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Contents
1 I*SIM STUDY
11
I*SIM ii
Reference Manual
21
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Contents
I*SIM iii
I*SIM iv
Reference Manual
Index
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I*SIM i
1 I*SIM Study
IN THIS CHAPTER
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Prepare Static System Data
1.3. Open the I*SIM Study Manager
1.4. Create Dynamic Simulation Events
1.5. Assign Models and Events to Components
1.6. Run Dynamic Simulation to Produce Data
1.7. Convergence Failure and Other Errors
1.8. Plot Simulation Curves
1.9. Examples
1.10. Works Cited
12
14
14
16
111
144
160
164
183
1107
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1.1. Introduction
A common problem in the management of threephase power systems is the instability
caused by balanced network disturbances. The Industrial Simulation (I*SIM) Study
module helps you overcome these problems by providing a clear picture of the impact
these disturbances will have on your power system.
I*SIM can simulate all types of balanced network disturbances including isolation from
the utility; fast transfer switching; motor starting, tripping, and reclosing; loss of
generation; loss of excitation; blocked governors; tieline oscillations; load rejection; load
shedding; and system splitup, among others. Since I*SIM is designed specifically to
simulate the electromechanical dynamic behavior of power systems, there are some
events which occur outside I*SIMs analysis range, as shown in Fig. 11:
Lightning Overvoltages
Subsynchronous Resonance
10
7
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
2
10
0.1
10
10
10
10
1 microsec
1 degree
at 60 Hertz
1 cycle
1 sec
1 min
1 hr
As Fig. 11 indicates, I*SIMs scope lies between that of events such as lightning overvoltage and boiler response.
The following flowchart illustrates the steps involved in running an I*SIM Study.
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Troubleshoot Project
and rerun.
Errors
No Errors
Plot Curves
Switch the I*SIM Study Manager to Plot Mode to display the curves.
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Check that every isolated portion of the system has at least one swing bus
connected to it. In PTW, a swing bus is one of two things: 1) a utility
component; 2) a generator component whose Schedule type (found on the first
subview of the Component Editor) is set to Volts & Angle (SB). Typically
your Project will only contain one swing bus because the Project contains a
single, complete electrical system. However, if your Project contains isolated
portions that arent connected to one another, then every one of those portions
must contain a swing bus. (A swing bus schedules voltage magnitude and
voltage angle, while allowing real power and reactive power to vary. Swing
buses are useful for simulating transfer switching between different sources with
known bus voltages and angles: for example, transfer switching between two
different utility bus connections.)
Run the Demand Load Study and the Load Flow Study (these Studies come with
the DAPPER Study Module). In addition to preparing the system, running these
Studies will help you verify that your steady state system has the correct data
entered.
Check that sizes are entered in the Component Editor for all the cables,
transformers, motors, utilities, and generators.
If the electrical system is not complete, I*SIM will report an error and will not run.
Note: The System Base Frequency is determined by the Engineering Standard
chosen in the Application Options. If the Engineering Standard is ANSI, then the
System Base Frequency=60 hz. Conversely, if the Engineering Standard is IEC,
then the System Base Frequency=50 hz.
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Tip: You can also use the Go to I*SIM command from the Window menu to take
components from a OneLine Diagram or the Component Editor to I*SIM. When
youre on a OneLine Diagram, the selected (that is, highlighted) components will be
taken to I*SIM, whereas when youre in the Component Editor, all the components
currently shown will be taken to I*SIM. You can then create a new Study and Case
or pick an existing Study and Case in which to place the components.
Aside from modifying static system data (such as changing bus voltages, modifying
transformer taps, and so on) in the Component Editor, you run the entire I*SIM Study
using the I*SIM Study Manager. To understand how the I*SIM Study Manager works,
keep in mind that it only has three main purposes:
1.
2.
3.
To graphically plot the effect of these events on components and buses throughout the
electrical system.
Therefore, the I*SIM Study Manager operates in three distinct modes, each of which
corresponds to these goals. To switch to a mode, click one of the three buttons at the
bottom of the I*SIM Study Manager:
1.
2.
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3.
/
Lastly, use Plot Mode to graphically plot the results of the
Simulation (the Plot button lets you create new Plots or select different Plots, while
the Graph button returns to the most recently shown Plot).
Note: When you open the I*SIM Study Manager, the Event button will be disabled
(that is, grayed out). This indicates that I*SIM is already in Event Mode. Similarly,
when you switch to Plot Mode, the Graph button will be disabled to indicate that
I*SIM is in Plot Mode.
The first step, then, is to create the dynamic simulation events, as discussed in the next
section.
The StudyCase View keeps track of the Cases you set up.
The Event View keeps track of the events you set up for each component.
The Data Channel View keeps track of the channels in each Case that you want to
generate data for.
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in the lowerleft
Tip: You can also find many of I*SIMs commands by clicking the right mouse
button.
Although you can run I*SIM using just one Case, you will find it beneficial to create lots
of Cases, because, as we will demonstrate, Cases provide the real power of I*SIM.
Lets say you have an electrical system on which you want to examine various
disturbances. For example, youd like to see how Branch A will react to a blocked
governor on a generator followed by a loss of excitation, as opposed to how Branch A will
react to a 6cycle fault on a bus. In singlesimulation programs, you would first have to
run the simulation for the generators blocked generator and loss of excitation, then plot
the results. After that, you would have to rerun the simulation for the fault at the bus,
then plot the results. Even worse, there would be no easy way to compare the plots.
In I*SIM, you can actually run numerous simulations at once. In the above example, you
could create two Cases, one Case with the generators governor being blocked at 2
seconds followed by a loss of excitation at 3 seconds, and another Case with the bus fault
occurring at 0.1 seconds and being cleared at 0.2 seconds, then let I*SIM simulate them
simultaneously, and compare their curves. In fact, you could create ten, twenty or even
fifty Cases if you wanted. How is this simultaneous simulation possible? Its possible
because each Case represents a distinct what if speculation about a series of dynamic
events.
Think of a Case as a hypothetical span of time, beginning at 0 seconds, in which you start
motors, perform load changes, create bus faults, and so on. Cases are not linked to one
anothereach Case represents a distinct span of time. Therefore, a single component may
appear in a number of Cases, since each Case represents its own span of time, and assigns
its own set of dynamic events (such as starting time, load change, etc.) to that component.
In the above example, the blocked governor at 2 seconds is one event, the loss of
excitation at 3 seconds is another event, and the two events together make up a Case.
Dont presume that a particular component has to appear in every case; in fact, each Case
can have an entirely different set of components. Also, you can assign numerous events to
a single component; you arent limited to just one event per component.
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With regard to Studies, they merely provide a storage place for Cases; Studies have
nothing to do with the dynamic events. Within a Study you may have multiple Cases, or
you may create a new Study for every Case. Whether you place all your Cases in one
Study or every Case in a separate Study doesnt affect the Cases at all.
To summarize, you can have multiple Cases within a Study, and you can have multiple
Studies within the I*SIM Study.
Tip: Studies provide an easy way to organize Cases based on different network
configurations. This will be discussed more thoroughly in Section 1.6, Run
Dynamic Simulation to Produce Data.
To create a new Case
1. With a folder highlighted, select New Case from the Case menu or click the New
Case button
on the toolbar. A new Case will appear. A new Case will appear.
Also, a window similar to the one below will show up.
The window above allows the user to select the sources, motors, buses, and branches
to be include in the case.
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With a Case highlighted, select Cut from the Edit menu, then highlight a different
Study and select Paste from the Edit menu. You can also drag the Case to a different
Study. (When you move a Case, the channels wont retain their data. See section
1.8.1 for more information on how to determine when channels have data.)
To copy a Case
1.
With a Case highlighted, select Copy from the Edit menu, then highlight a different
Study and select Paste from the Edit menu. You may paste Cases to the same Study
or to a different Study. (When you copy a Case, the channels you picked wont retain
their data. See section 1.8.1 for more information on how to determine when channels
have data.)
Tip: An easy way to compare Cases with only slight differences is to copy and
paste a Case, then make the changes. For example, lets say you have a Case which
simulates a 6cycle fault, and you want to analyze the same Case (same components,
same Library models, and so on) but for 9cycles instead of 6. Instead of recreating
the whole Case, you can simply copy and paste the Case, then modify the Apply
Fault and Clear Fault event times for the bus so its 9cycles long instead of 6.
To rename a Case
1.
Highlight a Case by singleclicking it with the left mouse button. With the Case
highlighted, select Rename from the Case menu.
2.
3.
To delete a Case
1.
With Industrial Simulation highlighted, select New Study from the Case menu. A
new Study will appear.
To rename a Study
1.
Highlight a Study by singleclicking it with the left mouse button. With the Study
highlighted, select Rename from the Case menu.
2.
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3.
To delete a Study
1.
With a Case highlighted, choose Select Components from the Case menu, or click
the Select Components button
on the toolbar. You can also right mouse click
on the case and then select the Select Components command. The Select
Components dialog box will appear.
2.
In the Select Components dialog box, choose the components for this Case. You must
select at least one source (utility or generator) for each Case. You select components
of different types by switching to the appropriate tab (for example, to add a
transmission line, switch to the Branch tab).
Tip: You can also use the Go to I*SIM command from the Window menu to take
components from a OneLine Diagram or the Component Editor to I*SIM. When
youre on a OneLine Diagram, the selected (that is, highlighted) components will be
taken to I*SIM, whereas when youre in the Component Editor, all the components
currently shown will be taken to I*SIM. You can then create a new Study and Case
or pick an existing Study and Case in which to place the components.
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When finished, click the OK button. Note that the components you selected now appear
under the Case, as shown in Fig. 12:
Fig. 12
Important: Any components that are Out of Service will not appear in Select
Components dialog box.
Removing components from a Case involves the same procedure as adding them.
With a Case highlighted, choose Select Components from the Case menu, or click
the Select Components button
on the toolbar. The Select Components dialog
box will appear.
2.
In the Select Components dialog box, choose the components on the right, then click
the left arrow button (or simply doubleclick the components themselves) to remove
them.
A Library model which supplies additional information about the component and its
reaction characteristics during a disturbance (the branch componentscables, pi
impedances twowinding transformers, and transmission linesdo not use Library
models);
A Event or series of Events (such as load tripping and reduction, fault applying and
clearing, branch tripping and reclosing, and motor starting) that you want to simulate
occurring for that component.
Beginning the process of applying Models and Events is the same for all components:
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1.
Dynamic Events from the Case menu, or click the Events button
on the toolbar.
The dialog box for that component type will appear. Since each component has its
own Models and Dynamic Events, see the individual sections beginning with Source
Models and Events on section 1.5.2.
Note: There is a special type of event, called a Solution Parameter event, that you
can add to a Case. Typically you wont need to use the Solution Parameter Event
only when the Case has a problem converging. See Solution Parameter Event on
Section 1.6.2 for more information on the Solution Parameter Event.
To quickly check the dynamic events assigned to a motor, simply select (that is, highlight)
a Case or a component. When a Case is highlighted, the events for all the components in
that Case appear; when a component is highlighted, only the events for that component
appear. When Industrial Simulation or a Study is highlighted, no events appear. Refer to
the following illustrations:
When Industrial
Simulation is highlighted,
When a Study is
highlighted,
When a Case is
highlighted,
the events for all the components in that Case will appear in the
Event Window.
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When a component is
highlighted,
the events for only that component will appear in the Event
Window.
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When you select a category, its models appear in the right half of the Select a Model
dialog box. You may then apply a model to the component by clicking the Apply button.
Note: A single Library model may be applied to as many components as you want.
For example, even though the Library only contains a single Infinite Bus source
model, this single source model may be applied to numerous utilities and generators;
Library models merely provide a blueprint of the components data. If you want to
edit a Library model, you have to open the Library by selecting Library from the
Document menu. See Chapter 2, Using I*SIMs Library, for more information
about editing the Library.
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Keep in mind that Library models are in per unit values on the components rated kVA
base. Library models merely provide the characteristics of the component in per unit
values, which are converted to real values based on the rated kVA and rated voltage of the
component the model is applied to.
You can tell which components do not have models assigned to them because an
exclamation point appears over their icons:
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1.
With a generator or utility component selected, select Model Setup & Dynamic
Events from the Case Menu. A window similar to the one below will appear:
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2.
Here the user can click on the library button to assign the machine model, exciter
model, governor, and power system stabilizer model.
3.
For instance, click on the Machine Model and the list of all machine models in
the library will show up on the right side of the screen. Here, click on the
machine model you want and click on the apply button.
4.
5.
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Swing Bus. In PTW, a swing bus is one of two things: 1) a utility component; 2) a
generator component whose Schedule type (found on the first subview of the
Component Editor) is set to Volts & Angle (SB). A swing bus schedules voltage
magnitude and voltage angle, while allowing real power and reactive power to vary.
Swing buses are useful for simulating transfer switching between different sources
with known bus voltages and angles; for example, transfer switching between two
different utility bus connections.
Source Models
You apply Machine, Exciter, and Turbine models to the utility or generator by clicking the
Library button. (See To apply Library Models to a component on Section 1.5 for
instructions on using the Library button.) Some machine models have strict requirements,
as shown here:
The Salient Pole Hydro Unit machine model should be matched with a Standard
Hydro Turbine Governor model and any exciter.
The Single Cage Induction Generator & Double Cage Induction Generator
machine models should have any turbine governor but no exciter model.
The Classical Machine & Infinite Machine models should have neither a turbine
governor nor an exciter model with them, since the classical machine model assumes
a constant excitation behind the generator terminal impedance, and no active governor
controls.
When you are performing a preliminary study without specific model information, we
suggest you select a Round Rotor Fossil Steam machine model with a Standard Steam
governor and an IEEE Type 1 exciter model to form a generation unit. These models will
provide useful results for a preliminary study without introducing unnecessary
complications in model compatibility.
Source Events
Source components allow you to simulate a loss of excitation, a blocked governor, or a
tripped governor. When creating events for a source component, keep these guidelines in
mind:
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Each event must have a unique time; you cannot apply two events with the same time.
Any source which is Out of Service (either the source itself is set to Out of Service in
the Component Editor, or an upstream bus or branch is Out of Service) will be
considered offline, even if you assign events to the source.
You cannot create a Blocked Governor or a Loss of Excitation event at a later time
than a Trip Generator event. This is because a tripped generator no longer
contributes power, so the other two events become irrelevant.
Any source which does not have a Library Model assigned to it will not have data
generated for it, regardless of whether you have created Dynamic Events for it.
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1.5.3. Motors
Induction Motors and Synchronous Motors use slightly different Model Setup & Dynamic
Events dialog boxes, as shown in the following pictures.
To assign model to a motor
Notice that in the window above, there is a Model tab and Dynamic Events tab. Click
on the Models tab to supply detailed data about the motor.
The Save As Default and Get Default Setting functions are designed to make the
process of assigning motor, load, and controller for multiple I*SIM cases easier.
Save As Default button
When the user clicks on this button, all the information in the "Models" tab page will be
save as the default settings for the selected motor. These values will be used whenever the
user assigns the same motor to an existing case or onto a new case for the project.
Get Default Setting button
When the user clicks on this button, all the information in the "Models" tab page will be
filled in by the default settings.
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2.
Click on the Library button. The select library button will show up.
Here you will see that there are three categories available model that you can associate a
motor for the TMS library: Flux Induction model, Motor Model, and Load Model
Each category has subcategory. You can see the subcategory by clicking on the expand
box.
3.
You can click on a subcategory and a list of the models will appear on the right side.
4.
Once the devices appear in the right half of the Select a Device dialog box, you may
select a motor model and a load model and apply their data to the motor.
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Single Rotor
2.
Double Rotor
3.
Graphic Motor
Exponential
2.
Graphic Load
3.
Polynomial
4.
Damping
Note: A single Library model may be applied to as many motors as you want. For
example, even though the Library only contains a single NEMA A motor model, this
single motor model may be applied to numerous motors; Library models merely
provide a blueprint of the motors data.
Keep in mind that motor models are in per unit values, whereas load models are in
absolute values. Motor models merely provide the starting characteristics of the motor in
per unit values, which are converted to real values based on the voltage, current, and
RPMs of the specific motor the model is applied to. The following section illustrates this
behavior.
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Current curve
Torque curve
Power Factor curve
Fig. 11
Note that the three curvesTorque (T), Power Factor (PF), and Current (I)are not
plotted on absolute axes, but rather represent a percent of the base amount (all three motor
model curves use the motors Synchronous RPMs for their X axis, while eachTorque,
Power Factor, and Currenthas its own base for the Y axis).
The base amounts (that is, the values at 100%) come from the Models window specified
in the case for that specific motor. The Torque and Current base amount comes from the
Models window specified in the case for that specific motor as shown in Fig 12., while
the Power Factor and Synchronous RPM base amounts come from the Induction Motor
subview, as shown in Fig. 13
Fig. 12
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Fig. 13
Therefore, if we apply the Library Motor model shown in Fig. 11 to this motor, the per
unit starting characteristics for Torque, Power Factor, and Current will be converted to
actual values based on this motors data.
For example, note in Fig. 13 that this motors Synchronous RPMs are 3600, which is the
motors operating speed at 100%. When the Library Motor model shown in Fig. 11 is
applied to this motor, the X axis (labeled Speed) now uses a base of 3600 RPMs, so that
the actual values for the models X axis are 0 to 3600 RPMs. (If we changed the
motorsRPMs to 1800, the Library models X axis would now use a base of 1800, even
though inper unit terms the Library model doesnt change.)
Using a hypothetical Project with minimal impedance, we can demonstrate how the motor
model and the actual values from the Component Editor work together.
Figure 14
The plot shown in the figure 14 displays the Motor Speed and Motor Torque curves for
the motor in figure 12 and figure 13 As you can see, the motor reaches its RPMs of
3600, or 100% of its Speed Base, after about 2.5 seconds. Therefore, the motor model
(shown in figure 11) that we have applied to this motor uses an X axis of 0 to 2.5 seconds,
since this is the time it takes the motor to reach 3600 RPMs.
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If we look at the Torque curve for the motor model shown in 11,we can see that, at 50%
of the Speed Base, the Torque reaches just over 100% of the Torque Base, then jumps to
250% and finally settles to 100% as the motor gets up to speed. In actual values, this
means that the motors Torque should reach just over its actual base of 147.81 ftlbs at the
time when the motor reaches 1800 RPMs (50% of the Speed Base), then jump to about
370 ftlbs and finally settle to 147.81 ftlbs.
Indeed, when we look at the plot shown in figure 14, the motors torque behaves as
expected. The motor reaches 1800 RPMs at about 1.4 seconds, and the Torque curve does
indeed reach about 160 ftlbs, just over the 100% base of 147.81. The Torque curve then
jumps to about 370 ftlbs about 250% of the base of 147.81. By the time the motor gets up
to speed, the Torque curve does finally settle to about 147.81 ftlbs., just the as motor
model in figure 11 shows.
Naturally, you will seldom see such a direct onetoone correlation between the base
values and the actual plot as in our simplified Project; real systems contain numerous
factors that will alter the starting curves. Nevertheless, the general principle demonstrated
here is the same.
Moment of Inertia
You will notice that a value has already been entered in this box. The value you see is an
approximate value, calculated by PTW based on the motors size, rpm, and so on. If you
do not know the motors moment of inertia, you may use this default value. Otherwise,
enter the motors moment of inertia in Wk 2 . Do not enter this in per unit. The motors
moment of inertia must be set here (instead of in the Library) because it is not a per unit
amount, but an absolute amount. (The loads moment of inertia value, on the other hand,
is a per unit value and thus is set in the Library.)
Important: Once you have entered a value, if you change your mind and want to
use an Approximate value instead, you need to click the Approximate button to
recalculate the Moment of Inertia. Similarly, if you change the motors Rated Size,
you should click the Approximate button to recalculate the Moment of Inertia.
PTW calculates the approximate Moment of Inertia value based on the motor's Pole Pairs
(which you enter in the Induction Motor subview of the Component Editor):
For 4 or more Pole Pairs,
Moment of Inertia = 10
Moment of Inertia = 10
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Moment of Inertia = 10
Moment of Inertia = 10
where
Rated HP is the value entered in the first subview of the Component Editor.
The motors RPMs are listed in the first subview next to Pole Pairs, and are
calculated by
RPM =
60 Frequency
Pole Pairs
where Pole Pairs is the value entered in the first subview, and Frequency is 60 Hz if
the Engineering Standard is set to ANSI in the Project Options, or 50 Hz if the
Engineering Standard is set to IEC.
As with the Moment of Inertia, you will notice that values have already been entered in
these boxes. If the Link with Rated checkbox is checked, PTW calculates these values
using the following formulas:
The Current Base is calculated by
Current Base =
where Rated kVA and Rated Voltage are the values entered in the first subview of the
Component Editor.
