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lnternational

Potato

Center

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Apartado 1558
Lima 12, Peru
email: cip@cgiar.org
www.cipotato.org
CIP. 2001. Broadening boundaries in agriculture:
lmpact on health, habitat and hunger. lnternational
Patato Center Annual Report 2007. Lima, Peru
2002, lnternational Potato Center, Lima, Peru

ISSN 0256-6311
Press run : 2,000
August 2002

B R O A D E N 1N G
IMPACT

O N

INTERNATIONAL

B O U N D A R 1E S

H E A L T H,

PoTATO

1N

A G R 1 C U L T U R E:

HABITAT

(ENTER

ANNUAL

A N O

HUNGER

REPORT

2001

FROM THE
DIRECTOR GENERAL

R1s1NG TO THE CHALLENGE

as

Challenge is a word that looms large in my mind

look back on 2001. During the year, as we celebrated CIP's 30'h

anniversary, we were faced with challenges far beyond those envisaged in


our founding charter.
CIP and the other Future Harvest Centers of the Consultative Group on
lnternational Agricultura! Research (CGIAR) were being asked to increase our
relevance as agents of sustainable development by significantly expanding
our impact on poverty and the environment. At the same time, we were
experiencing shortfalls that reflected a tilt away from agricultura! research in

o
0

the development funding balance.


Yet we were determined to rise to the challenge. In the words of our
Chairman, lan Johnson, "Put simply, sustainable development is ... not just
a moral imperative . .. Rather, it has become a global strategic priority for
4

the survival of our planet."


At the system level, we began to forge new, high-impact research
programs targeting complex issues of global and regional importance.
Appropriately named Challenge Programs, these are founded on innovative

<

partnerships linking the Future Harvest Centers among themselves, as well


as with numerous other actors. CIP has taken the lead in formulating two of
these programs, while actively seeking ways to contribute to others in areas
where we have relevant expertise.
Meanwhile, CIP staff and management were assessing our achievements
over three decades to extract the lessons on which we would base our
institutional strategy far moving forward. This Annual Report presents severa!
illustrative examples from work under way in 2001 . lnsects fee/ the heat
(page 45), for example, illustrates how CIP's strong linkages and our expertise
in integrated pest management, steadily developed over the years through
research on intensive potato and sweetpotato production systems, are
allowing us to nurture new systemwide efforts to deal with climate change.

Waste not, want not (page 37) shows how our research on root and

tuber products and processing, firmly grounded in participatory processes,


and our collaboration with other Future Harvest Centers on issues ranging
from water management to waste disposal, are coming together to make a
difference in the lives of urban dwellers and farmers.
In Heading for the Summit (page 27), we see how support to new
institutional approaches in the Andes and alliances with diverse partners to
unravel the complexities of mountain ecosystems have made us the CGIAR's
center of choice to convene the Global Mountain Program. And Pesticide
poisoning (page 17) shows how th e powerful data gathering and analysis

tools designed to support decision making in complex mountain


environments not only are helping to curb se rious damage to farmers' wellbeing, environments and incomes; they also have wide potential for
application across the world's fragile-and vital-mountain ecosystems.
Tapping into biodiversity (page 55) demonstrates how CIP's germplasm

collections, at the heart of our research, continue to be a key source of


impact. CIP-generated potato varieties have spread throughout China
answering urgent food and income needs for hundreds of thousands of
people (Cooperation pays, page 65). And our experience with crop
conservation and improvement have helped us to turn the hardy, yet often
disparaged, sweetpotato from a last-choice subsistence crop into a vital
weapon in the battle to end micronutrient deficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa
(Nutritious and delicious, page 9).

As we evaluate these achievements we are confident, but not


complacent.
Experience has shown us that the challenge of sustainable development
will not be met with a simple sum of accomplishments, no matter how
impressive these are. lf we are to respond effectively to the "global strategic
priority" described by lan Johnson-generating concerted impact on the

1 5

interrelated issues of poverty, hunger, health and environment-we need


to use formulas that will greatly increase the power of our successes to
produce change.
Two crucial questions continue to emerge: How are we to produce this
wide impact with ever-narrowing resources and in a more tightly focused
research environment? How are we, with our mission to conduct agricultura!
research of excellence, to broaden our boundaries without stepping out of
ourbounds?
We have found our answer in convergence.
Our future actions-much like our achievements in the past-must be
solidly founded on partnerships that will allow us to take our research
further, broaden its scope or complete its cycle. In this way, we can have
an impact in areas that are otherwise beyond our reach and we can close
6

the gaps that would allow our technologies to fall through the cracks
somewhere along the food or policy chain.
By cultivating innovative alliances we can ensure not only more food,
but more purchasing power through value-adding activities, less
dependence on externa! inputs and greater local competence. By building
on complementarities and avoiding redundancy, we can translate increases
in soil productivity and curbs on degradation into more secure habitats with
healthier, more productive people, capable of making the decisions that will
bring them out of subsistence into self-reliance.
The challenge may, at times, seem daunting. But through partnership we
hope to turn sustainable development from an admirable concept into an
attainable goal.

Hubert Zandstra
Director General

SWEETPOTATO A DAY

"My children love it," says Florence Kiwendo. "At


first 1 wasn't too keen, because it's not what 1
was brought up on. But now l'm getting to like it
too. The nutritional advisor at our clinic says it
will add a sparkle to my eyes!"
Kiwendo is referring to Ejumula, a variety of

NUTRITIOUS
AND DELICIOUS:
RANGE-FLESHED
SWEETPOTATO
FITS THE BILL
FOR AFRICAN
CONSUMERS
Us1NG A SIMPLE,
CROP-BASED APPROACH,
AN INNOVATIVE

sweetpotato with deep-orange flesh. A farmer


and a mother of six in crowded central Uganda,
Kiwendo is no stranger to sweetpotato. She has
long grown this vital food staple on her small
plot of land. But until recently, the only varieties
she knew were the white-fleshed ones that are
traditional in her area and across most of SubSaharan Africa. Kiwendo was introduced to
Ejumula when she began participating in local
on-farm trials.

e
N

COALITION IS TACKUNG

High in beta-carotene, the precursor to


vitamin A, orange-fleshed varieties like Ejumula

A PROBLEM AFFECTING

are an answer to one of Africa's greatest


MILLIONS OF CHILDREN
AND MOTHERS IN
Sus-SAHARAN
AFRICA

scourges: vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A is


essential for children 's normal mental and
physical development and for keeping pregnant
and lactating mothers healthy and strong. lts lack
can be a death sentence, in sorne cases directly
but more often via a weakened immune system,
which lays victims open to diseases such as
measles, malaria and HIV-AIDS. Vitamin A

deficiency also takes its toll on eyesight and

to be implemented every six months, making it

often leads to blindness.

expensive and difficult to sustain, especially in

According to a study by CIP economists (see

countries with poor roads and a rudimentary

page 16), the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa are

health system. The second approach is

home to an estimated 50 million children under

fortification of selected foods, such as sugar an

the age of six who are at risk from vitamin A

salt. This too can be effective, but only for the

deficiency. For them , eating just half a cup of

people who can buy the foods in question. Tho e

orange-fleshed sweetpotato each day could solve

most at risk, especially the poor in rural areas,

the problem .

tend to get left out.


"VITAA reflects a groundswell of interest in

5TRENGTH IN PARTNERSHIP

switching over to a crop-based approach," says

The institutions conducting the tria Is in Uganda -

Regina Kapinga, the partnership's Africa-based

the Child Health Development Centre (CHDC) of

coordinator. That interest culminated in a

Makerere University and the National Agricultura!

meeting held in May 2001 to formally launch t r

Research Organization (NARO) -

partnership. Attending were representatives fro

are part of what

is thought to be the world's first large-scale crop-

the first five African countries to participate:

based initiative to eradicate vitamin A deficiency.

Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and

Known as Vitamin A for Africa or VITAA, the

Uganda. Each has now prepared a plan of actiom

partnership spans disciplinary barriers, marshalling

and formed a national committee to oversee

the resources of experts in agriculture, nutrition

implementation.

and health in a broad-based alliance designed to


achieve wide coverage and lasting solutions.
Until recently, attempts to overcome vitamin

The experience that sowed the seeds of


VITAA carne in the mid-1990s, when the Kenya
Agricultura! Research lnstitute (KARI ), the

A deficiency have been centered on two main

lnternational Center for Research on Women

approaches. The first is supplementation -

(ICRW), CARE lnternational and CIP carne

handing out vitamin pills. Thi s approach, managed

together in a pilot project to test whether

largely through public-sector healthcare programs,

orange-fleshed sweetpotato would appeal to

can be effective if it is w idely applied. But it has

African consumers. Until then it had been

assumed that few would be willing to switch

other sources of vitamin A, especially milk and

from the traditional white-fleshed varieties, which

meat. Varieties of orange-fleshed sweetpotato

are less sweet tasting and are high in starch and

that fit the bill for African consumers have

dry matter content. "To our delight, the project

already been identified. "They are ready now and

banished the myth of consumer unacceptability,"

need only to be locally adapted and deployed,"

says CIP's regional representative for Africa, Peter

says Ewell. ''There is no need for an expensive

Ewell. "Children especially welcomed the taste

and protracted investment in research."

and texture."
Ewell sees many advantages in using

GoLDEN OPPORTUNITY

sweetpotato to counter vitamin A deficiency in

The VITAA partners are capitalizing on this golden

Africa. "Farmers are already familiar with the

opportunity. In Kenya and Uganda, where

crop," he says, "so we are tweaking an existing

activities are furthest advanced, KARI and NARO

system, not introducing something new. lt's

scientists are screening about 20 orange-fleshed

grown by many of the very people we need to

varieties for their suitability to local environments

reach - the poorest and most at risk from

while non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

malnutrition." For children, sweetpotatoes are a

and women's groups conduct on-farm trials.

more appealing source of vitamin A than green

,,

"Our initial results have confirmed the findings


r.._

vegetables, which in any case allow less easy

of the pilot study," says Kapinga. "Children love

absorption by the body. And from the

the taste, texture and color of Ejumula, while

perspective of the family's provider, this hardy

adults prefer the lighter orange Kakamega variety,

root crop is cheaper to buy or produce than

which is less sweet." Farmers also are finding that

Orange-fleshed sweetpotato adds flavor to products like chapatis and infant food and puts a smile on mothers' faces.

Continued on page 73

the new sweetpotatoes .grow well, producing

families. These groups also support the

acceptable yields even when stressed by drought

development of much needed micro-enterprises

and insect pests.

that promote processing of orange-fleshed

The next generation of improved varieties will


give farmers even greater options. "We're keen

sweetpotato into products for urban consumers,


many of whom are also deficient in vitamin A.

to offer families more choice s and it's important


we do so," says CIP's Lima-based sweetpotato

ADDING VALUE AFTER HARVEST

plant breeder, Dapeng Zhang, whose team

Mary Atieno, an enterprising farmer turned food

developed the new materials by crossing parents

processor in Teso, western Kenya, is one of a

chosen from the germplasm collection held in

small but growing number of entrepreneurs in

trust by CIP. "Decisions on what to grow on the

Uganda and Kenya who are discovering that

farms' larger fields are usually made by men,

processing and marketing the new sweetpotatoes

who favor high dry-matter and starch content.

pays. Thanks to Atieno, local schoolchildren are

But women grow the backyard crops -

enjoying a delicious yet cheap addition to their

113
and they

want the varieties that are best for the family's

diets: chapatis made with flour from orange-

nutrition, especially the children." The new

fleshed sweetpotatoes.

sweetpotatoes offer growers the best of both

Atieno used to make chapatis out of wheat

worlds, relatively high beta-carotene levels with

flour. She decided to change her recipe after

good starch and dry matter content.

growing the new sweetpotatoes on her farm and

About 40 new lines of sweetpotato are now

trying them out on her own children. Pupils at

ready for dispatch to Nairobi. After clearing

neighboring village schools have greeted her

quarantine, they will be multiplied and distributed

new chapatis, which sell for only KShS apiece

through the expanding network of VITAA

(US$ .06), with enthusiasm and now regularly buy

collaborators in Eastern and Southern Africa. As in

them at her small kiosk on their way to or from

the pilot study, the partners will work through

school. Atieno's sales have risen rapidly to around

the strong community and women's groups

KSh200 (US$2.40) a day, an amount that has

existing in the region, which offer the best

enabled her to refurbish her kiosk with a new

chances of changing the eating habits of rural

corrugated iron roof and a cement floor.

"After my experience with the chapatis,

world and in the few areas, mostly urban,

l'm keen to learn how to make other products,"

where processing does take place, flour-based

Atieno says. In October 2001 she had the

products made from white-fleshed varieties still

opportunity to do just that when she attended

prevail.
Thanks to research by VITAA partners,

a workshop for small-scale processors organized


by local NGOs. At the workshop, she and other

entrepreneurs like Atieno are learning that the e

participants were introduced to sweetpotato

is ample room for sweetpotato-based products on

"crackie", a mashed and fried product popular

the market and that orange-fleshed varieties ca

elsewhere in the region.

add a welcome touch of sweetness. A classic

In large parts of Eastern and Southern Africa,

example of the processing possibilities for the

sweetpotatoes are normally eaten boiled .

new sweetpotato varieties is the kabalagala, a

Consumers are unfamiliar with the diversity of

traditional deep-fried pancake made in Uganda

processed products consumed elsewhere in the

from cassava flour and banana pulp . In a surve

14 1

GRIST FOR THE MILL

Rueben Kinyua is the owner of a small and unusual milling business in central
Nairobi, specializing in health foods. His most popular product is a made-to-order
mix of bean and cereal flour that his customers feed to sick and malnourished
children and old people. "We're like a pharmacy," Kinyua says. "Only our products
are made of food, not chemicals."
Early in 2001, Kinyua began experimenting with orange-fleshed sweetpotato as
an ingredient in the mix. He had learned of the nutritional value of the brightly
colored roots from CIP scientists. "Now my mixes contain up to 5 percent flour
made from these varieties," he says. The lengthening fines of women outside his
premises suggest his experiment is paying off.
The business acumen and drive of men like Kinyua will help the benefits of
orange-fleshed sweetpotato to spread widely in Africa.

conducted by NARO in the area around Kampala,

Training and public awareness activities are

consumers complained that the local kabalagalas

vital in bringing such opportunities to the

couldn't be relied on to taste good. The reason

attention of small-scale producers and processors.

was the high cost and scarcity of banana, the

In western Kenya, CIP works with the Regional

crucial ingredient for sweetness. Switching from

Potato and Sweetpotato lmprovement Program

cassava flour to orange-fleshed sweetpotato flour

for East and Central Africa (PRAPACE) to

would simultaneously improve quality and cut

introduce processing techniques and products to

costs, as it would allow processors to reduce the

women's groups. The workshop attended by

amount of banana pulp. Around 85-90 percent of

Atieno was one of several such events, many

processors surveyed thought the switch was a

more of which will be organized by NGOs and

good idea.

other institutions as knowledge of the value of

Milis and factories are starting to show an


interest in making sweetpotato flour and using it

orange-fleshed sweetpotatoes spreads.


The signs are that orange-fleshed sweetpotato

in their recipes. For example, the House of Quality

will rapidly gain a place in the affections of

Spices, a family business supplying supermarkets in

African consumers. Children are already

Kampala and exporting its products to Kenya and

developing a healthy fancy for a food that is not

Congo, recently approached CIP's regional

only good for them but actually tastes good too.

researchers. The owners had seen the flour's

Adults, though more cautious, are also warming

potential and wanted to know how to secure a

to the new item in their diets. They are learning

steady supply of it.

that it is, indeed, a lifesaver.

VITAL POTENTIAL

VITAA's potential to combat vitamin A deficiency using orange-fleshed sweetpotatoes


was confirmed by a recent ex-ante impact study. Although sweetpotato is widely
perceived to be a secondary, seasonally-produced crop in Sub-Saharan Africa, scientists
have found that t here is enough sweetpotato grown to contribute to a food-based
approach to solving chronic vitamin A deficiency there. This finding is key because
VITAA's potential medium-term impact depends on new varieties being released into
areas that are already under production.
Preliminary results of the study were based on calculations carried out for Burundi,
Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. Across all seven countries
about one-third of the population at risk could receive a benefit equivalent to 40
percent of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin A. Another third would
benefit to a lesser extent. Only one in three would not be reached by the positive
impact of the switch to orange-fleshed varieties. Though the effects were expected to
be less evident in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania, scientists found that
production density in Bu rund i, Rwanda and Uganda is sufficient to make a large dent
in vitamin A deficiency if orange-fleshed varieties are substituted for white-fleshed.
Another finding showed that if sweetpotato were available for more months of the
year, this availability would be more effective in improving people's nutritional wellbeing than augmenting the pro-vitamin A content of orange-fleshed varieties. lndeed,
orange-fleshed materials don't have to be that orange to make practica! impact.
In the longer run, scientists believe that sweetpotatoes - particularly orange-fleshed
varieties - are likely to expand into substantially larger areas of Sub-Saharan Africa.
That is partly because the crop is not only widely adaptable to altitudes ranging from
200 to 2200 meters above sea leve!, it also yields well under marginal soil conditions.

PERSUASIVE TOOL

Developed during the 1990s by researchers in


the USA, Canada, the Netherlands and the Andes,
tradeoff analysis can be defined as the science of
helping people to make difficult decisions in their
management of natural resources, balancing
diverse and sometimes conflicting objectives.

PESTICIDE
POISONING:
TRADEOFF
ANALYSIS FORGES
NEW CONSENSUS
ON THE NEED
FOR CHANGE
NEW RESEARCH TOOLS
ANO APPROACHES ARE
HELPING CIP TO
BROADEN ITS IMPACT.

