original steady state value after a disturbance is applied without the operators
interference, as shown in Fig. 1-31.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 1-107

1.10. Works Cited


Anderson, P.M. and A.A. Fouad, Power System Control and Stability, Ames, Iowa: Iowa State
University Press, 1977, vol. 1.
Baker, D.H. et. al., Current Usage and Suggested Practices in Power System Stability Simulations
for Synchronous Machines, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, volume EC-1, no.
1, pp 77-93, March 1986.
Computer Representation of Excitation Systems: IEEE Committee Report, IEEE Transactions
on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-87, no. 6, pp. 1460-1464, June 1968.
Concordia, C. Performance of Interconnected Systems Following Disturbance, IEEE Spectrum,
pp.68-80, June, 1965.
de Mello, F.P. et. al., Application of Induction Generators in Power Systems, Electric Power
Research Institute, Inc. EL-2043, Research Project 1945-1, October 1981.
Dynamic Models for Steam and Hydro Turbines in Power System Studies: IEEE Committee
Report IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-92, pp. 19041915, 1973.
Ewart D.N and R.P. Schulz, Face Multi-machine Power System Simulator Program, IEEE PICA
Conference Record, pp.133-153, 1969.
Excitation System Models for Power System Stability Studies: IEEE Committee Report, IEEE
Transactions on Power Apparatus and System, vol. PAS-100, no. 2, pp. 494-509,
February 1981.
Procedures for the Exchange of Power Plant and Load for Synchronous Stability Studies: IEEE
Committee Report, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. vol. PAS100, no. 7, pp. 3229-3245, July 1981.
Recommendations Regarding the Exchange of Power Plant and Load Data for Stability Studies:
IEEE Working Group Report, PES Winter Power Meeting, Atlanta, 1981, paper no. 81WM-065-2.
Undrill, J.M., Equipment and Load Modelling in Power System Dynamic Simulation, U.S.
Energy Research & Development Agency Publication Conference 750867, pp. 394-418.
Undrill J.M., Structure in the Computation of Power System Nonlinear Dynamical Response,
IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-88, pp. 1-6, January 1969.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 1-108 Reference Manual

Undrill, J.M. and T.F Laskowski, Model Selection and Data Assembly for Power System
Simulations, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-101, no. 9,
pp. 3333-3348, September 1982.

06/26/2008

2 Using I*SIMs Library

IN THIS CHAPTER

PTW allows you to edit existing component models in, and add new component models
to, the I*SIM Library.

2.1. General Library Usage........................................................................................2-2


2.2. General Information for Machines (Utilities, Generators, and Motors)..............2-5
2.3. Source Machine Models ...................................................................................2-11
2.4. Synchronous Motor Models..............................................................................2-23
2.5. Induction Motor Models ...................................................................................2-27
2.6. Exciter Models..................................................................................................2-49
2.7. Turbine Governor Models...............................................................................2-109
2.8. Relay Models ..................................................................................................2-118
2.9. Bus Load Models ............................................................................................2-122

I*SIM 2-2

Reference Manual

2.1. General Library Usage


Important: Before making any changes to the PTW Library you should make a backup
copy of it; that way, if you change your mind about any changes you made to
manufacturer data you can recover the original data. In addition, you should always
make a backup copy of the PTW Library you have customized. If the customized
Library is lost or accidentally deleted, a current backup will allow you to recover the lost
data. To make a backup copy of the PTW Library, use the Windows Explorer to copy the
ptw.lib file, which is the I*SIM Library, from the ptw32\lib folder to a backup folder.
Next, rename it to ptw backup library.lib or something similar. (If you want, you can
move the backup copy back to the ptw32\lib folder, because, unlike projects, multiple
Libraries may all be stored within a single folder.)

To make changes to a model category, you need to open that category. The Select a
Device dialog box provides a way to peer into the Library to select model characteristics.
However, it does not constitute an open Library.
 To open an I*SIM Library
1.

Do one of the following:

Click the Library button on the Toolbar

Choose Library from the Document menu.

2.

In the Select Document Type dialog box, select PTW Library and choose the OK
button.

3.

Select ptw.lib and choose the Open button.

This opens the I*SIM Library. While it looks and functions like the Select a Model dialog
box, it is actually the open version of the Library. You can tell the difference by looking
at the title bar. The open Library displays the Librarys path:

The uneditable Select Model dialog box. The open and editable I*SIM Library.

Once the Library is open, you may open the category type that you want to modify.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-3

Notice that I*SIM has two library sets: I*SIM/TMS and I*SIM. This is because I*SIM
and TMS now share the same library for machine model, synchronous motor model, flux
induction model, exciter model, governor model, motor model, and load model.

To edit an existing model you select it as you would with the Select a Model dialog box.

Click the
symbol to
expand the I*SIM/TMS
Library. . .

and the various categories


appear. To show the
models within a
category. . .

highlight a category such


as Machine Model. . .

and its models will appear to the right. To edit a model, simply double-click on it and
its data will appear.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-4

Reference Manual

Tip:

To narrow your search for motor or load models, you may run a query while the
Library is open. To do so, select the Query command from the Run menu.

2.1.1. Editing an Existing Model


When you see the list of models, you may select a model for editing.
 To edit an existing model
1.

Do one of the following:

Select the model by clicking on it, then choose Edit from the Device menu.

Double-click on the model name.

Once you have selected a model for editing, a tab page containing the models data will
appear. All Library models use the same spreadsheet format, as shown in this sample:

Typical Library model (spreadsheet expanded for clarity)

Note: When entering fractions in the CAPTOR Library, if you want to enter a
fraction with a leading integer (for example, 1 1/3) you can enter it directly.
However, if there is no leading integer (for example, 2/3), be sure to precede the
fraction by a zero and a space (as in 0 2/3).

2.1.2. Adding a New Model


You may also add a new model to the category.
 To add a new model
1.

06/26/2008

Choose New from the Device menu. A new model with a generic name appears at the
bottom of the model list.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-5

Follow the directions listed in Section 2.1.1, Editing an Existing Model.

2.1.3. Copying an Existing Model


You may also copy an existing model and then rename it or edit it.
 To copy an existing model
1.

Select an existing models name (do not double-click on it, or the models data tab
pages will open).

2.

Choose Copy from the Device menu.

3.

Choose Paste from the Device menu. The copied model will appear at the bottom of
the model list.

Follow the directions listed in Section 2.1.1, Editing an Existing Model.


Tip:

If you want to copy a model from one I*SIM Library to another, you may do so
using the Copy and Paste commands. Just copy the model from the source
Library, switch to the destination Library, and choose Paste. (Be sure both
Libraries are open.)

2.1.4. Metric Units


I*SIM supports Metric units for modeling of motor input data. To use Metric units,
merely change the Project Options to Metric.
 To switch the Project options to Metric
1.

From the Project menu, click Options.

2.

Choose the Application subview.

3.

Set the Engineering Standard to IEC and the Length/Distance Units to Metric.

2.2. General Information for Machines


(Utilities, Generators, and Motors)
Although the individual models differ in their exact data requirements and internal
representations, there are certain common features.

2.2.1. Norton Equivalent


All rotating machines appear to the electrical network as current sources. The
instantaneous magnitude and phase of the current source can be determined from the
internal rotor flux linkages, shaft speed, and angle. The effect of any particular current
source on the network can be determined by injecting that current source into the network
at any given instant of time. The machine impedances are treated as part of the network
admittance matrix and their effects are fully accounted for, as shown in Fig. 2-1. The
equivalent circuit that represents a rotating machine as a current source and a machine
impedance is called the Machine Norton Equivalent.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-6

Reference Manual

1: G t a p
is

Z t ran
vn
N e t w or k

in
il
ys

Fig. 2-1. Machine Norton Equivalent.

The following equations define the Machine Norton Equivalent terms shown in Fig. 2-1.

1
j Ld Lq
r
y1 = 22
rs + 2 Ld Lq

1
rs j Ld + Lq
r
2
y1 =
rs2 + 2 Ld Lq

r r r
r
is = ys En y1e j2 E$ n
r r j2
i1 = y1e v$ n

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-7

Data

Description

r
vn

Machine terminal voltage

v$ n

Conjugate for the vector vn

r
in

Machine terminal current

r
is

The portion of the machine source current injection as a function of


induced voltage behind machine dynamic impedances

r
i1

The portion of the machine source current injection due to sub-transient


saliency effect

r
En

Induced voltage behind machine dynamic impedances referred to the


network reference frame

E$ n

Conjugate for the vector En

Machine angle

FG IJ
H K

r
1
ys = r
zs
r
y1

Machine armature reactance as an average of Ld and Lq

Machine armature reactance due to sub-transient saliency effect as a


function of the difference between Ld and Lq

Local machine rotating frequency

rs

Machine armature resistance

Ld

D-axis machine dynamic impedance

Lq

Q-axis machine dynamic impedance

r
Z tran

Machine step-up transformer impedance

G tap

Machine step-up transformer off-nominal taps ratio

2.2.2. Sub-Transient Saliency Effect


In Fig. 2-1, it is assumed that Ld = Lq = L; the term y1 drops out consequently
affecting i1 and causing the latter portion of is to become zero. Fig. 2-1 reduces to the
more familiar form shown in Fig. 2-2. This assumption is called ignoring the sub-transient
saliency effect. Studies have shown that the sub-transient saliency effect is important only
in extreme pole-slipping conditions and cases in which negative sequence networks need
to be accounted for. By ignoring the sub-transient saliency effect, you can save up to 40%
of the total computation effort. All I*SIM machine models ignore the sub-transient
saliency effect and require that the average value of Ld and Lq as L be entered when
required.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-8

Reference Manual

1: Gt ap
is

Z t r an
vn

Network

ys

Fig. 2-2. Machine Norton equivalent; ignoring the sub-transient saliency effect.

where

r
ys =

rs jL
+ 2 L 2

rs2

and

r r r
is = ys E n

2.2.3. Generalized Machine Block Diagram


As shown in Fig. 2-1, a machine appears to the network as a current source. The
instantaneous value of the current source is determined by the three internal machine
quantities including vector En, , and , as well as by the terminal voltage. The values
of the machine quantities are a function of internal machine flux transients in response to
armature reaction, excitation changes, and governor action. The voluminous detail of the
internal machine flux transients is beyond the scope of this documentation. However, it is
sufficient to note the input and output quantities in the generalized machine block diagram
in Fig. 2-3.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-9

Efd

Lf d 0

im

in

Lm

-1

w0

Yr

-1

Lm Lr

Yr
Y "m

+
L"

Y "m

Ym

Te -

T acc

Tm

pw

2H

PQ

E "m

E "n

(Y m )

QP

+ -

w0

pd

1
S

Pm ec h

1 .0

Fig. 2-3. Generalized Machine Block Diagram.

2.2.4. Damping and Torque Equation


Note: With synchronous machines, the data requirements for the armature are the
same for all models. They differ in their rotor representations and the way in which
saturation effects are accounted for. All models except the classical model represent
the excitation circuit. All models except the classical and the transient level machine
models represent at least some degree of the damper winding circuit.
All I*SIM machine models calculate the rotor acceleration by the swing equation based on
torque, and not based on power as in some older programs, given by

2H

n Pmech D e n
Telec
=
t
1+ n

where

Pmech = Pmech

n= 0

D tn

and

Telec

generator rotor electrical torque;

per unit speed deviation of the generator;

De =

Pe
n

represents the variation of electrical load with frequency, as seen from


the machine;

Dt =

Pt
n

represents the variation of turbine power with shaft speed.

De is specified as part of the machine data, whereas Dt is entered as part of the turbine
governor data. Be aware that both De and Dt reflect percentage change in power with a
unit change in frequency, not torque. For example, De for a constant torque pump drive
should be 1.0 and not 0.0.
De can be used to approximate the damping effect of system load in response to varying
either the system frequency or the speed if no detailed system load data are available. De

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-10

Reference Manual

must not be used to represent the effect of damping torques developed within the machine;
these damping torques are explicitly modeled by all of the recommended machine models
in the standard I*SIM model library and are included in the Telec term in the last equation.
If load damping is considered to be essential, it is recommended that load frequency
variation effects be modeled on the basis of local bus frequency by using any of the
frequency sensitive load models in the standard I*SIM model library. The value of De
ranges from near zero, for predominantly resistive loads, to about two, for systems with a
majority of pumping, fan and other industrial loads.

2.2.5. Inertia
The inertia constant can be calculated as

b g

0.231 1006 Wk 2 rpm


H=
kVA

where
H

inertia constant;

Wk2

moment of inertia of machine and load (lb-ft2);

rpm

synchronous speed in revolutions per minute;

kVA

base kVA.

Tm =

kVA 7040
(foot-lbs)
rpm

where
Tm

machine base torque.

Ta = Tm Tl
where
Ta

accelerating torque;

Tm

motor torque;

Tl

load torque.

hp = rpm

06/26/2008

(foot-lbs)

T
5252

where
hp

output power in horsepower;

rpm

speed in revolutions per minute;

torque in foot-lbs.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-11

kW = rpm

T
7040

where
kW

output power in kilowatts;

rpm

speed in revolutions per minute.

2.2.6. Machine Saturation


All machine models, except the classical model, represent saturation effects using the
machines open circuit saturation curve. Specify two data point pairs for each machine to
be represented, as shown in Fig. 2-4. I*SIM utilizes a second order curve fitting technique
to determine the proper value of machine excitation voltage Efd at all loadings. The
correct value for the initial Efd is particularly important in producing a correct
maneuvering range to raise field flux linkages following a fault. Since this field forcing
effort plays a key role in determining stability limits of the system, a correct initial value
of Efd is just as important as the correct specification of an excitation ceiling and other
generator parameters.

1. 2
1. 0
S 1. 2 =

per unit

et =E ' q =Y " (open circuit)

S 1. 0 =

B 1. 0
B 1. 2

A 1. 2 - B 1. 2
B 1. 2

A 1. 0 - B 1.0
B 1. 0

A 1. 0

Fig. 2-4. Definition of Machine Saturation Factors.

2.3. Source Machine Models


These Sections describe the various Source Machine models.
Note: All machine reactances should be entered in unsaturated per unit values; all
machine resistances should be entered in per unit values; all saturation voltage points
should be entered as per unit values; all time constants should be entered in seconds;
and all other constants are dimensionless. All per unit values are on the machines
base (Mbase).

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-12

Reference Manual

2.3.1. Round Rotor Fossil Steam < 300 MVA


The round rotor model is the standard recommended model for the representation of round
rotor synchronous machines. The armature of the machine is represented using a D-Q axis
model. The rotor is represented as two circuits, each on both the D and the Q axis. On the
D-axis, there is the field winding circuit as well as one damper winding circuit. There are
two damper winding circuits on the Q-axis of the rotor. Saturation is represented as a
function of the sub-transient air-gap flux linkage.
Fig. 2-5 shows the machine block diagram for the round rotor sub-transient level
synchronous machine model. Fig. 2-6 shows the approximate equivalent circuit for the
round rotor model.
L "d - L l
L 'd - Ll
Efd

E 'q

S
-

+
-

sT ' d 0

sT ' d

L'd - L"d

Y "d

L ' d - Ll

(L ' d - L l )
Lad i f d

L'd - L"d

d - axis

L'd - Ll

Ld - L'd

id

+
Y "d
|Y "|

D( L a d i f d )

Y"

Y " q (L q - L l )
| Y " | (Ld - L l )

+
S +

Lq - L'q

iq

L'q - L'q
(L ' q - Ll )

1
sT ' q 0

+
S
+

1
sT " q 0

L'q - Ll

L'q - L"q
L ' q - Ll

q - axis

- Y "q
+

L" q - Ll
L'q - Ll

Fig. 2-5. Block Diagram for the Round Rotor Sub-Transient Level Synchronous
Machine Model.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-13

Ra

Ld

ifd
Rf d
Rkd

d - ax is

i kd

id

Ll

Lf d
Lkd
ef d

Ra

Lq

ikq2
Rkq 1

q - axis

Rkq2

ikq 1

iq
Ll

Lk q 1

Lk q 2

Fig. 2-6. Approximate Equivalent Circuit for the Round Rotor Model.

This table shows the data requirements for the round rotor sub-transient level synchronous
machine model which you will see in the Library:

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-14

Reference Manual

Data

Description

Ra

This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range
is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. It is in per unit.

Xd

This is the D-axis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
2.5. The three inter-dependency range checks for Xd are
1. 0.15*Xd < Xd
2. Xd > Xd
3. Xd > Xq

Xq

This is the Q-axis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
2.5. The three inter-dependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xd
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > Xq

Xd

This is the D-axis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
1.0. The five inter-dependency range checks for Xd are
1. Xd > 0.15*Xd
2. Xd < Xq
3. Xd < Xq
4. Xd < Xd
5. Xd > X

Xq

This is the Q-axis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
1.0. The three inter-dependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xq
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > X

This is the machine sub-transient reactance. It is calculated as X=(Xd+Xq)/2 where


Xd is the d-axis transient level reactance and Xq is the q-axis transient level reactance.
The typical range is 0.0 < X < 1.0
The three inter-dependency range checks for X are
1. X < Xd
2. X < Xq
3. X > Xl ( where Xl is the leakage reactance in machine base. )

Xl

Xl is the leakage reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0 < Xl < 1.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Xl is Xl < X
H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and turbine. Enter value in
seconds. The typical range is 1.0 < H < 10.