The Torque Base is calculated by
Torque Base =
5252 Rated HP
0.987 Synchronous RPM
where
Rated HP is the value entered in the first subview of the Component Editor and the
motors RPMs are listed in the first subview next to Pole Pairs.
The Torque Base is calculated with the assumption that the rated slip is 1.3%. You may
enter different values for the Current Base or the Torque Base if needed.
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Important: If you enter a different value for the Torque Base or Current Base, then
want to return to the calculated value, you need to enter a 0, then select Save from
the Document menu or click the Save button on the toolbar so the values will be
recalculated. Also, if you switch to the Induction Motor subview and change the
motors Rated Size, you will need to enter zeros for both the Torque Base and the
Current Base and click Save so PTW can recalculate them.
Choose a Controller
Choose a Controller type and, if applicable, enter data for its functions. Keep in mind that
in reviewing controller action, it is best to consider bus voltage, motor voltage, and motor
current together and to take note of whether the motor terminal is on the line or load side
of the controller.
Note: The Series Resistance, Series Reactance, Shunt Capacitor, Star Delta, Part
Winding, and Auto Transformer controllers have Speed and Voltage control function
options in addition to the Time option. While real controllers may not actually have
speed or voltagetype controls in a motor starting mode, these additional functions
were included to help you determine the correct time at which the motor will reach a
particular speed. To do so, you would run the Study and examine the plot, then
return to the Models window, change the Control Function to time, and enter the
correct times based on the speed or voltage.
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Series Reactance
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Series Resistance
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Auto Transformer
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2.
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3.
4.
Type a time at which the event will occur in the Event Time box.
5.
Select one of the five event types: Start Motor (Time Dependent), Load Change, Trip
Motor (Time Dependent), Start Motor (Voltage Dependent), or Trip Motor (Voltage
Dependent). For Load Change, be sure to type a multiplier value, not a percent (for
example, to increase by 20%, enter 1.2; to decrease by 50%, enter 0.5). For the
VoltageDependent Start Motor event, be sure to choose a bus you want to monitor.
For the VoltageDependent Trip Motor event, be sure to choose a bus you want to
monitor and to enter the voltage value in per unit, between 0.0 and 2.0.
6.
The last step, once you have chosen an event type, is to choose whether the motor will
be on or offline before the event occurs.
7.
Repeat the above steps until you have added all the events you want to, then click the
OK button. The dynamic events will now appear in the Event Window.
To quickly check the dynamic events assigned to a motor, simply select (that is, highlight)
a Case or a motor. When a Case is highlighted, the events for all the motors in that Case
appear; when a motor is highlighted, only the events for that motor appear. When
Transient Motor Starting or a Case Folder is highlighted, no events appear. Refer to the
following illustrations:
When a Case is
highlighted. . .
the events for all the motors in that Case will appear in the Event
Window.
When a motor is
highlighted. . .
the events for only that motor will appear in the Event Window.
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will speed up and the speed and internal electromagnetic flux of the motor immediately
prior to restarting will be used as the starting point for the continuing integration.
The Initial Status of OnLine or OffLine refers to the moment before the Simulation
begins, whereas an event occurring at 0 seconds refers to the moment at which the
Simulation begins. In other words, an induction motor which is set with an Initial Status
of OnLine and has an event which trips the motor at 0 seconds will still have an effect
that wouldnt have occurred had that motor not been in the Case at all.
If an induction motor actually represents multiple motors (that is, if the Number of
Motors box on the Induction Motor subview has a number greater than one), I*SIM will
consider the motor accordingly. For example, if a motor actually represents 3 motors,
I*SIM will triple its starting requirements.
1.5.4. Buses
You use the following dialog box to apply Models and Dynamic Events to buses (see To
add Dynamic Events to a component on section 1.5 for instructions on opening the
Dynamic Events dialog box):
Click the Library
button to apply Bus
Library models.
Choose an
Event Type,
enter an
Event Time,
and click the
Create Event
button to
create a
dynamic
Bus Models
You apply Bus models to the bus by clicking the Library button. When choosing a bus
model, you should be aware of the following:
The Frequency Sensitive Bus Load model affects only the constant PQ and constant
current load of that bus.
The IEEE Bus Load model affects only the constant PQ load of that bus.
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Bus Events
Bus components allow you to simulate a threephase fault, the cessation (clearing) of the
threephase fault, and a load change. When creating events for a bus, keep these
guidelines in mind:
Each event must have a unique time; you cannot apply two events with the same time.
Any bus which is Out of Service (either the bus itself is set to Out of Service in the
Component Editor, or an upstream bus or branch is Out of Service) will be considered offline, even if you assign events to the bus.
To create a Clear Fault event, you must create an Apply Fault event with an earlier time
(because you cannot clear a fault that never occurred).
You may create multiple Apply Fault events, but you must clear each preceding fault
using a Clear Fault event.
When using the Apply Fault event, you can either specify fault impedance in R
(resistance) and X (reactance), or leave both set to zero to simulate a bolted fault. Enter the
R and X in per unit impedances on 100 MVA base and the buss voltage base.
When using the Load Change event, be sure to enter the new load value, not the change
in load. For example, if its changing from 100 to 150, enter 150, not 50. You may create
multiple Load Change events. (You may notice that values already appear in the Load
Change boxes. These are values from the last time the Load Flow Study was run, and
appear to help you remember what the initial load values are. If you find them helpful,
just be sure to run the Load Flow Study immediately before starting I*SIM so these values
will be current. In any case, be sure to delete these values and enter your own when
creating a Load Change event.)
Load Change events have a direct effect on system damping (see About System
Damping on section 1.5.1 for more information about system damping). The more the
load changes with frequency, the more stable the system becomes. Varying the reactive
portion of the load directly affects the voltage; the change in voltage then affects the
amount of change of active power. Therefore, the change has an indirect impact on
system stability. As the reactive portion of the load changes negatively with regard to
frequency, the system becomes increasingly stable.
Important: While DAPPERs Load Flow Study treats both nonmotor loads and
motors as loads, I*SIMs Load Flow Study (which gets run when you run the
Dynamic Simulation) treats nonmotor loads as loads and motors as machines.
Depending on which was run more recently, the values which appear in the Load
Change boxes will or will not include motors as loads. The distinction does not
render your Load Change value incorrect, but it may seem confusing if you pay
attention to the values that initially appear in the boxes.
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1.5.5. Branches
The Branch category comprises four types of components: cables, twowinding
transformers, pi impedances, and transmission lines. You use the following dialog box to
apply Models and Dynamic Events to branches (see To add Dynamic Events to a
component on section 1.7.2 for instructions on opening the Dynamic Events dialog box):
Choose whether to
trip, recluse, apply
fault, or clear the fault
of the branch.
Branch Events
Branch components allow you to simulate a tripping, reclosing, applying a fault, or
clearing a fault of the branch. In doing so, you may modify characteristics of the branch.
These characteristics are different depending on the branch: for a twowinding
transformer, you may change its impedance and its tap setting; for a cable, you may
change its impedance; and for a pi impedance or a transmission line, you may change its
impedance and its shunt admittance. When creating events for a branch component, you
should keep these guidelines in mind:
Each event must have a unique time; you cannot apply two events with the same time.
The Initial Status of OnLine or OffLine refers to the moment before the Simulation
begins, whereas an event occurring at 0 seconds refers to the moment at which the
Simulation begins. In other words, a branch which is set with an Initial Status of OnLine
and has an event which trips it at 0 seconds will still have an effect that wouldnt have
occurred had that branch not been in the Case at all.
Any branch in the Case which does not have an event assigned to it will still have a default
initial status of OnLine (unless you change it to OffLine) and thus will affect I*SIMs
results.
If the branch has its initial status set to OnLine, it cant be reclosed unless it is tripped
first (since a closed branch cannot be reclosed).
If the branch has its initial status set to OffLine, it cant be tripped unless it is reclosed
first (since an open branch cannot be tripped).
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As long as its times dont conflict, you can trip, reclose, and retrip a branch repeatedly.
Any branch which is Out of Service (either the branch itself is set to Out of Service in the
Component Editor, or an upstream bus or branch is Out of Service) will be considered offline, even if you assign events to the branch. The Out of Service setting supersedes the
Reclose Branch event, so this event will not put the branch back In Service (I*SIM does
not modify the static portion of your system anyway, which means it does not change any
of the settings in the Component Editor).
A twowinding transformer is assumed to be deltawye connected, regardless of its
connection in the Component Editor. It is also assumed to be radial to the system and its
impedance is on the machine base.
1.5.6. Relays
You use the following dialog box to apply Models and Dynamic Events to relays .
Relay Models
You apply a Relay model to the relay by clicking the Library button.
Relay Events
Relay components allow you to simulate a fraction of the bus load being shed, and to trip
up to three different branches anywhere in the system. When creating events for a relay,
keep these guidelines in mind:
Each event must have a unique time; you cannot apply two events with the same time.
Any relay which is Out of Service (either the relay itself is set to Out of Service in the
Component Editor, or an upstream bus or branch is Out of Service) will be considered offline, even if you assign events to the relay.
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To trip a branch, you must use the Time Inverse Overcurrent or the Rate of Change of
Power model, and the relay must be connected in a branch which has buses at both ends,
as shown in Fig. 13. Note that you dont specify any time or current information for the
relays tripping operation because a relay operates based on the trip curve of the Library
model that you have applied to the relay. If you want to edit the relays Library model,
you must open the I*SIM Library (see Chapter 2 for instructions on editing the I*SIM
Library).
Fig. 13. When using a relay to trip a branch or to shed the load at a bus, if the Model
type is Time Inverse Overcurrent or Rate of Change of Power, be sure the relay
is connected in a branch which has buses at both ends.
To shed a percent of load on a bus, you can use any of the models. However, depending
on which model you use, you will have to connect the relay in a specific way:
If you use either the Time Inverse Overcurrent or the Rate of Change of Power model,
the relay must be connected in a branch which has buses at both ends, as shown in Fig.
13. With these models, you can trip any bus in the system.
If you use the Under Frequency Load Shedding model, the Time Inverse Under
Frequency Load Shedding model, or the Under Frequency and dF/dt Load Shedding
model, the relay must be connected to the same bus where the loads are and must have its
bottom node open, as shown in Fig. 14.
Regardless of the Model type, you dont specify any time or current information for the
relays shedding operation because a relay operates based on the trip curve of the Library
model that you have applied to the relay. Similarly, you do not specify a percent of bus
load to shed because the value (85% by default) comes from the Library model. Only the
nonmotor loads are subject to the load shedding; to shed an induction motor or
synchronous motor load, apply a Trip Motor event directly to the motor instead. If you
want to edit the relays Library model, you must open the I*SIM Library (see Chapter 2
for instructions on editing the I*SIM Library).
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Fig. 14. When using any of the three Load Shedding model types,
be sure the relays bottom node is left unconnected.
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To choose the channels you want to generate, place checks in the appropriate boxes in the
Channel Window:
Place checks
for the
channels you
want to
generate for
each motor.
These are the categories in which you may generate data. Each category is called a
channel, and each channel will produce one curve on the plot.
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Bus Frequency Deviation: the bus frequency deviation (HZ). The base is on the system
base frequency. (The System Base Frequency is determined by the Engineering Standard
chosen in the Application Options. If the Engineering Standard is ANSI, then the System
Base Frequency=60 hz. Conversely, if the Engineering Standard is IEC, then the System
Base Frequency=50 hz.60 Hz or 50 Hz.)
P (From/To): the real part of the branch power flow between two particular buses (kW).
Q (From/To): the reactive part of the branch power flow between two particular buses
(kVar).
IA (From/To): The branch flow current on phase A between two particular buses (Amps).
IB (From/To): The branch flow current on phase B between two particular buses (Amps).
IC (From/To): The branch flow current on phase B between two particular buses (Amps).
I1 (From/To): The positive sequence branch flow current between two particular buses
(Amps).
I2 (From/To): The negative sequence branch flow current between two particular buses
(Amps).
I0 (From/To): The zero sequence branch flow current between two particular buses
(Amps).
Apparent R (From/To): The branch apparent resistance between two particular buses
(Ohms).
Apparent X (From/To): The branch apparent reactance between two particular buses
(Ohms).
Tip: To quickly check an entire row, simply doubleclick to the left of the row.
You may also singleclick to select the row, then use the Check Selected Row
command from the Case menu. (You can also click the rightmouse button to find
this command.) To uncheck an entire row, singleclick to select the row, then use
the Uncheck Selected Row command from the Case menu.
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based on solving the set of equations: [I] = [E][Y]. The set of nodal voltages [E] is
evaluated based on a set of nodal currents [I] and the bus admittance matrix [Y] through
sparse matrix techniques employing triangularized decomposition methods. This
computational method achieves the highest accuracy in the shortest times known. It is
also extremely robust in representing all types of loads for both radial and networked
configurations as found in most industrial and commercial applications.
The load flow convergence is determined by the worst real or reactive bus power
mismatch. In order to maximize the accuracy for both large and small systems, the
solution convergence criteria is scaled to 1/20,000th of the largest scheduled load or
generator. For example, a utility system with the largest load or generator of 500 MVA
would have a convergence criteria of .03 MVA, whereas an industrial system having a
largest load or generator of 1000 kVA would have a convergence criteria of .05 kVA.
Predisturbance Load Flow. Predisturbance load flows used in studying the dynamic
behavior of a system require much more detail than steady state load flows. In steady state
load flows, generating units are represented as constant PQ sources. In fact, any P and Q
amounts can be specified, as long as the load flow solution converges. Other than the
somewhat artificial Qmax and Qmin, no constraints are imposed on the generating units.
In steady state conditions, it is assumed that all controllers have calmed and that no limits
of any kind are being challenged. As such, power plants and loads are usually represented
rather simply when performing a load flow. Clearly this representation cannot be used in
studying the dynamic behavior of the system. Therefore, I*SIM combines the steady state
load representations with the dynamic models, such as induction motors, synchronous
motors, and other user defined dynamic load models from the I*SIM library, and changes
load representations into different combinations of load mixtures. Also, instead of
constant PQ sources and swing buses, internal representations are rendered as a Norton
current source. The associated Norton equivalent impedance is given by:
1
R a + jL
where
Ra
Other data used by the predisturbance load flow include the individual machine VAR
participation information within a plant; the machine base MVA (kVA), armature
resistance, and subtransient reactance L; and stepup transformer resistance, reactance,
and offnominal turns ratio. (L is often referred to as X. Their values are the same only
at nominal frequency. More appropriately, L = 1/2 (Ld + Lq).)
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Dynamic Simulation. The solution method used in the Dynamic Simulation is quite
different from the steady state load flow solution method; the solution method is based on
performing iterative Gaussian Elimination of the network by repeatedly performing
forward and backward substitutions on the factorized network impedance matrix. The
convergence criteria is based on network voltage error and can achieve a far tighter
tolerance than those attainable in the steady state load flow.
When you click the Run button, I*SIM calculates data based on what Case or
Study is selected (that is, highlighted). See the following illustrations. If you
have Industrial Simulation highlighted, data will be generated for all the Cases
in all the Studies. If you have a Study highlighted, data will be generated for all
the Cases in that Folder. If you have either a Case or a component highlighted,
data will be generated for only that Case.
To analyze Cases that use the same electrical system topology (same bus
voltages, same transformer tap settings, etc.): set up all the Cases first, then run
the Dynamic Simulation to generate data for all the Cases by highlighting
Industrial Simulation.
To analyze Cases that use different electrical system topologies: set up the Cases,
then flip back and forth between the Component Editor/OneLine Diagram and
I*SIM, alternately changing the topology then running the Dynamic Simulation
for each specific Case by highlighting it.
Tip: Since Cases with different requirements for the static portion of the system
(for example, different transformer sizes or components in/out of service) must be
run separately, a good idea is to put all the Cases that are based on the same
electrical system configuration in their own Study. This way, you can quickly
switch to the Component Editor or OneLine Diagram, make the changes you need,
then switch back to I*SIM and run the Dynamic Simulation for the whole Study.
Even though a channel has data generated for it, the data may not be current. For
example, if you switch to the Component Editor, change the rated size for a
utility, then return to I*SIM, the channel data will be outdated. Any change in the
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static portion of the electrical system (that is, anything you control outside of
I*SIM) will make all data in the dynamic portion of the electrical system (that is,
anything you control within I*SIM) obsolete and you will have to regenerate it
by rerunning the Dynamic Simulation. This occurs because channels are
generated based on the state of the electrical system at the moment the Run
button is clicked. If that state changes at all, the channels will be based on the
previous network configuration. You can use this to your benefit, though, to
compare results between different network configurations.
Running the Dynamic Simulation means letting I*SIM create the channel data;
it is a separate step from plotting the starting curves, which you control using the
I*SIM Study Manager in Plot Mode.
If you have any components that are Out of Service, data will not be generated
for them, even if they have Dynamic Events assigned to them.
If a motor actually represents multiple motors (that is, if the Number of Motors
box in the Component Editor has a number greater than one), I*SIM will consider
the motor accordingly. For example, if a motor actually represents 3 motors,
I*SIM will triple its starting requirements.
In the lowerleft corner of the I*SIM Study Manager, click the Run button
.
2.
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Click here to
modify the Load
Flow portion of the
Type report names here
Change I*SIM's
Configurations here
3.
Type names for the Reports. If you select the Overwrite Existing Report check box,
the Reports will replace any that already exist with that name. If you clear the
Overwrite Existing Report check box, you will get a warning that those Reports
already exist. (PTW generates one Report for each run of the Motor Starting
Simulation.) Furthermore, TMS also generates Excel Data Point Report. This report
shows the data points of the channels against time. The Excel will have the following
format name: <Report name>_<Case folder name>_<Case name>_Channel.xls
4.
Click the Run button to begin the Dynamic Simulation. You will see the Run Study
dialog box as it displays the progress of the Study:
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Since I*SIM will not generate data if it does not reach convergence, you should watch
carefully the messages which appear as I*SIM runs. If you see the message ISIM study
did not converge, study terminated (as shown in Fig. 15), you should begin
troubleshooting. See Convergence Failure on section 1.7.2 for help with
troubleshooting convergence failures.
Fig. 15. Message which appears when I*SIM does not converge.
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1.
Parameters
from the Case menu. The following dialog box will appear:
2.
Using the guidelines below, enter values, then enter an Event Time at which you want
the change in Solution Parameters to occur.
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3.
Click the Create Event button to create the parameter change event, then click the
Close button.
When creating events for a Solution Parameter Event, keep these guidelines in mind:
Acceleration FactorThe acceleration factor affects the convergence property. A typical
value for the acceleration factor is 0.7. If I*SIM is not converging, try a smaller
acceleration factor. A smaller acceleration factor decelerates the solution process, and
provides a possible means of correcting an iteration solution which is diverging. Usually,
the acceleration factor should not be less than 0.1, since the computation time increases
significantly as the acceleration factor decreases. A larger acceleration factor provides
less information regarding the solution convergence.
Maximum Number IterationsTypically, 25 iterations are appropriate. If the Network
Not Converged message still appears in the Log Report, increase the maximum number of
iterations. Generally, the number of iterations would be less than 100, since the
computation time increases as the number of iterations increases. If I*SIM is not
converging, try a larger limit on the number of iterations.
Convergence ToleranceThe convergence tolerance in a simulation is the per unit voltage
change. A typical convergence tolerance value is 0.00001. A tolerance value which is
dramatically lower is unnecessary and wastes computation time. If I*SIM is not
converging, try a larger convergence tolerance.
Time Step/ Plotted PointsI*SIM allows you to choose the number of time steps per
plotted point. I*SIM allows a maximum of 1000 plotted values per plot, and
automatically adjusts this entry if more than 1000 plotted values will be generated. We
recommend that you select enough plotted points to make an engineering judgment
without specifying excessive plotted points.
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1.
the
Case menu. The following dialog box will appear:
2.
The data boxes themselves are the same as those for the Global Study Setup.
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Essentially, these are the same setup options as those for DAPPERs Load Flow Study.
Note that I*SIM uses the Ra and X in the Source Model Library as the utility impedance.
Important: When I*SIM runs the Load Flow Study, it treats some components
differently depending on how you have set up their models and events (see Assign
Models and Events to Components on section 1.5 for model or event setup):
An induction motor which has a model applied to it will be reported as a PQ
generator, not as a motor.
An induction motor whose Initial Status is set to offline will not be reported at all.
A branch whose Initial Status is set to offline will be treated as an unconnected
component.
It is recommended that you run the Study using the Exact (Iterative) Solution method first.
This is because the solution method usually converges on most power systems. In the
unlikely event that the steadystate load flow solution does not converge, you should rerun the Study using the Approximate Solution method. If it does not converge, a message
in the Study Message dialog box will notify you of the problem. When the Approximate
Solution method is selected, PTW temporarily converts all loads to constant impedance
type characteristics, making these system losses smaller than if constant kVA type loads
were modeled. An output report is then written, and data is sent to the database. Although
it is an approximate solution (since the load characteristic is approximated), this solution
method may help to identify the reasons for the nonconvergence.