"Essentially, it's a modeling exercise wrapped


up in a participatory research process," says CIP
economist Charles Crissman, a member of the
team that conceived the idea. The process begins
with an invitation to stakeholders - typically a
mix of farmers, scientists and policy makers - to
identify the priority issues affecting development
and the resource base in their area. This leads to
a definition of indicators that can throw light on
the potential effects of resource management
and economic and policy option s. The
stakeholders formulate hypotheses as to the

THE

USE OF MODELS

nature of the tradeoffs involved in each of the


FOR TRADEOFF ANAL YSIS
IN

EL

EcuAooR's

(ARCHI PROVINCE
IS A CASE

option s and how these might change if a


different course of action were followed.
Scientists then design and conduct research to
verify the hypotheses. They determine the
mod eling and data requirements, assemble th e

IN POINT

necessa ry disciplinary expertise, collect and


analyze the data and then plot the results to
form the tool that is the centerpiece of the

process: a graph comparing the key indicators.

by chemical company salesmen to apply produ s

This typically consists of two curves, one showing

regularly, "just in case" pests should appear. Tw

the current situation and the other the likely

of these products, methamidophos and carbofu

outcome of the action taken .

are so toxic that their use is restricted in the

"With its clear graphics, based on empirical


data, the tradeoff model can be a highly

n,

developed world.
In the late l 980s, observers began to

persuasive tool," says Crissman. "But it has to be


derived as part of a participatory process. Only
o

then will its users feel ownership of it." The final


and most important step in the process is to
present the results of the analysis for consideration
and discussion by a larger set of stakeholders,

<(

including local people and national leaders. The aim


18 1

is to broaden and deepen awareness as a basis for


improved decision making.
Tradeoff analysis was first developed and

<

.z

growing ill health among El Carchi's farmers,


who suffered a range of symptoms known to be

applied in Ecuador's El Carchi Province, where it

pesticide-linked, including headaches and

has made a valuable contribution to the search

nausea, breathing difficulties and eye and ski

for solutions to the serious human health

problems . Other suspicious symptoms were

problem of pesticide poisoning .

neurological and motor disorders, although th se


were thought to be limited to a few cases af 1er

El

(ARCHI: HEALTHY SOLUTIONS

Overexposure to pesticides is rampant in the

prolonged exposure.
Researchers responded by adapting

intensive production systems of the El Carchi hills,

integrated pest management (IPM) schemes t

where farmers grow potato and other crops to

meet El Carchi conditions and needs. IPM

satisfy demanding national and export markets.

components such as improved potato varietie

Potatoes may be sprayed up to 12 times in a

with resistance to late blight and simple traps to

single season, as farmers follow the advice given

kili the Andean potato weevil were combined

with better agronomic practices and weekly

short-term and bearable in comparison to the

scouting to detect emerging pest or disease

risk of loss of livelihood. "lf you are strong, you

problems. Their use wouldn't eliminate pesticides

can tolerate the poison," as one farmer put it.

altogether, but it would allow farmers to reduc e

So what could be done to persuade the

the number of applications, particularly of the

farmers? CIP and its partners adopted a threefold

two most toxic products. Trials in farmers' fields

strategy. They introdu ced farmer field schools to

pest management will help them escape the tragedy of pesticide poisoning. Farmer field schools offer an excellent forum for sharing this knowledge.

showed that with the IPM interventions, growers

help extend IPM in the farming community, they

could maintain or even increase production while

mounted a broad -based campaign of public

reducing costs, thereby boosting profitability

education and they undertook new initiatives to

considerably.

create a more conducive policy environment.

Despite these findings, moving from the


trial s to widespread adoption proved difficult.

NEW EVIDENCE, NEW CONSENSUS

Farmers still felt that cutting ba ck on pesticides

To obtain empirical data on the health impact

was a risk they couldn't afford to take. They saw

of pesticides, Donald Cole, a human health

the chemicals as a safety precaution without

epidemiologist from Canada's University of

which they might lose their whole crop and

Toronto, was invited to conduct a detailed study in

hen ce the bulk of their year's income. Anothe r

El Carchi, working with local health organizations.

reason for non-adopt ion was the fact that the

The results of the study were shocking.

apparent disadvantages of applying pesticides-

Pesticide poisoning was shown to be far more

a headac he or a feeling of nau sea - seemed

widespread and severe than had previously been

PESTICIDE LEACHING VERSUS


PRODUCTION VALUE

THESE iTPADEOr:F CUfNES

!NDlCAlT rHAT

FAP.1\~tRS

11

USiNC

HbWY CHEM!CAL INPUT (8~5E)

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+-~~~...---~~~...---~~--.~~~--1

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F<i'DUCE Pf:STICIDE LE 1. : H!NG

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

PRODUCTlON VALUE

WHILE P!10TECTING THE!R Pf10Frrs

o
o

;y S\VITCH!NG TO iPM

BASE T ECHNOLOGY

IPM

T ECHNOLOGY

LoG.

( IPM TECHNOLOGY)

LoG.

( B ASE T ECHNOLOGY)

suspected. We now know that in El Carchi the

making. "lf this were to happen in a develope

presence of pesticides is so pervasive that most

country, compensation would be on the agend "

of the rural population is affected. Although it is

says Cole.

the men of the household who tend to do the

But if the study was shocking, it also revealel

\~

spraying, they typically store pesticides in or near

that the potential economic benefits of reducin

the family home, mix them in open drums and

pesticide poisoning were even greater than had

apply them using faulty equipment and without

been thought. As expected, there is an immedi : te

wearing protective clothing, often failing to wash

gain as farmers save money by cutting back on

properly afterwards. Their wives and children,

the pesticides they buy. But in addition, the lo

therefore, are contaminated in numerous ways in

productivity found on farms where pesticides h ve

and around the home.

long been in use suggests a second benefit, on

Standard tests of the kind used by the

that will accrue more gradually. "Farmers who a e

World Health Organization suggest that about

ill make poor management decisions and don't

60 percent of the at-risk population has already

have the energy to work well," says Cole. "lf

suffered significant damage, including disrupted

pesticide exposure declines and the health of t e

motor skills and psychological effects such as

farming population recovers, so too should its

depression, listlessness and impaired decision

productivity and efficiency."

Continued on pag 23

Whether this second benefit will be felt by


the current farming generation or the next
remains uncertain, because little is known about
whether or not the effects of poisoning can be
rev ersed. Long-term users may well have
crossed a threshold beyond which a full return
to health becomes imposs ible.
Despite this uncertainty, the study revealed a
genuine win-win scenario. The higher yields
made possible through better decision making
and more productive labor can more than make
up for any losses that might be caused by the
reduced use of pesticides. The study fully
vindicated the El Carchi team 's efforts to promote
IPM in the farming community, suggesting that
more resources should be devoted to these
activities. And it revea led the scope for policy
interventions to reduce farmers' incentives to use
the most toxic products, which are currently the
cheapest on the market.
lt is in this last area that tradeoff analysis has
delivered its most striking re su lts in El Carchi.
Th e data from the health study were fed into
the tradeoff model, creating a convincing tool
for promoting policy initiatives. In 1999, the
El Carchi team presented the results of its
analysis at a provincial stakeholders meeting
attended by 105 peo ple from government, the

e'

e-

chemical industry, NGOs and local communities.

Declaration, the committee has drafted a nation

The group formulated what has since become

plan covering tax and pricing policies, options fo

known as the El Carchi Declaration, a statement

reducing and eliminating the most toxic chemic Is,

of the principies that should apply to pesticide

promotion of IPM packages and education of th

use in Ecuador. "Tradeoff analysis helped build

next farming generation.

the consensus that led to the declaration," says


Crissman .

Pesticides have brought benefits to El Carchi'r


farmers, but they have also exacted a terrible pr ce

Since the meeting, the government has set up

in human health. Tradeoff analysis is proving a

a national committee to oversee implementation

powerful weapon in the fight to reverse this

of these principies. Building on the El Carchi

tragedy.

THE

EL

CARCHI DECLARATION

The El Carchi Declaration calls for:


greater control over pesticide formulations and sales
higher taxes, and eventually a ban, on the most toxic products
the inclusion of pesticide impact information in basic education curricula
the inclusion of IPM in agricultura! degree courses
more resources for research and training in IPM
the promotion of awareness-raising activities
direct support from the agrochemicals industry in implementing these initiatives

"

MADE IN THE ANDES

"We've come a long way in a short time," says


Roberto Valdivia. To prove the point, he shows
his latest, full-color sales catalog featuring
attractive young men and women wearing a
North American fashion icon - alpaca sweaters.
The catalog is tangible evidence that poor rural

HEADING FOR
THE SUMMIT:
PROSPECTS
BRIGHTEN FOR

people can compete in international markets .