06/26/2008

D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < D <
4.0. For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set D=0. If the
load models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For motors, set D=1 for
constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set D=3 for pump load, and set
D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.

Td0

Td0 is the d-axis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 1.0 < Td0 <
10.0. The two inter-dependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 > Td0
2. Td0 > Tq0

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-15

Td0

Td0 is the d-axis open circuit sub-transient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Td0 < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore:
0.03332 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Td0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that:
Integration time step < Td0/4
The two inter-dependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 < Td0
2. Td0 < Tq0

Tq0

Tq0 is the q-axis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 0.2 < Tq0 <
1.5.
The two inter-dependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 > Tq0
2. Tq0 > Td0

Tq0

Tq0 is the q-axis open circuit sub-transient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Tq0 < 0.2
The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz. Therefore:
0.03332 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Tq0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen as:
Integration time step < Tq0/4
The two inter-dependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 < Tq0
2. Tq0 < Td0

S10

S10 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.0 PU. S10 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of the loads. S10 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S10 < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check for S10 is S10
< S12.

S12

S12 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.2 PU. S12 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of loads. S12 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S12 < 1.0. There is one inter-dependency range check for S12:
S12 < S10.

2.3.2. Round Rotor Fossil Steam > 300 MVA


See Round Rotor Fossil Steam <300 MVA

2.3.3. Round Rotor Nuclear Unit


See Round Rotor Fossil Steam <300 MVA

2.3.4. Round Rotor Gas Turbine Unit


See Round Rotor Fossil Steam <300 MVA

2.3.5. Round Rotor General


See Round Rotor Fossil Steam <300 MVA.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-16

Reference Manual

2.3.6. Salient Pole Hydro Unit


The salient pole model is the standard recommended model for the representation of
salient pole synchronous machines. The armature of the machine is represented using a DQ axis model. On the D-axis of the machine rotor, there is the field winding circuit as
well as one damper winding circuit. There is only one damper winding circuit on the Qaxis of the rotor. Saturation is represented as a function of the sub-transient D-axis air-gap
flux linkage.
The data boxes are similar to the Round Rotor Fossil Steam <300 MVA except for these
differences:
No Xq or Tq0.
Xq has only two inter-dependency range checks:
1. Xq < Xd
2. Xq > Xd
Xd has only inter-dependency range checks:
1. Xd > 0.15*Xd
2. Xd < Xq
3. Xd < Xd
4. Xd > X
X has only inter-dependency range checks:
1. X < Xd
2. X > Xl (where Xl is the leakage reactance in machine base)
Td0 has only one inter-dependency range check: Td0 > Td0
Td0 has only one inter-dependency range check: Td0 < Td0
Tq0 has only one inter-dependency range check: Tq0 < Td0
L " d - Ll
L' d - L l

+
Ef d

E'q

sT " d 0

L' d - L " d

sT " d 0

L ' d - Ll

L ' d - L" d

(L ' d - L l )

+
Ld - L ' d

+
Y "d

L ' d - Ll

d - axi s

id

- Y "q

sT " q 0
q - axi s
Lq - L' q

Fig. 2-7. Block Diagram for the Sub-Transient Level Salient Pole Synchronous
Machine Model.

06/26/2008

iq

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-17

Ra

Ld

ifd
Rf d
Rk d

d - ax i s

id

Ll

i kd
Lf d

Lk d
ef d

Ra

Lq

Rk q 2
iq
q- axi s

i kq
Ll

Lk q

Fig. 2-8. Approximate Equivalent Circuit for the Salient Pole Synchronous Machine
Model.

2.3.7. Salient Pole Condensers < 200 MVA


See Salient Pole Hydro Unit.

2.3.8. Salient Pole Condensers > 200 MVA


See Salient Pole Hydro Unit.

2.3.9. Salient Pole Synchronous


See Salient Pole Hydro Unit.

2.3.10. Salient Pole General


See Salient Pole Hydro Unit.

2.3.11. Single Cage Induction Generator


In this model, the induction motor is treated as a rotating machine, and the internal
electromagnetic flux transient characteristic is fully represented. The flux level induction

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-18

Reference Manual

generator model is the standard recommended model for detailed induction generator
studies.1
Ekr

w0 T " 0 p d

X " - Xl
X' - Xl

E'i

sT ' 0

sT ' 0

X'-X"

X' - Xl

Eki

ei

X'- X "

(X ' - X l )

X"

X' - Xl

+
-

ir

E 'r

X - X'

Y "r
Y"

w0 T " 0 p d

E'i

Y"

Y "i
Y"

+
-

+
X - X'

ii

X' - Xl

X' - X "

(X ' - X l )

1
sT ' 0

X"
2

E 'r

sT ' 0

Ekr

X'-X"
X ' - Xl

er

+
X " - Xl
X' - Xl

w0 T " 0 p d
Eki

Fig. 2-9. Block Diagram for the Induction Generator Machine Model.

06/26/2008

P.M. Anderson and A.A. Fouad, p. I-11.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-19

Data

Description

Ra

This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical


range is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. Enter in per unit.

T is the transient time constant. Enter value in seconds. The typical range is 0.2
< T < 10.0.

H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and load. Enter
value in seconds. The typical range is 0.5 < H < 10.0.

X is the steady-state armature reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The
typical range is 0.0 < X < 2.5. The only inter-dependency range check for X is
0.5*X > X.

X is the transient motor reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The typical
range is 0.0 < X < 2.5. The two inter-dependency range checks for X are
1. 0.5*X > X
2. Xl < X ( short circuit level )

Xl

Xl is the leakage reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The typical range is
0.0 < Xl < 2.5. The only inter-dependency range check for Xl is Xl < X ( short
circuit level )

E1

E1 is the first terminal voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate a second


order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of the motor saturation factor Se at all loads. Enter in per unit. The typical range
is E1 >0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se (E1)

Se(E1) is the motor saturation factor at the point where the motor terminal
voltage is equal to E1. The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1)< 1.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2

E2 is the second terminal voltage point. E2 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of the motor saturation factor Se at all loads. E2 is in per unit.. The
typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E2 is E2 >
E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the motor saturation factor at the point where the motor terminal
voltage is equal to E2. The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0.
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1)

2.3.12. Double Cage Induction Generator


Same as Single Cage Induction Generator, with addition of these two:

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-20

Reference Manual

Data

Description

T is the sub-transient time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step) < T < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz, and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore: 0.03332 < T < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.4 < T < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz ). If a
smaller T is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < T/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for T are:
1. T < T
2. If X = 0.0, then set T = 0.0

X is the sub-transient motor reactance. Enter in per unit. The typical range is 0.0
< X < 2.5. The three inter-dependency range checks for X are
1. X < X
2. X ( dc level ) > Xl
3. If T = 0.0, then set X = 0.0

2.3.13. Diesel Generator


The diesel generator model is a sub-transient level synchronous machine model.
L " d - Ll
L' d - Ll

+
Efd

sT " d

E 'q

1
sT " d

L' d - L" d

L 'd - L"d

+
Ld - L'd

sT " q

d - axis

id

q- axis
Lq - L'q

Fig. 2-10. Block Diagram for the Diesel Generator Model.

06/26/2008

L'd - Ll

- Y "q

+
Y "d

L' d - Ll

(L ' d - L l )

iq

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-21

Data

Description

Ra

This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range
is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. It is in per unit.

Xd

This is the D-axis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
2.5. The three inter-dependency range checks for Xd are
1. 0.15*Xd < Xd
2. Xd > Xd
3. Xd > Xq

Xq

This is the Q-axis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
2.5. The three inter-dependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xd
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > Xq

Xd

This is the D-axis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
1.0. The five inter-dependency range checks for Xd are
1. Xd > 0.15*Xd
2. Xd < Xq
3. Xd < Xq
4. Xd < Xd
5. Xd > X

This is the machine sub-transient reactance. It is calculated as X=(Xd+Xq)/2 where


Xd is the d-axis transient level reactance and Xq is the q-axis transient level reactance.
The typical range is 0.0 < X < 1.0
The three inter-dependency range checks for X are
1. X < Xd
2. X < Xq
3. X > Xl ( where Xl is the leakage reactance in machine base. )

Xl

Xl is the leakage reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0 < Xl < 1.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Xl is Xl < X
H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and turbine. Enter value in
seconds. The typical range is 1.0 < H < 10.

H
D

D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < D <
4.0. For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set D=0. If the
load models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For motors, set D=1 for
constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set D=3 for pump load, and set
D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.

Td0

Td0 is the d-axis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 1.0 < Td0 <
10.0. The two inter-dependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 > Td0
2. Td0 > Tq0

Td0

Td0 is the d-axis open circuit sub-transient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Td0 < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore:
0.03332 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Td0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that:
Integration time step < Td0/4
The two inter-dependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 < Td0
2. Td0 < Tq0

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-22

Reference Manual

Tq0

Tq0 is the q-axis open circuit sub-transient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Tq0 < 0.2
The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz. Therefore:
0.03332 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Tq0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen as:
Integration time step < Tq0/4
The two inter-dependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 < Tq0
2. Tq0 < Td0

S10

S10 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.0 PU. S10 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of the loads. S10 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S10 < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check for S10 is S10
< S12.

S12

S12 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.2 PU. S12 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of loads. S12 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S12 < 1.0. There is one inter-dependency range check for S12:
S12 < S10.

2.3.14. Classical
The classical synchronous machine model has been included in the standard I*SIM model
library only to be compatible with older programs. Its use is strongly discouraged. This
model assumes a constant flux behind the sub-transient machine reactance, which is
neither accurate nor realistic. Since I*SIM has its infinite bus model, it is much better to
select the sub-transient level model using typical data. Do not select an exciter or a
governor model with the classical synchronous machine model.
Data

Description

Ra

This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range is
0.0 < Ra < 0.01. Enter in per unit.

Xa

Xa is the armature reactance. The typical range is 0.0 < Xa < 2.5. Enter in per unit

H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and turbine. Enter value in
seconds. The typical range is 1.0 < H < 10.

D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < D < 4.0.
For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set D=0. If the load
models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For motors, set D=1 for
constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set D=3 for pump load, and set
D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.

2.3.15. Infinite Bus


The infinite bus model has been included in the I*SIM model library so that it may be
used to represent the utility. You can also use a sub-transient level synchronous machine
model, with turbine governor model and exciter model to represent the utility. The
electrical distance can be adjusted by modifying the armature resistance Ra and the
armature reactance Xa. A better approach in representing the utility is to select a subtransient level machine model with a steam turbine governor and an IEEE Type 1 exciter
on that machine, using typical data.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-23

Data

Description

Ra

This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range
is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. Enter in per unit.

Xa

Xa is the armature reactance. The typical range is 0.0 < Xa < 2.5. Enter in per unit.

2.4. Synchronous Motor Models


These Sections describe the various Synchronous Motor models.
Note: All machine reactances should be entered in unsaturated per unit values; all
machine resistances should be entered in per unit values; all saturation voltage points
should be entered as per unit values; all time constants should be entered in seconds;
and all other constants are dimensionless. All per unit values are on the machines
base (Mbase).

2.4.1. Round Rotor Sub-Transient Level Synchronous Motor


The block diagram for the Round Rotor Sub-Transient Level Synchronous Motor is shown
in Fig. 2-11.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-24

Reference Manual

L "d - L l
L ' d - Ll

+
d

E'q

S
-

+
-

sT ' d 0

L' d - L " d

sT ' d 0

L ' d - Ll

L' d - L" d

(L ' d - L l )
L ad i f d

+
+

+
+
S

Ld - L ' d

Y "d

d - axi s

L' d - Ll

id

+
Y "d
|Y "|

D( L ad i f d )

Y"

Y " q (Lq - Ll )
| Y " | (Ld - Ll )

+
S +

Lq - L ' q

iq

L' q - L' q
(L ' q - Ll )

1
sT ' q 0

+
S
+

1
sT " q 0

L ' q - Ll

L'q - L"q
L ' q - Ll

q - axi s

S
+

- Y "q

L " q - Ll
L ' q - Ll

Fig. 2-11. Block Diagram for the Round Rotor Sub-Transient Synchronous Motor
Model.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-25

Data

Description

Ra

This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range
is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. It is in per unit.

Xd

This is the D-axis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
2.5. The three inter-dependency range checks for Xd are
1. 0.15*Xd < Xd
2. Xd > Xd
3. Xd > Xq

Xq

This is the Q-axis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
2.5. The three inter-dependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xd
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > Xq

Xd

This is the D-axis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
1.0. The five inter-dependency range checks for Xd are
1. Xd > 0.15*Xd
2. Xd < Xq
3. Xd < Xq
4. Xd < Xd
5. Xd > X

Xq

This is the Q-axis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
1.0. The three inter-dependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xq
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > X

This is the machine sub-transient reactance. It is calculated as X=(Xd+Xq)/2 where


Xd is the d-axis transient level reactance and Xq is the q-axis transient level reactance.
The typical range is 0.0 < X < 1.0
The three inter-dependency range checks for X are
1. X < Xd
2. X < Xq
3. X > Xl ( where Xl is the leakage reactance in machine base. )

Xl

Xl is the leakage reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0 < Xl < 1.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Xl is Xl < X
H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and turbine. Enter value in
seconds. The typical range is 1.0 < H < 10.

H
D

D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < D <
4.0. For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set D=0. If the
load models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For motors, set D=1 for
constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set D=3 for pump load, and set
D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.

Td0

Td0 is the d-axis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 1.0 < Td0 <
10.0. The two inter-dependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 > Td0
2. Td0 > Tq0

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I*SIM 2-26

Reference Manual

Td0

Td0 is the d-axis open circuit sub-transient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Td0 < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore:
0.03332 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Td0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that:
Integration time step < Td0/4
The two inter-dependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 < Td0
2. Td0 < Tq0

Tq0

Tq0 is the q-axis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 0.2 < Tq0 <
1.5.
The two inter-dependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 > Tq0
2. Tq0 > Td0

Tq0

Tq0 is the q-axis open circuit sub-transient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Tq0 < 0.2
The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz. Therefore:
0.03332 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Tq0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen as:
Integration time step < Tq0/4
The two inter-dependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 < Tq0
2. Tq0 < Td0

S10

S10 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.0 PU. S10 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of the loads. S10 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S10 < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check for S10 is S10
< S12.

S12

S12 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.2 PU. S12 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of loads. S12 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S12 < 1.0. There is one inter-dependency range check for S12:
S12 < S10.

2.4.2. Salient Pole Sub-Transient Level Synchronous Motor


The block diagram for the Salient Pole Sub-Transient Level Synchronous Motor Model is
shown in Fig. 2-12.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-27

L" d - Ll
L' d - L l

+
Ef d

E 'q

sT " d 0

L' d - L " d

sT " d 0

L' d - Ll

L ' d - L" d

(L ' d - L l )

+
Ld - L' d

+
Y "d

L'd - Ll

d - axi s

id

- Y "q

sT " q 0
q - axis
iq

Lq - L' q

Fig. 2-12. Block Diagram for the Salient Pole Sub-Transient Synchronous Motor
Model.

The data boxes are similar to the Round Rotor Sub-Transient Level Synchronous Motor
except for these differences:
No Xq or Tq0.
Xq has only two inter-dependency range checks:
1. Xq < Xd
2. Xq > Xd
Xd has only these inter-dependency range checks:
1. Xd > 0.15*Xd
2. Xd < Xq
3. Xd < Xd
4. Xd > X
X has only these inter-dependency range checks:
1. X < Xd
2. X > Xl (where Xl is the leakage reactance in machine base)
Td0 has only one inter-dependency range check: Td0 > Td0
Td0 has only one inter-dependency range check: Td0 < Td0
Tq0 has only one inter-dependency range check: Tq0 < Td0

2.5. Induction Motor Models


These Sections describe the various Induction Motor models.

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I*SIM 2-28

Reference Manual

Note: All machine reactances should be entered in unsaturated per unit values; all
machine resistances should be entered in per unit values; all saturation voltage points
should be entered as per unit values; all time constants should be entered in seconds;
and all other constants are dimensionless. All per unit values are on the machines
base (Mbase).

2.5.1. Single Cage Flux Level Induction Motor


This most accurate representation of the induction motor treats each induction motor as a
rotating machine, as they are in the real world. The internal electro-magnetic flux
transient is fully represented, to the same level as its synchronous counterparts2. Again,
the data requirements of this model require a much smaller integration time step since they
are applied to only a relatively small number of buses in the system studies. If the
individual motor characteristics are being studied, as in the cases of motor starting,
switching, etc., this is the model which should be used.
The flux level induction motor model has been proven to produce simulation results which
are much more realistic than those possible with the steady-state based algebraic level
induction motor models. It is now the standard recommended model for performing
detailed studies involving induction motors. The format for the required data are similar
to that of the synchronous machine models; however, that format is different from the
traditional equivalent circuit format used by the steady-state algebraic models.