If you have a nonconvergent solution, examine the Log Reports bus voltage mismatch
values and bus mismatch location, as there may be a data input problem that has caused
the nonconvergence. Check specifically for excessive voltage drop and multiple PV
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generators separated by small impedance values. If the voltage drops are within a
reasonable range, try adjusting the Solution Criteria. See Solution Criteria, following.
Load Specification
These options control how the Study handles load data.
Directly Connected Loads
When either of these two options is selected, the load flow solution calculates the load at
P jQ
each bus, then solves the steady state load flow equation
= [Y][V] . Neither of
[V]*
LM b
N
g OP
Q
these options uses results from the Demand Load Study, so I*SIM runs the Load Flow
Study but not the Demand Load Study.
When the Connected Load option button is selected, the I*SIM Dynamic Simulation
calculates the loads without considering any load or demand factors. If motor loads are
identified, and if multiple motors are modeled in a single motor load object, the total
motor connected load is the number of motors multiplied by the motors rated size.
Otherwise, the load rated size is the connected load value. Motors expressed in
horsepower are converted to kVA units by dividing by the efficiency, power factor, etc.
When the 1st Level Demand or Energy Factor option button is selected, the I*SIM Starting
Simulation calculates the loads using the first level demand factors and energy audit load
factors, as appropriate. If a nonmotor load is identified with both an energy audit load
factor and a demand load category, then the Study will use both the energy audit load
factor and the first level demand load factor multiplied by the loads rated size. For motor
loads, the load is calculated as the number of motors multiplied by the motor rated size
multiplied by the motor load factor. Load diversity resulting from identifying multiple
levels of demand load factors is not taken into consideration.
From Demand Load Study
These options use the calculated demand load values from the Demand Load Study, so
I*SIM runs both the Load Flow Study and the Demand Load Study. Upon creating a new
Project, the Demand Load Study includes the results from all nonmotor loads by default,
unless you selected either the Include Only Demand Loads or Include Only Energy Audit
Loads option button before running the Demand Load Study. Demand loads with multiple
levels of demand factors, such as receptacle loads where the first 10 kVA of load have a
100% demand factor and the remaining receptacle load has a 50% demand factor result in
a noncoincident demand (diversity) load that is unique. This diversity load is calculated
at each branch within the load flow solution.
Solution Criteria
These options control the solution data.
Generation Acceleration Factor, Load Acceleration Factor
The two Acceleration Factor text boxes allow you to control how the I*SIM Dynamic
Simulation converges upon the solution. Generally, the Acceleration Factors do not need
to be changed from their default values. However, if a nonconvergent solution occurs,
even after an Approximate Solution method has been run, try changing the Generation
Acceleration Factor and/or the Load Acceleration Factor from their default of 1.0 to a
factor between 0.1 and 1.0. The smaller the factor, the smaller the step change used in the
iteration solution.
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These provide a quick method to flag excessive voltage drops in the output report. In the
report, PTW flags with a dollar sign ($) any bus or branch voltage drop value that exceeds
the limits set in these text boxes. Upon creating a new Project, the default values are a 5%
bus voltage drop, and a 3% branch voltage drop. However, you can change these
percentages by typing a percent value in the appropriate text box.
Important: The I*SIM Dynamic Simulation only takes into account the primary
tap setting for transformers; it does not consider the phase shift or the secondary tap
settings (these are all set on the first subview for transformers). If you want to
model a transformer with a secondary tap setting, add a minus sign to the setting and
enter the value in the primary tap box. For example, to model a secondary tap
setting of 3, enter a 3 into the primary tap box; similarly, to model a secondary tap
setting of 2, enter a 2 into the primary tap box.
Input ReportContains static system data (that is, the data you enter in the
Component Editor and the OneLine Diagram).
Demand Load ReportContains results of the Demand Load Study that I*SIM
runs (I*SIM only runs the Demand Load Study only runs the Demand Load
Study if you select either of the two From Demand Load Study options in the
Load Flow setup).
Load Flow ReportContains results of the Load Flow Study that I*SIM runs.
Dynamic ReportContains dynamic system data (that is, the data you enter in
I*SIM).
To Open a Report
1.
2.
In the Open Report dialog box, choose the name of the I*SIM report you created.
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Input Report
The Input Report contains a detailed breakdown of each components structural, or static,
data, such as the components it connects to, its voltage, and its size (in essence, the Input
Report contains all the data that you have input using the Component Editor and OneLine
Diagram).
The following example shows part of a typical Input Report:
FEEDER INPUT DATA
FEEDER FROM
NAME
FEEDER TO
NAME
003HV SWGR
004TX B PRI
1 13800 200.0
+/ Impedance: 0.5100 + J 0.0636 OHMS/M Length
Z0 Impedance: 0.8108 + J 0.1618 OHMS/M Length
FEEDER DESCRIPTION
SIZE TYPE DUCT INSUL
FT
6 C N
XLP
0.0536 + J 0.0067 PU
0.0851 + J 0.0170 PU
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Dynamic Report
The Dynamic Report lists the components dynamic data (that is, the data you enter in
I*SIM, as opposed to static data, which you enter in the Component Editor) including the
models you have applied and the Dynamic Eventssuch as Load Change, Apply Fault,
and so onwithin all the Cases that you have run the Dynamic Simulation for. See
Assign Models and Events to Components on section 1.5 for a review of creating
Dynamic Events.
Note: The Dynamic Report does not contain the actual results of the dynamic
simulation; you view the results by plotting the curves, as discussed in Plot
Simulation Curves on section 1.8.
The following example shows part of a typical Dynamic Report:
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System Frequency: 60
<< Fault  Bus 24 >>
Time Step: 0.0010
Angle Reference Bus: EDISON001
Frequency Dependent Network Modeled: YES
Log Report
The Log Report contains information about the running of the Dynamic Simulation itself.
You will probably spend more time reviewing the Log Report than any of the other
Reports, particularly if the Dynamic Simulation fails to converge.
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Iter deltaV/tol
Bus
1
12016.350 023MTR 23
2
3563.198 023MTR 23
3
1095.051 023MTR 23
4
341.007 023MTR 23
5
106.572 023MTR 23
6
33.321 023MTR 23
7
10.413 023MTR 23
8
3.259 023MTR 23
9
1.013 023MTR 23
10
0.314 023MTR 23
deltaV
0.1202
0.0356
0.0110
0.0034
0.0011
0.0003
0.0001
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
Converged in 10 iterations
maximum mismatch: 2.32 kw
.08 kvar
2.32 kvabus
013DS SWG2
Total absolute mismatch: 7.45 KVA for the whole system
bus
028MTR 28 A unit 1slip= .22565e01 var mismatch= .22938e03pu
bus
025MTR 25 unit 1slip= .21446e01 var mismatch= .41787e02pu
bus
020DS SWG3 unit 1slip= .33526e02 var mismatch= .77621e02pu
Time Iter deltaV/Tol
Bus
deltaV
0.002
1
0.009 023MTR 23
0.0000
DEMONSTRATION STUDY FOR POWER*TOOLS FOR WINDOWS
Initial condition load flow solution converged in
1 iterations
Bus
Component
Vterm
EFD
Pelec
Qelec
Mbase P.F. Angle
001UTILITY CO U1
1.0020 1.0069 15026.1 4665.0 100000.0 .96
1.
003HV SWGR
M10
1.0170 1.6505 3090.9 324.0 3076.3 .99 49.
008DS SWG1
G1
.9741 1.8383
508.7
274.7
750.0 .88 23.
020DS SWG3
M3
.9496 .0000 2061.2 509.9 2966.6 .97
020DS SWG3
G2
.9496 2.1212
1076.0
863.7 1500.0 .78 21.
025MTR 25
M25
1.0165 .0000 1637.8 1297.7 1956.5 .78
028MTR 28 A M 28 # 1&2
.9588 .0000
390.3 182.5
500.0 .91
/*
/*
/*
/*
003HV SWGR
003HV SWGR
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New Excel report for I*SIM study results of all selected plot channels at userdefined
interval.
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This problem usually occurs because an Exciter or Governor has reached its limit.
To begin troubleshooting, check the Log Report for any error messages. If the Exciter or
Governor reached its limit, you will see a message like this:
standard governor at bus
When the Dynamic Simulation starts, I*SIM analyzes the predisturbance load flow.
From there, I*SIM works backward from output to input to determine the necessary
controller output and steady state status. If the predisturbance load flow is unreasonable
or if data errors exist in the dynamic models, then it is likely that some controller limits
will be immediately challenged or that some controllers will start to move before any
disturbance has been applied. Since this cannot occur in the real world, I*SIM responds
with the error message in the Log Report.
To fix this problem you need to determine whether it was a faulty Library Model or a
badly configured electrical system, then fix the problem and rerun the Dynamic
Simulation. Look first for typographical errors (such as entering 200 instead of 2000),
but also look for components whose sizes dont match one another. Heres an example of
a situation in which, even though all the components have reasonable sizes, a governor
reaches its limit and causes an initialization error:
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An excessive amount of constant kVA load at the bus frequently causes this problem. To
determine which bus the problem occurred at, look for a line similar to this at the end of
the Log Report and find the bus name:
Time Iter deltaV/Tol
Bus
0.002
1
0.004 027DSB 3
deltaV
0.0000
Using either the Component Editor or the OneLine Diagram, first check how many
induction motors you have connected to the Bus (in this case, Bus 027DSB 3). If any
of these induction motors do not have Library Models applied to them, you should apply
models to them because I*SIM treats Induction Motors without Library Models as
constant kVA loads. I*SIM will calculate them more accurately if they have Models.
If the Induction Motors already have models assigned to them, try adding a Solution
Parameter Event to the Case. Frequently a Solution Parameter Event will help the Case to
converge. See Solution Parameter Event on section 1.6.2 for more information about
adding a Solution Parameter Event to a Case.
combination of initial condition voltage. The generators minimum and maximum kVAR
limits force the Exciter Model to reach its limit. This condition could also be the result of
exciter saturation or of inappropriate voltage regulator data.
Solution: Modify the generator minimum and maximum kVAR in the Component Editor.
Problem: Unreasonable mechanical power, Pmech, demand resulting from unreasonable
generator power.
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Solution: Check the initial condition P (labeled kW onscreen in the Component Editor for
the generator) relative to the machine rated size (kVA) of the corresponding unit. You
may also have to check the Governor Model in the Library, as the problem could also
result from bad governor limit data.
Problem: Excessive var mismatch in the Log Report. Var mismatch itself is not a
problem, just an excess of it. Some var mismatch will almost always occur because of the
difference between the steady states calculation methods and I*SIMs. Since the steady
state load flow does not know the machines internal characteristics (because it doesnt use
the Dynamic Model), it makes assumptions that closely, but not precisely, estimate the var
consumed by the motor. When the Dynamic Simulation runs it does know the machines
internal characteristics because it uses the Dynamic Model, so it can more precisely
determine the var consumed. As a result, you will usually find in the Log Report a slight
mismatch between the actual var consumed and the estimated var consumed. The model
then creates a shunt at its terminal in order to compensate for this mismatch. In
compensating for the mismatch, I*SIM does not need to carry induction machine internal
resistances and reactance into the load flow calculations. Unfortunately, if the Dynamic
Model has inaccurate data, a very large internally held shunt capacitor could be created; if
this shunt is large enough, a selfexcitation phenomena could occur. Such occurrences are
rare, but not impossible.
Solution: Check the Induction Motor Model for inaccurate data.
Problem: Too much constant PQ load in the system prevents convergence.
Solution: Create a Solution Parameter Event (see Solution Parameter Event on section
1.6.2). If you wonder why too much constant PQ load can cause nonconvergence, this
explanation should help. The more independent a load is on the voltage, the more power
the load will draw from the system during a fault, the weaker the ties holding the
generators become, and the less stable the system becomes. This instability is not merely
due to the constant PQ load affecting the convergence property in dynamic solution.
Actually, the constant PQ load causes the system to appear less stable than it really is.
Problem: Conditions in the simulation may be changing too rapidly, preventing
convergence. This often occurs during faults, switching, and rapid controller actions.
Solution: Create a Solution Parameter Event (see Solution Parameter Event on section
1.6.2).
Problem: Too large of an acceleration factor.
Solution: Create a Solution Parameter Event (see Solution Parameter Event on section
1.6.2).
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You may display up to six curves at a time on a plot, but you may find the plot more
legible if you display no more than four at a time.
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You may have noticed that check box squares appear for some of the plot channels but not
all of them, which can seem confusing. Why, when I*SIM is in Event Mode, do check
box squares appear for all of the channels, but when I*SIM is in Plot Mode, squares
appear for only some of the channels? The answer is that check box squares will only
appear for those channels which have data. If a channel has no data generated for it, no
plot can be displayed for that channel, and thus a check box square will not appear.
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Fig. 16
Therefore, when we switch I*SIM to Plot Mode, as shown in Fig. 17, check box squares
only appear for the channels which have data: Speed Deviation and Terminal Voltage.
Although the Mechanical Power channel displays a check mark while I*SIM is in Event
Mode, until the Dynamic Simulation is run again the Mechanical Power channel will not
be available to display a plot for that channel when I*SIM is in Plot Mode because the
channel does not contain any data. (If a component is Out of Service, no data will be
generated for any of its channels, even if all are selected.)
Fig. 17
In order to generate data for the Mechanical Power channel, you would need to rerun the
Dynamic Simulation, as discussed in Section 1.6, Run Dynamic Simulation to Produce
Data.
You can tell which Case a plot came from by placing the mouse pointer over it so a hand
appears, then clicking the mouse button. The channel that the curve came from will
then be highlighted. Refer to the following illustration:
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From the Case menu, choose the Plot command or click the
2.
Type a name for the new Plot and click the New button.
button.
From the Case menu, choose the Plot command or click the
2.
button.
From the Case menu, choose the Plot command or click the
button.
2.
Highlight a Plot and click the Rename button. (Note: You cannot rename a Plot when
it is open. If only one Plot exists, that Plot will always be open, since I*SIM always
displays a Plot. Therefore, if only one Plot exists and you want to rename it, create a
new Plot by clicking the New button, at which point you can rename the previous
Plot.)
3.
Type a new name for the Plot. You may use more than 8 characters and include
spaces in the name if you want.
Tip: Use the Plot command from the Case menu or the Plot button
in the
lowerleft corner whenever you want to create a new Plot, and use the View Plot
toolbar button
or the
button in the lowerleft corner when you are just
flipping back and forth between Event mode and Plot mode.
To delete a Plot
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1.
From the Case menu, choose the Plot command or click the
button.
2.
Highlight a Plot and click the Delete button. (Note: You cannot delete a Plot when it
is open. If only one Plot exists, that Plot will always be open, since I*SIM always
displays a Plot. Therefore, if only one Plot exists and you want to delete it, create a
new Plot by clicking the New button, at which point you can delete the previous Plot.)
the mechanical torque is higher than electrical torque around 0.3 seconds. However, the
mechanical torque uses a smaller scale axis, which means that its curve actually lies far
below the electrical torque curve. The default behavior of an axis is to show only the
range for the displayed curve or curves that use that axis. This explains why the
mechanical torque axis ranges from 0.867 ftlbs to 0.825 ftlbs while the electrical torque
axis ranges fro 4.217 ftlbs to 0.562 ftlbs. You can change this default behavior using
the Properties command from the Plot menu. Using the above picture as an example, if
we change the range for both axes so they span from 4.217 ftlbs to 0.562 ftlbs, we get a
picture that shows their true axial relation to one another:
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To toggle the axes between their standard values and per unit values, check on the PU
checkbox. Also depending on the channel type, you can change the unit type as well. For
instance you change the units used for the terminal voltage from Volts to kV. Its dialog
box looks like this:
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You can use the indicator in the upperleft corner to show you the exact coordinates of the
mouse pointer on the plot. If you want the view the coordinates for a point on a particular
curve, point to the curve with the mouse pointer and, when a hand
appears, look at the
indicator to see that points coordinates using that curves Y axis (the X axis is always
displayed in seconds). When you are not pointing at a curve, the indicator will show the
coordinates using the axis closest to the curve by default (if you are using the Show One
option for the Y Axis command, the indicator will show the coordinates using the axis that
would be closest to the curve). To change how many decimal places are shown in the
indicators coordinates, use the Numeric Precision command on the Case menu.
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Excitation Voltage axis for their Y coordinates. You choose which axis you want to
associate an annotation with when you create the annotation. Therefore, the number of
axes available to associate stems from the number of curves presently displayed.
Lets say you want to put the words Excitation Voltage pu on the Plot, as shown:
To begin, choose the Annotation tab command from the Chart Properties window. The
following dialog box will appear:
Click here
to create a
new
annotation.
Next, click the New button to create a new annotation. (The New button will not be
available if no curves are displayed on the plot.) The following dialog box will appear:
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Be sure to enter the Y coordinate based on the correct axis. Note that we associated this
annotation with the Excitation Voltage axis, which means that the Y coordinate must be
entered based on the Excitation Voltage axis, not the Terminal Voltage axis. If we based
our Y coordinate on the Terminal Voltage axis and erroneously entered 13865 instead of
7000, the annotation would not appear because it would be offscreen, far above the
location we wanted it.
When an axis disappears because all curves of its type are removed, all annotations that
are associated with that axis will disappear, too. The annotation will also disappear from
the Edit Annotation dialog box when the axis is not visible, but the annotation still exists.
In fact, when the annotations axis reappears, the annotation will reappear, too. Once you
have created an annotation, it becomes linked to its axis and will always appear with the
axis unless you delete the annotation by clicking the Delete button in the Edit Annotation
dialog box. If you want to delete the annotation, be sure that the curve is displayed so the
annotations name will appear in the Edit Annotation dialog box; if its name does not
appear, you cannot highlight it and click the Delete button.
Annotations are specific to a plot. Therefore, in our example, the Excitation Voltage
annotation we created is only linked to the Excitation Voltage axis for that particular plot.
If we create a new plot for this same case, then display the Excitation Voltage and
Terminal Voltage curves, the same two curves will appear, but the annotation will not,
since it is only linked to the Excitation Voltage axis in the other plot, not in all plots.
To hide all the annotations on a plot, use the Show Annotations command from the Plot
menu, which toggles them on or off.
To control the font size for the Annotations, use the Graph Fonts command from the Plot
menu (discussed in Section 1.1.6, Changing Colors and Sizes).
Tip: You may want to wait until you are ready to print to create Annotations. That
way, you can minimize having to move them around.
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2.
3.
Choose a Destination. If you choose Clipboard, a picture of the plot will be placed on
the Windows Clipboard. You can then switch to another program to paste the plot
picture. (When you export to the Clipboard, you are not saving to a file, but merely
placing the plot picture in temporary memory.) If you choose File, select a location
and name for the file. The extension will automatically be set as WMF, BMP, JPG,
PNG, or DAT depending on your selection for the Export option.
4.
Choose an Object Size. In most cases you neednt modify these settings, and in fact
you may compromise the quality of the graphic by doing so. Also, since Windows
Metafiles are vectorbased, they may be resized with no loss of sharpness anyway, so
there is no need to type a different size. For Bitmaps, though, sharpness will be lost if
they are resized, so if you know the size that the graphic must be, and you must use a
Bitmap, you can type a size in pixels. If you do so, though, be sure to maintain the
ratio of width to height (for example, if the default is 300 points width and 100 points
height, and you change the width to 900 points, be sure to change the height to 300
points to maintain the 3:1 widthtoheight ratio).
5.
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ColorThis mode displays the curves and the plot window using userdefinable
colors. For the Line and Spline curve styles, this viewing style uses more points
to draw the curve so it appears brighter. For the other line styles, however, this
viewing style inundates the curve with points, transforming the curve into an
excessively thick line.
Color with Fewer PointsAs with the Color Viewing Style, this Viewing Style
also displays the curves and the plot window using userdefinable colors.
However, less points are used to draw the curves. For the Line and Spline styles,
the Color with Fewer Points Viewing Style uses less points to draw the curve and
the curve appears faint. For the other line styles, however, this viewing style
allows the individual points to be seen more clearly.
MonochromeThis mode displays the curves and the plot window in blackandwhite.
Monochrome with SymbolsThis mode also displays the curves and the plot
window in blackandwhite, but adds identifying symbols to the curves to help
distinguish them from one another (if only one curve is displayed, no symbols are
used, and the single curve will look like the Monochrome style).
To change the colors of the curves and their accompanying axes, and to change the curve
styles, use the Plot Styles tab from the Char Properties window. Here are the available
styles:
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The Mark Data Points check box in the Plot Style tab of the Chart Properties window
works for the Plot Styles that dont show individual data points (Line, Area, Stick, and
Spline). It displays or hides the individual data points of the curve. Be sure to use the
Color with Fewer Data Points viewing style instead of Color, or an excess of points will
make the curve become a thick, unwieldy line.