Valdivia is a director of the Centro de
Investigacin en Recursos Naturales y Medio
Ambiente (CIRNMA), an NGO based at Puno on

THE WORLD S
MOUNTAIN
ECOSYSTEMS

THANKS

the shores of Lake Titicaca in southern Peru. The


idea of CIRNMA arose from an earlier research
project, the Proyecto de Investig acin en

TO NEW

Sistemas Agropecua rios Andinos (PISA), which

WA YS OF WORKING

explored opportunities for rural hou seholds to

TOGETHER, PEOPLE IN

rai se their incomes while protecting the natural


resource base.

THE ANDES ARE ON

On e of those opportunities involved


THEIR WAY TO

improving production of fiber from alpaca, a


ENVIRONMENTAL ANO
ECONOMIC RECOVERY
AFTER CENTURIES
OF DECLINE

camelid traditionally kept in large herds that


graze the region 's natural pastures. The project
had attempted to introduce more productive
pa stures and animals, but these improvements
hadn't caught on . "People weren 't being offered
a premium for quality," explain s Roberto Quiroz,
leader of CIP's Dep artment of Production
Syst em s and Natural Resource Man agement

Research. "Animals grow the same amount of


hair whether they are hungry or well fed. So it
always seemed better for producers to raise tw
thin alpaca per hectare than one fat one.
However, the quality of the hair of badly
nourished alpaca is very poor." Until they could
realize the benefits of getting higher quality fr m
improved pasture land or grazing fewer animal ,
the herders wouldn 't be convinced of the need
for change. The PISA team identified two ways
out of this predicament: adding value to the
alpaca fiber by processing it; and marketing alpa a
meat alongside the fiber. CIRNMA was formed
28 1

1992 to pursue these objectives.


Alpaca fiber is light, soft and warm, making it
a pleasure to wear and an ideal protector agai st
winter weather. Since it absorbs atmospheric
moisture and is not very resilient, however, it
best combined with sheep's wool to give a m re
practica! and durable garment. CIRNMA's first
challenge was to develop the knowhow and
install the equipment to make this higher-valu
mixed wool and alpaca product. Once this was
done the aim was to break into the emerging
international market for alpaca sweaters. The
organization would guarantee quality and
supplies while strengthening producers'
Small businesses make life better for farmers, weavers and
herders, providing new markets for their quinoa and wool.

bargaining power.

Ten years later, CIRNMA has become a

research institute. By using the new seed in

flourishing small business. The main alpaca fiber

combination with organic manure and more

producers are women who work in their own

effective weeding, the organization 's researchers

homes in around 40 local communities. Wool is

were able to double average yields, to about

knitted into sweaters at a new central processing

1200 kilos per hectare. The surplus is crucial to

plant near Puno, from which CIRNMA markets its

subsistence farmers who seek to enter the

products to both domestic and export outlets. "The

market. Following introduction of the improved

export market is growing rapidly, especially far

production package through participatory

mixed wool and alpaca sweaters," says Valdivia.

research, nearly 900 farmers are now doubling

"This is great, because people keep mixed flocks,

their yields. After harvest, the grain is taken to

so we are adding value to both species." Now up

the processing plant, where it is carefully sieved

to 7,000 sweaters are sold annually to buyers from

to remove impurities, and then washed to rid it

North America and Europe.

of saponin, an anti-nutritional compound that can


give it an off-taste. The quinoa is then either

WIDENING THE VIEW

milled and flaked far export, or sold whole on

CIRNMA has also gone in far the traditional

the local market.

Andean crop, quinoa. This nutritious grain's

What will this entrepreneurial NGO take on

protein content boasts high amounts of lysine, an

next? Valdivia is keen to expand into meat,

amino acid in which most other cereals are low.

demand far which is growing rapidly as incomes

Quinoa makes good flour and a tasty flake that

rise. He has already begun processing and

can be eaten as a breakfast cereal. There is an

marketing beef, taking advantage of increased

expanding market far organically grown quinoa

supplies fallowing the introduction of simple

among health-conscious consumers in Europe.

innovations to improve calf survival and weight-

But breaking into this market required radically

gain in herds raised around Lake Titicaca. Now

different production and processing methods

he plans to turn his attention to meat from

then those used traditionally.

sheep. In the longer term, alpaca meat is also

CIRNMA began by obtaining improved


varieties of quinoa from the national agricultura!

an attractive option , since it contains less


cholesterol than other red meat and so could be

Continued on page 31

a healthy alternative to beef. The only drawback

Andean Ecoregion (CONDESAN) in 1992.

is the slow gestation of alpacas, a problem that

CONDESAN is an umbrella association of public-

needs to be addressed.

and private-sector partners who work together

The benefits from CIRNMA's two most

on the full range of issues affecting rural

successful enterprises to date -wool and quinoa

livelihoods and environments in the Andes. The

-flow directly to poor rural people who have

idea is to integrate research with development

few other options for earning income. The

in just the way that CIRNMA does, but on a

impact on their livelihoods is substantial: a

larger scale.

woman trained to produce sweaters on the

"Our aim is cooperative thinking for mountain

plant's new machinery can add up to US$400

ecosystems," says Elias Mujica, CONDESAN's

yearly to family farm income, nearly doubling it;

deputy coordinator. "Projects such as PISA

for families involved in both enterprises, the

showed us that component research is necessary

gain is even greater.

for development, but is not enough by itself." A

-.,,.

more holistic approach, linking production with


REPLICATING SUCCESS

CIRNMA's success shows what can be achieved by

processing, is vital.
The holistic approach applies in other ways

linking poor producers to expanding global

too. "Focusing on agriculture alone will not bring

markets. (See related story page 55.) lt also shows

sustainable development in the Andes," says

how new ways of working can enhance impact.

Hugo Li Pun, CIP's Deputy Director General for

r....

"When this research around Puno began in

Finance and Administration. "We have to include

the late 1980s," says Quiroz, "CIP was deeply

other sectors. This means not just the obvious

involved in all activities and had two professional

'next-door' sectors such as forestry and fisheries

scientists living in the area. Today, we support

but also those further afield, such as ecotourism

CIRNMA's research from Lima, mainly by

and mining. Links with ecotourism are particularly

telephone and e-mail."

important because this sector increases the

To help replicate institutional innovations of

demand for products such as handicrafts and

this kind, CIP and its partners founded the

processed foods." A broad alliance such as

Consortium for Sustainable Development of the

CONDESAN can solve_ previously intractable

Continued on page 34

o
o

problems by tapping expertise across sectoral

become clichs in the development lexicon,

boundaries. One of the consortium's most valuable

but the consortium's experience has shown j st

roles is to help resolve conflicts over the sharing

how important they are.

of natural resources. This work is conducted using


an integrated watershed approach in which

reverse the degradation of five centuries in jus

stakeholders are encouraged to think about the

1O years," says Mujica. But the consortium's m ny

effects of their actions on others.

achievements, and the diverse sectors they sp n,

CONDESAN is also a vehicle for tackling the


o
o

CONDESAN's impact is still limited. "We can't

testify to its effectiveness in marshalling

difficult challenge of extending the benefits of

resources to get things done -

and get them

research on a larger scale. This is perhaps the

done well. CONDESAN is now widely recognized

biggest barrier to impact in diverse mountain

as a highly effective model for integrated rural

ecosystems, where every valley has different

research and development -

problems needing different solutions. There is

prove useful elsewhere in the developing worl

<

z::

<

one that could

34 1

scope for technology transfer, but usually not

<
7

over large contiguous areas. Appropriate analytical

Go1NG GLOBAL

tools and communication links are needed to

The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro broug t

spot opportunities for transfer, pinpoint needs for

world leaders together to sign Agenda 21, an

adaptation and encourage it ali to happen. With

impressive declaration that committed them to

CIP's support, many of these tools have been put

better stewardship of the world's natural resour es.

in place and are enabling the consortium 's

Chapter 13 of the declaration, on mountain

partners to enhance and accelerate progress

development, highlighted the fragility of mount ' in

through better and more inclusive decision-

ecosystems and the poverty of the people who

making.

live in them . In 2001 , as the world prepared fo a

;-

<

z:

The key to impact in ali CONDESAN's work

second summit and the United Nations made

is to unleash the creative energies of local

plans to commemorate the lnternational Year o

people, enabling them to find their 'OWn

Mountains 2002, it was normal to ask: "What ha

solutions to the problems they recognize as

been achieved in the meantime?" The short

priorities. Participation and empowerment have

answer is "not nearly enough".

Far too many mountain dwellers still face a

in Chapter 13: knowledge about mountain

deteriorating natural resource base accompanied

ecosystems and their development; and

by shrinking opportunities to earn a living. Yet

integrated watershed development and

there are exceptions -

pockets of the Andes and

alternative livelihood opportunities. In pursuit

other mountain regions where people have

of the first theme, the GMP has concentrated

begun changing their lives for the better. A drive

initially on developing or adapting tools and

is needed to share these positive experiences far

methods, especially geographical information

more widely.

systems (GIS), and on training local professionals

A global dialog on sustainable mountain

in their use. Already, over 200 people have

development is already under way. In 1997, the

received short-term training; a further 20 are

CGIAR responded to the needs set out in

completing degree studies.