06/26/2008

P.M. Anderson and A.A. Fouad, p.I-11.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-29

Ek r

w0 T " 0 p d

X " - Xl
X ' - Xl

E' i

sT ' 0

sT ' 0

X'-X"

X' - Xl

Ek i

ei

X' - X "

(X ' - X l )

X"

X' - Xl

+
-

ir

E'r

X - X'

Y "r
Y"

w0 T " 0 p d

E'i

Y"

Y "i
Y"

+
-

+
X - X'

ii

X' - Xl

X' - X "

(X ' - X l )

1
sT ' 0

X"
2

E'r

sT ' 0

Ekr

X'-X"
X' - Xl

er

+
X " - Xl
X' - Xl

w0 T " 0 p d
Ek i

Fig. 2-13. Block Diagram for the Flux Level Induction Motor Model.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-30

Reference Manual

Data

Description

Ra

This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical


range is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. Enter in per unit.

T is the transient time constant. Enter value in seconds. The typical range is 0.2
< T < 10.0.

H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and load. Enter
value in seconds. The typical range is 0.5 < H < 10.0.

D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 <
D < 4.0. For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set
D=0. If the load models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For
motors, set D=1 for constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set
D=3 for pump load, and set D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.

X is the steady-state armature reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The
typical range is 0.0 < X < 2.5. The only inter-dependency range check for X is
0.5*X > X.

X is the transient motor reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The typical
range is 0.0 < X < 2.5. The two inter-dependency range checks for X are
1. 0.5*X > X
2. Xl < X ( short circuit level )

Xl

Xl is the leakage reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The typical range is
0.0 < Xl < 2.5. The only inter-dependency range check for Xl is Xl < X ( short
circuit level )

E1

E1 is the first terminal voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate a second


order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of the motor saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in per unit.. The typical range
is E1 >0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se
(E1)

Se(E1) is the motor saturation factor at the point where the motor terminal
voltage is equal to E1. The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1)< 1.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2

E2 is the second terminal voltage point. E2 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of the motor saturation factor Se at all loads. E2 is in per unit.. The
typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E2 is E2 >
E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the motor saturation factor at the point where the motor terminal
voltage is equal to E2. The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0.
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1)

Tnom

Nominal Torque

Integration Time Step


The accuracy gained by the flux-level induction motor model does not come without
sacrifice. In order to use this model, the integration time step must be reduced by a large
margin. A tenfold reduction is not uncommon, with a fivefold reduction being typical. In
other words, rather than using the default value of a 1/2 cycle time step, the 1/8th to 1/16th
cycle time step or smaller may need to be used.

VAR Estimate and Mismatch


Since induction machines have no field windings, the reactive power which will be
consumed by the machine cannot be controlled. The actual amount of var consumed is a

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-31

function of real power, terminal voltage, and machine internal characteristics. Since the
steady state load flow does not know the machine's internal characteristics (because it
doesn't use the Dynamic Model), it makes assumptions that closely, but not precisely,
estimate the var consumed by the motor. When the Dynamic Simulation runs it does
know the machine's internal characteristics because it uses the Dynamic Model, so it can
more precisely determine the var consumed. As a result, you will usually find in the Log
Report a slight mismatch between the actual var consumed and the estimated var
consumed. The model then creates a shunt at its terminal in order to compensate for this
mismatch. In compensating for the mismatch, I*SIM does not need to carry induction
machine internal resistances and reactance into the load flow calculations. Unfortunately,
if the Dynamic Model has inaccurate data, a very large internally held shunt capacitor
could be created; if this shunt is large enough, a self-excitation phenomena could occur.
Such occurrences are rare, but not impossible. If self-excited voltage or voltage running
away at the induction machine terminal becomes apparent and the machine is not
representing a capacitive network in the real world, then check the Dynamic Model for
inaccurate data.

Damping Factor for the Motor


In the flux-level induction motor model, the load damping factor, D, simulates the effect
of load on the motor in accordance with this equation:
Tload = Tnominal (1+n)D-1
where
n

per unit motor shaft speed deviation from nominal;

Tnominal

nominal load torque.

A constant torque pump, for example, can be represented with D = 2. Other pumps would
have D = 3, whereas a fan would have D = 4. Do not start a motor driving a constant
torque pump with the pump on-line; that is, do not start a motor with a D = 1. If that is
attempted, the motor will simply stall immediately and will never come up to full speed.

Induction Motor Saturation


I*SIM represents the saturation effect for induction motors by a method similar to that
discussed in Machine Saturation on page 2-11, except that the saturation factors are
smaller.

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I*SIM 2-32

Reference Manual

Conversion Between the Single Cage Flux and the Single Cage Algebraic Motor
Models
La

Ra

L1

Lm
R1
s

Fig. 2-14. Circuit for the Single Cage Algebraic Motor Model.

The circuit for the single cage algebraic motor model is shown in Fig. 2-14. Its terms are
Ra
Armature resistance
La

Armature leakage inductance

Lm

Magnetizing inductance

L1

First cage rotor leakage inductance

R1

First cage rotor resistance


synchronous speed - rotor speed
(

s (Slip)

synchronous speed

The conversion equations between the single cage flux-level induction motor model and
the single cage Algebraic motor model are

L = L a + Lm
L = La +

1
1
1
+
L m L1

Ll = L a
T =

L m + L1
0r1

L > L
where

06/26/2008

Transient time constant;

Inertial constant;

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-33

Load damping factor;

Steady-state motor inductance;

Transient motor inductance;

Ll

Leakage inductance.

2.5.2. Double Cage Flux Level Induction Motor


Same as Single Cage Induction Motor, with the addition of these two:
Data

Description

T is the sub-transient time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step) < T < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz, and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore: 0.03332 < T < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.4 < T < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz ). If a
smaller T is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < T/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for T are:
1. T < T
2. If X = 0.0, then set T = 0.0

X is the sub-transient motor reactance. Enter in per unit. The typical range is
0.0 < X < 2.5. The three inter-dependency range checks for X are
1. X < X
2. X ( dc level ) > Xl
3. If T = 0.0, then set X = 0.0

Conversion Between the Double Cage Flux and the Double Cage Type I Algebraic
Motor Models
La

Ra

L1

Lm

L2

R1

R2

Fig. 2-15. Circuit for the Type I Algebraic Motor Model.

The circuit for the Type I algebraic motor model is shown in Fig. 2-15. Its terms are
Ra

Armature resistance

La

Armature leakage inductance

Lm

Magnetizing inductance

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I*SIM 2-34

Reference Manual

L1

First cage rotor leakage inductance

L2

Second cage rotor leakage inductance

R1

First cage rotor resistance

R2

Second cage rotor resistance


synchronous speed - rotor speed
(

s (Slip)

synchronous speed

The conversion equations between the double cage flux-level induction motor model and
the Type I Algebraic Motor Models include

L = La + Lm

L = L a +

1
1
1
+
Lm L1

L = La +

1
1
1
1
+
+
L m L1 L2

Ll = La

T =

L m + L1
0 r1
L2 +

T =

L1 L m
L1 + L m

0 r2

T > T
L > L > L
where

06/26/2008

Transient time constant;

Sub-transient time constant;

Inertial constant;

Load damping factor;

Steady-state motor inductance;

Transient motor inductance;

Sub-transient motor inductance;

Ll

Leakage inductance.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-35

Conversion Between the Double Cage Flux and the Double Cage Type II Algebraic
Motor Models
La

L1

Ra

L2

Lm

R1

R2

Fig. 2-16. Circuit for the Type II Algebraic Motor Model.

The circuit for the Type II algebraic motor model is shown in Fig. 2-16. Its terms are
Ra

Armature resistance

La

Armature leakage inductance

Lm

Magnetizing inductance

L1

First cage rotor leakage inductance

L2

Second cage rotor leakage inductance

R1

First cage rotor resistance

R2

Second cage rotor resistance


synchronous speed - rotor speed
(

s (Slip)

synchronous speed

The conversion equations between the flux-level induction motor model and the Algebraic
Type II motor models include

L = La + Lm
L = L a +

1
1
1
+
L m L1 + L2

L = La +

1
1
1
+
L m L1

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I*SIM 2-36

Reference Manual

Ll = La
T =

L m + L1 + L2
0 r2

1
1
1
+
L m + L1 L2
T =
0 r1
T ' > T"
L > L > L
where

06/26/2008

Transient time constant;

Sub-transient time constant;

Inertial constant;

Load damping factor;

Steady-state motor inductance;

Transient motor inductance;

Sub-transient motor inductance;

Ll

Leakage inductance.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-37

2.5.3 Motor models


This section describes how to edit the three types of Motor models: Single Rotor, Double
Rotor, and Graphic model. You will find the Single and Double Rotor models easier to
use if minimal information is available since they provide sample data, but the Graphic
model provides a more exact match if thorough information is available.

Single Rotor
To edit a Motor model, you must first open it.

This area shows a


diagram of the motor's
internal circuit.

This grid
shows the
torque (T),
power
factor
(PF), and
current (I)
for the
motor
model.

Enter data in these


boxes.

Click this button to update the curves for


any data changes you made.

This data box

Represents this

Ra

Stator resistance

La

Stator inductance

R1

Rotor resistance

L1

Rotor inductance

Lm

Magnetizing inductance

Enter all the impedance values in per unit on the machine base.

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Reference Manual

TMS modeling permits full compliance with the recommendations of the IEEE for
modeling motors.
As per IEEE Std 86-1987 IEEE Recommended Practice: Definitions of Basic Per-Unit
Quantities of AC Rotating Machines, both induction and synchronous motors use rated
apparent input power as the base.

RatedVoltage = E ll
Rated Current (I) =

Base Apparent Power


3 E ll

where

Base Apparent Power (VA) = E ll 3 1


This assumes a wye-connected motor. If the motor is delta connected, use the above rated
voltage and current and perform a delta-wye conversion of the model per unit impedances.
To do this simply multiply all the model per unit impedances by three. If a delta-wye
controller is used, enter the per unit impedance data for a wye-connected motor, and TMS
will perform the wye-delta conversions internally.
 To create a new motor model
With Graphical Motor highlighted, choose New from the Device menu. A new, blank
motor model will appear.

Double Rotor
To edit a Motor model, you must first open it, as described in Section 2.1, "General
Library Usage":

This area shows a


diagram of the motor's
internal circuit.

This grid
shows the
torque (T),
power
factor (PF),
and current
(I) for the
motor
model.

Enter data in these


boxes.

Click this button to update the curves for


any data changes you made.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-39

This data box

Represents this

Ra

Stator resistance

La

Stator inductance

R1

First rotor's resistance

L1

First rotor's inductance

R2

Second rotor's resistance

L2

Second rotor's inductance

Lm

Magnetizing inductance

Enter all the impedance values in per unit on the machine base.
TMS modeling permits full compliance with the recommendations of the IEEE for
modeling motors.
As per IEEE Std 86-1987 IEEE Recommended Practice: Definitions of Basic Per-Unit
Quantities of AC Rotating Machines, both induction and synchronous motors use rated
apparent input power as the base.

RatedVoltage = E ll
Rated Current (I) =

Base Apparent Power


3 E ll

where

Base Apparent Power (VA) = E ll 3 1


This assumes a wye-connected motor. If the motor is delta connected, use the above rated
voltage and current and perform a delta-wye conversion of the model per unit impedances.
To do this simply multiply all the model per unit impedances by three. If a delta-wye
controller is used, enter the per unit impedance data for a wye-connected motor, and TMS
will perform the wye-delta conversions internally.

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Reference Manual

Graphical Model
To edit a Motor model, you must first open it, as described in Section 2.1, "General
Library Usage":

Enter data in these


boxes.
This grid
shows the
torque (T),
power factor
(PF), and
current (I) for
the motor
model.

Enter curve points


here.

Click this button to


see the typical
models.

Click this button to


update the curves
for any data
changes you made.

Important: We recommend that you enter the Graphical model using per unit values, but
if the manufacturer did not give you per unit values, then you can enter the absolute
values and PTW will convert them to per unit values as long as you follow these steps
carefully:
1.

(Be sure the Show in Per Unit option is unchecked.) Enter the Synchronous
RPMs, Torque Base, and Current Base.

2.

Enter the curve points into the spreadsheet.

3.

Turn on the Show in Per Unit option by clicking the checkbox. This converts the
curve points into per unit values.

Often the manufacturer provides the motor characteristics in a graphical format. This
model permits such data to be entered directly into the TMS library. You may enter up to
50 data points to define the curves. Be sure to click the Update button once you finish
entering curve points so the curves will reflect the new points.
TMS stores the graphical data as per unit values using the basic data quantities to
normalize the data before it is stored in the motor library. Changing the basic data
quantities will cause the graphical data to be scaled accordingly before it is subsequently
re-displayed. This facilitates the use of graphical data for modeling a range of motor sizes.
By reviewing the data in the per unit mode, the data may be directly compared to industry
standard values as a check for data entry errors.
When you click the Update button or use the Save command, TMS performs some data
checks before actually saving the data in the Library. These are the checks performed:

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-41

4.

The data is sorted by speed, so it is not necessary to enter the data points in any order.

5.

Duplicate data points are removed.

6.

A check is made to assure that data points have been entered at the motors
synchronous and zero speeds.

In order to capture all the important information it is necessary to enter more data points
where there are large changes in the motors torque, current or power factor. Generally,
more data points should be used near the motors operating speed because the graphical
data is changing most rapidly in this location.
In using graphical data to model motors, the TMS assumes that the motors stator current
varies directly as a function of the motors terminal voltage and the motors torque varies
directly as the square of the motors terminal voltage.
Additionally, it is sometimes necessary to derive the graphical motors impedance as seen
from the motors terminal in order to model certain controllers. This impedance is
calculated based on the motors terminal voltage, the motors stator current and the
motors power factor. Of course these quantities are all a function of the motors speed.
TMS uses linear interpolation to acquire data at motor speeds between the data points
representing the graphical motor model.

Typical models
If you do not have adequate manufacturer data provided, you can use the one of the
Typical Motor models provided. TMS provides the following Typical Motor models:

NEMA Design Class A

NEMA Design Class B

NEMA Design Class C

NEMA Design Class D

NEMA Large (greater than 500 HP)

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Reference Manual

 To view the Typical models


1.

Click the Typical button. The following dialog box will appear:

These points are calculated


based on what you enter below
(you don't enter anything here).

Select a model type


from this list box.

Enter data here.

Click OK to copy the Typical data to the model that you are entering
(this data will replace any that you have already entered.)

Click here to
redraw the
curves based
on the data
you entered.

To use the Typical data, simply click the OK button and the Typical models data will be
copied to the Library model that you are entering.
Important: If you use the Typical data, the data will replace any data that already exists
for the model.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-43

2.5.4 Load models


This section describes how to edit the two types of Load models: Exponential (sometimes
called Equation) and Graphic Load. You will find the Exponential model easier to use if
minimal information is available since it provides sample data, but the Graphic model
provides a more exact match if complete information is available.

Exponential
The Exponential model derives its Load Curve from a pair of equations. When you have
minimal information available, the Exponential model provides an easier way to generate
the Load Curve than the Graphic Load model.
Note: The Exponential model assumes the motor rated power (HP) at an 0.013 slip.

To edit a Load model, you must first open it, as described in Section 2.1, "General Library
Usage":
These equations determine the load
torque. The first defines the
breakaway torque, and the second
defines the torque when the RPMs
are greater than zero.

This grid
shows the
Load Curve.

Enter data in these


boxes.

Click this button for


assistance
calculating the A, B,
and C coefficients.

Click this
button to use
data from the
typical
models.

Click this button to


update the curves
for any data
changes you made.

Data may be entered to define the load in terms of a breakaway torque (similar to the
concept of static friction) plus a rolling torque and factor for varying the torque as a
function of speed.
Following are the boxes which require data entry.

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I*SIM 2-44

Reference Manual

In this box

Enter this value

Synch RPM

Synchronous RPM.

Rated Torque

Base torque at rated speed.. This will be in ft-lbs when the


Project Options are set to ANSI, and Nm (Newton meters) when
set to Metric.

Rated Amps

Base current at rated speed.

Moment of Inertia

This data is entered as part of modeling for all loads. It consists


of kilogram-meters squared (kg-m2) and is expressed as J
when expressed in metric units.

Exponent

An exponent value which defines the relationship between


torque and speed. Generally, an exponent of 3 is used for fan
loads, 2 is used for pumps, and 1 is used for constant torque
loads.

A, B, C

Equation constants (also known as coefficients) defining the


relationship between torque and speed. Enter these in Newton
meters.

Exponential Load Model Calculator


If you dont know the equation constants (A, B, and C), but you do know the load torque
at zero speed and the synchronous speed, you can use the calculator to determine them.

 To open the Exponential Load model Calculator


Click the Calculate button. The following dialog box will appear:

The results are


shown here.
This grid
shows the
Load Curve.
Enter the known
data here.