The Data Shadows check box in the Plot Style tab of the Chart Properties window
displays or hides data shadows on the plot for the Bar and Area styles. The shadows will
not appear if you use black as the background color because the shadows are also black.
The Line Styles option in the Plot Style tab of the Chart Properties window changes the
line thickness for all the curves on the plot.
The Grid Lines options in the Grid tab in the Chart Properties window, displays vertical
grid lines, horizontal grid lines, both vertical and horizontal grid lines, or no grid lines on
the plot.
The Grid in Front checkbox in the Grid tab of the Chart Properties window places the
grid lines in front of or behind the curves.
The Grid Style options in the Grid tab of the Chart Properties window changes the style
of the grid lines to thick, thin, dotted, or dashed. If you have the Grid Lines command set
to No Grid, this command is irrelevant.
The Legend options in the Axis Range tab of the Chart Properties window displays
either all the legends, just the selected one, or none. (The legend helps you identify each
curve by using a color key, and tells you what Case each curve came from and what motor
it represents.)
The Image Size options, in the Graph Fonts tab of the Chart Properties window,
controls the size of the graph and also governs how big the text will be (since the text uses
whatever space is left from the graph). Generally, you should keep the Image Size set to
Large or Medium, particularly when printing; however, the Small size works well if you
only have one or two curves showing at a time, or if you need to make the text easier to
read.
The Colors options, in the Graph Color tab of the Chart Properties window, changes the
colors of the graph itself, including the foreground and background, along with the axes
and annotations.
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Desktop ForegroundThis changes the color for the title text, the legend text,
and the X axis (seconds) text.
Shadow ColorThis changes the color of the shadow that appears behind the
graph.
Graph ForegroundThis changes the color of the gridlines, the annotation text,
and the tick marks on the X and Y axes. If you have the Grid Lines command set
to No Grid, you wont be able to see this color on the gridlines.
The Save Settings as Default command on the Plot menu sets the default appearance
settings for the plot to whatever setting you are presently using. When you reset the
default values by using this command, you do not affect the appearance of any existing
plots, but any new plots that you create will use your new default values. For example,
lets say you create a new plot and set the background color to green, then click the Save
Settings as Default command. All the existing plots that were created when the
background color was black (the previous default color) will still have a black
background. However, any new plots that you create will now have a green background,
since green is now the default color. This command sets a default color and style for each
curve type, too. For example, lets say you create a new plot and set the Motor Torque
curve to use the Bar line style to use the color pink. All the existing plots which have the
Motor Torque curve displayed on them will maintain whatever style and color was chosen
for the Motor Torque curves, but on any new plot that you create the Motor Torque curve,
when you display it, will now use the Bar line style and will be colored pink.
The Fonts Size option, in the Graph Fonts tab, lets you set the fonts and font sizes for the
Plot Window. When setting the font sizes, you are not setting fixed point sizes, but rather
allotting percents of the available space; I*SIM will determine the best font sizes using its
automatic scaling capability. (It wouldnt make sense to set fixed point sizes since the
graph and axes scale up or down based on the number of axes you have displayed.)
The Image Size option is the primary controller of the font sizes, since it governs how
much space the graph uses (and thus how much space is left for the legend, title, and
axes). Generally, you should keep the Image Size set to Large or Medium, particularly
when printing; however, the Small size works well if you only have one or two curves
showing at a time, or if you need to make the text easier to read. To set the font size
percentages, follow these simple rules of thumb:
Global determines what percent of the remaining space (after the Image Size) you want
the Legend, Title, Axes, and Annotations to use.
Legend and Title determine how big you want the Legend and the Title to be. Since the
axes use whatever space is left, the larger you make the Legend and Title the smaller the
axes will be.
Annotations determines the font size of the Annotations. See Section 1.1.4, Adding
Annotations to a plot for more information on creating Annotations.
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Tip: You can use Forms to print I*SIM plots alongside I*SIM Reports, OneLine
Diagrams, and other documents such as Datablock Reports. Forms give you great
power and flexibility for printing from PTW, especially when you want highquality
formatting for presentations. For more information on Forms, see the Printing
chapter in the PTW Users Guide.
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1.9. Examples
All of the following examples can be found in the Projects folder with PTW (if you
cannot find them, try rerunning the PTW installation; be sure to check the Sample
Projects option). The name of the sample Project appears in parentheses after the Section
title.
In this oneline diagram a single machine is connected to a load through a cable. The
machine at bus 1 is represented by a classical machine model with H = 5, D = 2 and a
machine base of 100 MVA. The load at bus 2 has a constant P = 20 MW and a constant Q
= 15 MVAR, initially. The cable has an impedance of Z = 0.01 + j 0.03 on a 100 MVA
base. A constant power load of 10 MW is added to bus 2 at time = 0.1 seconds.
Here is how the General Study Criteria has been set:
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Here are the Library Models that have been assigned to the components:
Component
Library Model
UTIL001
001MACHINE
002LOAD
Calculations
The following figure shows the basic relationship between the mechanical torque Tm,
electrical torque Te , frequency deviation , and inertia H in per unit form for a classical
machine.
T
T
Sha f t
Load
Tm Te = 2H
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b g
d
dt
= 2H
d 2
dt 2
where
Tm
Te
electrical angle;
mechanical torque;
electrical torque;
frequency deviation;
inertia.
H is defined as:
H=
0.231 WR 2 rpm 2 10 6
KW  sec
in
base kVA
kVA
b g
Since torque and power share the same value in per unit form, and since in steady state:
Tm0 = Te0
and
Pm0 = Pe0
therefore:
g b
Tm Te = Pm Pe = Pm 0 + Pm Pe0 + Pe = Pm Pe
Pm Pe = 2H
b g
d
dt
bg
bg
bg
Pm s Pe s = 2Hs s
The following figure shows a block diagram for a classical machine model in which the
mechanical power and electrical power are taken as the input.
Pm (s )
Pe (s )
1
2 Hs
(s )
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Pe = Pl + P
The following figure shows a block diagram for a classical machine model in which the
mechanical power and load power are taken as the input.
Pm (s )
PL (s )
(s )
2Hs
Pm = 0
Therefore, the per unit frequency deviation (s) or f(s) can be expressed as:
1
PL
PL 2 Hs
1
( s ) =
=
Ds 1 + 1
Ds 1 + s 2 H
D 2 Hs
D
therefore:
bg
bg
t = f t =
F
GH
t
Pl
1 e 2H
D
I
JK
10
2
t
100
2
t = f t =
1 e 5 = 5% 1 e 0.2 t
2
bg
F
GH
bg
bg
f t = 5% 1 e = 5%
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I
JK
Conclusions
The I*SIM simulation results are shown following. The resulting frequency deviation
of 5% per unit perfectly matches the result derived from the last equation.
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Load C
230 kV
18 kV
2
2
0.0085 + j0.072
0.0119 + j0.1008
B/2 = j0.0745
B/2 = j0.1045
18/230
230 kV
13.8 kV
3
230/13.8
j0.0625
j0.0586
9
0.039 + j0.170
0.032 + j0.161
B/2 = j0.153
B/2 = j0.179
0.010 + j0.085
0.017 + j0.092
B/2 = j0.088
Load A
Load B
B/2 = j0.079
230 kV
4
16.5/230
j0.0576
16.5 kV
Machines 1, 2 and 3 are classical machines. Anderson lists their data on a 100 MVA base,
as shown here:
Classical machine 1:
Classical machine 2:
Classical machine 3:
H 1 = 23.64
H 2 = 6.4
H 3 = 3.01
Xd 1 = 0.0608
Xd 2 = 0.1198
Xd 3 = 0.1813
In I*SIM calculations, machine data must be entered on the machine base. Therefore, a
base conversion is needed as shown:
S base
H1
= H1
M base
S base
M base
X1 M base = X1 S base
M base
S base
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I=
P jQ
E
The impedance is
Z=
E
I
where
I
E
Z
current;
voltage;
impedance.
The constant impedance load to be entered in the load flow should be the PQ value at a
voltage V of 1 per unit and 0 degrees. Therefore:
2
v
1
E
=
= =
Z
Z P jQ constant PQ load
Apply this equation to Loads A, B, and C. The equivalent constant impedance loads are:
Load
Constant PQ load
Load A:
Load B:
Load C:
A load flow study is conducted to ensure that the I*SIM dynamic simulation starts with
the same steady state operating point as Andersons case. Figures Fig. 18 and Fig. 19
show the bus voltages resulting from the load flow from Andersons study and from the
I*SIM study respectively. The results match to the third decimal point.
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230 kV
18 kV
100.0 MW
(35.0) MVAR
Load C
230 kV
13.8 kV
2
163.0 MW
(6.7) MVAR
2
1.025
9.3
1.016
0.7
per unit
1.025
4.7
per unit
1.026
3.7
85.0 MW
(10.9) MVAR
per unit
1.032
2.0
per unit
125.0 MW
(50.0) MVAR
0.996
4.0
per unit
per unit
90.0 MW
(30.0) MVAR
Load A
1.013
3.7
per unit
Load B
230 kV
1.026
4
2.2
16.5 kV
1.040
0.0
per unit
per unit
71.6 MW
(27) MVAR
Fig. 18. Andersons case study: Nine bus system load flow diagram showing prefault conditions; all flows are in MW and MVAR. All per unit values are on a 100 MVA
base.
100.0 MW
(35.0) MVAR
18 kV
Load C
13.8 kV
G3
163.0 MW
(6.7) MVAR
1.025
9.28
1.016
0.73
per unit
1.025
4.67
per unit
1.026
3.73
85.0 MW
(10.9) MVAR
per unit
1.0325
1.97
per unit
5
125.0 MW
(50.0) MVAR
0.996
3.97
per unit
per unit
90.0 MW
(30.0) MVAR
Load A
1.013
3.68
per unit
Load B
230 kV
1
G
1.040
per unit
0.0
71.4 MW
(27) MVAR
Fig. 19. I*SIMs study: Nine bus system load flow diagram showing prefault
conditions: all flows are in MW and MVAR.
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Case One
In this dynamic simulation, a three phase fault is applied on bus 7 and the fault is cleared 5
cycles later, then the pi impedance, which represents branches 5 through 7, is opened:
Fig. 110. The Apply Fault, Clear Fault, and Trip Branch events for Case 1.
The following graphs compare the results from Andersons study with the I*SIM results to
show how closely I*SIMs results match Andersons results.
Fig. 111 is the simulation result from Andersons study. This figure plots the relative
angles of the machines at buses 2 and 3, using the angle of the machine at bus 1 as the
reference angle.
Fig. 112 is the simulation result from the I*SIM study. This figure plots the relative
angles of the machines at buses 2 and 3, using the angle of the machine at bus 1 as the
reference angle.
The relative machine angles, or differences, are shown in Fig. 111 and Fig. 112. The
results demonstrate that the system is stable. Andersons results predict that the maximum
relative angle is about 85 and I*SIM predicts that the maximum relative angle is 84.78 .
Both I*SIM and Anderson predict that the maximum relative angle will occur at 0.43
seconds. For a complete discussion on this case, refer to Andersons study3.
o
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90.000
Degrees
0.000
0.000
Time in Seconds
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2.000
Case Two
In this dynamic simulation, a 10% load change is applied at bus 8:
Figures Fig. 114 and Fig. 115 show the absolute machine angles from Andersons study
and from I*SIM, respectively.
(20.000)
24.000
13.000
2.000
Angle in Degrees
(90.000)
97.000
0.000
Time in Seconds
2.500
Fig. 114. Andersons study: Unregulated response of the nine bus system to a
sudden load application at bus 8; angles relative to .
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Fig. 115. I*SIMs study: Unregulated response of the nine bus system to a sudden
load application at bus 8; angles relative to .
Figures Fig. 116 and Fig. 117 show the per unit speed deviation of the three machines
from Andersons study and from I*SIM, respectively.
0.0
0.1
1.0
2.0
2.5
.003
Fig. 116. Andersons case study: Speed deviation following application of a 10 per
unit resistive load at bus 8.
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Fig. 117. I*SIMs study: Speed deviation following application of a 10 per unit
resistive load at bus 8.
The original figure shown in Andersons Power System Control and Stability was simply a
speed deviation graph. Fig. 116 is represented as a per unit speed deviation graph in order
to facilitate the comparison with I*SIMs results, which are shown in per unit form.
I*SIM 196
Reference Manual
Note: As you can see in Fig. 118, the cable labeled CBL 25 has both its nodes
connected. However, in the I*SIM Study, the initial status of this cable is set to OffLine, which treats the cable as though its disconnected, thus overriding the
connection you see.
Here is how the General Study Criteria have been set:
Library Model
UTIL @Bus001
UTIL @Bus3
SynMtr @Bus4
002SWITCH
004SYN MOTOR
The Dynamic Events, shown in Fig. 119, include the tripping of the branch between bus 1
and bus 2 at 0.1 seconds followed by the reclosing of the branch between bus 2 and bus 5
after 6 cycles (we can reclose it because its initial status was set to OffLine).
06/26/2008
You may have also noticed that this project includes a Solution Parameter Event. The
purpose of the Solution Parameter Event, as discussed in Solution Parameter Event on
section 1.6.2, is to help the project to converge. This Solution Parameter Event reduces
the Acceleration Factor from 1.0 to 0.7, as shown in Fig. 120:
Fig. 120. This Solution Parameter Event reduces the Acceleration Factor from 1.0
(the default at the start of the Simulation), to 0.7, which helps the Simulation to
converge.
Conclusions
The branch P and Q flows from bus 2 to bus 4 are shown in Fig. 121. Notice that both the
P and Q flows become zero after the plant is disconnected from Source 1, and they regain
power after the plant is connected to Source 2.
I*SIM 198
Reference Manual
The per unit mechanical power on the machine base and the per unit electrical power on
the 100 MVA system base of the synchronous motor at bus 4 are shown in Fig. 122. The
mechanical power of the motor is a constant; the real and reactive electrical power of the
motor become zero after the plant is disconnected from Source 1, and regain electrical
power after the plant is connected to Source 2.
Fig. 122. Per unit mechanical power and electrical power of the synchronous motor.
The per unit frequency deviation at bus 2, the per unit speed deviation of the synchronous
motor at bus 4, and the per unit voltage at bus 2 are shown in Fig. 123 (with a simulation
time of 2.5 seconds) and in Fig. 124 (with a simulation time of 25 seconds). Figure Fig.
123 shows the adjustment dominated by the controller action on the frequency and speed,
and Fig. 124 shows the adjustment dominated by the natural response of the machine and
motor themselves. The voltage at bus 2 drops while the plant is disconnected from Source
1 and recovers after the plant is connected to Source 2.
06/26/2008
Fig. 123. Per unit frequency deviation at bus 2, and per unit speed deviation of
synchronous motor and per unit voltage at bus 2 (run for 2.5 seconds).
Fig. 124. Per unit frequency deviation at bus 2, and per unit speed deviation of
synchronous motor and per unit voltage at bus 2 (run for 25 seconds).
This Project demonstrates how you use multiple Studies to focus on different disturbances.
The Projects OneLine Diagram is shown following:
EDISON001
001UTILITY CO
PI0001
002TX A PRI
Relay 23
XF20001
003HV SWGR
CBL0003
CBL0001
CBL0002
CBL0004
PD @Bus3
SYN A003
006TX3 PRI
SYN B003
Relay 37
004TX B PRI
XF30001
LOAD0001
007TX E PRI
005TXD PRI
012TX3 TER
XF20005
GEN 1008
GEN 2020
XF20002
CBL0008
011TX3 SEC
024MV SWG
008DS SWG1
CBL0005
CBL0006
009TX C PRI
010MTR 10
LOAD0002
020DS SWG3
CBL0010
CBL0011
026TX G PRI
025BUS 25
CBL0009
IND020
021TX F PRI
XF20007
XF20006
IND025
IND010
CBL0019
027TX B PRI
022DSB 2
CBL0013
CBL0012
XF20004
LOAD0005
028BUS 28
023MTR 23
029TX D SEC
IND028
MTRI0014
IND023
SYN023
06/26/2008
In the Isolation Study, we wanted to compare the effect of a 6cycle branch trip to the
effect of a 9cycle branch trip. Aside from the difference in the number of cycles, the two
Cases were identical, so after creating the 6Cycles Case we used the handy Copy/Paste
feature to quickly duplicate it, then renamed it and changed the event time:
06/26/2008
Fig. 127. Four simple steps to duplicating a Case and changing the cycle duration:
1) Copy the Case; 2) Paste it (be sure the Study is highlighted); 3) Rename it (in the
sample Project we named it 9Cycles); 4) Change the time duration (in the sample
Project the branch recloses at 0.2 seconds in the 6Cycles Case, so we changed the
reclosing time to 0.25 in the 9Cycles Case).
Since I*SIM allows us to plot results from different Cases on the same graph, we can
examine the difference in bus voltage:
Fig. 128. Comparison of Bus Voltage curves from two different Cases.
This project demonstrates sizing a generator so that it is large enough to support existing
loads as well as a new load. In addition this Study demonstrates how a diesel governor
operates and how to choose its parameters.
In this Project, we have a 350 kVA motor (MTRI0001) and a constant impedance load
(LOAD0001) of 45 kW and 22 kVAR which are both connected to local diesel generators
under emergency conditions. In this study, the generator must be sized so that it is large
enough to support the existing loads plus start another 350 kVA motor (MTRI0002).
Also, the generator sizing criteria states that during the motor starting, the maximum
voltage drop should be less than 0.2 per unit. It is known that the generator has an
X=0.18 per unit and an inertia of H=2. Both motors have a starting current of 6.5 per
unit, a starting torque of 1.5 per unit and a maximum torque of 2.3 per unit.
In order to determine a generator size, we will create three Cases, one with the generator
sized at 2000 kVA, another with it sized at 3000 kVA, and a third with it sized at 4000
kVA. In all three Cases we will start the motor MTRI0002 at 0.1 seconds. But this
Project presents an interesting challenge: how do we compare different Cases when the
Cases themselves dont change at all? Remember, we are comparing different generator
sizes, and generator sizes are changed in the static portion of the system (this is, outside of
I*SIM), not the dynamic portion (that is, within I*SIM).
It turns out that comparing Cases with different electrical topologies is simpleyou just
have to remember to run the Cases one at a time, flipping back and forth between the
Component Editor and I*SIM to change the generator size for each Case:
06/26/2008
Begin by making the Case, then copying and pasting it twice. Next, flip to the Component
Editor and change the generator size for the first Case, as shown:
Each of our three Cases now has channel data based on a different generator size, and we
can plot the channels to compare them.
Voltage Comparison
Generator Sizing  Size=3000kVA  002MOTOR
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Time (Seconds)
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
Fig. 130. Per unit voltage deviations at bus 2 with generator sizes of 2000 kVA, 3000
kVA, and 4000 kVA.
The plot in Fig. 130 demonstrates that larger generators show less voltage drop and less
frequency deviation during the starting of motor 2. The 3000 kVA generator has a
maximum voltage drop of 0.2 per unit, meeting the sizing criterion.
Freauence Comparison
Generator Sizing  Size=3000kVA  002MOTOR
0.000
0.025
0.050
0.075
0.100
0.125
0.150
0.175
0.200
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Time (Seconds)
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
Fig. 131. Per unit frequency deviations at bus 2 with generator sizes of 2000 kVA,
3000 kVA, and 4000 kVA.
Since the diesel governor is functioning as an open loop control, the frequency will not
return to the original steady state value after a disturbance is applied without the operators
interference, as shown in Fig. 131.
06/26/2008
Undrill, J.M. and T.F Laskowski, Model Selection and Data Assembly for Power System
Simulations, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS101, no. 9,
pp. 33333348, September 1982.
06/26/2008
IN THIS CHAPTER
PTW allows you to edit existing component models in, and add new component models
to, the I*SIM Library.
I*SIM 22
Reference Manual
To make changes to a model category, you need to open that category. The Select a
Device dialog box provides a way to peer into the Library to select model characteristics.
However, it does not constitute an open Library.
To open an I*SIM Library
1.
2.
In the Select Document Type dialog box, select PTW Library and choose the OK
button.
3.
This opens the I*SIM Library. While it looks and functions like the Select a Model dialog
box, it is actually the open version of the Library. You can tell the difference by looking
at the title bar. The open Library displays the Librarys path:
The uneditable Select Model dialog box. The open and editable I*SIM Library.
Once the Library is open, you may open the category type that you want to modify.
06/26/2008
Notice that I*SIM has two library sets: I*SIM/TMS and I*SIM. This is because I*SIM
and TMS now share the same library for machine model, synchronous motor model, flux
induction model, exciter model, governor model, motor model, and load model.
To edit an existing model you select it as you would with the Select a Model dialog box.