Chapter 13 of Agenda 21 by launching the

program has selected nine "model" watersheds

convener. The program links the partners in the

in the Andes and the Himalayas and produced a

Andes with similar multi-institutional approaches

series of CD-ROMs describing each watershed

in the Hindu Kush region of Asia and the

and the options for its development. These

highlands of East Africa. Efforts in these two

CD-ROMs are proving popular with practitioners

areas are coordinated by the lnternational

worldwide.
Despite these promising beginnings, the

(ICIMOD) and the African Highlands lnitiative

Global Mountain Program needs strengthening if

(AHI), respectively. The Mountain Forum, an

it is to prove equal to its task. That's why CIP is

electronic network that promotes the exchange

proposing that the program become one of the

of information among its 2500 individual and

new Challenge Programs being established by

150 institutional members, complements the

the CGIAR. This status would better reflect the

GMP.

vital contribution of mountain ecosystems to lives

The Global Mountain Program has launched


activities around the two main themes outlined

-<

With regard to the second theme, the

Global Mountain Program (GMP), with CIP as its

Center for lntegrated Mountain Development

and livelihoods worldwide - and should, as a


result, attract greater financia! support.

"'o

lHERE S MORE TO THE MUCK THAN MEETS THE EYE

lt's an ugly sight that gives off an even uglier


smell: a drainage ditch full of a foul blackish
liquid with lumps of solid waste runs through the
middle of the village. At intervals along its banks,
households add their effluent to swell the flow.
At the lower end of the village, the current slows

WASTE NOT,
WANT NOT:
RECYCLING
WASTEWATER
HELPS POOR
URBAN
HOUSEHOLDS
RAISE INCOMES
STARCH PROCESSORS IN
HANOI CAN CLEAN UP

as the ditch turns a comer and runs into a pond


covered by an evil-looking brown crust. Here
sorne of the contaminants in the water settle
before the sluggish stream flows on, banked by
fields, until it reaches the next village.
The noxious cocktail carried by the ditch is a
classic example of what economists call "negative
externalities". Behind the euphemism les a form
of pollution that is a serious health hazard and a
source of considerable resentment. "lt's a running
N

THEIR ACT WITHOUT


HARMING THEIR

sore between communities and neighbors that


can erupt at any time," says CIP anthropologist
and SIUPA Coordinator Gordon Prain.

LIVELIHOODS, AFFIRM

What's in the cocktail? The wastewater is


RESEARCHERS WORl<ING
IN

SIUPA,

THE

CGIAR's svsrEMWIDE
INITIATIVE ON URBAN

generated largely by an important source of


employment and incomes in Greater Hanoi:
processing of starch from cassava or canna . The
starch is destined for a variety of products,
including noodles, maltose and medicines.

ANO PERl-URBAN

Starch processing is a complex multi -tiered


AGRICULTURE

industry through which thousands of poor peri-

c.,

8ENEFITS OF

VNOOOO/HOUSEHOLD/YEAR

(US$ 1 = 14,500 VND)

STARCH PROCESSING

A COMPf\RlSON

OF AVERAGE

!NCOMES IN PROCFS:)!NG VERSUS

f\l()N-PROCESS!NG VllLACJf:S

SHOWS lHAT PROCESSlNG

f\LLOW':i Fr\i'.HL lES TO DOUBLE

o
e

D
THE!H lNCOMfS

r-...;_

<

P ROCESSOR

NON-PROCESSOR

urban households supplement their meager farm

only ingredients. Most of the households engag d

earnings, They supply crude starch to wealthier

in processing also raise pigs, the source of a slu ry

enterprises that refine it or turn it into finished

that is rich in nitrogen but also contains the

starch-based products. The industry has also

bacterium Escherichia coli and a high count of

spawned a multitude of support services, such

worm eggs, both dangerous to human health.

as the manufacture of starch-making equipment,

Human excrement and household wastes make

the supply of enzymes needed to break down

the mixture even more potent. To make matter

starch into maltose, and transport and fuel

worse, most processing is carried out in the dry

supply.

season, so the effluent is little diluted with

Large amounts of water are used to process


starch, producing a runoff that carries a high

rainwater.
Starch making also produces solid wastes.

proportion of suspended solids. CIP surveys in

Those from cassava -

three villages found that a single season's

low-quality "black" starch -are fed to pigs, bu

processing generated sorne 1AS mili ion cubic

canna residues, which do not have a high fee d:I

meters of wastewater containing physio-chemical

value, tend to be unceremoniously dumped in o

and microbiological contaminants in addition to

streams or ponds where they add to the

nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. But

pollution of wastewater, or, worse still, on

these processing by-products are not the effluent's

roadsides outside people's homes.

peel, fibrous residue an

Continued

011

page 40

Working with Do Duc Ngai, of Vietnam's

of this activity to poor households," Peters

lnstitute of Ecology and Biological Resources and

continues. "Processing more than doubles their

CIP scientist Dai Peters, Prain began investigating

incomes." The extra cash earned directly from t e

the effluent problem in 2000. Ngai and Peters

starch, plus the value added to pig production

selected four neighboring villages in Greater

using the by-products as feed, more than offse s

Hanoi - Cat Que, Duong Lieu, Minh Khai and Son

the reduction in income caused by diverting

Duong -

labor away from crop production and other

three of which are centers for starch

processing while the fourth, which lies further

activities. "lnterventions aimed at cleaning up t e

downstream, was the main recipient of the

environment for the benefit of the public at lar e

industry's negative externalities.

must do so without prejudicing the economic

The project began by conducting a survey on

interests of the individual processor," says Peter .

attitudes to starch processing. "Everyone, even in

40

the processing villages, said that the solid waste

TURNING A PROBLEM INTO AN OPPORTUNITY

looked and smelled bad," says Peters. "Virtually all

The project's main activity has thus been to look

the non-processors thought that it also harmed

for ways of cleaning the wastewater and using it

their health. And even 84 percent of the

productively. The best potential use appeared t

processors admitted as much." Most people in

be as nutrient-rich irrigation water for dry-seaso

the processing villages had had solid waste

crops. lf the nitrogen and other nutrients in th

dumped outside their houses, causing arguments

water could replace sorne or ali of the purchas d

w ith neighbors. As regards the liquid waste,

chemical fertilizers and manure that farmers

residents in the downstream, non-processing

apply to these crops, the costs of production

village frequently complained about the pollution

would fall, boosting profitability.

and nasty smells arriving va the drainage ditch,

The challenge was to achieve this without

which sometimes overflowed, flooding their

increasing the risks to human health. ''This

homes. "They are clamoring for a solution," says

involves a subtle tradeoff," notes Prain .

Peters.

"Processes that clean the water will also redu e

"But whatever the problems created by starch


processing, we must not forget the importance

its nutrient content. The safer the water, the


less it will raise crop yields."

To investigate the tradeoffs, Ngai and Peters

A further important aim was to find out the

conducted two sets of experiments. The first was

effect of settling on the quality and nutritive

carried out using potted plants in the garden of a

value of the water. To gauge this, the water was

village school. Concentrations form O to 100

passed from one field to another over successive

percent of wastewater were applied to the

weeks . In the pot trial, the results were uniform

potted plants to determine how well the crops

across ali the crops tested: the plants irrigated

would perform and what would happen to the

with 80-100 percent wastewater had the highest

soil. In the second experiment, the researchers

yields. The soil's organic matter content

tested the effects of the timing and frequency of

increased, suggesting that these yields could be

wastewater applications in farmers' fields. They

sustained or raised still further over time. Soil

were interested in seeing whether it was better

salinity also increased, but not to a degree that

to apply the wastewater to young plants during

would threaten crop productivity, at least in the

the first part of the growing season or to more

short term.

mature plants later in the season, and whether


weekly or fortnightly applications were better.

The results of the field trial showed that in


terms of plant growth, wastewater was most

Marketing canna roots and making starch and noodles are urban occupations in Hanoi, where captured wastewater can
help farmers to grow better crops.

DuoNG L1EU
COMMUNE

O
C
-

rs;;:_

)"i.

5H'.'

>H.:G

IS]

R oAD

TRAIL

R tVER, CANAL AND POND

VEGETABLE FIELD

i:s:J

I RRIGATION CANAL

(OMMUNE BORDER

~ W ASTE WATER CANAL ANO PONO

T EMPLE

IS:]

5ETTLEMENT
Ri ce FIELD (2 SEASON CROP)
RICE FIELD

(1

SEASON CROP)

lKE

P EOPLE'S COMMITIEE

1G

To
500

N HUO RIVER

1,000

M ETERS

42 1

effective when it was applied once a week

astounding 130 tons per hectare- more than

during the early part of the growing season. This

four times the yield achieved without

trial also shed light on best- and safest -

wastewater. Water taro showed similar, though

practices in use of wastewater for growing

less spectacular, gains. These yield increases

human food crops. Researchers found that the

could lower the cost of feeding pigs, which

window of opportunity comes after one week of

seem to be immune to E. coli. But they also

settling , when the amount of E. co/i bacteria and

suggest another promising way forward : the

worm eggs is greatly reduced , but a sufficiently

safest and most productive use of wastewater

high nutrient content remains to make a

could be achieved by passing it through a bed of

difference in yields. After two weeks of settling,

kangkung or water taro for a week, on its way o

the microbiological contaminants have all but

a rice plot. 'This way you clean the water in a

disappeared but the wastewater has also lost

way that adds no risk to human health, while

much of its nutritive edge over ordinary

providing the rice with water that is still fairly

irrigation water.

rich in nutrients," says Peters.