Once you have entered the known data, the coefficients (A, B, and C) will be calculated.
Click the Update button to see the Load Curve, and click the OK button when finished.
The coefficients will then be copied to the Load model.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-45

Typical Data
If you do not have adequate manufacturer data provided, you can use the one of the
Typical Load models provided. TMS provides the following Typical Load models (the
values given within the parentheses are assumed by TMS and are not editable):

Pump (motor inertia multiplier of 1, break away torque of 40%)

Motor Gen Sen (motor inertia multiplier of 3, break away torque of 25%)

Blower (motor inertia multiplier of 10, break away torque of 30%)

Grinder (motor inertia multiplier of 3, break away torque of 30%)

Compressor (motor inertia multiplier of 2, break away torque of 40%)

Fan (motor inertia multiplier of 10, break away torque of 25%)

Important: Because the Fan and Blower Load models have motor inertia multipliers
greater than 6, they may require even more powerful motors than those recommended by
the NEMA standards for Wk2 capabilities.

 To view the Typical models


Click the Typical button. The following dialog box will appear:

The results are


shown here.

Select a model type


from this list box.

Enter known data


here.

Click OK to copy the Typical data to the model that you are entering
(this data will replace any that you have already entered.)

Click here to
redraw the
curves based
on the data
you entered.

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I*SIM 2-46

Reference Manual

Graphic Load model


The Graphic Load model derives its Load Curve from actual data points that you enter.
When you have thorough information available, the Graphic Load model provides a more
exact way to generate the Load Curve than the Exponential model.
To edit a Load model, you must first open it, as described in Section 2.1, "General Library
Usage":

Enter data in these


boxes.
This grid
shows
the
Load
Curve.

Enter curve points


here.

Click this button to


update the curves
for any data
changes you made.

Note: Because the Load models Synchronous RPMs may be different from the motors
Synchronous RPMs due to gearing, TMS adjusts the load data and Moment of
Inertia based on the motor model selected.
Following are the boxes which require data entry.
In this box

Enter this value

Synch RPM

Synchronous RPM.

Rated Torque

Base torque at rated speed.. This will be in ft-lbs when the


Project Options are set to ANSI, and Nm (Newton meters) when
set to Metric.

When you click the Update button or use the Save command, TMS performs some data
checks before actually saving the data in the Library. These are the checks performed:

06/26/2008

7.

The data is sorted by speed, so it is not necessary to enter the data points in any order.

8.

Duplicate data points are removed.

9.

A check is made for values at the loads synchronous and zero speeds. If a zero speed
data point has not been entered then a point is added with a torque of zero and a speed
of zero.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-47

Polynomial Load model


The load curve equation is used by the Motor Starting and ISIM modules for dynamically
modeling motor mechanical load, as shown below.
T = A0 + A1 * rpm^P1+ A2 * rpm^P2+ A3 * rpm^P3
Where torque T is in percent of the rated torque of the driving motor, P1,P2,P3 are the
exponent of the speed (rpm).

Enter the synchronous RPM,


Rated Torque and moment of
inertia here.

Enter the known


data here.

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Reference Manual

Damping Load model


In the flux-level induction motor model, the load damping factor, D, simulates the effect
of load on the motor in accordance with this equation:
Tload = Tnominal (1+n)D-1
where
n

per unit motor shaft speed deviation from nominal;

Tnominal

nominal load torque.

A constant torque pump, for example, can be represented with D = 2. Other pumps would
have D = 3, whereas a fan would have D = 4. Do not start a motor driving a constant
torque pump with the pump on-line; that is, do not start a motor with a D = 1. If that is
attempted, the motor will simply stall immediately and will never come up to full speed.

Enter known data


here.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-49

2.6. Exciter Models


The exciter models used in I*SIM are based on the excitation systems described in the
IEEE Committee Reports Computer Representation of Excitation Systems and
Excitation System Models for Power System Stability Studies, as well as reports for the
respective manufacturers. 3
If the behavior of synchronous machines is to be accurately represented, the excitation
systems must be modeled in sufficient detail. Although I*SIM provides numerous default
models, you should modify the default data to fit the specifications of the machine being
used.
Since simplified exciter models require minimum data, you may choose the simplified
exciter model or the simplified SCR static exciter model for a simplified representation of
the excitation systems for the units in the system.

2.6.1. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type DC2


regulator

E c omp

(PU)

1
1 +sTr

Vr max x Vt

Vs

Vr ef

+
V
S er r

+
-

+
S

1 +sTc

Ka

1 +sTb

1+sTa

Vr

+
-

1
sTe

Ef d

(PU)

Vr mi n x Vt

Vf b

S e +K e
sK f

1+sTf
damping

Fig. 2-17. Block Diagram for the IEEE Recommended Type DC2 Exciter.

The 1981 IEEE Recommended DC2 Exciter model contains two blocks within the model,
the lead-lag block and the rate-feedback block, which require special consideration. If the
transient-gain reduction action is performed by modern electronic controllers, the lead-lag
block should be used. If the transient-gain reduction action is performed by electromechanical controllers, the rate-feedback block should be used. You must choose only
one of the two blocks. To choose the lead-lag block, Kf must be set to zero and Tf must
be set to 9999. To choose the rate-feedback block, Tc /Tb and Tb must be set to zero.

see Computer Representation of Excitation Systems and Excitation System Models for
Power System Stability Studies, respectively.

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I*SIM 2-50

06/26/2008

Reference Manual

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most


systems, Tr is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical
range is 0.0 < Tr < 0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the
integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833
seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen
so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range
is 0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If
Tb=0, then set Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tb < 20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then
Tb <>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to


supply from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum
limit that is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals
cannot produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr
max is in per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit
value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical
range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base.. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical
range for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke
is unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with
a separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the
exciter field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in
this case. The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke
< 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step
is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Te/4.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-51

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf
is 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in


seconds. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The
default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is
calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50
Hz ). If a smaller rate-feedback controller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Tf/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all
loads. E1 is in per unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is
defined as Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads.
E2 is in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is
defined as Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-52

Reference Manual

2.6.2. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC1


V r ef
E c om p

1
1 + sT r

Vs

Vrmax

S
-

Vc

1+ sT c

Ka

1 + sT b

1 + sT a

sK f

1 + sT f

Vr

Vr mi n
Vf

Ve

Efd

sT e

Fex

Vf e

F e x = f (I n )
In

+ Se

In =

K cIfd
Ve

S
+

Ifd

Kd

In

I f I n 0.51, Fe x = 1 - 0. 5 8 I n
I f 0. 51 < I n < 0.715, F e x = - 0.8 6 5 ( I n + 0.0 0 8 2 6 ) + 0.9 3 2 3 3

Fex

I f I n 0.715, F e x = 1.6 8 - 1.714 I n

Fig. 2-18. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC1 Exciter.

The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC1 Exciter model uses exactly the same method for
selecting the lead-lag block and the rate-feedback block as that described for the 1981 type
DC2.
The difference between the 1981 model and the earlier models is that in the 1981 model,
the demagnetizing effect of the load current on the dynamics of the exciter alternator
output voltage is accounted for in the feedback path as represented by the constant Kd.
The exciter output voltage drop due to the rectifier regulation is simulated by the inclusion
of the constant Kc, which is a function of the commutating reactance, and by the
approximation of the rectifier regulation curve.
Such a model can be used to represent the exciter alternator synchronous machine in large
power system stability studies. The Westinghouse Brushless Exciters are examples of
these systems.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-53

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most


systems, Tr is very small and may be considered to be zero. The
typical range is 0.0 < Tr < 0.5

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical


range is 0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check
is If Tb=0, then set Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tb < 20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0,
then Tb <>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is


dimensionless. The typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is


4*( Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the
integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833
seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 <
Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller
time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be
chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to


supply from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the
maximum limit that is imposed on the regulator so that large input
error signals cannot produce a regulator output which exceeds
practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the Efd base. In order to
calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to


supply from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the
minimum limit that is imposed on the regulator so that large input
error signals cannot produce a regulator output which exceeds
practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base. In order to
calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a
positive feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The
typical range for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the
value for Ke is unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that
ISIM can automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those
systems with a separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required
to supply the exciter field and establish the initial condition for Efd.
Ke is positive in this case. The typical range for Ke with separate
excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60
Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen
so that Integration time step < Te/4.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-54

Reference Manual

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range
check for Kf is 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in


seconds. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5.
The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which
is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50
Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller rate-feedback controller time constant is
used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < Tf/4. The two inter-dependency range checks
for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

Kc

Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop


due to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating
reactance. The typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.

Kd

Kd is a constant which is used to account for the demagnetizing effect of


the load current on the dynamics of the exciter alternator output voltage.
It is a function of the exciter alternator synchronous and transient
reactances. The typical range is Kd > 0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM
to determine the proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all
loads. E1 is in per unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only
inter-dependency range check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1)
is defined as Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current
required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constantresistance-load saturation curve. B is the exciter field current
required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the air gap line
(without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The
only inter-dependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM
to determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all
loads. E2 is in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only
inter-dependency range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2)
is defined as Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current
required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constantresistance-load saturation curve. B is the exciter field current
required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the air gap line
(without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) >
Se(E1).

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-55

2.6.3. 1981 Modified IEEE Recommended Type AC1


V r ef
E c om p

1
1 +sT r

+
S

Vs

Vc

V r ma x

+
S
-

1 + sT c

Ka

1 + sT b

1 + sT a

Vr

Vr m i n
sK f

Vf

1 + sT f

+
S
-

Ve

Ef d

sTe

Fe x

Vf e
F e x = f (I n )

In
K e +Se

In =

+
S
+

Kc Ifd
Ve

Ifd

Kd

In

If I n 0.51, Fe x =1 - 0.58 I n
If 0.51< I n < 0.715,F e x =- 0.865(I n + 0.00826) + 0.93233

Fe x
2

If I n 0.715, F e x =1.68 - 1.714 I n

Fig. 2-19. Block Diagram for the 1981 Modified IEEE Recommended Type AC1
Exciter.

The 1981 modified IEEE Recommended AC1 Exciter model uses exactly the same
method for selecting the lead-lag block and the rate-feedback block as that described for
the 1981 Type DC2.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-56

06/26/2008

Reference Manual

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems,


Tr is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is
0.0 < Tr < 0.5

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is
0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0,
then set Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb
< 20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb
<>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then
a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is
0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range
for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is
unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with
a separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the
exciter field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in
this case. The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke <
1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Te/4.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-57

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is
5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds.


The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default
number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore
0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a
smaller rate-feedback controller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step <
Tf/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

Kc

Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop


due to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating
reactance. The typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.

Kd

Kd is a constant which is used to account for the demagnetizing effect of


the load current on the dynamics of the exciter alternator output voltage.
It is a function of the exciter alternator synchronous and transient
reactances. The typical range is Kd > 0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate


a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine
the proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in
per unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency
range check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is
defined as Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E2
is in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency
range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is
defined as Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-58

Reference Manual

2.6.4. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC2


Vr ef

E c om p

1 +sT r

Va ma x

Vs

Ver r

Vc

1 + sT c

Ka

1 + sT b

1 + sT a

Va

Vf
V a mi n
Vr

Vh

ma x

LV
GATE

KB

Vr
Vr

Vl

Ve

Efd

sTe

Fe x

m in

sK f

F e x = f (I n )

1 + sT f

Kl

In

K e +Se
Vf e
Vlr

In =

+
S

Kc Ifd
Ve
Ifd

Kh
Kd

In

If I n 0.51, Fe x = 1 - 0.5 8 I n
If 0.51 < I n < 0.715,F e x = - 0.86 5( I n + 0.00 8 2 6) + 0.93 2 33

Fe x

If I n 0.715, F e x = 1.68 - 1.714 I n

Fig. 2-20. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended AC2 Exciter.

The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC2 Exciter model represents a high initial response
field controlled alternator rectifier excitation system. The method of selecting the lead-lag
block and the rate-feedback block is exactly the same as that described for the 1981 Type
DC2.
The 1981 Type AC2 model is similar to the 1981 Type AC1 regarding the inclusion of the
two additional exciter field current feedback loops. They differ in that the 1981 Type AC2
model adds two other compensation loops to the system to increase the bandwidth of the
small signal response and to obtain a high initial response from the excitation system.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-59

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems,


Tr is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is
0.0 < Tr < 0.5

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is
0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0,
then set Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb
< 20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb
<>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then
a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Ta/4.

Va max

Vr max is a very high forcing voltage that is applied to the exciter field in
order to obtain a high initial response from this system. Vr max is in per
unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit number, the
excitation voltage is used as the base voltage. The typical range is Vr
max > 0.0.

Va min

Vr min is a very high forcing voltage that is applied to the exciter field in
order to obtain a high initial response from this system. Vr min is in per
unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit number, the
excitation voltage is used as the base voltage. The typical range is Vr
min < 0.0.

Kb

Kb is the forward gain of the exciter time constant compensation loop.


The typical range is Kb > 0.0.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is
0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-60

06/26/2008

Reference Manual

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range
for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is
unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with
a separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the
exciter field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in
this case. The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke <
1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Te/4.

Kl

Kl is the feedback gain of the limiter. This limiter senses exciter field
current and allows high forcing voltage, but limits the current. The
typical range is Kl > 0.0.

Kh

Kh is the feedback gain of the exciter time constant compensation loop.


The typical range is Kh > 0.0.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is
5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds.


The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default
number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore
0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a
smaller rate-feedback controller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step <
Tf/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

Kc

Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop


due to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating
reactance. The typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.

Kd

Kd is a constant which is used to account for the demagnetizing effect of


the load current on the dynamics of the exciter alternator output voltage.
It is a function of the exciter alternator synchronous and transient
reactances. The typical range is Kd > 0.

Vlr

Vlr is an exciter output voltage limit.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate


a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine
the proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in
per unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency
range check for E1 is E1 < E2.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-61

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is
defined as Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E2
is in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency
range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is
defined as Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.5. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type DC3


Vr ef

Vr

Kv

filt er
E c om p

(PU)

1+sTr

ma x

Ver r
Vr

ma x

Vr h

- Vr mi n

s K vT r h

- Kv

If V e r r K v , V r =V r m a x
If | V e r r | < K v , V r =V r h
If V e r r - K v , V r = V r m i n

Vr

mi n

excit er
Vr

Ef d

(PU )

sTe

S
+

Ke

+
Se

Ef d

Fig. 2-21. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type DC3 Exciter.

The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type DC3 exciter model is used to represent older
systems, particularly those dc commutator exciters with non-continuously acting
regulators. Examples of these systems include the General Electric GFA4 regulator and
the Westinghouse BJ30 regulator.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-62

06/26/2008

Reference Manual

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most


systems, Tr is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical
range is 0.0 < Tr < 0.5

Trh

Trh is the electro-mechanical voltage regulator time constant. It is the


travel time representing continuous motion of the rheostat drive motor.
The typical range is 2.0 < Trh < 100.0.

Kv

Kv is the dead band of the parallel quick-action controller. It is


dimensionless. The typical range is 0.02 < Kv < 0.1.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to


supply from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum
limit that is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals
cannot produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr
max is in per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit
value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical
range is 2.0 < Vr max < 10.0..

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is
0.0 < Vr min < 2.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step
is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Te/4.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical
range for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke
is unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with
a separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the
exciter field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in
this case. The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke
< 1.0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all
loads. E1 is in per unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is
defined as Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-63

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads.
E2 is in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is
defined as Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.6. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC3


K lv

E c omp

+
S

1
1+sTr

HV
GATE

Vj

V r ef

+
+
S
Ver r

Vc

S
+

Vr ma x

Vl v
Va

1+ sTc

Ka

1+ sTb

1+ sTa
Vr m i n

Vf
s

1+ sTf

Vr

Ve

Fe x

Vf e

0
Vn
Vn

In

Fe x = f ( I n )

Kr
In

K e + Se

Kn

1
Kf

Ef d n

Ef d

sTe

Ef d

+
S
+

If I n 0.51, Fe x =1 - 0.58 I n
If 0.51< I n < 0.715,Fe x =- 0.865(I n + 0.00826) +0.93233

In =

Kc I f d
Ve
Ifd

Kd

F ex

If I n 0.715, Fe x =1.68 - 1.714 I n

Fig. 2-22. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC3 Exciter.

The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC3 Exciter model uses exactly the same method as
that described for the 1981 Type DC2 in selecting the lead-lag block and the rate-feedback
block.
The difference between the 1981 Type AC3 and the 1981 Type AC1 is that the Type AC3
has additional non-linearity which is introduced by employing self-excitation. This model
is applicable to systems employing static voltage regulators, such as the General Electric
ALTERREX excitation system.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-64

06/26/2008

Reference Manual

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most


systems, Tr is very small and may be considered to be zero. The
typical range is 0.0 < Tr < 0.5

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range
is 0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If
Tb=0, then set Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tb < 20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then
Tb <>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is


4*( Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the
integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833
seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 <
Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller
time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be
chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Va max

Va max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to


supply from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum
limit that is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals
cannot produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Va
max is in per unit.. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is
Va max > 0.0.