Click the
symbol to
expand the I*SIM/TMS
Library. . .
and its models will appear to the right. To edit a model, simply doubleclick on it and
its data will appear.
I*SIM 24
Reference Manual
Tip:
To narrow your search for motor or load models, you may run a query while the
Library is open. To do so, select the Query command from the Run menu.
Select the model by clicking on it, then choose Edit from the Device menu.
Once you have selected a model for editing, a tab page containing the models data will
appear. All Library models use the same spreadsheet format, as shown in this sample:
Note: When entering fractions in the CAPTOR Library, if you want to enter a
fraction with a leading integer (for example, 1 1/3) you can enter it directly.
However, if there is no leading integer (for example, 2/3), be sure to precede the
fraction by a zero and a space (as in 0 2/3).
06/26/2008
Choose New from the Device menu. A new model with a generic name appears at the
bottom of the model list.
Select an existing models name (do not doubleclick on it, or the models data tab
pages will open).
2.
3.
Choose Paste from the Device menu. The copied model will appear at the bottom of
the model list.
If you want to copy a model from one I*SIM Library to another, you may do so
using the Copy and Paste commands. Just copy the model from the source
Library, switch to the destination Library, and choose Paste. (Be sure both
Libraries are open.)
2.
3.
Set the Engineering Standard to IEC and the Length/Distance Units to Metric.
I*SIM 26
Reference Manual
1: G t a p
is
Z t ran
vn
N e t w or k
in
il
ys
The following equations define the Machine Norton Equivalent terms shown in Fig. 21.
1
j Ld Lq
r
y1 = 22
rs + 2 Ld Lq
1
rs j Ld + Lq
r
2
y1 =
rs2 + 2 Ld Lq
r r r
r
is = ys En y1e j2 E$ n
r r j2
i1 = y1e v$ n
06/26/2008
Data
Description
r
vn
v$ n
r
in
r
is
r
i1
r
En
E$ n
Machine angle
FG IJ
H K
r
1
ys = r
zs
r
y1
rs
Ld
Lq
r
Z tran
G tap
I*SIM 28
Reference Manual
1: Gt ap
is
Z t r an
vn
Network
ys
Fig. 22. Machine Norton equivalent; ignoring the subtransient saliency effect.
where
r
ys =
rs jL
+ 2 L 2
rs2
and
r r r
is = ys E n
06/26/2008
Efd
Lf d 0
im
in
Lm
1
w0
Yr
1
Lm Lr
Yr
Y "m
+
L"
Y "m
Ym
Te 
T acc
Tm
pw
2H
PQ
E "m
E "n
(Y m )
QP
+ 
w0
pd
1
S
Pm ec h
1 .0
2H
n Pmech D e n
Telec
=
t
1+ n
where
Pmech = Pmech
n= 0
D tn
and
Telec
De =
Pe
n
Dt =
Pt
n
De is specified as part of the machine data, whereas Dt is entered as part of the turbine
governor data. Be aware that both De and Dt reflect percentage change in power with a
unit change in frequency, not torque. For example, De for a constant torque pump drive
should be 1.0 and not 0.0.
De can be used to approximate the damping effect of system load in response to varying
either the system frequency or the speed if no detailed system load data are available. De
I*SIM 210
Reference Manual
must not be used to represent the effect of damping torques developed within the machine;
these damping torques are explicitly modeled by all of the recommended machine models
in the standard I*SIM model library and are included in the Telec term in the last equation.
If load damping is considered to be essential, it is recommended that load frequency
variation effects be modeled on the basis of local bus frequency by using any of the
frequency sensitive load models in the standard I*SIM model library. The value of De
ranges from near zero, for predominantly resistive loads, to about two, for systems with a
majority of pumping, fan and other industrial loads.
2.2.5. Inertia
The inertia constant can be calculated as
b g
where
H
inertia constant;
Wk2
rpm
kVA
base kVA.
Tm =
kVA 7040
(footlbs)
rpm
where
Tm
Ta = Tm Tl
where
Ta
accelerating torque;
Tm
motor torque;
Tl
load torque.
hp = rpm
06/26/2008
(footlbs)
T
5252
where
hp
rpm
torque in footlbs.
kW = rpm
T
7040
where
kW
rpm
1. 2
1. 0
S 1. 2 =
per unit
S 1. 0 =
B 1. 0
B 1. 2
A 1. 2  B 1. 2
B 1. 2
A 1. 0  B 1.0
B 1. 0
A 1. 0
I*SIM 212
Reference Manual
E 'q
S

+

sT ' d 0
sT ' d
L'd  L"d
Y "d
L ' d  Ll
(L ' d  L l )
Lad i f d
L'd  L"d
d  axis
L'd  Ll
Ld  L'd
id
+
Y "d
Y "
D( L a d i f d )
Y"
Y " q (L q  L l )
 Y "  (Ld  L l )
+
S +
Lq  L'q
iq
L'q  L'q
(L ' q  Ll )
1
sT ' q 0
+
S
+
1
sT " q 0
L'q  Ll
L'q  L"q
L ' q  Ll
q  axis
 Y "q
+
L" q  Ll
L'q  Ll
Fig. 25. Block Diagram for the Round Rotor SubTransient Level Synchronous
Machine Model.
06/26/2008
Ra
Ld
ifd
Rf d
Rkd
d  ax is
i kd
id
Ll
Lf d
Lkd
ef d
Ra
Lq
ikq2
Rkq 1
q  axis
Rkq2
ikq 1
iq
Ll
Lk q 1
Lk q 2
Fig. 26. Approximate Equivalent Circuit for the Round Rotor Model.
This table shows the data requirements for the round rotor subtransient level synchronous
machine model which you will see in the Library:
I*SIM 214
Reference Manual
Data
Description
Ra
This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range
is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. It is in per unit.
Xd
This is the Daxis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
2.5. The three interdependency range checks for Xd are
1. 0.15*Xd < Xd
2. Xd > Xd
3. Xd > Xq
Xq
This is the Qaxis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
2.5. The three interdependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xd
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > Xq
Xd
This is the Daxis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
1.0. The five interdependency range checks for Xd are
1. Xd > 0.15*Xd
2. Xd < Xq
3. Xd < Xq
4. Xd < Xd
5. Xd > X
Xq
This is the Qaxis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
1.0. The three interdependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xq
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > X
Xl
Xl is the leakage reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0 < Xl < 1.0
The only interdependency range check for Xl is Xl < X
H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and turbine. Enter value in
seconds. The typical range is 1.0 < H < 10.
06/26/2008
D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < D <
4.0. For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set D=0. If the
load models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For motors, set D=1 for
constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set D=3 for pump load, and set
D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.
Td0
Td0 is the daxis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 1.0 < Td0 <
10.0. The two interdependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 > Td0
2. Td0 > Tq0
Td0
Td0 is the daxis open circuit subtransient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Td0 < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore:
0.03332 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Td0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that:
Integration time step < Td0/4
The two interdependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 < Td0
2. Td0 < Tq0
Tq0
Tq0 is the qaxis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 0.2 < Tq0 <
1.5.
The two interdependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 > Tq0
2. Tq0 > Td0
Tq0
Tq0 is the qaxis open circuit subtransient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Tq0 < 0.2
The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz. Therefore:
0.03332 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Tq0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen as:
Integration time step < Tq0/4
The two interdependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 < Tq0
2. Tq0 < Td0
S10
S10 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.0 PU. S10 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of the loads. S10 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S10 < 1.0. The only interdependency range check for S10 is S10
< S12.
S12
S12 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.2 PU. S12 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of loads. S12 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S12 < 1.0. There is one interdependency range check for S12:
S12 < S10.
I*SIM 216
Reference Manual
+
Ef d
E'q
sT " d 0
L' d  L " d
sT " d 0
L ' d  Ll
L ' d  L" d
(L ' d  L l )
+
Ld  L ' d
+
Y "d
L ' d  Ll
d  axi s
id
 Y "q
sT " q 0
q  axi s
Lq  L' q
Fig. 27. Block Diagram for the SubTransient Level Salient Pole Synchronous
Machine Model.
06/26/2008
iq
Ra
Ld
ifd
Rf d
Rk d
d  ax i s
id
Ll
i kd
Lf d
Lk d
ef d
Ra
Lq
Rk q 2
iq
q axi s
i kq
Ll
Lk q
Fig. 28. Approximate Equivalent Circuit for the Salient Pole Synchronous Machine
Model.
I*SIM 218
Reference Manual
generator model is the standard recommended model for detailed induction generator
studies.1
Ekr
w0 T " 0 p d
X "  Xl
X'  Xl
E'i
sT ' 0
sT ' 0
X'X"
X'  Xl
Eki
ei
X' X "
(X '  X l )
X"
X'  Xl
+

ir
E 'r
X  X'
Y "r
Y"
w0 T " 0 p d
E'i
Y"
Y "i
Y"
+

+
X  X'
ii
X'  Xl
X'  X "
(X '  X l )
1
sT ' 0
X"
2
E 'r
sT ' 0
Ekr
X'X"
X '  Xl
er
+
X "  Xl
X'  Xl
w0 T " 0 p d
Eki
Fig. 29. Block Diagram for the Induction Generator Machine Model.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Ra
T is the transient time constant. Enter value in seconds. The typical range is 0.2
< T < 10.0.
H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and load. Enter
value in seconds. The typical range is 0.5 < H < 10.0.
X is the steadystate armature reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The
typical range is 0.0 < X < 2.5. The only interdependency range check for X is
0.5*X > X.
X is the transient motor reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The typical
range is 0.0 < X < 2.5. The two interdependency range checks for X are
1. 0.5*X > X
2. Xl < X ( short circuit level )
Xl
Xl is the leakage reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The typical range is
0.0 < Xl < 2.5. The only interdependency range check for Xl is Xl < X ( short
circuit level )
E1
Se (E1)
Se(E1) is the motor saturation factor at the point where the motor terminal
voltage is equal to E1. The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1)< 1.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).
E2
Se(E2)
Se(E2) is the motor saturation factor at the point where the motor terminal
voltage is equal to E2. The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0.
The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1)
I*SIM 220
Reference Manual
Data
Description
T is the subtransient time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step) < T < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz, and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore: 0.03332 < T < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.4 < T < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz ). If a
smaller T is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < T/4. The two interdependency range checks for T are:
1. T < T
2. If X = 0.0, then set T = 0.0
X is the subtransient motor reactance. Enter in per unit. The typical range is 0.0
< X < 2.5. The three interdependency range checks for X are
1. X < X
2. X ( dc level ) > Xl
3. If T = 0.0, then set X = 0.0
+
Efd
sT " d
E 'q
1
sT " d
L' d  L" d
L 'd  L"d
+
Ld  L'd
sT " q
d  axis
id
q axis
Lq  L'q
06/26/2008
L'd  Ll
 Y "q
+
Y "d
L' d  Ll
(L ' d  L l )
iq
Data
Description
Ra
This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range
is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. It is in per unit.
Xd
This is the Daxis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
2.5. The three interdependency range checks for Xd are
1. 0.15*Xd < Xd
2. Xd > Xd
3. Xd > Xq
Xq
This is the Qaxis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
2.5. The three interdependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xd
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > Xq
Xd
This is the Daxis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
1.0. The five interdependency range checks for Xd are
1. Xd > 0.15*Xd
2. Xd < Xq
3. Xd < Xq
4. Xd < Xd
5. Xd > X
Xl
Xl is the leakage reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0 < Xl < 1.0
The only interdependency range check for Xl is Xl < X
H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and turbine. Enter value in
seconds. The typical range is 1.0 < H < 10.
H
D
D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < D <
4.0. For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set D=0. If the
load models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For motors, set D=1 for
constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set D=3 for pump load, and set
D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.
Td0
Td0 is the daxis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 1.0 < Td0 <
10.0. The two interdependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 > Td0
2. Td0 > Tq0
Td0
Td0 is the daxis open circuit subtransient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Td0 < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore:
0.03332 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Td0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that:
Integration time step < Td0/4
The two interdependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 < Td0
2. Td0 < Tq0
I*SIM 222
Reference Manual
Tq0
Tq0 is the qaxis open circuit subtransient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Tq0 < 0.2
The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz. Therefore:
0.03332 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Tq0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen as:
Integration time step < Tq0/4
The two interdependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 < Tq0
2. Tq0 < Td0
S10
S10 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.0 PU. S10 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of the loads. S10 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S10 < 1.0. The only interdependency range check for S10 is S10
< S12.
S12
S12 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.2 PU. S12 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of loads. S12 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S12 < 1.0. There is one interdependency range check for S12:
S12 < S10.
2.3.14. Classical
The classical synchronous machine model has been included in the standard I*SIM model
library only to be compatible with older programs. Its use is strongly discouraged. This
model assumes a constant flux behind the subtransient machine reactance, which is
neither accurate nor realistic. Since I*SIM has its infinite bus model, it is much better to
select the subtransient level model using typical data. Do not select an exciter or a
governor model with the classical synchronous machine model.
Data
Description
Ra
This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range is
0.0 < Ra < 0.01. Enter in per unit.
Xa
Xa is the armature reactance. The typical range is 0.0 < Xa < 2.5. Enter in per unit
H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and turbine. Enter value in
seconds. The typical range is 1.0 < H < 10.
D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < D < 4.0.
For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set D=0. If the load
models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For motors, set D=1 for
constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set D=3 for pump load, and set
D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Ra
This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range
is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. Enter in per unit.
Xa
Xa is the armature reactance. The typical range is 0.0 < Xa < 2.5. Enter in per unit.
I*SIM 224
Reference Manual
L "d  L l
L ' d  Ll
+
d
E'q
S

+

sT ' d 0
L' d  L " d
sT ' d 0
L ' d  Ll
L' d  L" d
(L ' d  L l )
L ad i f d
+
+
+
+
S
Ld  L ' d
Y "d
d  axi s
L' d  Ll
id
+
Y "d
Y "
D( L ad i f d )
Y"
Y " q (Lq  Ll )
 Y "  (Ld  Ll )
+
S +
Lq  L ' q
iq
L' q  L' q
(L ' q  Ll )
1
sT ' q 0
+
S
+
1
sT " q 0
L ' q  Ll
L'q  L"q
L ' q  Ll
q  axi s
S
+
 Y "q
L " q  Ll
L ' q  Ll
Fig. 211. Block Diagram for the Round Rotor SubTransient Synchronous Motor
Model.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Ra
This, armature resistance, is an ac resistance at the operating region. The typical range
is 0.0 < Ra < 0.01. It is in per unit.
Xd
This is the Daxis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
2.5. The three interdependency range checks for Xd are
1. 0.15*Xd < Xd
2. Xd > Xd
3. Xd > Xq
Xq
This is the Qaxis armature reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
2.5. The three interdependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xd
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > Xq
Xd
This is the Daxis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xd <
1.0. The five interdependency range checks for Xd are
1. Xd > 0.15*Xd
2. Xd < Xq
3. Xd < Xq
4. Xd < Xd
5. Xd > X
Xq
This is the Qaxis transient reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Xq <
1.0. The three interdependency range checks for Xq are
1. Xq < Xq
2. Xq > Xd
3. Xq > X
Xl
Xl is the leakage reactance. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0 < Xl < 1.0
The only interdependency range check for Xl is Xl < X
H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and turbine. Enter value in
seconds. The typical range is 1.0 < H < 10.
H
D
D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < D <
4.0. For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set D=0. If the
load models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For motors, set D=1 for
constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set D=3 for pump load, and set
D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.
Td0
Td0 is the daxis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 1.0 < Td0 <
10.0. The two interdependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 > Td0
2. Td0 > Tq0
I*SIM 226
Reference Manual
Td0
Td0 is the daxis open circuit subtransient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Td0 < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is
0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore:
0.03332 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Td0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Td0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that:
Integration time step < Td0/4
The two interdependency range checks for Td0 are
1. Td0 < Td0
2. Td0 < Tq0
Tq0
Tq0 is the qaxis open circuit transient time constant. The typical range is 0.2 < Tq0 <
1.5.
The two interdependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 > Tq0
2. Tq0 > Td0
Tq0
Tq0 is the qaxis open circuit subtransient time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step) < Tq0 < 0.2
The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as
0.00833 seconds for 60Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz. Therefore:
0.03332 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz )
0.4 < Tq0 < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz )
If a smaller Tq0 is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen as:
Integration time step < Tq0/4
The two interdependency range checks for Tq0 are
1. Tq0 < Tq0
2. Tq0 < Td0
S10
S10 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.0 PU. S10 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of the loads. S10 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S10 < 1.0. The only interdependency range check for S10 is S10
< S12.
S12
S12 is the Saturation Factor at voltage = 1.2 PU. S12 is required in order to generate a
second order curve fitting. This curve fitting allows ISIM to determine the proper value
of machine excitation voltage Efd as a function of loads. S12 is dimensionless. The
typical range is 0.0 < S12 < 1.0. There is one interdependency range check for S12:
S12 < S10.
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L" d  Ll
L' d  L l
+
Ef d
E 'q
sT " d 0
L' d  L " d
sT " d 0
L' d  Ll
L ' d  L" d
(L ' d  L l )
+
Ld  L' d
+
Y "d
L'd  Ll
d  axi s
id
 Y "q
sT " q 0
q  axis
iq
Lq  L' q
Fig. 212. Block Diagram for the Salient Pole SubTransient Synchronous Motor
Model.
The data boxes are similar to the Round Rotor SubTransient Level Synchronous Motor
except for these differences:
No Xq or Tq0.
Xq has only two interdependency range checks:
1. Xq < Xd
2. Xq > Xd
Xd has only these interdependency range checks:
1. Xd > 0.15*Xd
2. Xd < Xq
3. Xd < Xd
4. Xd > X
X has only these interdependency range checks:
1. X < Xd
2. X > Xl (where Xl is the leakage reactance in machine base)
Td0 has only one interdependency range check: Td0 > Td0
Td0 has only one interdependency range check: Td0 < Td0
Tq0 has only one interdependency range check: Tq0 < Td0
I*SIM 228
Reference Manual
Note: All machine reactances should be entered in unsaturated per unit values; all
machine resistances should be entered in per unit values; all saturation voltage points
should be entered as per unit values; all time constants should be entered in seconds;
and all other constants are dimensionless. All per unit values are on the machines
base (Mbase).
06/26/2008
Ek r
w0 T " 0 p d
X "  Xl
X '  Xl
E' i
sT ' 0
sT ' 0
X'X"
X'  Xl
Ek i
ei
X'  X "
(X '  X l )
X"
X'  Xl
+

ir
E'r
X  X'
Y "r
Y"
w0 T " 0 p d
E'i
Y"
Y "i
Y"
+

+
X  X'
ii
X'  Xl
X'  X "
(X '  X l )
1
sT ' 0
X"
2
E'r
sT ' 0
Ekr
X'X"
X'  Xl
er
+
X "  Xl
X'  Xl
w0 T " 0 p d
Ek i
Fig. 213. Block Diagram for the Flux Level Induction Motor Model.
I*SIM 230
Reference Manual
Data
Description
Ra
T is the transient time constant. Enter value in seconds. The typical range is 0.2
< T < 10.0.
H is the summation of the inertial time constant of the shaft and load. Enter
value in seconds. The typical range is 0.5 < H < 10.0.
D is the load damping coefficient. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 <
D < 4.0. For generators, if the load models include the frequency effects, set
D=0. If the load models havent include the frequency effects, set D=1.0. For
motors, set D=1 for constant torque load set D=2 for constant power load, set
D=3 for pump load, and set D=4 for fan load. Enter in percent.
X is the steadystate armature reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The
typical range is 0.0 < X < 2.5. The only interdependency range check for X is
0.5*X > X.
X is the transient motor reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The typical
range is 0.0 < X < 2.5. The two interdependency range checks for X are
1. 0.5*X > X
2. Xl < X ( short circuit level )
Xl
Xl is the leakage reactance. It is per unit on the motor base. The typical range is
0.0 < Xl < 2.5. The only interdependency range check for Xl is Xl < X ( short
circuit level )
E1
Se
(E1)
Se(E1) is the motor saturation factor at the point where the motor terminal
voltage is equal to E1. The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1)< 1.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).
E2
Se(E2)
Se(E2) is the motor saturation factor at the point where the motor terminal
voltage is equal to E2. The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0.
The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1)
Tnom
Nominal Torque
06/26/2008
function of real power, terminal voltage, and machine internal characteristics. Since the
steady state load flow does not know the machine's internal characteristics (because it
doesn't use the Dynamic Model), it makes assumptions that closely, but not precisely,
estimate the var consumed by the motor. When the Dynamic Simulation runs it does
know the machine's internal characteristics because it uses the Dynamic Model, so it can
more precisely determine the var consumed. As a result, you will usually find in the Log
Report a slight mismatch between the actual var consumed and the estimated var
consumed. The model then creates a shunt at its terminal in order to compensate for this
mismatch. In compensating for the mismatch, I*SIM does not need to carry induction
machine internal resistances and reactance into the load flow calculations. Unfortunately,
if the Dynamic Model has inaccurate data, a very large internally held shunt capacitor
could be created; if this shunt is large enough, a selfexcitation phenomena could occur.