Two crops used mainly to feed pigs, kangkung

Research on the best irrigation practices

(lpomea aquatica) and water taro (Colocasia

for different crops continues. But whatever its

esculenta), responded particularly well to the

outcome, only a certain proportion of village

trials. In the case of kangkung, yields rose to an

wastewater can be recycled in this way. The re st

still needs to be cleaned before it passes on

cities for earning cash income," (see page 39).

to other villages further downstream. The best

An estimated 800 million people already earn

opportunity for doing this occurs at the

their living in this way, a number that will

downstream end of the processing villages,

continue to rise rapidly through the first half of

where ponds or tanks slow the flow of the

the twenty-first century.

current. A "water accounting" exercise conducted

SIUPA began its work by holding two

by the lnternational Water Management lnstitute,

stakeholder meetings, one in Asia and the other

another partner in this project, found that sorne

in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Asan meeting selected

natural cleaning takes place as the water moves

Hanoi, where CIP and other international research

through these areas. This process could be

centers already had activities, as the pilot city. In

improved by expanding the ponds or, more

Africa, Yaounde, Kampala and Nairobi all

easily, by raising the level of the outflow at the

emerged as possible candidates, with Yaounde

bottom end of the pond, thus slowing the rate of

becoming the first to implement activities, under

flow still further. The next task will be to design

the leadership of the lnternational lnstitute of

and discuss interventions of this kind with

Tropical Agriculture. In both regions, SIUPA

)>

z
>

villagers, and then to introduce them for testing .

conducts its work through partnerships involving


national and municipal research and development

flLLING THE GAP

groups, alongside international centers and

Problems of the kind researchers are investigating

organizations.

in Hanoi had received only sporadic attention

Peri-urban agriculture raises critica! health

from the Future Harvest research centers until

and environmental issues that must be tackled

the birth of the Systemwide lnitiative on Urban

if we are to meet the challenges posed by the

and Peri-urban Agriculture in 1999.

broadening agenda of natural resources

"SIUPA is timely," says Prain, who coordinates

research. "lt's a far cry from yield trials on new

the initiative. "The past 30 years have seen an

potato varieties, " says Prain. "But the stronger

explosion in urban populations and urban

partnerships made possible by SIUPA will enable

poverty. Peri-urban agriculture provides one of

us to make the most of our resources to tackle

the few opportunities open to new migrants to

these is sues."

"o
o

THE HEAT IS ON

Global warming is with us, say scientists. Records


show that average temperatures worldwide rose
by 0.6C between 1900 and 1990. The latest
models predict a further rise of between 1.4 and
5.8C by the year 21 OO. Along with hotter
climates, we will have to contend with rising sea

INSECTS FEEL
THE HEAT:
PEST
MANAGEMENT
EXPERTISE
CONTRIBUTES TO
RESEARCH ON
GLOBAL CLIMATE
CHANGE

levels and more extreme weather events.


These trends have momentous implications for
agriculture. There will be a dual shift in crop and
livestock production: away from the equator to
more temperate latitudes; and into the hills to
escape heat or floods. Farmers will face new
threats to their livelihoods and, as always when
disasters strike, the poor will be hardest hit.
The international community is just beginning
to come to grips with the challenges posed by
global warming. The CGIAR system's first

N/:W\I

response was to form the lntercenter Working

IS f1LRE

Group on Climate Change to coordinate


activities and identify priority areas for future
research . Recently the group proposed the

. CIP
! 1JER.

LY/ING

'Li(A"

theme "Beating the Heat: Climate Change and


.F

Rural Prosperity" as one of the system's new


Challenge Programs. This proposal is being
considered for implementation because of its
high priority on the international research
agenda.

CIP is contributing with its expertise in

THE CAETE VALLEY LABORATORY

integrated pest management (IPM). Predictions in

Around 150 kilometers south of Lima, Caete

this field, as in ali others affected by global

Valley is one of the powerhouses of Peruvian

warming, are fraught with uncertainty, but

agriculture. For two-thirds of its length, the riv r

scientists agree that the current balance of insect

that gives its name to the valley tumbles throu

populations is almost certain to be upset. For

steep gorges, carving its way through the

Farmers in Caete Valley have learned that managing pest populations is a constantly evolving science. IPM is helping them to keep on top of changes

instance, sorne insects react strongly to relatively

western flanks of the Andes. But as it approac es

small changes in temperature and rainfall. Their

the Pacific Ocean the current slows and deepe

altered distribution could be one of the first

entering a broader plain. Here, on the flat vall

indicators that global warming is taking hold.

floor, farmers grow cotton, patato, sweetpotat

"Expect the unexpected," says CIP entomologist

and other crops in an intensive production

Aziz Lagnaoui . "Climate change will favor

system. Much of the harvest is destined far ur an

invaders over native species. Sorne insect pests

markets, especially Lima, or far export.

will become more important while others will

Caete farmers face the usual array of inse t

decline, but the net effect will be to increase

pests that typically plague such systems, includ ng

the pressure of pests on crop yields and

the ubiquitous whitefly (Bemisia tabaci and

therefare on farmers' incomes." Lagnaoui's ideas

related species). When whiteflies are few in

may have seemed mere speculation until

number, their feeding on crops does little

dramatic evidence emerged from a valley in

damage. But if sprayed, they soon develop

southern Peru.

resistance and multiply, especially in systems

where cropping is year-round. At high population

Biotype B was detected during routine surveys

densities, whiteflies can devastate whole crop

by Peru's national entomology service, whose

stands, giving them a characteristic "silver-leaf" or

scientists alerted Lagnaoui and his colleagues at

burned appearance. Whiteflies are also vectors of

CIP. The two institutions decided to make the

sorne serious viral diseases, particularly mosaic

valley the subject of a more detailed study,

and mottle viruses.

which would form part of the Whitefly IPM


Project of the CGIAR Systemwide Program on
lntegrated Pest Management. Working with
Pamela Anderson, an entomologist based at the
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)
in Cali, Colombia, Lagnaoui and Peruvian
colleagues carried out extensive fieldwork in
Caete Valley.

and to safeguard their crops, their environment and their profits.

The Bemisia genus is highly diverse, with

What they found was cause for serious


concern. The presence of B. tabaci biotype B was

many different biotypes and species occurring

bad enough, but it was not wholly unexpected

around the world. Until recently, only biotype A

because this insect has been found elsewhere in

of B. tabaci -which is common throughout the

Latin America. Research revealed, however, that

tropics and usually causes only moderate yield

another whitefly, B. afer, had also arrived. This

loss - was found in Caete Valley. In 2001,

species, which is even more aggressive than

however, a more aggressive whitefly, biotype B,

biotype B of B. tabaci, is normally restricted to

was identified. According to farmers, it arrived

the hotter, drier climates of Africa and had never

during an El Nio year when the climate in this

been reported befare in the Americas.

r.....

part of Peru was hotter and drier than usual. But

"B. afer is now widespread in the valley and

instead of disappearing when the weather

is causing serious damage to crops there," says

reverted to normal, the pest apparently adapted

Lagnaoui. "On sweetpotato it is even out-

to its new environment, where it is now inflicting

competing biotype B of B. tabaci." Particularly

severe damage on yields and farmers' incomes.

worrying is the fact that farmers are increasing

Continued 011 page 49

fLECTROPHORETIC PATTERNS

BI OTYP E A

PRJMERS USED

H9

- - - - nAB

IN WHITEFL Y SAMPLES
!!

FROM CAETE VALLEY

NEW BIOHCHNOLCIG\
SUUl 1".'i

RAPOS

A: 600, 550, 350 bp


B: 950, 800, 600 bp

OOl.S,

(11AN"lOMtY
8 JOTYPE B

;\ ~!Plllll:D l'Ot.YMOIWHIC

DNA),

H16

------

ABM

rffLP m [c\111.lfNCE [JJFFER!"NUS

A: 1,000, 500 bp
B: 550, 450, 350 bp

B.

---

IAA~( .1'fflFS

their pesticide applications to control the

and you court accusations of in adeq uate science

newcomers. The result could be rising level s of

coupled with sensationalism in order to attract

resistance, eventually leading to crashes in yields

funding; report too late, and farmers, politicians

and incomes, as ha s been the case elsewhere in

and the public ask, why didn 't you warn us? "

the developing world .

