44 tayangan

Diunggah oleh radoev

In this paper was presented one approach for modelling intermittent mechanism with two lobes on each
noncircular gears. In this case was examined synthesis of such motion where output shaft must generated four dwell
position per one revolution. Described mechanism can easily achieved very complex motion, where input shaft have
constant angular speed in relation to output shaft which combines smooth stop and go movement. This article also
described some basic shape of this new mechanism and CAD model of circular and non circular gears which are
constituent part of intermittent motion mechanism.

- Project 2 Repor
- 7
- CP0429_SYB
- Electric Transaxle White Paper
- Device Building
- Pal 2014
- Untitled
- Project 2003
- Introduction
- IES Conventional Mechanical Engineering 2002
- K42_265_en
- M.D-I
- R15-MayJune 2015 Kinematics of Machinery
- Hansen Broch 415 Eng Lr0411
- Handbook Epiciclic
- Isotropic Superfinishing of Main Gear AGMA 2006
- M&E spc 3 TH-R
- Gear Ratio Calc With Drt
- Guia de Producto
- Weber_Ring_Gear_Contact_Pattern_Interpretation.pdf

Anda di halaman 1dari 6

2, ISSN 1821-1259

pp. 121-126

Preliminary note

NONCIRCULAR GEARS

1,2

University of Novi sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia

3

University of Novi sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia

Abstract: In this paper was presented one approach for modelling intermittent mechanism with two lobes on each

noncircular gears. In this case was examined synthesis of such motion where output shaft must generated four dwell

position per one revolution. Described mechanism can easily achieved very complex motion, where input shaft have

constant angular speed in relation to output shaft which combines smooth stop and go movement. This article also

described some basic shape of this new mechanism and CAD model of circular and non circular gears which are

constituent part of intermittent motion mechanism.

Key words: intermittent motion, noncircular gears

1. INTRODUCTION

2. NONCIRCULAR GEARS

applications. Noncircular gear wheels can be used to

produce rotary motion with variable transmission ratio

and, compared to linkages, provide a number of design

advantages such as accurate transmission, ease of

balancing, and compact size. Furthermore, they are very

versatile because of the great flexibility to obtain a

desired transmission function. Automatic equipment in

printing presses, textile industry, packaging machines and

quick-return mechanisms represent the most diffuse

applications [1] and [2]. Some authors, in particular, have

studied the problem of assembly conditions. In 1998,

Simionescu [3] proposed a unified approach to the

assembly condition of epicyclical gear trains. A set of

analytical relations, in order to determine the offset angles

between the wheels of compound planets, was also

provided for those cases in which an equidistant assembly

is not possible. Research on noncircular gears has been

very limited. Most of the research on these tooth bodies

have concentrated on the development of pitch curves for

different applications or to satisfy specific requirements

[4-12]. Reviews on noncircular gears have been presented

in previous works [12,13]. Noncircular gears generally

cost more than competitive components such as linkages

and cams. But with the development of modern

production methods, such as the computer-controlled gear

shaper, cost has gone down considerably. Also, in

comparison with linkages, noncircular gears are more

compact and balanced and they can be more easily

balanced. These are important considerations in highspeed machinery. Furthermore, the gears can produce

continuous, unidirectional cyclic motion a point in their

favor when compared with cams. The disadvantage of

cams is that they offer only reciprocating motion.

the sketches in fig. 1 made by Leonardo da Vinchi in the

collection of ``Codex Mandridii``. In this document was

presented the genuine idea of gears with eccentric circle

and self-intersected pitch curve. The number of references

of NCGs is very limited compared to another technical

topics. The most important books in the subject are [14]

and [15]. In more recent book [16] only few chapter deals

with this subject.

A NCG is a special gear design with special

characteristics and purpose. While a regular gear is

optimized to transmit torque to another engaged member

with minimum noise and wear and with maximum

efficiency, a non-circular gear's main objective might be

ratio variations, axle displacement oscillations and more.