Va min

Va min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to


supply from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum
limit that is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals
cannot produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Va
min is in per unit.. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is
Va min < 0.0.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical
range for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke
is unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems
with a separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply
the exciter field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is
positive in this case. The typical range for Ke with separate excitation
is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step
is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and
0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is
used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < Te/4.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-65

Klv

Klv is the feedback gain of the limiter. This limiter senses exciter field
current and allows high forcing voltage, but limits the current. The
typical range is Klv > 0.0.

Kr

Kr is a constant which is used to simulate the non-linearity introduced


by self-excitation. The typical range is Kr > 0.0.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf
is 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in


seconds. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5.
The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is
calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50
Hz ). If a smaller rate-feedback controller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Tf/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

Kn

Kn is a constant which is used to simulate the non-linearity introduced


by the excitation system stabilizer. When the exciter output voltage is
less than Efdn, the rate-feedback controller constant Kf is used to
represent the gain. When the exciter output voltage exceeds Efdn, the
value of this gain becomes Kn. The typical range is 0.0 < Kn < 0.3.
The only inter-dependency range check for Kn is Kn < Kf.

Efdn

Efdn is the excitation voltage at which the non-linearity introduced by


the the excitation system stabilizer starts to be considered. The typical
range is Efdn > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for Efdn is
Efd min < Efdn < Efd max.

Kc

Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage


drop due to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating
reactance. The typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.

Kd

Kd is a constant which is used to account for the demagnetizing effect


of the load current on the dynamics of the exciter alternator output
voltage. It is a function of the exciter alternator synchronous and
transient reactances. The typical range is Kd > 0.

Vlv

Vlv is a voltage limit. By limiting the exciter field current, exciter


output voltage Ve is limited to the value Vlv. The typical range is Vlv
> 0.0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all
loads. E1 is in per unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is
defined as Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current
required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constantresistance-load saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the air gap line (without
saturation). The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-66

Reference Manual

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads.
E2 is in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is
defined as Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current
required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constantresistance-load saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the air gap line (without
saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.7. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC4


Vs

V r ef
E c omp

1
1 +sTr

+
V
S er r

+
+

S
V i mi n

V r ma x - K c l f d

V i ma x

1 + sTc

Ka

1+ sTb

1 + sTa

Ef d
V r mi n - K c l f d

Fig. 2-23. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC4 Exciter.

The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC4 Exciter model is a high initial response
excitation system which uses a full thyristor bridge in the exciter output circuit. The
transient loading effects can be accounted for by using the exciter loading current Ifd and a
constant Kc, which is a function of the commutating reactance, to modify the excitation
limit. The lead-lag block, instead of the rate-feedback block, is used to modify the control
function of stabilizing the excitation system.
This model is quite different from other types of ac models. It can be used to represent the
General Electric ALTHYREX and rotating thyristor excitation systems.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-67

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr is


very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 < Tr <
0.5

Vi max

Vi max is the maximum voltage limit that is imposed on the lead-lag


controller input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is
0.0 < Vi max < 1.0.

Vi min

Vi min is the minimum voltage limit that is imposed on the lead-lag controller
input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is -1.0 < Vi
max < 0.0.

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Va max

Va max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Va max is in per unit.. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is Va max > 0.0.

Va min

Va min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Va min is in per unit.. In order to
calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the base
voltage. The typical range is Va min < 0.0.

Kc

Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due
to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. The
typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-68

Reference Manual

2.6.8. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST1


Vs

V r ef
E c om p

+
1
1 +sT r

Vi

Ver r

S
Vi

Vt Vr

max

1 + sT c

Ka

1 + sT b

1 + sT a

min

max

- Kc lfd
Efd

Vt V r

min

- K c lfd

sK f

1 + sT f

Fig. 2-24. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST1 Exciter.

The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST1 Exciter represents a potential source controlledrectifier excitation system, in which excitation power is supplied through a transformer
from the generator terminals or from the units auxiliary bus, and is regulated by a
controlled rectifier. The maximum exciter voltage available from such systems is directly
related to the generator terminal voltage.
The method of selecting the lead-lag block and the rate-feedback block is exactly the same
as that described for the 1981 Type DC2.
Examples of type ST1 excitation systems include the Canadian General Electric
Silcomatic exciters, the Westinghouse Canada solid state thyristor exciter and the
Westinghouse type PS static excitation systems with WTA or WHS regulators.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-69

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr is


very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 < Tr <
0.5

Vi max

Vi max is the maximum voltage limit that is imposed on the lead-lag controller
input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is 0.0 < Vi
max < 1.0.

Vi min

Vi min is the minimum voltage limit that is imposed on the lead-lag controller
input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is -1.0 < Vi
max < 0.0.

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta <
1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller integration
time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the Efd base. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Kc

Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due to
the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. The
typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range is


0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is 5.0 < Tf/Kf <
15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds. The
typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default number for
the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds
for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60
Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller rate-feedback controller time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < Tf/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-70

Reference Manual

2.6.9. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST2


+

E c om p

1 +sT r

Vr

Vs

Vref
Ver r

Efd

ma x

Vr

Ka

1 + sTa
Vr

Vf

Ef d

sTe

Vb

m in

max

0
Ke

sK f

1 + sTf

Vt

Ve

V e = |K pV t + j K i I t |

It
Fex

Ifd

In

In =

K c Ifd
Ve

In

F e x = f (I n )

If I n 0.51, Fe x = 1 0.58 I n
2
If 0.51 < I n < 0.715,F e x = 0.865(I n + 0.008 26) + 0.93233

Fe x

If I n 0.715, F e x = 1.68 1.714 I n

Fig. 2-25. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST2 Exciter.

The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST2 Exciter model differs from the 1981 Type ST1
in that the ST2 system forms the exciter power source by a phasor combination of both the
generator terminal current and voltage. The rectifier loading and commutation effects are
accounted for, and the exciter output voltage is controlled by adjusting the saturation of
the power transformer.
One example of such a system is the General Electric static excitation system, which is
referred to as the SCT-PPT or SCPT system.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-71

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr is


very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 < Tr <
0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range for
Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is unknown,
then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can automatically determine
the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a separately-excited exciter,
regulator output is required to supply the exciter field and establish the initial
condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case. The typical range for Ke with
separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range


is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is 5.0 <
Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds. The
typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default number for
the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds
for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60
Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller rate-feedback controller
time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < Tf/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for
Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

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Reference Manual

Kp

Kp is the potential transformer constant. The typical value is Kp=1.19.

Ki

Ki is the current transformer constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range


is 0.9 < Ki < 1.1.

Kc

Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due
to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. For
most transformer fed systems, Kc is very small, permitting the term to be
neglected for many studies.

Efd max

Efd max is the exciter ceiling voltage. It is the maximum direct voltage that
the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals under defined
conditions.

2.6.10. 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST3


Vg max
Kg
Vr ef
E c om p

+V

1 +sTr

Vr

Vs
Vi

er r

E f d ma x

ma x

K
Vi

ma x

1 + sTc
j

1 + sTb

Va

Ka

Vr

1 + sTa

Efd

mi n

Vr m i n
Ve

Vt

V e = | K p V t + j ( K j +K p X l ) I t |

It

Fe x
Ifd

In

Vb

In =

Kc Ifd
Ve

In

F e x = f (I n )

If I n 0.51, Fe x = 1 - 0.58 I n
If 0.51 < I n < 0.715,F e x = - 0.865( I n + 0.00826) + 0.93233

=K pe

j Qp

Fe x
2

If I n 0.715, F e x = 1.68 - 1.714 I n

Fig. 2-26. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST3 Exciter.

The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST3 Exciter model differs from the 1981 Type ST2
in that the type ST3 uses the lead-lag block instead of the rate-feedback block. Also, an
inner loop is added to the voltage regulator which obtains a negative feedback from the
regulator output.
Examples of these systems include the General Electric GENEREX and General Electric
SHUNT THYRISTOR.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-73

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr is


very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 < Tr <
0.5

Vi max

Vi max is the maximum voltage limit that is imposed on the lead-lag


controller input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is
0.0 < Vi max < 1.0.

Vi min

Vi min is the minimum voltage limit that is imposed on the lead-lag controller
input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is -1.0 < Vi
max < 0.0.

Kj

Kj is the steady state lead-lag controller gain. The typical range is 0 < Kj <
1000.

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Kg

This is the inner loop feedback constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Kj <1.1.

Kp

Kp is the potential transformer constant. The typical value is Kp=1.19.

Ki

Ki is the current transformer constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range


is 0.9 < Ki < 1.1.

Efd max

Efd max is the exciter ceiling voltage. It is the maximum direct voltage that
the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals under defined
conditions.

Kc

Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due
to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. The
typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.

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I*SIM 2-74

Reference Manual

Xl

Xl is the generator leakage reactance. It is the default data and is in per unit..
The typical range is 0.0 < Xl < 0.5.

Vg max

This is the inner loop maximum voltage feedback. The typical range is 0.0 <
Vg max < 20.

Potential circuit
phase angle
(degrees)

The typical range is -90 < Potential circuit phase angle < 90.

2.6.11. 1979 IEEE Standard Type 1


Se
Efd
Vr ef

f il t e r
E com p

(PU )

1 +sT r

r e gula t o r

Vs

+
Vr

+
+
+
S
S
Verr
+
Vf b

1 + sT c

Ka

1 + sT b

1 + sT a

Vr

min

max

+
Vr
sK f

Vs

1 + sT f

(PSS)

d a mp in g

Efd

(PU)

sT e

e x c it er

Fig. 2-27. Block Diagram for the 1979 IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter.

The 1979 IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter model is quite similar to the 1968 IEEE Standard
Type 1 Exciter model on page 2-85. The parameters Ke, Vr max, and Vr min should be
treated exactly the same way as in the 1968 model.
The difference between the 1979 and 1968 models is that the 1979 model has an additional
lead-lag block for representing transient-gain reduction action performed by modern
electronic controllers rather than relying solely on the rate-feedback block for representing
the damping action as in the 1968 model.
The method of selecting the lead-lag block and the rate-feedback block is exactly the same
as that described for the 1981 Type DC2.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-75

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr is


very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 < Tr <
0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta <
1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller integration
time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the Efd base. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 10.0.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is -10.0 < Vr min < 0.0.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range for
Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is unknown, then
you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can automatically determine the
proper value for Ke. For those systems with a separately-excited exciter,
regulator output is required to supply the exciter field and establish the initial
condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case. The typical range for Ke with
separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If
a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range is


0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is 5.0 < Tf/Kf <
15.0.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-76

Reference Manual

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds. The
typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default number for
the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds
for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60
Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller rate-feedback controller time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < Tf/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in per unit..
The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E1 is
E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase in
exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve. B is
the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the
air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The
only inter-dependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E2 is in per unit.. The
typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E2 is E2
> E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase in
exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve. B is
the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the
air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.12. 1979 IEEE Standard Type 2


Se
Efd
Vref

r e gula t or

+
+
S
Vr

filt er
E c om p

(PU)

1 +sTr

S
+

1 + sTc

Ka

1 + sTb

1 + sT a

Ver r
Vf b

Vr

1+ sT f

+
Vr

1
sTe

e x ci t er

mi n

sK f

1
Vs

Ke

ma x

1+ sT f

(PSS)
damp in g

Fig. 2-28. Block Diagram for the 1979 IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter.

06/26/2008

Efd 0

(PU)

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-77

The 1979 IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter model is quite similar to the 1968 IEEE Standard
Type 2 Exciter model on page 2-92. The parameters Ke, Vr max, and Vr min should be
treated exactly the same way as in the 1968 model. The additional lead-lag block allows
representation of the electronic transient gain reduction portion instead of the electromechanical rate feedback. As in 1979 Standard Type 1, choose either the lead-lag or the
rate feedback, but not both. This can be achieved by setting Tb /Tc and Tc to zero, or Kf =
0, and Tf 1 = Tf 2 = 9999.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-78

06/26/2008

Reference Manual

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most


systems, Tr is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical
range is 0.0 < Tr < 0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the
integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833
seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen
so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range
is 0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If
Tb=0, then set Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tb < 20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then
Tb <>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to


supply from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum
limit that is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals
cannot produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr
max is in per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit
value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical
range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical
range for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke
is unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with
a separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the
exciter field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in
this case. The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke
< 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step
is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Te/4.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-79

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf
is 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf1

Tf1 is the first rate-feedback controller time constant. It approximates


the exciter time delay and is considered to be the major damping. The
data shown is typical data and is shown in seconds. The typical range is
4*( Integration time step ) < Tf1 < 1.5. The default number for the
integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833
seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 <
Tf1 < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf1 < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller
rate-feedback controller time constant is used, then a smaller integration
time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Tf1/4. The
three inter-dependency range checks for Tf1 are
1. Let v1 = abs(1-Tf1/Te)
Let v2 = abs(1-Tf2/Te)
If v2 < v1, then 5.0 < Tf1/Kf < 15.0
If v1 < v2, then 5.0 < Tf2/Kf < 15.0
2. minimum (v1,v2) < 0.2
3. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf1<>0 and Tf2<>0 and Kf<>0.
Otherwise, set Tf1=Tf2=Kf=0.

Tf2

Tf2 is the second rate-feedback controller time constant. It represents


the high frequency effects and is considered to be the minor damping.
The data shown is typical data and is shown in seconds. The typical
range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf2 < 1.5. The default number for
the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833
seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 <
Tf2 < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf2 < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller
rate-feedback controller time constant is used, then a smaller integration
time step should be chosen so that:
Integration time step < Tf2/4
The three inter-dependency range checks for Tf2 are :
1. Let v1 = abs(1-Tf1/Te)
Let v2 = abs(1-Tf2/Te)
If v2 < v1, then 5.0 < Tf1/Kf < 15.0
If v1 < v2, then 5.0 < Tf2/Kf < 15.0
2. minimum (v1,v2) < 0.2
3. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf1<>0 and Tf2<>0 and Kf<>0.
Otherwise, set Tf1=Tf2=Kf=0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all
loads. E1 is in per unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is
defined as Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads.
E2 is in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-80

Reference Manual

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is
defined as Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required
to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.13. 1979 Modified IEEE Standard Type 2


V r ef

E com p

f il t e r
1

(PU )

1 +sT r

Vr

r e gula t o r

S
+

Verr

e x c it er

1 + sT c

Ka

1 + sT b

1 + sT a

Vr

Vf b

Vr
sK

V othsg
(P S S )

max

Efd 0

(PU )

sT e

min

1 + sT f
d a m p in g

Se
Efd

Fig. 2-29. Block Diagram for the 1979 Modified IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter.

1979 Modified IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter is a modified form of the 1979 IEEE
Standard Type 2 Exciter model. The exciter manufacturer of the systems represented by
the IEEE Standard Type 2 model reported that this model is slightly more accurate than
the non-modified Type 2 in representing their product. Review the manufactures
documentation to determine if this model is more appropriate for the equipment being
used.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-81

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr


is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tr < 0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and
0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step
< Ta/4.

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is
0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0,
then set Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range
for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is
unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a
separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the exciter
field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case.
The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is
5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-82

Reference Manual

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds.


The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default
number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332
< Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller ratefeedback controller time constant is used, then a smaller integration time
step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Tf/4. The two interdependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in per
unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 <
Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1)
< Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E2 is
in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency
range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) >
0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.14. 1979 IEEE Standard Type 3


Vr ef

Vs

r e gul a t or
V

E com p

(PU)

f il t er
1
1+sTr

Efd

K e + sT e

1+sT a

Verr

+ S

Ka

e x c i t er

r max

(PU )

sK f

r mi n

1 + sT f
da mp in g
Vt h

Vt
V t h e v = | K pV t + j K t I t |

It

V t h - ( 0. 7 8 L a d I f d )

Lad I f d

Fig. 2-30. Block Diagram for the 1979 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter.

06/26/2008

Vb

max

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-83

The 1979 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter model is almost identical to the 1968 IEEE
Standard Type 3 Exciter described in Section 13.20. They differ only in the placement of
the limit Vb max. Again, the value of Ki is important to the performance of this system. If
Ki is unknown, enter Ki as zero and I*SIM will determine the value of Ki automatically.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-84

06/26/2008

Reference Manual

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr is


very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 < Tr <
0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range for
Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is unknown,
then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can automatically determine
the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a separately-excited exciter,
regulator output is required to supply the exciter field and establish the initial
condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case. The typical range for Ke with
separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range


is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is 5.0 <
Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds. The
typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default number for
the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds
for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60
Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller rate-feedback controller
time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < Tf/4. The two inter-dependency range checks for
Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-85

Kp

Kp is the potential transformer constant. The typical value is Kp=1.19.

Ki

Ki is the current transformer constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range


is 0.9 < Ki < 1.1.

Vbmax

Vb max is the current compounded maximum voltage regulator output signal.