Such occurrences are rare, but not impossible. If selfexcited voltage or voltage running
away at the induction machine terminal becomes apparent and the machine is not
representing a capacitive network in the real world, then check the Dynamic Model for
inaccurate data.
Tnominal
A constant torque pump, for example, can be represented with D = 2. Other pumps would
have D = 3, whereas a fan would have D = 4. Do not start a motor driving a constant
torque pump with the pump online; that is, do not start a motor with a D = 1. If that is
attempted, the motor will simply stall immediately and will never come up to full speed.
I*SIM 232
Reference Manual
Conversion Between the Single Cage Flux and the Single Cage Algebraic Motor
Models
La
Ra
L1
Lm
R1
s
Fig. 214. Circuit for the Single Cage Algebraic Motor Model.
The circuit for the single cage algebraic motor model is shown in Fig. 214. Its terms are
Ra
Armature resistance
La
Lm
Magnetizing inductance
L1
R1
s (Slip)
synchronous speed
The conversion equations between the single cage fluxlevel induction motor model and
the single cage Algebraic motor model are
L = L a + Lm
L = La +
1
1
1
+
L m L1
Ll = L a
T =
L m + L1
0r1
L > L
where
06/26/2008
Inertial constant;
Ll
Leakage inductance.
Description
T is the subtransient time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step) < T < 0.2. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60Hz, and 0.01 seconds for 50Hz.
Therefore: 0.03332 < T < 0.2 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.4 < T < 0.2 ( for 50 Hz ). If a
smaller T is used, a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < T/4. The two interdependency range checks for T are:
1. T < T
2. If X = 0.0, then set T = 0.0
X is the subtransient motor reactance. Enter in per unit. The typical range is
0.0 < X < 2.5. The three interdependency range checks for X are
1. X < X
2. X ( dc level ) > Xl
3. If T = 0.0, then set X = 0.0
Conversion Between the Double Cage Flux and the Double Cage Type I Algebraic
Motor Models
La
Ra
L1
Lm
L2
R1
R2
The circuit for the Type I algebraic motor model is shown in Fig. 215. Its terms are
Ra
Armature resistance
La
Lm
Magnetizing inductance
I*SIM 234
Reference Manual
L1
L2
R1
R2
s (Slip)
synchronous speed
The conversion equations between the double cage fluxlevel induction motor model and
the Type I Algebraic Motor Models include
L = La + Lm
L = L a +
1
1
1
+
Lm L1
L = La +
1
1
1
1
+
+
L m L1 L2
Ll = La
T =
L m + L1
0 r1
L2 +
T =
L1 L m
L1 + L m
0 r2
T > T
L > L > L
where
06/26/2008
Inertial constant;
Ll
Leakage inductance.
Conversion Between the Double Cage Flux and the Double Cage Type II Algebraic
Motor Models
La
L1
Ra
L2
Lm
R1
R2
The circuit for the Type II algebraic motor model is shown in Fig. 216. Its terms are
Ra
Armature resistance
La
Lm
Magnetizing inductance
L1
L2
R1
R2
s (Slip)
synchronous speed
The conversion equations between the fluxlevel induction motor model and the Algebraic
Type II motor models include
L = La + Lm
L = L a +
1
1
1
+
L m L1 + L2
L = La +
1
1
1
+
L m L1
I*SIM 236
Reference Manual
Ll = La
T =
L m + L1 + L2
0 r2
1
1
1
+
L m + L1 L2
T =
0 r1
T ' > T"
L > L > L
where
06/26/2008
Inertial constant;
Ll
Leakage inductance.
Single Rotor
To edit a Motor model, you must first open it.
This grid
shows the
torque (T),
power
factor
(PF), and
current (I)
for the
motor
model.
Represents this
Ra
Stator resistance
La
Stator inductance
R1
Rotor resistance
L1
Rotor inductance
Lm
Magnetizing inductance
Enter all the impedance values in per unit on the machine base.
I*SIM 238
Reference Manual
TMS modeling permits full compliance with the recommendations of the IEEE for
modeling motors.
As per IEEE Std 861987 IEEE Recommended Practice: Definitions of Basic PerUnit
Quantities of AC Rotating Machines, both induction and synchronous motors use rated
apparent input power as the base.
RatedVoltage = E ll
Rated Current (I) =
where
Double Rotor
To edit a Motor model, you must first open it, as described in Section 2.1, "General
Library Usage":
This grid
shows the
torque (T),
power
factor (PF),
and current
(I) for the
motor
model.
06/26/2008
Represents this
Ra
Stator resistance
La
Stator inductance
R1
L1
R2
L2
Lm
Magnetizing inductance
Enter all the impedance values in per unit on the machine base.
TMS modeling permits full compliance with the recommendations of the IEEE for
modeling motors.
As per IEEE Std 861987 IEEE Recommended Practice: Definitions of Basic PerUnit
Quantities of AC Rotating Machines, both induction and synchronous motors use rated
apparent input power as the base.
RatedVoltage = E ll
Rated Current (I) =
where
I*SIM 240
Reference Manual
Graphical Model
To edit a Motor model, you must first open it, as described in Section 2.1, "General
Library Usage":
Important: We recommend that you enter the Graphical model using per unit values, but
if the manufacturer did not give you per unit values, then you can enter the absolute
values and PTW will convert them to per unit values as long as you follow these steps
carefully:
1.
(Be sure the Show in Per Unit option is unchecked.) Enter the Synchronous
RPMs, Torque Base, and Current Base.
2.
3.
Turn on the Show in Per Unit option by clicking the checkbox. This converts the
curve points into per unit values.
Often the manufacturer provides the motor characteristics in a graphical format. This
model permits such data to be entered directly into the TMS library. You may enter up to
50 data points to define the curves. Be sure to click the Update button once you finish
entering curve points so the curves will reflect the new points.
TMS stores the graphical data as per unit values using the basic data quantities to
normalize the data before it is stored in the motor library. Changing the basic data
quantities will cause the graphical data to be scaled accordingly before it is subsequently
redisplayed. This facilitates the use of graphical data for modeling a range of motor sizes.
By reviewing the data in the per unit mode, the data may be directly compared to industry
standard values as a check for data entry errors.
When you click the Update button or use the Save command, TMS performs some data
checks before actually saving the data in the Library. These are the checks performed:
06/26/2008
4.
The data is sorted by speed, so it is not necessary to enter the data points in any order.
5.
6.
A check is made to assure that data points have been entered at the motors
synchronous and zero speeds.
In order to capture all the important information it is necessary to enter more data points
where there are large changes in the motors torque, current or power factor. Generally,
more data points should be used near the motors operating speed because the graphical
data is changing most rapidly in this location.
In using graphical data to model motors, the TMS assumes that the motors stator current
varies directly as a function of the motors terminal voltage and the motors torque varies
directly as the square of the motors terminal voltage.
Additionally, it is sometimes necessary to derive the graphical motors impedance as seen
from the motors terminal in order to model certain controllers. This impedance is
calculated based on the motors terminal voltage, the motors stator current and the
motors power factor. Of course these quantities are all a function of the motors speed.
TMS uses linear interpolation to acquire data at motor speeds between the data points
representing the graphical motor model.
Typical models
If you do not have adequate manufacturer data provided, you can use the one of the
Typical Motor models provided. TMS provides the following Typical Motor models:
I*SIM 242
Reference Manual
Click the Typical button. The following dialog box will appear:
Click OK to copy the Typical data to the model that you are entering
(this data will replace any that you have already entered.)
Click here to
redraw the
curves based
on the data
you entered.
To use the Typical data, simply click the OK button and the Typical models data will be
copied to the Library model that you are entering.
Important: If you use the Typical data, the data will replace any data that already exists
for the model.
06/26/2008
Exponential
The Exponential model derives its Load Curve from a pair of equations. When you have
minimal information available, the Exponential model provides an easier way to generate
the Load Curve than the Graphic Load model.
Note: The Exponential model assumes the motor rated power (HP) at an 0.013 slip.
To edit a Load model, you must first open it, as described in Section 2.1, "General Library
Usage":
These equations determine the load
torque. The first defines the
breakaway torque, and the second
defines the torque when the RPMs
are greater than zero.
This grid
shows the
Load Curve.
Click this
button to use
data from the
typical
models.
Data may be entered to define the load in terms of a breakaway torque (similar to the
concept of static friction) plus a rolling torque and factor for varying the torque as a
function of speed.
Following are the boxes which require data entry.
I*SIM 244
Reference Manual
In this box
Synch RPM
Synchronous RPM.
Rated Torque
Rated Amps
Moment of Inertia
Exponent
A, B, C
Once you have entered the known data, the coefficients (A, B, and C) will be calculated.
Click the Update button to see the Load Curve, and click the OK button when finished.
The coefficients will then be copied to the Load model.
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Typical Data
If you do not have adequate manufacturer data provided, you can use the one of the
Typical Load models provided. TMS provides the following Typical Load models (the
values given within the parentheses are assumed by TMS and are not editable):
Motor Gen Sen (motor inertia multiplier of 3, break away torque of 25%)
Important: Because the Fan and Blower Load models have motor inertia multipliers
greater than 6, they may require even more powerful motors than those recommended by
the NEMA standards for Wk2 capabilities.
Click OK to copy the Typical data to the model that you are entering
(this data will replace any that you have already entered.)
Click here to
redraw the
curves based
on the data
you entered.
I*SIM 246
Reference Manual
Note: Because the Load models Synchronous RPMs may be different from the motors
Synchronous RPMs due to gearing, TMS adjusts the load data and Moment of
Inertia based on the motor model selected.
Following are the boxes which require data entry.
In this box
Synch RPM
Synchronous RPM.
Rated Torque
When you click the Update button or use the Save command, TMS performs some data
checks before actually saving the data in the Library. These are the checks performed:
06/26/2008
7.
The data is sorted by speed, so it is not necessary to enter the data points in any order.
8.
9.
A check is made for values at the loads synchronous and zero speeds. If a zero speed
data point has not been entered then a point is added with a torque of zero and a speed
of zero.
I*SIM 248
Reference Manual
Tnominal
A constant torque pump, for example, can be represented with D = 2. Other pumps would
have D = 3, whereas a fan would have D = 4. Do not start a motor driving a constant
torque pump with the pump online; that is, do not start a motor with a D = 1. If that is
attempted, the motor will simply stall immediately and will never come up to full speed.
06/26/2008
E c omp
(PU)
1
1 +sTr
Vr max x Vt
Vs
Vr ef
+
V
S er r
+

+
S
1 +sTc
Ka
1 +sTb
1+sTa
Vr
+

1
sTe
Ef d
(PU)
Vr mi n x Vt
Vf b
S e +K e
sK f
1+sTf
damping
Fig. 217. Block Diagram for the IEEE Recommended Type DC2 Exciter.
The 1981 IEEE Recommended DC2 Exciter model contains two blocks within the model,
the leadlag block and the ratefeedback block, which require special consideration. If the
transientgain reduction action is performed by modern electronic controllers, the leadlag
block should be used. If the transientgain reduction action is performed by electromechanical controllers, the ratefeedback block should be used. You must choose only
one of the two blocks. To choose the leadlag block, Kf must be set to zero and Tf must
be set to 9999. To choose the ratefeedback block, Tc /Tb and Tb must be set to zero.
see Computer Representation of Excitation Systems and Excitation System Models for
Power System Stability Studies, respectively.
I*SIM 250
06/26/2008
Reference Manual
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the
integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833
seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen
so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range
is 0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If
Tb=0, then set Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tb < 20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then
Tb <>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Vr max
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base.. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Kf
Tf
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E2)
I*SIM 252
Reference Manual
1
1 + sT r
Vs
Vrmax
S

Vc
1+ sT c
Ka
1 + sT b
1 + sT a
sK f
1 + sT f
Vr
Vr mi n
Vf
Ve
Efd
sT e
Fex
Vf e
F e x = f (I n )
In
+ Se
In =
K cIfd
Ve
S
+
Ifd
Kd
In
I f I n 0.51, Fe x = 1  0. 5 8 I n
I f 0. 51 < I n < 0.715, F e x =  0.8 6 5 ( I n + 0.0 0 8 2 6 ) + 0.9 3 2 3 3
Fex
Fig. 218. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC1 Exciter.
The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC1 Exciter model uses exactly the same method for
selecting the leadlag block and the ratefeedback block as that described for the 1981 type
DC2.
The difference between the 1981 model and the earlier models is that in the 1981 model,
the demagnetizing effect of the load current on the dynamics of the exciter alternator
output voltage is accounted for in the feedback path as represented by the constant Kd.
The exciter output voltage drop due to the rectifier regulation is simulated by the inclusion
of the constant Kc, which is a function of the commutating reactance, and by the
approximation of the rectifier regulation curve.
Such a model can be used to represent the exciter alternator synchronous machine in large
power system stability studies. The Westinghouse Brushless Exciters are examples of
these systems.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Tc/Tb
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tb < 20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0,
then Tb <>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Ka
Ta
Vr max
Vr min
Ke
Te
I*SIM 254
Reference Manual
Kf
Tf
Kc
Kd
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E2)
06/26/2008
1
1 +sT r
+
S
Vs
Vc
V r ma x
+
S

1 + sT c
Ka
1 + sT b
1 + sT a
Vr
Vr m i n
sK f
Vf
1 + sT f
+
S

Ve
Ef d
sTe
Fe x
Vf e
F e x = f (I n )
In
K e +Se
In =
+
S
+
Kc Ifd
Ve
Ifd
Kd
In
If I n 0.51, Fe x =1  0.58 I n
If 0.51< I n < 0.715,F e x = 0.865(I n + 0.00826) + 0.93233
Fe x
2
Fig. 219. Block Diagram for the 1981 Modified IEEE Recommended Type AC1
Exciter.
The 1981 modified IEEE Recommended AC1 Exciter model uses exactly the same
method for selecting the leadlag block and the ratefeedback block as that described for
the 1981 Type DC2.
I*SIM 256
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Reference Manual
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is
0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0,
then set Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb
< 20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb
<>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then
a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is
0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Kf
Tf
Kc
Kd
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E2)
I*SIM 258
Reference Manual
E c om p
1 +sT r
Va ma x
Vs
Ver r
Vc
1 + sT c
Ka
1 + sT b
1 + sT a
Va
Vf
V a mi n
Vr
Vh
ma x
LV
GATE
KB
Vr
Vr
Vl
Ve
Efd
sTe
Fe x
m in
sK f
F e x = f (I n )
1 + sT f
Kl
In
K e +Se
Vf e
Vlr
In =
+
S
Kc Ifd
Ve
Ifd
Kh
Kd
In
If I n 0.51, Fe x = 1  0.5 8 I n
If 0.51 < I n < 0.715,F e x =  0.86 5( I n + 0.00 8 2 6) + 0.93 2 33
Fe x
Fig. 220. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended AC2 Exciter.
The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC2 Exciter model represents a high initial response
field controlled alternator rectifier excitation system. The method of selecting the leadlag
block and the ratefeedback block is exactly the same as that described for the 1981 Type
DC2.
The 1981 Type AC2 model is similar to the 1981 Type AC1 regarding the inclusion of the
two additional exciter field current feedback loops. They differ in that the 1981 Type AC2
model adds two other compensation loops to the system to increase the bandwidth of the
small signal response and to obtain a high initial response from the excitation system.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is
0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0,
then set Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb
< 20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb
<>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then
a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time
step < Ta/4.
Va max
Vr max is a very high forcing voltage that is applied to the exciter field in
order to obtain a high initial response from this system. Vr max is in per
unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit number, the
excitation voltage is used as the base voltage. The typical range is Vr
max > 0.0.
Va min
Vr min is a very high forcing voltage that is applied to the exciter field in
order to obtain a high initial response from this system. Vr min is in per
unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit number, the
excitation voltage is used as the base voltage. The typical range is Vr
min < 0.0.
Kb
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is
0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
I*SIM 260
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Reference Manual
Ke
Te
Kl
Kl is the feedback gain of the limiter. This limiter senses exciter field
current and allows high forcing voltage, but limits the current. The
typical range is Kl > 0.0.
Kh
Kf
Tf
Kc
Kd
Vlr
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E2)
Vr
Kv
filt er
E c om p
(PU)
1+sTr
ma x
Ver r
Vr
ma x
Vr h
 Vr mi n
s K vT r h
 Kv
If V e r r K v , V r =V r m a x
If  V e r r  < K v , V r =V r h
If V e r r  K v , V r = V r m i n
Vr
mi n
excit er
Vr
Ef d
(PU )
sTe
S
+
Ke
+
Se
Ef d
Fig. 221. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type DC3 Exciter.
The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type DC3 exciter model is used to represent older
systems, particularly those dc commutator exciters with noncontinuously acting
regulators. Examples of these systems include the General Electric GFA4 regulator and
the Westinghouse BJ30 regulator.
I*SIM 262
06/26/2008
Reference Manual
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Trh
Kv
Vr max
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is
0.0 < Vr min < 2.0.
Te
Ke
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E2)
E c omp
+
S
1
1+sTr
HV
GATE
Vj
V r ef
+
+
S
Ver r
Vc
S
+
Vr ma x
Vl v
Va
1+ sTc
Ka
1+ sTb
1+ sTa
Vr m i n
Vf
s
1+ sTf
Vr
Ve
Fe x
Vf e
0
Vn
Vn
In
Fe x = f ( I n )
Kr
In
K e + Se
Kn
1
Kf
Ef d n
Ef d
sTe
Ef d
+
S
+
If I n 0.51, Fe x =1  0.58 I n
If 0.51< I n < 0.715,Fe x = 0.865(I n + 0.00826) +0.93233
In =
Kc I f d
Ve
Ifd
Kd
F ex
Fig. 222. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC3 Exciter.
The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC3 Exciter model uses exactly the same method as
that described for the 1981 Type DC2 in selecting the leadlag block and the ratefeedback
block.
The difference between the 1981 Type AC3 and the 1981 Type AC1 is that the Type AC3
has additional nonlinearity which is introduced by employing selfexcitation. This model
is applicable to systems employing static voltage regulators, such as the General Electric
ALTERREX excitation system.
I*SIM 264
06/26/2008
Reference Manual
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range
is 0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If
Tb=0, then set Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tb < 20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then
Tb <>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Ka
Ta
Va max
Va min
Ke
Te
Klv
Klv is the feedback gain of the limiter. This limiter senses exciter field
current and allows high forcing voltage, but limits the current. The
typical range is Klv > 0.0.
Kr
Kf
Tf
Kn
Efdn
Kc
Kd
Vlv
E1
Se(E1)
I*SIM 266
Reference Manual
Se(E2)
V r ef
E c omp
1
1 +sTr
+
V
S er r
+
+
S
V i mi n
V r ma x  K c l f d
V i ma x
1 + sTc
Ka
1+ sTb
1 + sTa
Ef d
V r mi n  K c l f d
Fig. 223. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC4 Exciter.
The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type AC4 Exciter model is a high initial response
excitation system which uses a full thyristor bridge in the exciter output circuit. The
transient loading effects can be accounted for by using the exciter loading current Ifd and a
constant Kc, which is a function of the commutating reactance, to modify the excitation
limit. The leadlag block, instead of the ratefeedback block, is used to modify the control
function of stabilizing the excitation system.
This model is quite different from other types of ac models. It can be used to represent the
General Electric ALTHYREX and rotating thyristor excitation systems.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Vi max
Vi min
Vi min is the minimum voltage limit that is imposed on the leadlag controller
input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is 1.0 < Vi
max < 0.0.
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Va max
Va max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Va max is in per unit.. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is Va max > 0.0.
Va min
Va min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Va min is in per unit.. In order to
calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the base
voltage. The typical range is Va min < 0.0.
Kc
Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due
to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. The
typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.
I*SIM 268
Reference Manual
V r ef
E c om p
+
1
1 +sT r
Vi
Ver r
S
Vi
Vt Vr
max
1 + sT c
Ka
1 + sT b
1 + sT a
min
max
 Kc lfd
Efd
Vt V r
min
 K c lfd
sK f
1 + sT f
Fig. 224. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST1 Exciter.
The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST1 Exciter represents a potential source controlledrectifier excitation system, in which excitation power is supplied through a transformer
from the generator terminals or from the units auxiliary bus, and is regulated by a
controlled rectifier. The maximum exciter voltage available from such systems is directly
related to the generator terminal voltage.
The method of selecting the leadlag block and the ratefeedback block is exactly the same
as that described for the 1981 Type DC2.