Common applications include textile machines,

potentiometers and CVTs (continuously variable

transmissions). It is always possible to design a specially

*Correspondence Authors Address: University of Novi sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 6, 21000 Novi

Sad, Serbia, jovan_d@uns.ac.rs

Jovan Dori, Ivan Klinar, Marko Dori: One Approach for Modelling Intermittent Motion Mechanism with Noncircular Gears;

Machine Design, Vol.3(2011) No.2, ISSN 1821-1259; pp. 121-126

shape. The sole requirement is that the distance between

the two axes must be constant. However, the pitch line of

the mating gear might turn out to be an open curve, and

the gears can be rotated only for a portion of a

revolutionas with two logarithmic-spiral gears

(illustrated in fig. 2). In fig. 2 was presented the

logarithmic spiral gears shown in (A), are open-curved.

They are usually components in computing devices. The

elliptically shaped gears, shown in (B), are closed curved.

They are components in automatic machinery. The

specially shaped gears, shown in (C), offer a wider range

of velocity and acceleration characteristics

where NCG are used as part of planetary drive [17, 4]. In

this case the square gear used in the hydraulic motor is

taken as the example for the computation. The layout of

the hydraulic motor is shown in fig. 3. The triangular gear

(sun gear), square gear (annual gear), and the seven

planetary gears constitute the work cavity of the hydraulic

motor. Hydraulic oil is fed into the work cavity that drives

the triangular gear rotation, and the triangular gear

rotation drives the planetary gear rotation and revolution.

Application of noncircular gears can be can be classified

into two groups:

Where only an over-all change in angular velocity of

the driven member is required, as in quick return

drives, intermittent mechanisms in such machines as

printing presses, planers, shears, winding machines,

and automatic-feed machines.

Where precise, nonlinear functions must be generated,

as in mechanical computing machines for extracting

roots of numbers, raising numbers to any power, or

generating trigonometric and logarithmic functions.

True elliptical gears can only be made to mesh properly if

they are twins, and if they are rotated about their focal

points. However, gears resembling ellipses can be

generated from a basic ellipse. These higher-order

ellipses can be meshed in various interesting

combinations to rotate about centers. For example, two

second-order elliptical gears can be meshed to rotate

about their geometric center; however, they will produce

two complete speed cycles per revolution. The difference

in contour between a basic ellipse and a second-order

ellipse is usually very slight.

Assuming the gear teeth are very small, let r1(1) be the

radius of the first gear wheel as a function of angle from

the axis of rotation 1, and let r2(2) be the radius of the

second gear wheel as a function of angle from its axis of

rotation 2. If the axles remain fixed, the distance between

the axles is also fixed[18]:

r1 (1 ) + r2 ( 2 ) = a

(1)

connecting the axles, in order for the gears to touch

without slipping, the velocity of each wheel must be equal

at the point of contact and perpendicular to the line

connecting the axles, which implies that [18].

r1d1 = r2 d 2

(2)

coordinates. If the shape of the first wheel is known, the

shape of the second can often be found using the above

equations. If the relationship between the angles is

specified, the shapes of both wheels can often be

determined analytically as well [18]. It is more convenient

to use the circular variable z = ei when analyzing this

problem. Assuming the radius of the first gear wheel is

known as a function of z, and using the relationship (3)

dz = izd

(3)

differential equation (4)

Fig.3. Hydraulic motor with noncircular planetary

gears[17]

122

dz 2

r ( z ) dz1

= 1 1

z2

a r1 ( z1 ) z1

(4)

Jovan Dori, Ivan Klinar, Marko Dori: One Approach for Modelling Intermittent Motion Mechanism with Noncircular Gears;

Machine Design, Vol.3(2011) No.2, ISSN 1821-1259; pp. 121-126

second gears respectively. This equation can be formally

solved as (5)

ln ( z 2 ) = ln (K ) +

r1 ( z1 ) dz1

a r1 ( z1 ) z1

(5)

ONCIRCULAR GEARS

This intermittent-motion mechanism combines circular

gears with noncircular gears in a planetary arrangement.