The typical range is 1.0 < Vb max < 4.0.

2.6.15. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1


Se

Y
r e gu la t o r

V ref

f il t e r
E com p

(PU)

1 +sTr

Vr

+
S
+

max

Ka

+ S

1 + sT a

Vr

1
K e + sT e

Efd

(P U)

e x c it er

min

sK f
Vs

(PSS)

1 + sT f
d a mp in g

Fig. 2-31. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter.

The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter is a widely used model for representing shunt DC
exciters as well as alternator exciters with uncontrolled shaft-mounted rectifier bridges.
When representing DC exciter systems, the value of Ke should be set to zero so that I*SIM
can determine its value automatically. For alternator-rectifier systems, set Ke to 1.0.
The values for VR max and VR min must be carefully tuned. You can set VR max = VR
min = Ke = 0 and let I*SIM determine these parameters automatically, in lack of
information.
The transient-gain reduction action is represented by using a rate-feedback block. This is
appropriate for electro-mechanical controllers. Use the 1979 Standard Type 1 if the
exciter has lead-lag controllers.
Note that provision is made for first-order smoothing or filtering of the compensated
terminal voltage with a filter time constant of Tr. Tr is usually very small and if it is less
than twice of the integration time step, then Tr is ignored by this model.
It is difficult to provide typical data for this model since so many different systems can be
represented by the 1968 Standard Type 1 Exciter. The data provided below should be
used only as a general reference.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-86

06/26/2008

Reference Manual

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr


is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tr < 0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and
0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range for
Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is unknown,
then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can automatically
determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a separatelyexcited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the exciter field and
establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case. The typical
range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range


is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is 5.0 <
Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds.


The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default
number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 <
Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller ratefeedback controller time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Tf/4. The two interdependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-87

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in per unit..
The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E1
is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve. B
is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU
on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) <
1.0. The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to generate


a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E2 is in per unit..
The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E2
is E2 > E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve. B
is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU
on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.16. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Westinghouse Mag-A-Stat


See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

2.6.17. 1968 IEEE Type 1 Westinghouse Rotating-Rectifier (3600


RPM)
See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

2.6.18. 1968 IEEE Type 1 Westinghouse Rotating-Rectifier (1800


RPM)
See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

2.6.19. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Westinghouse Rotorol


See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

2.6.20. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Westinghouse Silverstat


See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-88

Reference Manual

2.6.21. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Westinghouse TRA


See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

2.6.22. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Amplidyne NA101


See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

2.6.23. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Amplidyne NA108


See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

2.6.24. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Amplidyne NA143 (< 5 kW )


See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

2.6.25. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Amplidyne NA143 (>5 kW)


See 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1.

2.6.26. 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1


r e gu l a t o r

V ref

Vr
E c om p

(PU)

Efd

max

max

e x citer

Ka

1 + sT a

+
Vr

Efd

(PU)

K e + sT e
Efd

min

min

sK f
Vs

(P S S )

1 + sT f
da mp in g

Se

Fig. 2-32. Block Diagram for the 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter.

The 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter model modifies the Type 1 Exciter
model by introducing a block which represents the maximum and minimum limits of the
excitation output voltage in the exciter output.
The exciter manufacturers of some of the systems representable by the 1968 IEEE
Standard Type 1 Exciter model reported that the 1968 Modified model is slightly more
accurate in representing their product. Review the manufacturers documentation to
determine if this model is more appropriate for the equipment being used.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-89

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step
< Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce
a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on
the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage
Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on
the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage
Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range
for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is
unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a
separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the exciter
field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case.
The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0
( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is
5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds.


The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default
number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore
0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a
smaller rate-feedback controller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Tf/4.
The two inter-dependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-90

Reference Manual

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate


a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine
the proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in per
unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is
defined as Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to
generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

Efd max

Efd max is the exciter ceiling voltage. It is the maximum direct voltage
that the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals under
defined conditions.

Se(Efd max)

Se(Efd max) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the
increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(Efd max)
is defined as Se(Efd max)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current
required to generate an exciter voltage of Edf max on the constantresistance-load saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to
generate an exciter voltage of Efd max on the air gap line (without
saturation). The typical range is Se(Efd max) > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(Efd max) > Se(E1).

Efd min

Efd min is the minimum excitation voltage. The typical range is Efd min
= 0.

2.6.27. 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1S with Bus Fed


V r ef

r e gula t or

Vr

ma x

or K

Vt

f il t er

+
E c om p

( PU)

1 +sTr

Ka

1 + sT a

+
Vr
Vs

(PSS)

Efd

( PU)

min

sK f

1 + sT f
da mp in g

Fig. 2-33. Block Diagram for the 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1S With Bus Fed.

The 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1S Exciter model is a special case of the
Standard Type 1 Exciter where excitation is obtained through rectification of the terminal
voltage and no exciter portion exists. A system of this type responds almost
instantaneously to system changes.
In the case of bus fed connections, the maximum regulator voltage (the ceiling voltage) is
proportional to the generator terminal voltage (Vr max = Kp x Vt). In the case of solid fed
connections, Vr max is a fixed number.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-91

The block diagram for this model is almost identical to the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1
Exciter model, except that it lacks the exciter portion. The small time constants created in
the closed loop of this model could cause numerical instability difficulties. If that is the
case, use the Simplified Exciter model or the simplified SCR Static Exciter models
instead.
Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr


is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tr < 0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and
0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step
< Ta/4.

Switch Position

Set switch position = 0 for bus fed. Set switch position = 1 for solid fed.

Kp

Kp is the potential circuit gain. It is dimensionless. The typical range is


0.5 < Kp < 10.0.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is
5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds.


The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default
number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332
< Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller ratefeedback controller time constant is used, then a smaller integration time
step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Tf/4. The two interdependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

2.6.28. 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1S with Solid Fed


See 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1S with Bus Fed.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-92

Reference Manual

Only difference is Vr max instead of Kp.

2.6.29. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 2


Se

Y
Vr ef

r egula t or
Vr

filt er
E c om p

(PU)

1
1+ sT r

+
S
+

ma x

Ka

1 + sT a

1
K e + sT e

Efd

(PU)
Vr
Vs

(PSS)

ex ci t er

m in

sK f

1+ sT f 2

1+ sT f 1

damping

Fig. 2-34. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter.

The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter represents rotating rectifier systems incorporating
damping loops that originate from the regulator output rather than from the excitation
voltage. It is intended to represent the Westinghouse Brushless excitation system. Being
brushless, the excitation voltage for this system is simply not available to be fed back.
The first damping constant Tf1 approximates the exciter time delay and is considered to be
the major damping time constant. The second damping constant, Tf2, represents high
frequency damping effects and is considered to be the minor damping time constant.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-93

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr


is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tr < 0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and
0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step
< Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range
for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is
unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a
separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the exciter
field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case.
The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is
5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-94

06/26/2008

Reference Manual

Tf1

Tf1 is the first rate-feedback controller time constant. It approximates the


exciter time delay and is considered to be the major damping. The data
shown is typical data and is shown in seconds. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Tf1 < 1.5. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf1 < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < Tf1 < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller rate-feedback controller
time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen
so that Integration time step < Tf1/4. The three inter-dependency range
checks for Tf1 are
1. Let v1 = abs(1-Tf1/Te)
Let v2 = abs(1-Tf2/Te)
If v2 < v1, then 5.0 < Tf1/Kf < 15.0
If v1 < v2, then 5.0 < Tf2/Kf < 15.0
2. minimum (v1,v2) < 0.2
3. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf1<>0 and Tf2<>0 and Kf<>0.
Otherwise, set Tf1=Tf2=Kf=0.

Tf2

Tf2 is the second rate-feedback controller time constant. It represents the


high frequency effects and is considered to be the minor damping. The
data shown is typical data and is shown in seconds. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Tf2 < 1.5. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf2 < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < Tf2 < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller rate-feedback controller time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that:
Integration time step < Tf2/4
The three inter-dependency range checks for Tf2 are :
1. Let v1 = abs(1-Tf1/Te)
Let v2 = abs(1-Tf2/Te)
If v2 < v1, then 5.0 < Tf1/Kf < 15.0
If v1 < v2, then 5.0 < Tf2/Kf < 15.0
2. minimum (v1,v2) < 0.2
3. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf1<>0 and Tf2<>0 and Kf<>0.
Otherwise, set Tf1=Tf2=Kf=0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in per
unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 <
Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1)
< Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E2 is
in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency
range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-95

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) >
0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.30. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3


Vr ef

r e gu l a t o r
f il t e r
E c om p

(PU)

1
1+sTr

V
Ka

1+sT a

+
V

r max

Vr

Vb

e x c it er
Efd

1
0

K e + sT e

(PU )

Vc
r min

sK f

1 + sT f

Vs

d a m p in g

(P S S )
Vt hev

Vt
It

max

Vb

V t h e v = | K pV t + j K

Lad If d

It |

1- A

A=

0.78 L a d I f d
V t h ev

, i f A > 1, V b = 0

Fig. 2-35. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter.

The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter represents systems which use a combination of
terminal voltage and current information as a feedback signal to be compared against the
reference. The regulator and filter of this model are the same as the 1968 IEEE Standard
Type 1 Exciter. The signal Vb incorporates information fed forward from Ecomp with
added information concerning both It and Vt. As such, Vc represents the self-excitation
from the generator terminals. Kp and Ki are proportionality constants indicating the
portion of the Thevenin voltage, VThev, due to voltage and current information.
Note that Vc = VThev (1-A) LadIfd. The multiplying factor to VThev accounts for the
variation in self-excitation with change in the angular relation of field current, Ladifd and
self-excitation voltage VThev.
A typical application for 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter, as well as for the 1979 IEEE
Standard Type 3 Exciter, would be the GE SCPT system. The SCPT systems obtain
excitation power from a compounding transformer. They achieve field voltage control by
using a control winding on the transformer and saturating its core, effectively using it as a
large magnetic amplifier. The rectifier bridge is uncontrolled.
Proper specification for the value of Ki is important to the performance of this system.
Normal design practice would be to proportionally adjust Kp to approximately unity and
Ki to the generator synchronous reactance. Further refinement is needed to account for
rectifier commutation drop and generator saturation effect. Such refinement can be
accomplished based on the assumption that Vr is essentially idle. It would be reasonable
to set Kp between 1.1 to 1.2, and then to tune the value of Ki. This would result in the

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-96

Reference Manual

generator naturally providing its own excitation. If you was unable to tune Ki, try to set Ki
= 0, and I*SIM will calculate the value of Ki automatically.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-97

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Tr

Tr is the time constant representing regulator filtering. For most systems, Tr


is very small and may be considered to be zero. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tr < 0.5

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and
0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range for
Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is unknown,
then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can automatically
determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a separatelyexcited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the exciter field and
establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case. The typical
range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range


is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is 5.0 <
Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Tf

Tf is the rate-feedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds.


The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default
number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 <
Tf < 1.5 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller ratefeedback controller time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Tf/4. The two interdependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-98

Reference Manual

Kp

Kp is the potential transformer constant. The typical value is Kp=1.19.

Ki

Ki is the current transformer constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range


is 0.9 < Ki < 1.1.

Vbmax

Vb max is the current compounded maximum voltage regulator output


signal. The typical range is 1.0 < Vb max < 4.0.

2.6.31. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 4


Se

Y
Vr ef

r egulator

V r ma x
E c omp

+
S

| DVt | < K v

+1

(PU)

-1

Vr

sTr h

Kr

Ef d

K e + sTe

(PU)

exciter

V r mi n

| DVt | > K v

Vr ma x

- Kv
Kv
Vr mi n

Fig. 2-36. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 4 Exciter.

The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 4 Exciter model represents older non-continuous acting
systems. These systems have dead zones in which the system essentially operates as an
open loop. In addition, they are generally slow due to the friction and the inertia of the
mechanical moving parts. These models usually have two speeds of operation depending
upon the magnitude of the voltage error. A large voltage error may cause several rheostat
segments to be short-circuited, whereas a small error may short-circuit only one rheostat
segment. The switchover is accomplished by a selection circuit as determined by Kv. The
large error circuit is used whenever the input signal exceeds Kv.
Examples of such systems include the General Electric-GFA4 regulator and the
Westinghouse-BJ30 regulator.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-99

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Kr

Kr is a constant which is used to simulate the non-linearity introduced by selfexcitation. The typical range is Kr > 0.0.

Trh

Trh is the electro-mechanical voltage regulator time constant. It is the travel


time representing continuous motion of the rheostat drive motor. The typical
range is 2.0 < Trh < 100.0.

Kv

Kv is the dead band of the parallel quick-action controller. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 0.02 < Kv < 0.1.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range for
Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is unknown,
then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can automatically determine
the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a separately-excited exciter,
regulator output is required to supply the exciter field and establish the initial
condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case. The typical range for Ke with
separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in per unit..
The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E1
is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase in
exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve. B
is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on
the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0.
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E2 is in per unit.. The
typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E2 is E2
> E1.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-100 Reference Manual

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase in
exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve. B
is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on
the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.32. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 5


Se

Y
V r ef

r egula t or

V r ma x
E c om p

| DV t | < K v

+
S

(PU)

sT r h
Vr

Vr

Ef d

K e + sT e

(PU)

mi n

excit er
Vr

| DV t | > K v
ma x

- Kv
Kv
V r mi n

Fig. 2-37. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 5 Exciter.

The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 5 Exciter model is almost identical to the 1968 IEEE
Standard Type 4 Exciter model on page 2-98. The difference is that the Type 5 has no
dead-band in the slow reset path.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-101

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Trh

Trh is the electro-mechanical voltage regulator time constant. It is the


travel time representing continuous motion of the rheostat drive motor.
The typical range is 2.0 < Trh < 100.0.

Kv

Kv is the dead band of the parallel quick-action controller. It is


dimensionless. The typical range is 0.02 < Kv < 0.1.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce
a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on
the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage
Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on
the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage
Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0
( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range
for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is
unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a
separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the exciter
field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case.
The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate


a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine
the proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in per
unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is
defined as Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to
generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).

E2= Efd max

E2 is the second excitation voltage point. E2 is required in order to


generate a second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to
determine the proper value of exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E2
is in per unit.. The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency
range check for E2 is E2 > E1.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-102 Reference Manual

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the


increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is
defined as Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to
generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load
saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The
typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

2.6.33. 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 5


Se

Y
r e gula t or

V r ef

Vr

max

Efd
E comp

| DV t | < K v

Ka

1 + sT r h

(PU)
Vr

Vr

Efd

1
K e + sT e

e x c i t er

mi n

ma x

(PU)
Efd

mi n

Vt 0
Vr

DV t

| DV t | > K v
ma x

- Kv
Kv
Vr

min

Fig. 2-38. Block Diagram for the 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 5 Exciter.

The 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 5 Exciter model is similar to the 1968 Type 5.
They differ in that the 1979 Type 5 introduces a block which represents the maximum and
minimum limits of the excitation output voltage in the exciter output.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-103

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 10.0 < Ka < 500.0.

Trh

Trh is the electro-mechanical voltage regulator time constant. It is the


travel time representing continuous motion of the rheostat drive motor.
The typical range is 2.0 < Trh < 100.0.

Kv

Kv is the dead band of the parallel quick-action controller. It is


dimensionless. The typical range is 0.02 < Kv < 0.1.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Ke

Ke is the exciter constant. When a self-excited shunt field is used, Ke


represents the setting of the shunt field rheostat and provides a positive
feedback of exciter output. Ke is negative in this case. The typical range
for Ke with self excitation is -1.0 < Ke < 0.0. If the value for Ke is
unknown, then you should set the value to zero so that ISIM can
automatically determine the proper value for Ke. For those systems with a
separately-excited exciter, regulator output is required to supply the exciter
field and establish the initial condition for Efd. Ke is positive in this case.
The typical range for Ke with separate excitation is 0.0 < Ke < 1.0.

E1

E1 is the first excitation voltage point. E1 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of the exciter saturation factor Se at all loads. E1 is in per
unit.. The typical range is E1 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range
check for E1 is E1 < E2.

Se(E1)

Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 <
Se(E1) < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1)
< Se(E2).

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-104 Reference Manual

E2

E2 is the second terminal voltage point. E2 is required in order to generate a


second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the
proper value of the motor saturation factor Se at all loads. E2 is in per unit..
The typical range is E2 > 0.0. The only inter-dependency range check for E2
is E2 > E1.

Se(E2)

Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(A-B)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constant-resistance-load saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) >
0.0
The only inter-dependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).

Efd max

Efd max is the exciter ceiling voltage. It is the maximum direct voltage that
the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals under defined
conditions.

Efd min

Efd min is the minimum excitation voltage. The typical range is Efd min =
0.