Examples of type ST1 excitation systems include the Canadian General Electric
Silcomatic exciters, the Westinghouse Canada solid state thyristor exciter and the
Westinghouse type PS static excitation systems with WTA or WHS regulators.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Vi max
Vi max is the maximum voltage limit that is imposed on the leadlag controller
input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is 0.0 < Vi
max < 1.0.
Vi min
Vi min is the minimum voltage limit that is imposed on the leadlag controller
input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is 1.0 < Vi
max < 0.0.
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta <
1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller integration
time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the Efd base. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Kc
Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due to
the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. The
typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.
Kf
Tf
Tf is the ratefeedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds. The
typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default number for
the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds
for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60
Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller ratefeedback controller time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < Tf/4. The two interdependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.
I*SIM 270
Reference Manual
E c om p
1 +sT r
Vr
Vs
Vref
Ver r
Efd
ma x
Vr
Ka
1 + sTa
Vr
Vf
Ef d
sTe
Vb
m in
max
0
Ke
sK f
1 + sTf
Vt
Ve
V e = K pV t + j K i I t 
It
Fex
Ifd
In
In =
K c Ifd
Ve
In
F e x = f (I n )
If I n 0.51, Fe x = 1 0.58 I n
2
If 0.51 < I n < 0.715,F e x = 0.865(I n + 0.008 26) + 0.93233
Fe x
Fig. 225. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST2 Exciter.
The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST2 Exciter model differs from the 1981 Type ST1
in that the ST2 system forms the exciter power source by a phasor combination of both the
generator terminal current and voltage. The rectifier loading and commutation effects are
accounted for, and the exciter output voltage is controlled by adjusting the saturation of
the power transformer.
One example of such a system is the General Electric static excitation system, which is
referred to as the SCTPPT or SCPT system.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Kf
Tf
Tf is the ratefeedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds. The
typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default number for
the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds
for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60
Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller ratefeedback controller
time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < Tf/4. The two interdependency range checks for
Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.
I*SIM 272
Reference Manual
Kp
Ki
Kc
Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due
to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. For
most transformer fed systems, Kc is very small, permitting the term to be
neglected for many studies.
Efd max
Efd max is the exciter ceiling voltage. It is the maximum direct voltage that
the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals under defined
conditions.
+V
1 +sTr
Vr
Vs
Vi
er r
E f d ma x
ma x
K
Vi
ma x
1 + sTc
j
1 + sTb
Va
Ka
Vr
1 + sTa
Efd
mi n
Vr m i n
Ve
Vt
V e =  K p V t + j ( K j +K p X l ) I t 
It
Fe x
Ifd
In
Vb
In =
Kc Ifd
Ve
In
F e x = f (I n )
If I n 0.51, Fe x = 1  0.58 I n
If 0.51 < I n < 0.715,F e x =  0.865( I n + 0.00826) + 0.93233
=K pe
j Qp
Fe x
2
Fig. 226. Block Diagram for the 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST3 Exciter.
The 1981 IEEE Recommended Type ST3 Exciter model differs from the 1981 Type ST2
in that the type ST3 uses the leadlag block instead of the ratefeedback block. Also, an
inner loop is added to the voltage regulator which obtains a negative feedback from the
regulator output.
Examples of these systems include the General Electric GENEREX and General Electric
SHUNT THYRISTOR.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Vi max
Vi min
Vi min is the minimum voltage limit that is imposed on the leadlag controller
input. It is the default data and is in per unit.. The typical range is 1.0 < Vi
max < 0.0.
Kj
Kj is the steady state leadlag controller gain. The typical range is 0 < Kj <
1000.
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Kg
This is the inner loop feedback constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Kj <1.1.
Kp
Ki
Efd max
Efd max is the exciter ceiling voltage. It is the maximum direct voltage that
the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals under defined
conditions.
Kc
Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due
to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. The
typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.
I*SIM 274
Reference Manual
Xl
Xl is the generator leakage reactance. It is the default data and is in per unit..
The typical range is 0.0 < Xl < 0.5.
Vg max
This is the inner loop maximum voltage feedback. The typical range is 0.0 <
Vg max < 20.
Potential circuit
phase angle
(degrees)
The typical range is 90 < Potential circuit phase angle < 90.
f il t e r
E com p
(PU )
1 +sT r
r e gula t o r
Vs
+
Vr
+
+
+
S
S
Verr
+
Vf b
1 + sT c
Ka
1 + sT b
1 + sT a
Vr
min
max
+
Vr
sK f
Vs
1 + sT f
(PSS)
d a mp in g
Efd
(PU)
sT e
e x c it er
Fig. 227. Block Diagram for the 1979 IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter.
The 1979 IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter model is quite similar to the 1968 IEEE Standard
Type 1 Exciter model on page 285. The parameters Ke, Vr max, and Vr min should be
treated exactly the same way as in the 1968 model.
The difference between the 1979 and 1968 models is that the 1979 model has an additional
leadlag block for representing transientgain reduction action performed by modern
electronic controllers rather than relying solely on the ratefeedback block for representing
the damping action as in the 1968 model.
The method of selecting the leadlag block and the ratefeedback block is exactly the same
as that described for the 1981 Type DC2.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta <
1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller integration
time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the Efd base. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 10.0.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base. In
order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 10.0 < Vr min < 0.0.
Ke
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If
a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Kf
I*SIM 276
Reference Manual
Tf
Tf is the ratefeedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds. The
typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default number for
the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds
for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60
Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller ratefeedback controller time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so that
Integration time step < Tf/4. The two interdependency range checks for Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase in
exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve. B is
the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the
air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0. The
only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).
Se(E2)
Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase in
exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve. B is
the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the
air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).
r e gula t or
+
+
S
Vr
filt er
E c om p
(PU)
1 +sTr
S
+
1 + sTc
Ka
1 + sTb
1 + sT a
Ver r
Vf b
Vr
1+ sT f
+
Vr
1
sTe
e x ci t er
mi n
sK f
1
Vs
Ke
ma x
1+ sT f
(PSS)
damp in g
Fig. 228. Block Diagram for the 1979 IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter.
06/26/2008
Efd 0
(PU)
The 1979 IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter model is quite similar to the 1968 IEEE Standard
Type 2 Exciter model on page 292. The parameters Ke, Vr max, and Vr min should be
treated exactly the same way as in the 1968 model. The additional leadlag block allows
representation of the electronic transient gain reduction portion instead of the electromechanical rate feedback. As in 1979 Standard Type 1, choose either the leadlag or the
rate feedback, but not both. This can be achieved by setting Tb /Tc and Tc to zero, or Kf =
0, and Tf 1 = Tf 2 = 9999.
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Reference Manual
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the
integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833
seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen
so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range
is 0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If
Tb=0, then set Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 <
Tb < 20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then
Tb <>0. Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Vr max
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot
produce a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in
per unit on the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the
excitation voltage Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Kf
Tf1
Tf2
E1
Se(E1)
I*SIM 280
Reference Manual
Se(E2)
E com p
f il t e r
1
(PU )
1 +sT r
Vr
r e gula t o r
S
+
Verr
e x c it er
1 + sT c
Ka
1 + sT b
1 + sT a
Vr
Vf b
Vr
sK
V othsg
(P S S )
max
Efd 0
(PU )
sT e
min
1 + sT f
d a m p in g
Se
Efd
Fig. 229. Block Diagram for the 1979 Modified IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter.
1979 Modified IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter is a modified form of the 1979 IEEE
Standard Type 2 Exciter model. The exciter manufacturer of the systems represented by
the IEEE Standard Type 2 model reported that this model is slightly more accurate than
the nonmodified Type 2 in representing their product. Review the manufactures
documentation to determine if this model is more appropriate for the equipment being
used.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and
0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step
< Ta/4.
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is
0.05 < Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0,
then set Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Kf
I*SIM 282
Reference Manual
Tf
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 <
Se(E1) < 1.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1)
< Se(E2).
Se(E2)
Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) >
0.0
The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).
Vs
r e gul a t or
V
E com p
(PU)
f il t er
1
1+sTr
Efd
K e + sT e
1+sT a
Verr
+ S
Ka
e x c i t er
r max
(PU )
sK f
r mi n
1 + sT f
da mp in g
Vt h
Vt
V t h e v =  K pV t + j K t I t 
It
V t h  ( 0. 7 8 L a d I f d )
Lad I f d
Fig. 230. Block Diagram for the 1979 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter.
06/26/2008
Vb
max
The 1979 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter model is almost identical to the 1968 IEEE
Standard Type 3 Exciter described in Section 13.20. They differ only in the placement of
the limit Vb max. Again, the value of Ki is important to the performance of this system. If
Ki is unknown, enter Ki as zero and I*SIM will determine the value of Ki automatically.
I*SIM 284
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Reference Manual
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Kf
Tf
Tf is the ratefeedback controller time constant. The units are in seconds. The
typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) < Tf < 1.5. The default number for
the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds
for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 60
Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 1.5 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller ratefeedback controller
time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < Tf/4. The two interdependency range checks for
Tf are:
1. 5.0 < Tf/Kf < 15.0
2. If Tb=Tc/Tb=0, then Tf<>0 and Kf<>0. Otherwise, set Tf=Kf=0.
Kp
Ki
Vbmax
Y
r e gu la t o r
V ref
f il t e r
E com p
(PU)
1 +sTr
Vr
+
S
+
max
Ka
+ S
1 + sT a
Vr
1
K e + sT e
Efd
(P U)
e x c it er
min
sK f
Vs
(PSS)
1 + sT f
d a mp in g
Fig. 231. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter.
The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter is a widely used model for representing shunt DC
exciters as well as alternator exciters with uncontrolled shaftmounted rectifier bridges.
When representing DC exciter systems, the value of Ke should be set to zero so that I*SIM
can determine its value automatically. For alternatorrectifier systems, set Ke to 1.0.
The values for VR max and VR min must be carefully tuned. You can set VR max = VR
min = Ke = 0 and let I*SIM determine these parameters automatically, in lack of
information.
The transientgain reduction action is represented by using a ratefeedback block. This is
appropriate for electromechanical controllers. Use the 1979 Standard Type 1 if the
exciter has leadlag controllers.
Note that provision is made for firstorder smoothing or filtering of the compensated
terminal voltage with a filter time constant of Tr. Tr is usually very small and if it is less
than twice of the integration time step, then Tr is ignored by this model.
It is difficult to provide typical data for this model since so many different systems can be
represented by the 1968 Standard Type 1 Exciter. The data provided below should be
used only as a general reference.
I*SIM 286
06/26/2008
Reference Manual
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and
0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Kf
Tf
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve. B
is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU
on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) <
1.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).
Se(E2)
Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve. B
is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU
on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).
I*SIM 288
Reference Manual
V ref
Vr
E c om p
(PU)
Efd
max
max
e x citer
Ka
1 + sT a
+
Vr
Efd
(PU)
K e + sT e
Efd
min
min
sK f
Vs
(P S S )
1 + sT f
da mp in g
Se
Fig. 232. Block Diagram for the 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter.
The 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1 Exciter model modifies the Type 1 Exciter
model by introducing a block which represents the maximum and minimum limits of the
excitation output voltage in the exciter output.
The exciter manufacturers of some of the systems representable by the 1968 IEEE
Standard Type 1 Exciter model reported that the 1968 Modified model is slightly more
accurate in representing their product. Review the manufacturers documentation to
determine if this model is more appropriate for the equipment being used.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step
< Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce
a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on
the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage
Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on
the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage
Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0
( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Kf
Tf
I*SIM 290
Reference Manual
E1
Se(E1)
Efd max
Efd max is the exciter ceiling voltage. It is the maximum direct voltage
that the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals under
defined conditions.
Se(Efd max)
Se(Efd max) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the
increase in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(Efd max)
is defined as Se(Efd max)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current
required to generate an exciter voltage of Edf max on the constantresistanceload saturation curve. B is the exciter field current required to
generate an exciter voltage of Efd max on the air gap line (without
saturation). The typical range is Se(Efd max) > 0.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(Efd max) > Se(E1).
Efd min
Efd min is the minimum excitation voltage. The typical range is Efd min
= 0.
r e gula t or
Vr
ma x
or K
Vt
f il t er
+
E c om p
( PU)
1 +sTr
Ka
1 + sT a
+
Vr
Vs
(PSS)
Efd
( PU)
min
sK f
1 + sT f
da mp in g
Fig. 233. Block Diagram for the 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1S With Bus Fed.
The 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 1S Exciter model is a special case of the
Standard Type 1 Exciter where excitation is obtained through rectification of the terminal
voltage and no exciter portion exists. A system of this type responds almost
instantaneously to system changes.
In the case of bus fed connections, the maximum regulator voltage (the ceiling voltage) is
proportional to the generator terminal voltage (Vr max = Kp x Vt). In the case of solid fed
connections, Vr max is a fixed number.
06/26/2008
The block diagram for this model is almost identical to the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 1
Exciter model, except that it lacks the exciter portion. The small time constants created in
the closed loop of this model could cause numerical instability difficulties. If that is the
case, use the Simplified Exciter model or the simplified SCR Static Exciter models
instead.
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and
0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step
< Ta/4.
Switch Position
Set switch position = 0 for bus fed. Set switch position = 1 for solid fed.
Kp
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Kf
Tf
I*SIM 292
Reference Manual
Y
Vr ef
r egula t or
Vr
filt er
E c om p
(PU)
1
1+ sT r
+
S
+
ma x
Ka
1 + sT a
1
K e + sT e
Efd
(PU)
Vr
Vs
(PSS)
ex ci t er
m in
sK f
1+ sT f 2
1+ sT f 1
damping
Fig. 234. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter.
The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 2 Exciter represents rotating rectifier systems incorporating
damping loops that originate from the regulator output rather than from the excitation
voltage. It is intended to represent the Westinghouse Brushless excitation system. Being
brushless, the excitation voltage for this system is simply not available to be fed back.
The first damping constant Tf1 approximates the exciter time delay and is considered to be
the major damping time constant. The second damping constant, Tf2, represents high
frequency damping effects and is considered to be the minor damping time constant.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and
0.04 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a
smaller integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step
< Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Kf
I*SIM 294
06/26/2008
Reference Manual
Tf1
Tf2
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 <
Se(E1) < 1.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1)
< Se(E2).
Se(E2)
Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) >
0.0
The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).
r e gu l a t o r
f il t e r
E c om p
(PU)
1
1+sTr
V
Ka
1+sT a
+
V
r max
Vr
Vb
e x c it er
Efd
1
0
K e + sT e
(PU )
Vc
r min
sK f
1 + sT f
Vs
d a m p in g
(P S S )
Vt hev
Vt
It
max
Vb
V t h e v =  K pV t + j K
Lad If d
It 
1 A
A=
0.78 L a d I f d
V t h ev
, i f A > 1, V b = 0
Fig. 235. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter.
The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter represents systems which use a combination of
terminal voltage and current information as a feedback signal to be compared against the
reference. The regulator and filter of this model are the same as the 1968 IEEE Standard
Type 1 Exciter. The signal Vb incorporates information fed forward from Ecomp with
added information concerning both It and Vt. As such, Vc represents the selfexcitation
from the generator terminals. Kp and Ki are proportionality constants indicating the
portion of the Thevenin voltage, VThev, due to voltage and current information.
Note that Vc = VThev (1A) LadIfd. The multiplying factor to VThev accounts for the
variation in selfexcitation with change in the angular relation of field current, Ladifd and
selfexcitation voltage VThev.
A typical application for 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter, as well as for the 1979 IEEE
Standard Type 3 Exciter, would be the GE SCPT system. The SCPT systems obtain
excitation power from a compounding transformer. They achieve field voltage control by
using a control winding on the transformer and saturating its core, effectively using it as a
large magnetic amplifier. The rectifier bridge is uncontrolled.
Proper specification for the value of Ki is important to the performance of this system.
Normal design practice would be to proportionally adjust Kp to approximately unity and
Ki to the generator synchronous reactance. Further refinement is needed to account for
rectifier commutation drop and generator saturation effect. Such refinement can be
accomplished based on the assumption that Vr is essentially idle. It would be reasonable
to set Kp between 1.1 to 1.2, and then to tune the value of Ki. This would result in the
I*SIM 296
Reference Manual
generator naturally providing its own excitation. If you was unable to tune Ki, try to set Ki
= 0, and I*SIM will calculate the value of Ki automatically.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Tr
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and
0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04
< Ta < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Ke
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Kf
Tf
I*SIM 298
Reference Manual
Kp
Ki
Vbmax
Y
Vr ef
r egulator
V r ma x
E c omp
+
S
 DVt  < K v
+1
(PU)
1
Vr
sTr h
Kr
Ef d
K e + sTe
(PU)
exciter
V r mi n
 DVt  > K v
Vr ma x
 Kv
Kv
Vr mi n
Fig. 236. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 4 Exciter.
The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 4 Exciter model represents older noncontinuous acting
systems. These systems have dead zones in which the system essentially operates as an
open loop. In addition, they are generally slow due to the friction and the inertia of the
mechanical moving parts. These models usually have two speeds of operation depending
upon the magnitude of the voltage error. A large voltage error may cause several rheostat
segments to be shortcircuited, whereas a small error may shortcircuit only one rheostat
segment. The switchover is accomplished by a selection circuit as determined by Kv. The
large error circuit is used whenever the input signal exceeds Kv.
Examples of such systems include the General ElectricGFA4 regulator and the
WestinghouseBJ30 regulator.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Kr
Kr is a constant which is used to simulate the nonlinearity introduced by selfexcitation. The typical range is Kr > 0.0.
Trh
Kv
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Ke
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase in
exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve. B
is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on
the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 < Se(E1) < 1.0.
The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1) < Se(E2).
Se(E2)
Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase in
exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve. B
is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on
the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) > 0.0
The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).
Y
V r ef
r egula t or
V r ma x
E c om p
 DV t  < K v
+
S
(PU)
sT r h
Vr
Vr
Ef d
K e + sT e
(PU)
mi n
excit er
Vr
 DV t  > K v
ma x
 Kv
Kv
V r mi n
Fig. 237. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 5 Exciter.
The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 5 Exciter model is almost identical to the 1968 IEEE
Standard Type 4 Exciter model on page 298. The difference is that the Type 5 has no
deadband in the slow reset path.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Trh
Kv
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that
is imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce
a regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on
the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage
Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on
the Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage
Efd is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0
( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Ke
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E2)
Y
r e gula t or
V r ef
Vr
max
Efd
E comp
 DV t  < K v
Ka
1 + sT r h
(PU)
Vr
Vr
Efd
1
K e + sT e
e x c i t er
mi n
ma x
(PU)
Efd
mi n
Vt 0
Vr
DV t
 DV t  > K v
ma x
 Kv
Kv
Vr
min
Fig. 238. Block Diagram for the 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 5 Exciter.
The 1968 Modified IEEE Standard Type 5 Exciter model is similar to the 1968 Type 5.
They differ in that the 1979 Type 5 introduces a block which represents the maximum and
minimum limits of the excitation output voltage in the exciter output.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Ka
Trh
Kv
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply
from its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd
is used as the base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5
cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds
for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 (
for 50 Hz ). If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Ke
E1
Se(E1)
Se(E1) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E1) is defined as
Se(E1)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.0 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.0
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is 0.0 <
Se(E1) < 1.0. The only interdependency range check for Se(E1) is Se(E1)
< Se(E2).
E2
Se(E2)
Se(E2) is the exciter saturation factor which is used to represent the increase
in exciter excitation requirements due to saturation. Se(E2) is defined as
Se(E2)=(AB)/B where A is the exciter field current required to generate an
exciter voltage of 1.2 PU on the constantresistanceload saturation curve.
B is the exciter field current required to generate an exciter voltage of 1.2
PU on the air gap line (without saturation). The typical range is Se(E2) >
0.0
The only interdependency range check for Se(E2) is Se(E2) > Se(E1).
Efd max
Efd max is the exciter ceiling voltage. It is the maximum direct voltage that
the excitation system is able to supply from its terminals under defined
conditions.
Efd min
Efd min is the minimum excitation voltage. The typical range is Efd min =
0.
Ve
r egula t or
V r ma x
V e ma x
E com p 
(PU)
Kr
1 + sT c
1 + sT b
Ve mi n
Ka
Efd
(PU )
1+sTa
V r mi n
Kf
Vs
(PSS)
V t hev
Vt
It
V t h e v =  K pV t + j K t I t 
In =Kc
La d I f d
La d If d
V t h ev
In
V c ma x
Fe x
< 1, F e x = 1.707(1  I n )
if I n > 1.000, F e x = 0
Fig. 239. Block Diagram for the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 8 Exciter.
The 1968 IEEE Standard Type 8 Exciter specifically models the GE GENEREX excitation
system. This system is quite similar in principal to the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3
Exciter model as described on page 295. They differ in that the potential windings of the
transformer in the Type 8 Exciter are fed from a set of auxiliary windings in the core of
the main generator rather than from the terminal. These auxiliary bars provide potential
excitation supply proportional to the generator airgap flux linkage. Such action results in
a somewhat stronger excitation source with faults at the generator terminal.