The mechanism was developed by Ferdinand

Freudenstein, a professor of mechanical engineering at

Columbia University. Continuous rotation applied to the

input shaft produces a smooth, stop-and-go unidirectional

rotation in the output shaft, even at high speeds. This jarfree intermittent motion is sought in machines designed

for packaging, production, automatic transfer, and

processing. The basis for Freudensteins invention is the

varying differential motion obtained between two sets of

gears. One set has lobular pitch circles whose curves are

partly circular and partly noncircular. The circular

portions of the pitch curves cooperate with the remainder

of the mechanism to provide a dwell time or stationary

phase, or phases, for the output member. The non-circular

portions act with the remainder of the mechanism to

provide a motion phase, or phases, for the output member.

The main competitors to Freudensteins pulsating

planetary mechanism are external genevas and

starwheels. These devices have a number of limitations

that include:

In deriving the operating principle of his mechanism,

Freudenstein first considered a conventional epicyclic

(planetary) drive in which the input to the cage or arm

causes a planet set with gears 2 and 3 to rotate the output

sun, gear 4, while another sun, gear 1, is kept fixed (see

fig. 4). Letting r1, r2, r3, r4, equal the pitch radii of the

circular 1, 2, 3, 4, then the output ratio, defined as:

R=angular velocity of output gear/angular velocity of arm

is equal to:

R=1-(r1r3/ r2r4)

(6)

motion and the output remains stationary. Thus if one

gear pair, say 3 and 4, is made partly circular and partly

noncircular, then where r2 = r3 and r1 = r4 for the

circular portion, gear 4 dwells. Where r2 r3 and r1 r4

for the noncircular portion, gear 4 has motion. The

magnitude of this motion depends on the difference in

radii, in accordance with the previous equation. In this

manner, gear 4 undergoes an intermittent motion.

locking the output member during the dwell phase of

the motion. Moreover, accurate manufacture and

careful design are required to make a smooth

transition from rest to motion and vice versa.

Kinematic characteristics in the geneva that are not

favorable for high-speed operation, except when the

number of stations (i.e., the number of slots in the

output member) is large. For example, there is a

sudden change of acceleration of the output member at

the beginning and end of each indexing operation.

Relatively little flexibility in the design of the geneva

mechanism. One factor alone (the number of slots in the

output member) determines the characteristics of the

motion. As a result, the ratio of the time of motion to the

time of dwell cannot exceed one-half, the output motion

cannot be uniform for any finite portion of the indexing

cycle, and it is always opposite in sense to the sense of

input rotation. The output shaft, moreover, must always

be offset from the input shaft.

Many modifications of the standard external geneva have

been proposed, including multiple and unequally spaced

driving pins, double rollers, and separate entrance and exit

slots. These proposals have, however, been only partly

successful in overcoming these limitations.

Now it can be performed kinematics design of

intermittent motion mechanism. The design techniques

work out surprisingly simply, said Freudenstein. First the

designer must select the number of lobes L3 and L4 on the

gears 3 and 4. In the drawings, L3 = 2 and L4 = 2. Any

two lobes on the two gears (i.e., any two lobes of which

one is on one gear and the other on the other gear) that are

to mesh together must have the same arc length. Thus,

every lobe on gear 3 must mesh with every lobe on gear

4, and T3/T4 = L3/L4 = 2/2, where T3 and T4 are the

numbers of teeth on gears 3 and 4. T1 and T2 will denote

the numbers of teeth on gears 1 and 2.

Next, select the ratio S of the time of motion of gear 4 to

its dwell time, assuming a uniform rotation of the arm 5.

For the gears shown, S = 8. From the geometry,

123

Jovan Dori, Ivan Klinar, Marko Dori: One Approach for Modelling Intermittent Motion Mechanism with Noncircular Gears;

Machine Design, Vol.3(2011) No.2, ISSN 1821-1259; pp. 121-126

(3 + 30 ) L3 = 360o

(7)

and

S = 3 / 30

From the fig. 5 it can be seen that every NCG have angle

of constant radius, in this case was chosen angle of 20

degrees.