Early confirmation of sim ilar findings in other

While Lagnaoui and his colleagues collect

locatio ns will ease that dilemma.

data on pest distributions, other CIP scientists


are analyzing climate data for the valley to find

TRACKING PEST MOVEMENTS

out how its weather has changed over the past

There is good reason to suspect that the new

50 years. The aim is to match the data on pest

pests have spread beyond Caete Valley. An

populations with information on changes in

insect similar to the whitefly, the leafmin er

temperature and rainfall. lf patterns are detected,

(Liriomyza huidobrensis), has, in less than ten

the analysis will be broadened to cover other

years, risen from comparative in significance as a

valleys on the Pacifi c Seaboard, with a view to

minor pest on a few veg etabl es to the status of

obtaining a more comprehens ive picture.

a seriou s international problem. Population

"At the mo ment, we are caught in the typica l

explosions have been reported globally, w ith the

predicament of scienti st s who make discoveries

most serious outbreaks occurring in the

of thi s kind," notes Lagnao ui. "Report too early,

intensive production syste m s of Asia and Latin

Continued on page 5 7

America. In Caete Valley, the pest has long

provide a clearer answer than human eyes can,

been reported on peas and beans but has

because the different species of leafminer, like

recently begun to feed on other crops as well.

those of whitefly, are difficult to distinguish by

More polyphagus tastes on the part of a pest

appearance alone. "So far, the analysis suggests

are commonly the prelude to a steep rise in its

that the most widespread biotypes are Latin

numbers.

American in origin," says Lagnaoui.

In these cases of rising population levels, it is


difficult to single out the causes. Climate is one

MANAGING CHANGE

of a complex set of inter-related factors that

In the face of global climate change, IPM

could be causing the changes. Other are

strategies and technologies may need a radical

associated, for instance, with intensification of

overhaul.

production. In leafminers as in whiteflies,

lncreasingly, plant breeders will need to

pesticides seem to have been a large part of

combine pest resistance with tolerance to factors

the problem, fostering resistant strains and

such as heat and drought when they develop

killing off the pests' natural enemies. In Caete

new varieties. The search for such tolerance has

Valley, resistance appears to have developed in

made good progress in a few dryland cereals,

leafminers when the pest was restricted to peas

such as pearl millet, sorghum and durum wheat,

and beans. The spread to other crops probably

but has been less successful -

has occurred since the most recent

attempted at ali - in most other crops. Flexible

El Nio event raised temperatures in the valley.

global arrangements will be needed to facilitate

1 51

Modern science is contributing to the analysis


by providing tools that can help us to understand

or hardly

the speedy exchange of germplasm with the


necessary resistance characteristics.

just how pests spread. At the request of Lagnaoui

The shift away from chemical pesticides

and his colleagues, for instance, a scientist in the

towards bio-insecticides will doubtless continue

USA is conducting detailed DNA analysis of

as an IPM strategy. Sorne bio-insecticides,

different biotypes of leafminer, with a view to

however, are highly susceptible to rises in

tracking their movements worldwide over the

temperature and ultra-violet radiation . For

past decade. The tools of molecular biology will

example, the half-life of commercial preparations

o
o

based on the granu losis virus -widely applied

detection of early signs of changes in pest

as a dust to stored potatoes to destroy the

pressure, strengthen links between ali relevan

potato tuber moth and other pests - falls by

partners and increase investment in farmer fie ld

60 percent when temperatures rise from 25(

schools and other participatory approaches tha

to 30C. Storage temperatures in North Africa

can help educate farmers to keep a close wat h

frequently reach 3lC and stand to go higher as

on their crops and deal effectively with

global warming takes hold. Already, these

problems as they arise. And these farm-level

preparations can rarely be applied in the field

approaches will need to be linked to stronger

under tropical conditions, because- unless they

public-sector advisory services at regional and

are mixed with a UV-protectant-they become

national levels.

ce:
<
e:;,
z

<

<
z

ineffective within a few hours.


"We must be alert and ready to respond

In short, the international community has its


work cut out if it is to meet the challenges of

quickly to changing conditions," says Lagnaoui.

global warming . CIP's IPM experts are poised a d

That implies a need to improve capabilities for

ready to help.

KITCHEN TABLE RESEARCH YIELDS A PRIZE-WINNER

"Mmm, that's nice!" says Felipe, licking his lips.


Felipe is a 6-year-old boy whose taste for natural
sugars has triggered new thinking in ongoing
research at CIP.
Earlier that evening, Felipe's father, CIP scientist
Michael Hermann, had brought home sorne

TAPPING

INTO

BIODIVERSITY:
RESEARCH ON
NEGLECTED
ANDEAN CROPS
SET TO PAY
DIVIDEN OS

LIITLE PUBUC-

strange-looking, blackish-skinned roots, which he


had first chopped then put through a juicer in the
family's kitchen. Reduction by boiling had resulted
in a small amount of thick, dark syrup, which
Hermann had offered to Felipe and his older sister,
Barbara, as a before bedtime treat.
1 SS

The source of the syrup was a traditional


Andean root crop, yacon (Smallanthus

SECTOR INVESTMENT

sonchifolius), domesticated centuries ago. Until

GOES A LONG WAY

recently, yacon remained little known outside its

TOWARDS

SAVll~G

THE

original habitat, modern-day Peru, Bolivia and


Ecuador. Now, scientists believe, it is about to

THREATENED GENETIC

become a household word in many other


HERITAGE OF THE
ANDES-ESPECIALL y
IF IT HELPS DEVELOP
NEW MARKETS

countries, thanks to its remarkable healthpromoti ng properties.


Juicy yacon roots are rich in oligofructose, a
carbohydrate that, although sweet, carries no
calorie penalty because it is not absorbed by the
body. In addition, as it passes through the colon
oligofructose is fermented by beneficia! bacteria
in a process that lowers pH, leading to improved

intestinal health. Oligofructose also lowers the

adding lemon juice to prevent browning, were

blood 's triglyceride content, increases the body's

di sappointing. "All

uptake of calcium and improves vitamin B

green slime," he says .

synthesis.
Because of these properties, consumed either

got was a kind of primeva!

Three years later, Hermann 's interest was


rekindled when he was appointed head of CIP'

fresh or processed, yacon can help prevent such

postharvest project. "We were on the lookout

conditions as constipation, cancer of the colon

new products that farmers could make easily i

and osteoporosis. Yacon is, furthermore, a hardy

their own homes," he says, "so

crop and can be grown without chemical

another go." The family kitchen seemed the id eal

fertilizers and pesticides, making it an ideal

place to start.

candidate for the organic as well as the health


food market.
CIP got to know yacon in the early 1990s,

decided to hal e

After successfully pilot testing the syrup o


hi s children, Hermann transferred work on the
new product back to CIP laboratories, where

when it implemented a collaborative research

and his assistant lvan Manrique began by

project on nine Andean roots and tubers that had

following procedures that are well charted for

been largely overlooked by researchers. The

many fruits . They experimented with using

project involved studies of the crops' distribution

variables like adding lemon juice and other

and diversity, as well as germplasm collection .

antioxidants, peeling roots and filtering the

This prepared the way for later research on

syrup. They also got hold of a special evapora or

processing and marketing. The idea was to save

adapted for use over a wood-burning stove th at

the region's threatened biodiversity while

was originally developed in Canada for makin

creating new income-earning opportunities for

maple syrup.

farmers .
lt was during this project that Hermann first

But the most important variable was the


roots themselves. CIP scientists contacted

became interested in processing yacon . One day

colleagues at the university of Oxapampa in

he crushed samples of the tubers and tried to

central Peru, where the crop had long been

make jam from them in the laboratory, but the

grown . Together they made contact with a

results, obtained without removing the fiber or

group of farmers, who were immediately

interested in finding a new market for their


crop. The farmers began to work with the
researchers to identify plant types that had
large, succulent roots with a high oligofructose
content. Hermann and his colleagues, in turn,
agreed to help the farmers organize a yacon
growers' association and build a pilot plant to
process the syrup.
In late 2000, Hermann and Manrique decided
to enter the newly perfected syrup in Peru 's
Innovacin Tecnolgica Agro-Industrial , an annual
competition offering prizes for new products
with potential to increase the incomes of poor
rural people. "I didn't think we had a chance of
winning," says Hermann. But to the scientists'
delight, the product ea rned first prize, which
carried a cash award of US$8,000. The sum was
just enough to fund the projected process ing
plant.
The prize also brought a surge of publicity
and commercial interest in yacon, encouraging
Hermann and his colleagues to conduct research
on marketing. They are now developing a brand
name and label, and are conducting surveys on
consumer acceptability. lf their research continues
to be successful, Andea n farmers will soon have
a new source of income to help them protectand promote -

a long neglected crop.


The Andes are home to unique root and tuber crops and
high-protein grains like quinoa.