2.6.34. 1968 IEEE Standard Type 8


V r ef

Ve

r egula t or
V r ma x

V e ma x
E com p -

(PU)

Kr

1 + sT c

1 + sT b

Ve mi n

Ka

Efd

(PU )

1+sTa
V r mi n
Kf

Vs

(PSS)

V t hev

Vt
It

V t h e v = | K pV t + j K t I t |

In =Kc
La d I f d

La d If d
V t h ev

In

V c ma x

if I n < 0.626, F e x = 1 - 0.577 I n


if 0.626 < I n

Fe x

< 1, F e x = 1.707(1 - I n )

if I n > 1.000, F e x = 0

Fig. 2-39. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 8 Exciter.

The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 8 Exciter specifically models the GE GENEREX excitation
system. This system is quite similar in principal to the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3
Exciter model as described on page 2-95. They differ in that the potential windings of the
transformer in the Type 8 Exciter are fed from a set of auxiliary windings in the core of
the main generator rather than from the terminal. These auxiliary bars provide potential
excitation supply proportional to the generator air-gap flux linkage. Such action results in
a somewhat stronger excitation source with faults at the generator terminal.

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-105

The parameters Kp and Ki are related to the main generator parameters in basically the
same manner as in the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter. They differ in that, regarding
the Type 8 Exciter, there can be no assumptions made about their values and the Type 8
Exciter does not calculate Ki as the Type 3 Exciter would. The excitation ceiling is
determined by the excitation source parameters, the rectifier commutation drop parameter
Kc, and by the limit of the controlled rectifier system, Vr max.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-106 Reference Manual

06/26/2008

Data

Description

Response ratio

This is the exciter response ratio.

Ve max

Ve max is the maximum voltage limit that is imposed on the lead-lag


controller input. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Ve max < 1.0.

Ve min

Ve min is the minimum voltage limit that is imposed on the lead-lag controller
input. It is in per unit. The typical range is -1.0 < Ve min < 0.0.

Kr

Kr is the steady state gain. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < Kr
< 1000.0.

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.

Ka

Ka is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 0.0 < Ka < 200.0.

Ta

Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.

Vr max

Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.

Vr min

Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is -1.5 < Vr min < -0.5.

Kf

Kf is the feedback controller constant. It is dimensionless. The typical range


is 0.0 < Kf < 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check for Kf is 5.0 <
Tf/Kf < 15.0.

Kp

Kp is the potential transformer constant. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 1.0 < Kp < 10.0.

Ki

Ki is the current transformer constant. It is the default data and is in per unit..
The typical range is 0.0 < Ki < 1.1.

Vcmax

Vc max is a voltage limit. It is in per unit. The typical range is 1.0 < Vc max
< 20.0.

Kc

Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due
to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. The
typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.

Xl

Xl is the commutation reactance of the potential transformer. It is in per unit.


The typical range is 0.0 < Xl < 0.5.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-107

2.6.35. Simplified
V r ef

E max

+
E com p

(PU)

1 + sT c

Efd

1+ sT b

1 + sT e

(PU)

E min
Vs

(P S S )

Fig. 2-40. Block Diagram for the Simplified Exciter Model.

The Simplified Exciter model is a simple representation of a wide variety of excitation


systems which fall within the proper choice of parameters. It is particularly useful when
the detailed design of a particular unit is unknown and yet excitation effort needs to be
represented. The typical data given below represent an unknown but presumably well
tuned excitation system. The Tc /Tb ratio represents the transient gain reduction by the
lead-lag controller to provide satisfactory dynamic behavior while maintaining a relatively
high steady-state gain of K.
Te is the exciter time constant specific to the particular kind of exciter that is being
represented. Emax and Emin represent the exciter ceiling and have an important effect on
the overall performance of this system.
Data

Description

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.

K is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 20.0 < K < 500.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Emin

Emin is the minimum excitation output voltage. The typical value is Emin =
0.0.

Emax

Emax is the maximum excitation output voltage. It is in per unit. The typical
range is 3.0 < Emax < 6.0.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-108 Reference Manual

2.6.36. Simplified SCR Static with Bus Fed


V r ef

E t or 1
E

E c om p

(PU)

1+ s T c

1+ s T b

1+ s T e
E

min

max

L ad I f d

brid ge

Nega tiv e
Curr en t
L o gic

Efd

(PU)

Vs

(P S S )

Fig. 2-41. Block Diagram for the Simplified SCR Static Exciter Model With Bus Fed.

The Simplified SCR Static Exciter model4 represents the general characteristics of
controlled rectifier excitation systems. The excitation source can be fed from an
independent source or from a transformer connected directly at the generator terminal bus.
It can also represent systems which have uni-directional current capability as well as those
that have bi-directional current capability. Bi-directional current capability is often
necessary in hydro units which feed radial transmission, because this setup subjects the
units to the possibility of self-excitation upon load rejection. Negative current capability
is represented by setting Rc /Rfd equal to zero.
For uni-directional systems, the thyristors are normally fed firing pulses in rectifier mode
to provide positive field voltage and to carry positive current. During transient response,
the firing pulses can be shifted to provide a negative field voltage while the bridge
continues to carry positive current. Such negative forcing of the field voltage can rapidly
reduce the field current, but the field current cannot become negative. Therefore, a
protective circuit in the form of a bypassing thyristor bridge is needed to reduce the stress
generated by the high positive back emf across the thyristor bridges. There is usually a
current limiting resistor, Rc, connected in series with the bypassing thyristor. The value of
Rc is often set to approximately 10 times the value of the field winding resistance Rfd in
order to provide a field winding discharge of approximately 1/10 of the natural time
constant of the field winding, Td0. Therefore, the typical value of Rc /Rfd is 10 for unidirectional excitation systems.

06/26/2008

P.M. Anderson and A.A. Fouad, p. I-11.

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-109

Data

Description

Tc/Tb

Tc/Tb is the lead-lag ratio of the lead-lag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.

Tb

Tb is the lead-lag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only inter-dependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.

K is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 20.0 < K < 500.0.

Te

Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.

Emin

Emin is the minimum excitation output voltage. The typical value is Emin =
0.0.

Emax

Emax is the maximum excitation output voltage. It is in per unit. The typical
range is 3.0 < Emax < 6.0.

Switch Position

Set switch position = 0 for bus fed. Set switch position = 1 for solid fed.

Rc/Rfd

Set rc/rfd = 10.0 for uni-directional excitation systems. Set rc/rfd = 0.0 for bidirectional excitation systems.

2.6.37. Simplified SCR Static with Solid Fed


See Simplified SCR Static with Bus Fed.

2.7. Turbine Governor Models


These Sections describe the various Turbine Governor models.

2.7.1. Standard Steam


Vma x
Ref

1+sT1

1+sT

+
2

1+sT 3

Pme c h

Vmi n

Dw

Dt ur b
speed

Fig. 2-42. Diagram for the Standard Steam Turbine Governor Model.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-110 Reference Manual

The Standard Steam Turbine Governor model is a simple but sufficient model for
representing common steam turbine governors. For the Standard Steam Turbine Governor
Model, the steam bowl time constant is ignored since it is usually too small in comparison
to the re-heater time constant T3. The high pressure power fraction T1/T3 is assumed to
have been developed instantaneously upon the initiation of governor action represented by
the time constant T1. Turbine damping Dturb is defined per unit on the base equal to the
unit rating. For steam, nuclear, and gas turbines, Dturb can usually be assumed to be 0.0.
Data

Description

R is the permanent droop. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < R <
1.0.

T1

T1 is the governor time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < T1 < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If
a smaller governor time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < T1/4.

Vmax

Vmax is the maximum governor output. It is in per unit. The typical range is
0.5 < Vmax < 1.2. The only inter-dependency range check is Vmax > Vmin.

Vmin

Vmin is the minimum governor output. It is in per unit. The typical range is
0.0 < Vmin < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check is Vmin < Vmax.

T2/T3

T2/T3 is the high pressure turbine power fraction. It is dimensionless. The


typical range is 0.0 < T2/T3 < 0.5

T3

T3 is the reheating time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < T3 < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < T3 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < T3 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If
a smaller reheating time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < T3/4.

Dturb

Dturb is the turbine damping. Dturb is in per unit form; the unit rating is used
as the base. For steam, nuclear, and gas turbines, Dturb can usually be assumed
to be zero. For other cases, the typical range is 0.0 < Dturb < 0.5.

2.7.2. Standard Hydro


The Standard Hydro Governor Model is the standard recommended model for representing
a straightforward hydro plant with simple penstock, unrestricted head race and tailrace,
and no surge tank. Older models in other stability programs usually represent the hydro
turbine using a linear water time constant Tw, making it valid only in a narrow region
around the original operating point. The Standard Hydro Governor Model represents the
hydro turbine using a non-linear representation of the turbine itself and is valid over a
much wider range of speed fluctuation. It can also be used to model the behavior of plants
with long inlet tunnels isolated from the penstocks by surge tanks, when the simulation
time is short, for example 10 seconds, compared to the surge tank period, generally several
minutes. It is critical to tune the values of r and Tr so that realistic governor action be
obtained.
The governor represented in the Standard Hydro Governor model is valid for both
dashpot-type mechanical governors and electro-hydraulic governors. Notice that there is
no derivative action term included in the following equation, since most interconnected
power systems only use alternative action in specialized situations. Vlimit should be set to
the reciprocal of the time required for the gates to move from their fully open to their fully
closed positions. The water time constant Tw is the time required for the rated water head

06/26/2008

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-111

to accelerate the water column from rest to rated flow and is given approximately by the
following equation:

LQ r
GA p H r

Tw =
where
Tw

required time for the rated water head to accelerate the water column
from rest to rated flow;

Qr

rated flow;

central line length of penstock + scroll case + draft tube;

gravitational acceleration;

Ap

penstock cross sectional area;

Hr

rated water head.

The permanent droop, R, and the temporary droop, r, should be specified in per unit on the
unit rating base. Gmax and Gmin are the maximum and minimum gate limits, respectively
Qnl is the flow required to maintain rated speed with the unit off-line expressed as per unit
of rated flow. At is the turbine gain given by

1
G fl G nl
where
Gfl

full load gate (from 0 to 1);

Gnl

no load gate (from 0 to 1).

N r ef

Dw

1+ sT r

1+sT g

s rT r

1+ sT f

Dw

speed

Dt ur b

G
X

1.0

sT w

Pme c h

At

Q nl

Fig. 2-43. Block Diagram for the Standard Hydro Governor Model.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-112 Reference Manual

Data

Description

R is the permanent droop. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < R <
1.0.

r is the temporary droop. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < r <
2.0. The only inter-dependency range check is r > R.

Tr

Tr is the governor time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Tr < 30. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Tr < 30. ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tr < 30. ( for 50 Hz ).

Tf

Tf is the filter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) <
Tf < 0.1. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is
calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore
0.03332 < Tf < 0.1 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 0.1 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller
filter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be
chosen so that Integration time step < Tf/4.

Tg

Tg is the servo time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step )
< Tg < 0.1. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which
is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Tg < 0.1 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tg < 0.1 ( for 50 Hz ). If
a smaller servo time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Tg/4.

Date Velocity
(+/-) Vlimit

This is the date velocity limit. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 <
Vlimit < 0.3.

Gmax

Gmax is the maximum gate limit. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 <
Gmax < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check is Gmax < Gmin.

Gmin

Gmin is the minimum gate limit. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 <
Gmin < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check is Gmin < Gmax.

Tw

Tw is the water time constant at rated load.


3.0.

At

At is the turbine gain. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.8 < At < 1.5.

Dturb

Dturb the turbine damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is


0.0 < Dturb0.5.

Qnl

Qnl is the no-load flow. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Qnl < 0.15.

The typical range is 0.5 < Tw <

2.7.3. Simplified Gas


The simplified Gas Turbine Governor model is valid for simple cycle operation with an
operating range from -10 percent to 110 percent.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-113

Dw

Dt ur b

speed
1
R

Vmax

Load ref +

LV
GATE

1+sT1

1+sT2

Pmech

Vmi n

Kt

1
1+sT3

Load
Limit

Fig. 2-44. Block Diagram for the Simplified Gas Turbine Governor Model.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-114 Reference Manual

Data

Description

R is the permanent droop. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 <


R < 1.0.

T1

T1 is the combustion-chamber time constant. The typical range is 4*(


Integration time step ) < T1 < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller combustion-chamber time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < T1/4.

T2

T2 is the combustion-chamber time constant. The typical range is 4*(


Integration time step ) < T2 < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T2 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < T2 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller combustion-chamber time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < T2/4.

T3

T3 is the gas turbine thermal time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < T3 < 10. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T3 < 10. ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < T3 < 10. ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller gas turbine thermal time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < T3/4.

Lmax

Lmax is the ambient temperature load limit. Lmax = 1.0 at design


temperature. Lmax = 0.9 at 25 degrees Fahrenheit and above.

Kt

Kt is a constant. The data shown is typical data and is dimensionless.


The typical range is Kt > 0.0.

Vmax

Vmax is the maximum fuel valve opening. The data shown is typical
data and is in per unit.. The typical range is Vmax > 0.0.

Vmin

Vmin is the minimum fuel valve opening. The data shown is typical data
and is in per unit.. The typical range is Vmin > -1.0.

Dturb

Dturb the turbine damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical


range is 0.0 < Dturb0.5.

2.7.4. Isochronous Diesel


The Isochronous Diesel Governor Engine model is based on a Woodward Governor
consisting of an electronic speed sensor, a hydro-mechanical actuator, and the diesel
engine itself. A typical diesel engine design limits fuel input on a per-cycle basis and the
energy developed is assumed to be directly proportional to the amount of fuel on a percycle basis. The power being supplied by the prime mover to the engine can be obtained
by multiplying the energy developed per cycle by the rotational speed of the engine. The
limits for the actuator are usually expressed as torque limits.
To determine the diesel engine dead time required by this model, apply this formula:

Td =

15
60
+
N Nn

where
Td

06/26/2008

engine dead time in seconds;

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-115

engine speed in rpm;

number of cylinders firing per revolution.

Tm ax
1+Sp eed

( 1 + sT 3 )

s pe ed

1 + sT 1 + s T 1T 2
2

K (1 + sT 4 )
s (1+ s T5 )(1+ sT 6 )

Elec tr ic c ontr ol bo x
T mi n

A c t ua tor

sTd

P me c h

Engine

Fig. 2-45. Block Diagram for the Isochronous Diesel Governor Model.
Data

Description

T1

T1 is the combustion-chamber time constant. The typical range is 4*(


Integration time step ) < T1 < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller combustion-chamber time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < T1/4.

T2

T2 is the combustion-chamber time constant. The typical range is 4*(


Integration time step ) < T2 < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T2 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < T2 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller combustion-chamber time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < T2/4.

T3

T3 is the gas turbine thermal time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < T3 < 10. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T3 < 10. ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < T3 < 10. ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller gas turbine thermal time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < T3/4.

K is the steady state gain of the voltage regulator. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 15.0 < K < 25.

T4

T4 is a constant of the actuator. The typical range is 0.04 < T4 < 25.

T5

T5 is a constant of the actuator. The typical range is 0.04 < T5 < 10.

T6

T6 is a constant of the actuator. The typical range is 0.04 < T6 < 0.5.

Td

Td is the engine dead time. The typical range is 0.0 < Td < 0.125.

Tmax

Tmax is the maximum actuator torque. The typical range is 0.5 < Tmax
< 1.5.

Tmin

Tmin is the minimum actuator torque. The typical range is -0.05 < Tmin
< 0.5.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-116 Reference Manual

2.7.5. Synchronous Diesel


The Synchronous Diesel Turbine Governor Engine model consists of an electronic speed
sensor, a mechanical actuator, the engine itself, and a feedback control for synchronicity.
The power being supplied by the prime mover to the engine can then be obtained by
multiplying the energy developed per cycle by the rotational speed of the engine. The
limits for the actuator are usually expressed as torque limits.
V ma x
R ef

1+sT 1

1+sT

+
2

1+sT 3

V mi n

Dw

Dt u r b
speed

Fig. 2-46. Block Diagram for the Synchronous Diesel Governor Model.

06/26/2008

Pme c h

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-117

Data

Description

R is the permanent droop. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 <


R < 1.0.

T1

T1 is the governor time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < T1 < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< T1 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller governor time constant is used, then
a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < T1/4.

Vmax

Vmax is the maximum governor output. It is in per unit. The typical


range is 0.5 < Vmax < 1.2. The only inter-dependency range check is
Vmax > Vmin.

Vmin

Vmin is the minimum governor output. It is in per unit. The typical


range is 0.0 < Vmin < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check is
Vmin < Vmax.

T2/T3

T2/T3 is the high pressure turbine power fraction. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 0.0 < T2/T3 < 0.5

T3

T3 is the reheating time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < T3 < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T3 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< T3 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller reheating time constant is used, then
a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < T3/4.

Dturb

Dturb is the turbine damping. Dturb is in per unit form; the unit rating is
used as the base. For steam, nuclear, and gas turbines, Dturb can usually
be assumed to be zero. For other cases, the typical range is 0.0 < Dturb
< 0.5.