(8)

Hence

30 (1 + S ) L3 = 3600

(9)

But in relation to ordinary Freudenstein mechanisms in

this example was examined motion where NCG pair have

constant ratio not only during dwell but also during one

part of motion when the speed of output shaft is

maximum. This constant angle during maximum angular

speed is shown on next fig. 5. It can be noted from the fig.

5, that shape of the both gears are very complex, but in

relation to output gear , input gear have concave and

convex pitch curves. Before we analyses motion of output

shaft it is interested to see changes of gear ratio between

these gears in function of angle of rotation of input gear.

Ignoring the real movement of all parts of intermittent

motion mechanism, in the fig. 6 is presented gear ratio

between this pair of non circular gears. It can be

concluded that gear ratio law has portion of movement

where this pair have constant and variable gear ratio.

angle of input shaft (a)

It is interesting to make an analysis of movement of

output NCG. Such motion is presented with graph on fig.

7, where is shown changes of angle of the driving and

driven gear. In fig. 8 is shown motion of drive and driven

gear for situation where this gears are placed on fixed

axis.

Fig.8. Motion of the drive and driven NCG gear for the

case when these gears are placed on fixed axis

On the next fig. 9 and 10 is presented pitch curves of

NCG pair.

gears pair

124

Machine Design, Vol.3(2011) No.2, ISSN 1821-1259; pp. 121-126

4. CONCLUSION

Finally in this paper was also presented some render

pictures of this mechanism.

intermittent motion with non circular gears. Described

mechanism allows to perform very complex movement of

output shaft. In this paper was examined prof.

Freudenstein idea of devices with intermittent motion. In

relation to ordinary intermittent motion mechanisms this

way of realizing such motion has several advantages. The

pulsating planetary approach demonstrates some highly

useful characteristics for intermittent motion machines:

One of them are the fact that in this mechanism there

is no slip motion only rolling in relation to geneva

devices where is slip motion unavoidable.

The gear teeth serve to lock the output member during

the dwell as well as to drive that member during

motion.

Superior high-speed characteristics are obtainable.

The profiles of the pitch curves of the noncircular

gears can be tailored to a wide variety of desired

kinematic and dynamic characteristics. There need be

no sudden terminal acceleration change of the driven

member, so the transition from dwell to motion, and

vice versa, will be smooth, with no jarring of machine

or payload.

The ratio of motion to dwell time is adjustable within

wide limits. It can even exceed unity, if desired. The

number of indexing operations per revolution of the

input member also can exceed unity.

The direction of rotation of the output member can be

in the same or opposite sense relative to that of the

input member, according to whether the pitch axis

P34 for the noncircular portions of gears 3 and 4 lies

wholly outside or wholly inside the pitch surface of

the planetary sun gear 1.

Rotation of the output member is coaxial with the

rotation of the input member.

The velocity variation during motion is adjustable

within wide limits. Uniform output velocity for part of

the indexing cycle is obtainable; by varying the

number and shape of the lobes, a variety of other

desirable motion characteristics can be obtained.

The mechanism is compact and has relatively few

moving parts, which can be readily dynamically

balanced.

REFERENCES

removed circular gears

After synthesis and analysis of this mechanism it is easy

to perform 3D CAD model of this intermittent motion

device, in this case model was made with CATIA V5

R17. Renders in fig. 11 and fig. 12 described this

mechanism, for better clarity of the mechanism in the

CAD model from the fig. 12 was removed pairs of

circular gears.

Rediscovering of the non-circular gears, Journal of

Machine Design 1, pp. 80-85, 1973.

[2] CHIRONIS, N.P., Mechanisms, Linkages and

Mechanical Controls, McGraw-Hill, New York,

1965.

[3] SIMONESCU, P.A., A unified approach to the

assembly condition of epicyclic gears, ASME Journal

of Mechanical Design 120,pp. 448452, 1998

[4] MUNDO, D., Geometric design of a planetary gear

train with non-circular gears, Mechanism and

Machine Theory, Vol 41, Issue 4, April 2006, Pages

456-472.