06/26/2008
The parameters Kp and Ki are related to the main generator parameters in basically the
same manner as in the 1968 IEEE Standard Type 3 Exciter. They differ in that, regarding
the Type 8 Exciter, there can be no assumptions made about their values and the Type 8
Exciter does not calculate Ki as the Type 3 Exciter would. The excitation ceiling is
determined by the excitation source parameters, the rectifier commutation drop parameter
Kc, and by the limit of the controlled rectifier system, Vr max.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Response ratio
Ve max
Ve min
Ve min is the minimum voltage limit that is imposed on the leadlag controller
input. It is in per unit. The typical range is 1.0 < Ve min < 0.0.
Kr
Kr is the steady state gain. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < Kr
< 1000.0.
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Ka
Ta
Ta is the time constant of the voltage regulator. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < Ta < 1.0. The default number for the integration time
step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01
seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < Ta < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Ta
< 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller time constant is used, then a smaller
integration time step should be chosen so that Integration time step < Ta/4.
Vr max
Vr max is the maximum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the maximum limit that is
imposed on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a
regulator output which exceeds practical limits. Vr max is in per unit on the
Efd base. In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is
used as the base voltage. The typical range is 0.5 < Vr max < 1.5.
Vr min
Vr min is the minimum direct voltage that the regulator is able to supply from
its terminals under defined conditions. It is the minimum limit that is imposed
on the regulator so that large input error signals cannot produce a regulator
output which exceeds practical limits. Vr min is in per unit on the Efd base.
In order to calculate the per unit value, the excitation voltage Efd is used as the
base voltage. The typical range is 1.5 < Vr min < 0.5.
Kf
Kp
Ki
Ki is the current transformer constant. It is the default data and is in per unit..
The typical range is 0.0 < Ki < 1.1.
Vcmax
Vc max is a voltage limit. It is in per unit. The typical range is 1.0 < Vc max
< 20.0.
Kc
Kc is a constant which is used to simulate the exciter output voltage drop due
to the rectifier regulation. It is a function of the commutating reactance. The
typical range is 0.0 < Kc > 1.0.
Xl
2.6.35. Simplified
V r ef
E max
+
E com p
(PU)
1 + sT c
Efd
1+ sT b
1 + sT e
(PU)
E min
Vs
(P S S )
Description
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Emin
Emin is the minimum excitation output voltage. The typical value is Emin =
0.0.
Emax
Emax is the maximum excitation output voltage. It is in per unit. The typical
range is 3.0 < Emax < 6.0.
E t or 1
E
E c om p
(PU)
1+ s T c
1+ s T b
1+ s T e
E
min
max
L ad I f d
brid ge
Nega tiv e
Curr en t
L o gic
Efd
(PU)
Vs
(P S S )
Fig. 241. Block Diagram for the Simplified SCR Static Exciter Model With Bus Fed.
The Simplified SCR Static Exciter model4 represents the general characteristics of
controlled rectifier excitation systems. The excitation source can be fed from an
independent source or from a transformer connected directly at the generator terminal bus.
It can also represent systems which have unidirectional current capability as well as those
that have bidirectional current capability. Bidirectional current capability is often
necessary in hydro units which feed radial transmission, because this setup subjects the
units to the possibility of selfexcitation upon load rejection. Negative current capability
is represented by setting Rc /Rfd equal to zero.
For unidirectional systems, the thyristors are normally fed firing pulses in rectifier mode
to provide positive field voltage and to carry positive current. During transient response,
the firing pulses can be shifted to provide a negative field voltage while the bridge
continues to carry positive current. Such negative forcing of the field voltage can rapidly
reduce the field current, but the field current cannot become negative. Therefore, a
protective circuit in the form of a bypassing thyristor bridge is needed to reduce the stress
generated by the high positive back emf across the thyristor bridges. There is usually a
current limiting resistor, Rc, connected in series with the bypassing thyristor. The value of
Rc is often set to approximately 10 times the value of the field winding resistance Rfd in
order to provide a field winding discharge of approximately 1/10 of the natural time
constant of the field winding, Td0. Therefore, the typical value of Rc /Rfd is 10 for unidirectional excitation systems.
06/26/2008
Data
Description
Tc/Tb
Tc/Tb is the leadlag ratio of the leadlag controller. The typical range is 0.05
< Tc/Tb > 0.3. The only interdependency range check is If Tb=0, then set
Tc/Tb=0.
Tb
Tb is the leadlag controller time constant. The typical range is 0.0 < Tb <
20.0. The only interdependency range check is If Tf=Kf=0, then Tb <>0.
Otherwise, Tb<>0.
Te
Te is the exciter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step
) < Te < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Te < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Te < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ).
If a smaller exciter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Te/4.
Emin
Emin is the minimum excitation output voltage. The typical value is Emin =
0.0.
Emax
Emax is the maximum excitation output voltage. It is in per unit. The typical
range is 3.0 < Emax < 6.0.
Switch Position
Set switch position = 0 for bus fed. Set switch position = 1 for solid fed.
Rc/Rfd
Set rc/rfd = 10.0 for unidirectional excitation systems. Set rc/rfd = 0.0 for bidirectional excitation systems.
1+sT1
1+sT
+
2
1+sT 3
Pme c h
Vmi n
Dw
Dt ur b
speed
Fig. 242. Diagram for the Standard Steam Turbine Governor Model.
The Standard Steam Turbine Governor model is a simple but sufficient model for
representing common steam turbine governors. For the Standard Steam Turbine Governor
Model, the steam bowl time constant is ignored since it is usually too small in comparison
to the reheater time constant T3. The high pressure power fraction T1/T3 is assumed to
have been developed instantaneously upon the initiation of governor action represented by
the time constant T1. Turbine damping Dturb is defined per unit on the base equal to the
unit rating. For steam, nuclear, and gas turbines, Dturb can usually be assumed to be 0.0.
Data
Description
R is the permanent droop. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < R <
1.0.
T1
T1 is the governor time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < T1 < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < T1 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If
a smaller governor time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < T1/4.
Vmax
Vmax is the maximum governor output. It is in per unit. The typical range is
0.5 < Vmax < 1.2. The only interdependency range check is Vmax > Vmin.
Vmin
Vmin is the minimum governor output. It is in per unit. The typical range is
0.0 < Vmin < 1.0. The only interdependency range check is Vmin < Vmax.
T2/T3
T3
T3 is the reheating time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < T3 < 1.0. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < T3 < 1.0 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < T3 < 1.0 ( for 50 Hz ). If
a smaller reheating time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < T3/4.
Dturb
Dturb is the turbine damping. Dturb is in per unit form; the unit rating is used
as the base. For steam, nuclear, and gas turbines, Dturb can usually be assumed
to be zero. For other cases, the typical range is 0.0 < Dturb < 0.5.
06/26/2008
to accelerate the water column from rest to rated flow and is given approximately by the
following equation:
LQ r
GA p H r
Tw =
where
Tw
required time for the rated water head to accelerate the water column
from rest to rated flow;
Qr
rated flow;
gravitational acceleration;
Ap
Hr
The permanent droop, R, and the temporary droop, r, should be specified in per unit on the
unit rating base. Gmax and Gmin are the maximum and minimum gate limits, respectively
Qnl is the flow required to maintain rated speed with the unit offline expressed as per unit
of rated flow. At is the turbine gain given by
1
G fl G nl
where
Gfl
Gnl
N r ef
Dw
1+ sT r
1+sT g
s rT r
1+ sT f
Dw
speed
Dt ur b
G
X
1.0
sT w
Pme c h
At
Q nl
Fig. 243. Block Diagram for the Standard Hydro Governor Model.
Data
Description
R is the permanent droop. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < R <
1.0.
r is the temporary droop. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.0 < r <
2.0. The only interdependency range check is r > R.
Tr
Tr is the governor time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time
step ) < Tr < 30. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles,
which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Tr < 30. ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tr < 30. ( for 50 Hz ).
Tf
Tf is the filter time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step ) <
Tf < 0.1. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which is
calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore
0.03332 < Tf < 0.1 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tf < 0.1 ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller
filter time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be
chosen so that Integration time step < Tf/4.
Tg
Tg is the servo time constant. The typical range is 4*( Integration time step )
< Tg < 0.1. The default number for the integration time step is 0.5 cycles, which
is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz.
Therefore 0.03332 < Tg < 0.1 ( for 60 Hz ) and 0.04 < Tg < 0.1 ( for 50 Hz ). If
a smaller servo time constant is used, then a smaller integration time step
should be chosen so that Integration time step < Tg/4.
Date Velocity
(+/) Vlimit
This is the date velocity limit. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 <
Vlimit < 0.3.
Gmax
Gmax is the maximum gate limit. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 <
Gmax < 1.0. The only interdependency range check is Gmax < Gmin.
Gmin
Gmin is the minimum gate limit. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 <
Gmin < 1.0. The only interdependency range check is Gmin < Gmax.
Tw
At
At is the turbine gain. It is dimensionless. The typical range is 0.8 < At < 1.5.
Dturb
Qnl
Qnl is the noload flow. It is in per unit. The typical range is 0.0 < Qnl < 0.15.
06/26/2008
Dw
Dt ur b
speed
1
R
Vmax
Load ref +
LV
GATE
1+sT1
1+sT2
Pmech
Vmi n
Kt
1
1+sT3
Load
Limit
Fig. 244. Block Diagram for the Simplified Gas Turbine Governor Model.
Data
Description
T1
T2
T3
T3 is the gas turbine thermal time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < T3 < 10. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T3 < 10. ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < T3 < 10. ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller gas turbine thermal time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < T3/4.
Lmax
Kt
Vmax
Vmax is the maximum fuel valve opening. The data shown is typical
data and is in per unit.. The typical range is Vmax > 0.0.
Vmin
Vmin is the minimum fuel valve opening. The data shown is typical data
and is in per unit.. The typical range is Vmin > 1.0.
Dturb
Td =
15
60
+
N Nn
where
Td
06/26/2008
Tm ax
1+Sp eed
( 1 + sT 3 )
s pe ed
1 + sT 1 + s T 1T 2
2
K (1 + sT 4 )
s (1+ s T5 )(1+ sT 6 )
Elec tr ic c ontr ol bo x
T mi n
A c t ua tor
sTd
P me c h
Engine
Fig. 245. Block Diagram for the Isochronous Diesel Governor Model.
Data
Description
T1
T2
T3
T3 is the gas turbine thermal time constant. The typical range is 4*(
Integration time step ) < T3 < 10. The default number for the integration
time step is 0.5 cycles, which is calculated as 0.00833 seconds for 60 Hz
and 0.01 seconds for 50 Hz. Therefore 0.03332 < T3 < 10. ( for 60 Hz )
and 0.04 < T3 < 10. ( for 50 Hz ). If a smaller gas turbine thermal time
constant is used, then a smaller integration time step should be chosen so
that Integration time step < T3/4.
T4
T4 is a constant of the actuator. The typical range is 0.04 < T4 < 25.
T5
T5 is a constant of the actuator. The typical range is 0.04 < T5 < 10.
T6
T6 is a constant of the actuator. The typical range is 0.04 < T6 < 0.5.
Td
Td is the engine dead time. The typical range is 0.0 < Td < 0.125.
Tmax
Tmax is the maximum actuator torque. The typical range is 0.5 < Tmax
< 1.5.
Tmin
Tmin is the minimum actuator torque. The typical range is 0.05 < Tmin
< 0.5.
1+sT 1
1+sT
+
2
1+sT 3
V mi n
Dw
Dt u r b
speed
Fig. 246. Block Diagram for the Synchronous Diesel Governor Model.
06/26/2008
Pme c h
Data
Description
T1
Vmax
Vmin
T2/T3
T3
Dturb
Dturb is the turbine damping. Dturb is in per unit form; the unit rating is
used as the base. For steam, nuclear, and gas turbines, Dturb can usually
be assumed to be zero. For other cases, the typical range is 0.0 < Dturb
< 0.5.
1+ sT 1
1+ sT
+
2
1+ sT 3
Pme c h
V min
Dw
Dtur b
sp e ed
Fig. 247. Block Diagram for the General Purpose Governor Model.
Data
Description
T1
Vmax
Vmin
T2/T3
T3
Dturb
Dturb is the turbine damping. Dturb is in per unit form; the unit rating is
used as the base. For steam, nuclear, and gas turbines, Dturb can usually
be assumed to be zero. For other cases, the typical range is 0.0 < Dturb
< 0.5.
06/26/2008
Pickup
T C1
T C2
TC 3
4th current point
TC 4
TC 5
I pu
min
I2
I3
I4
I5
Saturation
current
Current (PU)
Data
Description
Ipu
T0
Imin
TC1
I2
TC2
I3
TC3
I4
TC4
I5
TC5
TB
Frac
Pickup current
Zero current reset time
Lowest operating current
1st relay closing time
2nd operating current
2nd relay closing time
3rd operating current
3rd relay closing time
4th operating current
4th relay closing time
Saturation current
5th relay closing time
Breaker time
Fraction of load to shed
Description
Hz1
T1
Frac1
Hz2
T2
Frac2
Hz3
T3
Frac3
TB
Qex
Description
Hz1
T1
Frac1
Hz2
T2
Frac2
Hz3
T3
Frac3
TB
Qex
DF1
DF2
DF3
06/26/2008
Nominal
Operating
Time
(Sec)
f1
Rated
Frequency
f2
f3
f4
Zero frequency
Frequency(Hz)
Description
F1
Z1
F2
Z2
F3
Z3
F4
Z4
Tb
Frac
Qex
Freset
Treset
Description
TB
Td
p
t
Pthresh
Cf
FI
P=P G J
H K
FI
Q=Q G J
H K
FI
I=I G J
H K
Ap
Aq
Al
Data
Description
Ap
Aq
Al
jc
P = Pload a1V n1 + a 2 V n 2 + a 3V n 3 1 + a 7 f
jc
Q = Q load a 4 V n 4 + a 5V n 5 + a 6 V n 6 1 + a 8 f
06/26/2008
Data
Description
A1
N1
A2
N2
A3
N3
A4
N4
A5
N5
A6
N6
A7
A8
Constant PQ load
Constant PQ load
PQ break
Voltage
PQ break
Voltage
The variation of load as a function of network frequencies and voltages can be specified
by using one of the provided I*SIM load models.
Three basic assumptions, that is constant PQ, constant current, and constant impedance
loads, are useful in the absence of better information; however, they do not always
provide an acceptable representation of system load characteristics as the real and reactive
power system voltages and local bus frequencies fluctuate. Assuming that the PQ, current,
and impedance are constant is an inadequate approach for cases in which load
characteristics play a major role in the systems transient behavior. This approach is also
unusable when the dynamics of the induction motors themselves are of specific interest.
When the dynamics of the motors themselves are of specific interest, use the induction
motor model provided in the I*SIM model library.
06/26/2008
I*SIM
Index
A
F
Flowchart, 13
From Demand Load Study, 138
B
Branch Models and Events, 120
Branch Voltage Drop, 139
Bus Load Models, 2109
Bus Models and Events, 119
Bus Voltage Drop, 139
G
Generalized Machine Block Diagram, 27
Generation Acceleration Factor, 139
Global/Case Study Setup, 135
Go to Component Editor, 157
Go to I*SIM command, 15
Go to OneLine Diagram, 157
C
Case
adding components to, 19
copying to a different Folder, 18
deleting, 19
introduction, 17
moving to a different Folder, 18
removing components from, 111
renaming, 18
Case Study Setup, 135
Channels, defined, 124
Convergence Failure, 145
Curves, plotting, 147
D
Damping and Torque Equation, 28
Demand Load Report, 140
Directly Connected Loads, 138
Dynamic Event, 112
Dynamic Report, 141
Dynamic Simulation, 126
E
Event Mode, 16
Events
adding to a component, 112
Examples, 167
Exciter Models, 235
I
Induction Motor Models, 226
Inertia, 29
Initialization Error, 143
Input Report, 140
L
LF Setup Options, 137
Library
adding models to, 24
Bus Load Models, 2109
copying and pasting models, 24
editing models in, 23
Exciter Models, 235
general usage, 22
Induction Motor Models, 226
opening for editing, 22
Relay Models, 2105
source machine models, 210
Synchronous Motor Models, 222
Turbine Governor Models, 296
using metric units, 25
Library Models, applying, 114
Load Acceleration Factor, 139
Load Flow Report, 141
Load Specification, 138
Log Report, 142
I*SIM ii
Reference Manual
M
Machine Models, 210
Machine Saturation, 210
Maximum Simulation Time, 136
Metric units, 25
Model Frequency Dependent Network, 136
Motor Models and Events, 117
N
Norton Equivalent, 25
O
Out of Service component, 111
P
Plot
annotations, 158
axes, 154
channels, 124
colors, sizes, and fonts, 161
creating new, 154
deleting, 154
exporting, 160
opening, 154
printing, 165
renaming, 154
using, 149
zooming, 158
Plotting Curves, 147
PQ Machine, 115
Preparing data before opening, 14
PV Machine, 115
Report
Demand Load Report, 140
Dynamic Report, 141
Input Report, 140
Load Flow Report, 141
Log Report, 142
Report, opening, 139
S
Simulation Time Step, 136
Solution Criteria, 138
Solution Parameter Event, 131
Source Machine Models, 210
Source Models and Events, 115
Starting Simulation, 126
Study
creating a new, 19
deleting, 19
introduction, 17
renaming, 19
Study Manager, 14
Study Setup Options, 135
SubTransient Saliency Effect, 27
Swing Bus, 14, 115
Synchronous Motor Models, 222
System Base Frequency, 14
System Damping, 114
T
Turbine Governor Models, 296
V
Var Mismatch, 147
R
Relay Models, 2105
Relay Models and Events, 121
3/26/2006
I*SIM
Index
A
Angle Reference Machine, 136
Axes, 154
F
Flowchart, 13
From Demand Load Study, 138
B
Branch Models and Events, 120
Branch Voltage Drop, 139
Bus Load Models, 2109
Bus Models and Events, 119
Bus Voltage Drop, 139
G
Generalized Machine Block Diagram, 27
Generation Acceleration Factor, 139
Global/Case Study Setup, 135
Go to Component Editor, 157
Go to I*SIM command, 15
Go to OneLine Diagram, 157
C
Case
adding components to, 19
copying to a different Folder, 18
deleting, 19
introduction, 17
moving to a different Folder, 18
removing components from, 111
renaming, 18
Case Study Setup, 135
Channels, defined, 124
Convergence Failure, 145
Curves, plotting, 147
D
Damping and Torque Equation, 28
Demand Load Report, 140
Directly Connected Loads, 138
Dynamic Event, 112
Dynamic Report, 141
Dynamic Simulation, 126
E
Event Mode, 16
Events
adding to a component, 112
Examples, 167
Exciter Models, 235
I
Induction Motor Models, 226
Inertia, 29
Initialization Error, 143
Input Report, 140
L
LF Setup Options, 137
Library
adding models to, 24
Bus Load Models, 2109
copying and pasting models, 24
editing models in, 23
Exciter Models, 235
general usage, 22
Induction Motor Models, 226
opening for editing, 22
Relay Models, 2105
source machine models, 210
Synchronous Motor Models, 222
Turbine Governor Models, 296
using metric units, 25
Library Models, applying, 114
Load Acceleration Factor, 139
Load Flow Report, 141
Load Specification, 138
Log Report, 142
I*SIM ii
Reference Manual
M
Machine Models, 210
Machine Saturation, 210
Maximum Simulation Time, 136
Metric units, 25
Model Frequency Dependent Network, 136
Motor Models and Events, 117
N
Norton Equivalent, 25
O
Out of Service component, 111
P
Plot
annotations, 158
axes, 154
channels, 124
colors, sizes, and fonts, 161
creating new, 154
deleting, 154
exporting, 160
opening, 154
printing, 165
renaming, 154
using, 149
zooming, 158
Plotting Curves, 147
PQ Machine, 115
Preparing data before opening, 14
PV Machine, 115
Report
Demand Load Report, 140
Dynamic Report, 141
Input Report, 140
Load Flow Report, 141
Log Report, 142
Report, opening, 139
S
Simulation Time Step, 136
Solution Criteria, 138
Solution Parameter Event, 131
Source Machine Models, 210
Source Models and Events, 115
Starting Simulation, 126
Study
creating a new, 19
deleting, 19
introduction, 17
renaming, 19
Study Manager, 14
Study Setup Options, 135
SubTransient Saliency Effect, 27
Swing Bus, 14, 115
Synchronous Motor Models, 222
System Base Frequency, 14
System Damping, 114
T
Turbine Governor Models, 296
V
Var Mismatch, 147
R
Relay Models, 2105
Relay Models and Events, 121
6/26/2008
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