2.7.6. General Purpose


This models works well for the other types of governors that don't fit any of the previous
categories.
Vmax
R ef

1+ sT 1

1+ sT

+
2

1+ sT 3

Pme c h

V min

Dw

Dtur b
sp e ed

Fig. 2-47. Block Diagram for the General Purpose Governor Model.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-118 Reference Manual

Data

Description

R is the permanent droop. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 <


R < 1.0.

T1

T1 is the governor time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < T1 < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< T1 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller governor time constant is used, then
a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < T1/4.

Vmax

Vmax is the maximum governor output. It is in per unit. The typical


range is 0.5 < Vmax < 1.2. The only inter-dependency range check is
Vmax > Vmin.

Vmin

Vmin is the minimum governor output. It is in per unit. The typical


range is 0.0 < Vmin < 1.0. The only inter-dependency range check is
Vmin < Vmax.

T2/T3

T2/T3 is the high pressure turbine power fraction. It is dimensionless.


The typical range is 0.0 < T2/T3 < 0.5

T3

T3 is the reheating time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration


time step ) < T3 < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T3 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< T3 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller reheating time constant is used, then
a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < T3/4.

Dturb

Dturb is the turbine damping. Dturb is in per unit form; the unit rating is
used as the base. For steam, nuclear, and gas turbines, Dturb can usually
be assumed to be zero. For other cases, the typical range is 0.0 < Dturb
< 0.5.

2.8. Relay Models


These Sections describe the various Relay models.

2.8.1. Time Inverse Overcurrent


The time inverse overcurrent relay has an inverse time characteristic which functions when
the current exceeds a predetermined value. It is commonly used as either a primary or
backup protective device.

06/26/2008

Pickup

I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-119

1st current point

Relay operating time (sec)

T C1

2nd current point

T C2

3rd current point

TC 3
4th current point

TC 4
TC 5
I pu

min

I2

I3

I4

I5
Saturation
current

Current (PU)

Fig. 2-48. Time-Inverse Overcurrent Relay Characteristics.

Data

Description

Ipu
T0
Imin
TC1
I2
TC2
I3
TC3
I4
TC4
I5
TC5
TB
Frac

Pickup current
Zero current reset time
Lowest operating current
1st relay closing time
2nd operating current
2nd relay closing time
3rd operating current
3rd relay closing time
4th operating current
4th relay closing time
Saturation current
5th relay closing time
Breaker time
Fraction of load to shed

2.8.2. Under Frequency Load Shedding


The under-frequency load shedding relay functions on a predetermined value of frequency
below nominal frequency.
It is highly desirable to apply under-frequency relays whenever the load is supplied
exclusively by the local generator or by a combination of the local generator and the
utility. Whenever a fault causes a major generator to drop off line or causes the utility tie
to open, the remaining generators begin to slow down and the frequency decreases. The

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-120 Reference Manual

under-frequency relay operates in a three-step load shedding scheme so that three


predetermined load amounts are tripped off at three specific frequencies below normal
frequencies.
Data

Description

Hz1
T1
Frac1
Hz2
T2
Frac2
Hz3
T3
Frac3
TB
Qex

1st frequency pickup point (in Hz)


1st pickup time
1st load fraction to shed
2nd frequency pickup point (in Hz)
2nd pickup time
2nd load fraction to shed
3rd frequency pickup point (in Hz)
3rd pickup time
3rd load fraction to shed
Breaker time
Nominal shunt Mvar to be excluded from load shedding

2.8.3. Under Frequency and dF / dt Load Shedding


This relay functions on both a predetermined frequency value below nominal frequency
and a predetermined value of the frequency change rate above nominal rate of change of
frequency.
It operates in a three step load shedding scheme so that three predetermined amounts of
loads are tripped off at three specific frequencies below nominal and at three specific rates
of change of frequency above nominal.
Data

Description

Hz1
T1
Frac1
Hz2
T2
Frac2
Hz3
T3
Frac3
TB
Qex
DF1
DF2
DF3

1st frequency pickup point (in Hz)


1st pickup time
1st load fraction to shed
2nd frequency pickup point (in Hz)
2nd pickup time
2nd load fraction to shed
3rd frequency pickup point (in Hz)
3rd pickup time
3rd load fraction to shed
Breaker time
Nominal shunt MVAR to be excluded from load shedding
1st rate of frequency shedding point
2nd rate of frequency shedding point
3rd rate of frequency shedding point

2.8.4. Time Inverse Under Frequency Load Shedding


The time inverse under-frequency load shedding relay has an inverse time characteristic
which is triggered when the frequency drops below a predetermined value.

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-121

Nominal
Operating
Time
(Sec)

f1
Rated
Frequency

f2

f3

f4

Zero frequency

Frequency(Hz)

Fig. 2-49. Nominal Operating Time verses Frequency Graph.


Data

Description

F1
Z1
F2
Z2
F3
Z3
F4
Z4
Tb
Frac
Qex
Freset
Treset

Frequency value for 1st data point pair (in Hz)


Nominal operating time for 1st data point pair
Frequency value for 2nd data point pair (in Hz)
Nominal operating time for 2nd data point pair
Frequency value for 3rd data point pair (in Hz)
Nominal operating time for 3rd data point pair
Frequency value for 4th data point pair (in Hz)
Nominal operating time for 4th data point pair
Break time
Fraction of load to be shed
Nominal shunt MVAR to be excluded from load shedding
Reset frequency (in Hz)
Reset time

2.8.5. Rate of Change of Power


The rate of change of power relay is often applied to a relay in or near the utility
connection. It functions at a predetermined value of rate of change of power above
nominal and at a predetermined value of power above nominal.
Data

Description

TB
Td
p
t
Pthresh
Cf

Breaker time (in seconds)


Delay time (in seconds)
Derivative threshold (in MW/second)
Power threshold (in MW)
Filter constant (multiple of time step)

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM 2-122 Reference Manual

2.9. Bus Load Models


These Sections describe the various Bus Load models.

2.9.1. Frequency Sensitive Bus Load


The Frequency Sensitive Bus Load represents the most basic form of load frequency
sensitivity modeling for a specified bus. In addition to the standard load voltage
sensitivity characteristics described in the beginning of "Single Valued Load
Characteristic" on page 2-123, this model adds load frequency sensitivity to the constant
kVA and constant current portion of the load in accordance with the equations listed in the
following equations. The constant impedance portion of the load adjusts for local
frequency if the network frequency dependent model has been selected.

FI
P=P G J
H K
FI
Q=Q G J
H K
FI
I=I G J
H K

Ap

Aq

Al

Data

Description

Ap

Real power load exponent. The typical range is Ap > 0.0.

Aq

Reactive power load exponent. The typical range is Aq > 0.0.

Al

Current load exponent. The typical range is Ai > 0.0.

2.10. IEEE Bus Load


The IEEE Bus Load Model affects only the constant kVA load at a specified bus
according to the following two equations. It has no effect on the constant current and
constant admittance portion of the load. Care must be taken to coordinate load model
calls.

jc

P = Pload a1V n1 + a 2 V n 2 + a 3V n 3 1 + a 7 f

jc

Q = Q load a 4 V n 4 + a 5V n 5 + a 6 V n 6 1 + a 8 f

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I*SIM Study I*SIM 2-123

Data

Description

A1

A1 is the first coefficient for the kVA power/voltage sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is A1 > 0.0.

N1

N1 is the first exponent for the kVA power/voltage sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is N1 > 0.0.

A2

A2 is the second coefficient for the kVA power/voltage sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is A2 > 0.0.

N2

N2 is the second exponent for the kVA power/voltage sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is N2 > 0.0.

A3

A3 is the third coefficient for the kVA power/voltage sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is A3 > 0.0.

N3

N3 is the third exponent for the kVA power/voltage sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is N3 > 0.0.

A4

A4 is the first coefficient for the reactive power/voltage sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is A4 > 0.0.

N4

N4 is the first exponent for the reactive power/voltage sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is N4 > 0.0.

A5

A5 is the second coefficient for the reactive power/voltage


sensitivity polynomial. The typical range is A5 > 0.0.

N5

N5 is the second exponent for the reactive power/voltage


sensitivity polynomial. The typical range is N5 > 0.0.

A6

A6 is the third coefficient for the reactive power/voltage


sensitivity polynomial. The typical range is A6 > 0.0.

N6

N6 is the third exponent for the reactive power/voltage sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is N6 > 0.0.

A7

A7 is the coefficient for the kVA power/frequency sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is A7 > 0.0.

A8

A8 is the coefficient for the reactive power/frequency sensitivity


polynomial. The typical range is A8 > 0.0.

Single Valued Load Characteristic


The single valued load characteristic is the most commonly used method in large system
studies. It is a reasonable and necessary approach since specific load detail is generally
unknown. I*SIM recognizes constant kVA, constant current, and constant impedance load
characteristics in the load flow database. The term constant implies that the load does
not change as a function of voltage. In reality, this is not and cannot be the case, except
for constant admittance loads.
Therefore, I*SIM by default requires that the kVA and current load be zero at zero
voltage. To compensate for unavailable data, I*SIM represents the constant kVA load
characteristic as shown in Error! Reference source not found., and the constant current
load characteristic as shown in Fig. 2-51.

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

Constant PQ load

Constant PQ load

I*SIM 2-124 Reference Manual

PQ break

Voltage

Fig. 2-50. Constant kVA Load


Characteristic.

PQ break

Voltage

Fig. 2-51. Constant Current Load


Characteristic.

The variation of load as a function of network frequencies and voltages can be specified
by using one of the provided I*SIM load models.
Three basic assumptions, that is constant PQ, constant current, and constant impedance
loads, are useful in the absence of better information; however, they do not always
provide an acceptable representation of system load characteristics as the real and reactive
power system voltages and local bus frequencies fluctuate. Assuming that the PQ, current,
and impedance are constant is an inadequate approach for cases in which load
characteristics play a major role in the systems transient behavior. This approach is also
unusable when the dynamics of the induction motors themselves are of specific interest.
When the dynamics of the motors themselves are of specific interest, use the induction
motor model provided in the I*SIM model library.

06/26/2008

I*SIM

Index
A

Angle Reference Machine, 1-36


Axes, 1-54

F
Flowchart, 1-3
From Demand Load Study, 1-38

B
Branch Models and Events, 1-20
Branch Voltage Drop, 1-39
Bus Load Models, 2-109
Bus Models and Events, 1-19
Bus Voltage Drop, 1-39

G
Generalized Machine Block Diagram, 2-7
Generation Acceleration Factor, 1-39
Global/Case Study Setup, 1-35
Go to Component Editor, 1-57
Go to I*SIM command, 1-5
Go to One-Line Diagram, 1-57

C
Case
adding components to, 1-9
copying to a different Folder, 1-8
deleting, 1-9
introduction, 1-7
moving to a different Folder, 1-8
removing components from, 1-11
renaming, 1-8
Case Study Setup, 1-35
Channels, defined, 1-24
Convergence Failure, 1-45
Curves, plotting, 1-47

D
Damping and Torque Equation, 2-8
Demand Load Report, 1-40
Directly Connected Loads, 1-38
Dynamic Event, 1-12
Dynamic Report, 1-41
Dynamic Simulation, 1-26

E
Event Mode, 1-6
Events
adding to a component, 1-12
Examples, 1-67
Exciter Models, 2-35

I
Induction Motor Models, 2-26
Inertia, 2-9
Initialization Error, 1-43
Input Report, 1-40

L
LF Setup Options, 1-37
Library
adding models to, 2-4
Bus Load Models, 2-109
copying and pasting models, 2-4
editing models in, 2-3
Exciter Models, 2-35
general usage, 2-2
Induction Motor Models, 2-26
opening for editing, 2-2
Relay Models, 2-105
source machine models, 2-10
Synchronous Motor Models, 2-22
Turbine Governor Models, 2-96
using metric units, 2-5
Library Models, applying, 1-14
Load Acceleration Factor, 1-39
Load Flow Report, 1-41
Load Specification, 1-38
Log Report, 1-42

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM ii

Reference Manual

M
Machine Models, 2-10
Machine Saturation, 2-10
Maximum Simulation Time, 1-36
Metric units, 2-5
Model Frequency Dependent Network, 1-36
Motor Models and Events, 1-17

N
Norton Equivalent, 2-5

O
Out of Service component, 1-11

P
Plot
annotations, 1-58
axes, 1-54
channels, 1-24
colors, sizes, and fonts, 1-61
creating new, 1-54
deleting, 1-54
exporting, 1-60
opening, 1-54
printing, 1-65
renaming, 1-54
using, 1-49
zooming, 1-58
Plotting Curves, 1-47
PQ Machine, 1-15
Preparing data before opening, 1-4
PV Machine, 1-15

Report
Demand Load Report, 1-40
Dynamic Report, 1-41
Input Report, 1-40
Load Flow Report, 1-41
Log Report, 1-42
Report, opening, 1-39

S
Simulation Time Step, 1-36
Solution Criteria, 1-38
Solution Parameter Event, 1-31
Source Machine Models, 2-10
Source Models and Events, 1-15
Starting Simulation, 1-26
Study
creating a new, 1-9
deleting, 1-9
introduction, 1-7
renaming, 1-9
Study Manager, 1-4
Study Setup Options, 1-35
Sub-Transient Saliency Effect, 2-7
Swing Bus, 1-4, 1-15
Synchronous Motor Models, 2-22
System Base Frequency, 1-4
System Damping, 1-14

T
Turbine Governor Models, 2-96

V
Var Mismatch, 1-47

R
Relay Models, 2-105
Relay Models and Events, 1-21

3/26/2006

Works Cited, 1-91

I*SIM

Index

A
Angle Reference Machine, 1-36
Axes, 1-54

F
Flowchart, 1-3
From Demand Load Study, 1-38

B
Branch Models and Events, 1-20
Branch Voltage Drop, 1-39
Bus Load Models, 2-109
Bus Models and Events, 1-19
Bus Voltage Drop, 1-39

G
Generalized Machine Block Diagram, 2-7
Generation Acceleration Factor, 1-39
Global/Case Study Setup, 1-35
Go to Component Editor, 1-57
Go to I*SIM command, 1-5
Go to One-Line Diagram, 1-57

C
Case
adding components to, 1-9
copying to a different Folder, 1-8
deleting, 1-9
introduction, 1-7
moving to a different Folder, 1-8
removing components from, 1-11
renaming, 1-8
Case Study Setup, 1-35
Channels, defined, 1-24
Convergence Failure, 1-45
Curves, plotting, 1-47

D
Damping and Torque Equation, 2-8
Demand Load Report, 1-40
Directly Connected Loads, 1-38
Dynamic Event, 1-12
Dynamic Report, 1-41
Dynamic Simulation, 1-26

E
Event Mode, 1-6
Events
adding to a component, 1-12
Examples, 1-67
Exciter Models, 2-35

I
Induction Motor Models, 2-26
Inertia, 2-9
Initialization Error, 1-43
Input Report, 1-40

L
LF Setup Options, 1-37
Library
adding models to, 2-4
Bus Load Models, 2-109
copying and pasting models, 2-4
editing models in, 2-3
Exciter Models, 2-35
general usage, 2-2
Induction Motor Models, 2-26
opening for editing, 2-2
Relay Models, 2-105
source machine models, 2-10
Synchronous Motor Models, 2-22
Turbine Governor Models, 2-96
using metric units, 2-5
Library Models, applying, 1-14
Load Acceleration Factor, 1-39
Load Flow Report, 1-41
Load Specification, 1-38
Log Report, 1-42

SKM Power*Tools for Windows

I*SIM ii

Reference Manual

M
Machine Models, 2-10
Machine Saturation, 2-10
Maximum Simulation Time, 1-36
Metric units, 2-5
Model Frequency Dependent Network, 1-36
Motor Models and Events, 1-17

N
Norton Equivalent, 2-5

O
Out of Service component, 1-11

P
Plot
annotations, 1-58
axes, 1-54
channels, 1-24
colors, sizes, and fonts, 1-61
creating new, 1-54
deleting, 1-54
exporting, 1-60
opening, 1-54
printing, 1-65
renaming, 1-54
using, 1-49
zooming, 1-58
Plotting Curves, 1-47
PQ Machine, 1-15
Preparing data before opening, 1-4
PV Machine, 1-15

Report
Demand Load Report, 1-40
Dynamic Report, 1-41
Input Report, 1-40
Load Flow Report, 1-41
Log Report, 1-42
Report, opening, 1-39

S
Simulation Time Step, 1-36
Solution Criteria, 1-38
Solution Parameter Event, 1-31
Source Machine Models, 2-10
Source Models and Events, 1-15
Starting Simulation, 1-26
Study
creating a new, 1-9
deleting, 1-9
introduction, 1-7
renaming, 1-9
Study Manager, 1-4
Study Setup Options, 1-35
Sub-Transient Saliency Effect, 2-7
Swing Bus, 1-4, 1-15
Synchronous Motor Models, 2-22
System Base Frequency, 1-4
System Damping, 1-14

T
Turbine Governor Models, 2-96

V
Var Mismatch, 1-47

R
Relay Models, 2-105
Relay Models and Events, 1-21

6/26/2008

Works Cited, 1-91