125

Machine Design, Vol.3(2011) No.2, ISSN 1821-1259; pp. 121-126

torque and speed fluctuations in rotating shafts,

Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 119, No 2,

pp299-306, 1997

[6] FAM, Y.L., SANG, C.M., NAN, J.J., Concurrent

mechanism and control design for the slewing of

flexible space structures, Journal of Mechanical

Design, Vol. 116, No 3, pp 944-951, 2003

[7] YAO, Y.A., YAN, H.S., A new method for torque

balancing of planar linkages using non-circular

gears, Vol 217, No 5, pp 495-502, 2003

[8] HAN, P.S., THOMLINSON, M.A., TU, Y.S.,

Kinematics and kinetics of a noncircular bicycle

drive system, Mechanisms and machine theory, Vol.

26, No 4., pp 65-70, 1997

[9] DOONER, D. B., A geared 2 DOF mechanical

function generator, Journal of Mechanical Design,

Vol. 121, No. 3, pp 6570, 1997

[10] LIBROVICH, B. V., Dynamics of rotary vane

engine, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 125, No.

3, pp 498508, 2003

[11] VOELKNER, W., Present and future developments

of metal forming: selected examples, Journal of

Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 106, pp 236

242, 2000

[12] VANEGAS USECHE, L. V., ABDEL WAHAB, M.

M., PARKER, G.A., Design of noncircular gars to

minimise shaft accelerations, 8th Biennial ASME

Conference on Engineering Systems Design and

Analysis, Proceedings of ESDA2006, ASME paper

ESDA2006- 95560, Turin, Italy, July 2006.

126

Engranajes no circulares: aplicaciones, diseo y

manufactura, Scientia et Technica, Vol. 24, pp 133138, 2004

[14] . . : ,

. , -, 1956

[15] OLSSON, U.: Noncircular Cylindrical Gears, Acta

Polytechnica Nr 135, Mech. Eng. Series Vol. 2, Nr.

10, Stockholm 1953

[16] LITVIN, F.L.: Gear Geometry and Applied Theory,

Prentice Hall, New York (1994)

[17] JIANGANG, L., XUTANG W., SHIMIN M.,

Numerical computing method of noncircular gear

tooth profiles generated by shaper cutters.

[18] LACZIK, B.,Design and Manufacturing of NonCircular Gears by Given Transfer Function, TUB

Budapest, Hungary, 1111 Egry J str. 1

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported by Projects TR35041 and

TR31046 of the Serbian Ministry of Science.

- Project 2 ReporDiunggah olehFrederick Koo
- 7Diunggah olehGayatri Ch
- CP0429_SYBDiunggah olehAshish Kandoi
- Electric Transaxle White PaperDiunggah olehTechnipower Systems
- Device BuildingDiunggah olehRushikesh Harkal
- Pal 2014Diunggah olehFiandjafar
- UntitledDiunggah olehAaron Mulles
- Project 2003Diunggah olehmene_vinayak
- IntroductionDiunggah olehSunny Saumya
- IES Conventional Mechanical Engineering 2002Diunggah olehVyasaraj Kumar
- K42_265_enDiunggah olehZeljko Stamatovic
- M.D-IDiunggah olehParanthaman Raman
- R15-MayJune 2015 Kinematics of MachineryDiunggah olehPraveen Kumar
- Hansen Broch 415 Eng Lr0411Diunggah olehAshish Ranjan
- Handbook EpiciclicDiunggah olehrafeip
- Isotropic Superfinishing of Main Gear AGMA 2006Diunggah olehdavide
- M&E spc 3 TH-RDiunggah olehamirul8686
- Gear Ratio Calc With DrtDiunggah olehRosyid Khoirudin
- Guia de ProductoDiunggah olehalejandro lopez
- Weber_Ring_Gear_Contact_Pattern_Interpretation.pdfDiunggah olehMohammed g
- Us 8931245Diunggah olehRohit Kumar Singh
- Case Study DesignDiunggah olehAmir Fikri Amran
- TomDiunggah olehAlok Dubey
- Badger 0.5-2in Nutating Disc ManualDiunggah olehKamilo Andres Galindo Zanches
- Thermal-Stress Analysis and Gearbox Testing of Spur Gear Tooth With Relief HolesDiunggah olehdface_031
- Lista GeneralDiunggah olehFelix Retamozo
- Boston Gear Helical GearsDiunggah olehsandchi
- Machine Elements MidtermDiunggah olehSmajo Borović
- Q420 Handbook of Metric GearsDiunggah olehlebob12
- Draughtsman-Mechanical CTI SYLLABUSDiunggah olehShrikant Sonavane

- The Geometry and Kinematics of a Toothed Gear of Variable MotionDiunggah olehradoev
- Weft KnittingDiunggah olehAbhinav Verma
- Moteurs ProduitsDiunggah olehradoev
- Programirovanie v AutoLISPDiunggah olehradoev
- A IntroductionDiunggah olehradoev
- Soluzioni Di Impianto ARCA Gen 2011Diunggah olehradoev
- parker steeelDiunggah olehradoev
- Kiselev S. S. Metody Postroenija Rjadov Zubchatyh PredachDiunggah olehradoev
- 05-0238 RIG SAVER TECHNICAL BULLETIN PORTALDiunggah olehradoev
- NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA ITERATIVE METHODS.pdfDiunggah olehradoev
- BASEAVRATmega128ManualDiunggah olehradoev
- BASIC ITERATIVE METHODS FOR SOLVING LINEAR SYSTEMS.pdfDiunggah olehradoev
- Indesit IN D 2412-IT.pdfDiunggah olehradoev
- glosarioDiunggah olehmaradea
- US6963824Diunggah olehradoev
- Avtoreferat Sagiahmetov a.i.Diunggah olehradoev

- Ce 214-Fluid Mechanics Laboratory ManualDiunggah olehAyush Shrivastava
- Lec 2 Robot ManipulatorsDiunggah olehAjanthan Alagaratnam
- Module 3Diunggah olehayush
- Corrections for Calculating Non-Circular Cross-Sectional AreasDiunggah oleh李宗耀
- Fluid DynamicsDiunggah olehAlberto Icazatti
- 33_ch4.pdfDiunggah olehSachin
- The Very Nature of the Strong Nuclear ForceDiunggah olehBernard SCHAEFFER
- $MP-015-25Diunggah olehMohammad Sli
- Derivation of the Schrodinger Equation From Newtonian MechanicsDiunggah olehCyrille Tijsseling
- 2003 [Jong-Yeon Hwang] Numerical Study of Taylor-Couette Flow With an Axial FlowDiunggah olehTont Ekawuth
- Hwk 1 - 3.pdfDiunggah olehAtreya Dey
- Speed, Velocity & AccelerationDiunggah olehMahima Raju
- Second Moment of AreaDiunggah olehPham Cao Thanh
- cijepanje drvaDiunggah olehMatija Kelčec Pester
- ME2135E Fluid Mechanics Formula SheetA0066078X Lin Shaodun PageDiunggah olehseptian_chandrika
- 4.5 Available Stress-Strain DataDiunggah olehEstevan Benedett
- COMPLETE IMPACT TEST.pdfDiunggah olehKalKatu MaLam
- Chapter 6Diunggah olehDanica Cenita
- (19) Internal ConvectionDiunggah olehrskamath16114644
- Tutorial Sheet 1Diunggah olehShashank Srivastava
- ASME CODE QUALIFICATION OF PIPE BENDS WITH LOCALIZED WALL THINNING.pdfDiunggah olehZhiqiang Gu
- -Unit 2 Assignment 01Diunggah olehJeff Brown
- Physics Further mechanicsDiunggah olehArkaan Kanunga
- Gravitation class ix cbse boardDiunggah olehshivendersng
- Externally Reversible ProcessesDiunggah olehTadesse Teshome
- Large-Scale Testing of Steel Reinforced Concrete (SRC) Coupling BeamsDiunggah olehMREFAAT
- 6-dynamicsDiunggah olehmurada_7
- Gaspar 2013Diunggah olehw1000000
- Gas Pipeline HydraulicsDiunggah olehNorazlan Shah Mahadi
- 2014 Pluvinage_On Characteristics Lengths Used in Notch Fracture Mechanics,IJFDiunggah olehMariana Georges