Continued on page 59

SPUDS GO UP-MARKET

unofficially, at a time when such work fell outside

Sorne resemble butterfly's wings; others have

the scope of CIP's research agenda. "We were

concentric circles, like agate; one bears the

considered truant when we first announced our

outline of a bicycle wheel, another of a starfish.

results," says Bonierbale. "But we have since

With their delicate designs in orange, red and

found a legitimate home in CIP's new project on

purple, these patterned patato chips look like

postharvest utilization, launched when the Center

miniature works of art (see previous page). But

revised its mandate to include this kind of work."

the patterns are natural, of course, each

Product champions like Bonierbale and Amaros

representing a unique cross-section of the

can be essential in focusing attention on the

multifaceted patato tuber's diversity.

potential of minor crops, which are often left off

"The chips are made from just a few of the


more than 3800 varieties of native Andean

the research agenda .


Under Bonierbale's guidance, Amaros spent

potatoes," explains CIP's marketing expert Thomas

three years screening 400 varieties for their

Bernet, who works closely with Hermann. These

processing aptitude while keeping up with his

varieties are a source of pride to the region 's

other duties in the breeding for resistance area.

resource-poor farming communities, who often

This exercise led to a short-list of about 50

greet visitors with papa regalo, a gift of potatoes

varieties with exceptional processing qualities,

reflecting local diversity. Farmers typically grow

from which seven were selected for inclusion in

up to 40 types of native potato in the same field.

chipping tests.

1 59

But many of these varieties are found only in the

Throughout the process, the scientists have

areas where they have evolved over centuries,

kept in close touch with farming communities

and few make it as far, even, as the Lima

that grow these varieties, involving them in on -

market.

farm conservation and participatory evaluation.

That the chips exist in prototype owes

The farmers view the colored chips with

everything to the vision and commitment of

enthusiasm and are keen to get the product into

CIP plant breeder Merideth Bonierbale and her

the market.

research associate, Walter Amaros. The two


began to explore possibilities with the chips

"For the purposes of processing, these varieties


beat conventional potatoes hands down," says

Bonierbale. The tubers have a higher dry matter

ANCIENT DELICACIES

content, so they absorb less oil when frying. They

Bernet and his colleagues will share the

are also tolerant to cold, making them less likely

responsibility for marketing the chips with Pa a

to darken. Everyone who has seen the patterned

Andina, a project established to promote

chips agrees that they would make a unique

Andean patato species by developing new

gourmet tem. And the coloring denotes the

products and markets. The project works with

presence of antioxidants, adding a plus on the

national partners in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru.

health side. Best of all, the chips are very tasty,

One native species, Solanum phureja, is

with a full flavor quite unlike the blandness of

already gaining ground. lt produces small, dee

most modern varieties.

yellow tubers that, like the colored chips, are a

In the era of globalization, characteristics

tasty to eat as they are attractive to look at. "T e

such as these can make the difference between

image of these potatoes is a far cry from the

a species' extinction and its survival. As borders

working-class spud," says Andr Devaux, Papa

open and economies liberalize, developing

Andina's project leader. "They are begging to

economies will find it hard to compete in the

served at tables in city restaurants." Only two

already saturated market for conventional food

countries, Colombia and Ecuador, export this

products. lnstead, argues Bernet, they should act

delicacy at present. Devaux is investigating the

fast to enter the emerging markets for gourmet,

potential for expanding the market, particularly in

organic and fair-trade foods.

the organic-foods sector.

"Small-scale farmers in the Andes have a

Another product that could soon be

competitive advantage in these niche markets,"

consumed more widely is chuo blanco or

says Bernet. "Their produce comes from an

tunta, made from bitter-tasting potatoes that

environment high above the pollution of the

be toxic if eaten fresh . In this case, an ancien

lowlands. The possibility of helping to lessen

processing system adds to the product's inter st.

their poverty gives an added appeal on equity

Tolerant of frost and insects, the bitter varieti s

grounds. And their land is renowned for its

are grown at high altitudes on the altiplano

beauty, giving plenty of scope for attractive

(high plains) of Bolivia and Peru , where most

packaging."

other varieties perform poorly.

an

Farmers harvest the crop from May to July,

STRATEGIES FOR SMALL-SCALE PRODUCERS

leaving the tubers out at night in temperatures

While new products undoubtedly offer tempting

that sink below zero. Once the frost has broken

opportunities, small-scale farmers need to look

down the tubers' tissue, their water is expelled

carefully before they leap, warns Devaux. CIP can

by treading on them. This is usually done by

play a critica! role by analyzing the pros and cons

women who take their shoes off in order to

of entering the market.

experience the right "feel" for the work and so

The Center has developed a set of criteria

bring just the right amount of pressure to bear:

for thi s purpose. "The first thing we ask is

the aim is to gently squeeze, but not crush, the

whether the product requires labor or capital,"

tubers.

Devaux says. "Labor is something the resource-

Once trodden, the potatoes are left to dry

poor farmer can provide, whereas large amounts

during several hot highland days before being

of capital are not." The yellow potato is a case

soaked in water to totally rid them of their toxic

in point: the small tubers are planted at high

compounds, then redried. Besides making bitter

densities, ruling out the use of machinery for

potatoes edible, chuo can be stored for long

harvesting and so rendering the crop unsuitable

periods with no refrigeration. To use the tubers,

for large-scale farmers.

cooks simply rehydrate them .

-z

Quality requirements are a second criterion :


tv

At present, the market for chuo blanco is

unlike tuber size, which can be assessed

almost entirely local, but there are indications

relatively easily by digging up a plant, processing

that other markets could develop. Peruvian and

characteristics such as chemical content must be

Bolivian immigrants in cities such as Buenes

measured in a laboratory, putting the resource-

Aires often ask their relatives to bring the

poor farmer at a disadvantage.

precious freeze-dried tubers when they visit,

A third, closely related criterion is riskiness.

and small surpluses occasionally find their way

"A small-scale farmer cannot wait until next year

to urban fruit and vegetable stalls. Papa Andina

if his or her produce fails to meet market

is investigating the possibility of broadening

specifications," says Devaux. "A certain amount

chuo's appeal by improving its quality and

of risk is inevitable, but it should be kept to a

presentation.

minimum."

Continued on page 63

o
o

NEW WEAPONS IN THE WAR ON LATE BLIGHT


i
i

Modern biotechnology is helping CIP and its partners add value to biodiversity by unlocking the secrets of

I!

crop genomes. An example is CIP's work on late blight, the most serious disease of patato worldwide.
(See also pages 76, 79 and 83.)
CIP's conventional breeding program has been successful in developing varieties with parta! resistance

[
to late blight. However, conventional screening for resistance genes takes up a great deal of time ancl
1

space. Biotechnology is contributing by enabling these genes to be identified and tracked through
1

successive generations of plants quickly and "'""tely, whlle offeclng tool< thot con al<o help rnmblnl

'

"pyramid" resistance genes.


CIP's scientists began by using genetic markers to identify a "core" collection of varieties with distinct
11

sources of resistance. The markers allowed them to efficiently detect duplications and misclassifications at
1

the genetic leve!, thereby reducing the time and costs of subsequent work.

Next, the scientists crossed a native Andean potato species, Solanum phureja, with a potato plant
known to be susceptible to late blight. By studying the inheritance of resistance in offspring they were
11

able to make a genetic map showing the chromosomal regions or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contain
resistance genes (see next page). This exercise gave rise to a number of markers thought to indicate

1
1

resistance. The scientists are now field testing 100 lines of S. phureja, correlating their resistance with the
presence or absence of these markers.
Two different strategies are being followed to zoom in on the genes themselves. The first involves the
use of "candidate genes", which are likely to be implicated in resistance to late blight because they hL e
1

already been found to play a role in disease resistance in other plant species. The sequences of candidate
genes are downloaded from the Internet or obtained from the literature and matched against those
1

present in a given QTL. The mere presence of a candidate gene at a QTL, however, doesn't prove that it

li

is responsible for resistance. This could be a coincidence, with the gene that is really responsible lurking
close by. Hence the second strategy, which consists of trying to detect differences in the behavior of 1
genes in response to infection. To do this, the scientists will use a highly sensitive, high-throughput
technology known as micro-arrays to tell them which genes are "switched on" or off.
1

Once the resistance genes in each QTL have been identified, they can be transferred to susceptible
but more productive varieties using either marker-assisted selection or genetic modification. Either

wa!~,
11

the end result will be a product of immense value to farmers: potato varieties with more stable resistance
to a disease that currently devastates their yields and hence their incomes.

11

RESISTANCE GENE
CONSENSUS MAP

TG301

111

!i

GP249

t'<

li~t

11?;..'1 .. 11!(

f\

CP70

TG2S9

VII

(,11\/:

CP104

TG3 11

VIII

CD 29

CP52

J!:l'lfl

i!

e,

'

'.1

l!JI

TG176

GP41

tbr,spg leonards-Schipperset al., 1994

...

TG408

XII

:..
+*
: ji * *

GP161

.i,11:Ii..
:

+ tbr, phu El Kharbotlyetal., 1996

tbr,chc, ktz, stn,tar,vrn OberhagemannetaL, 1999

tbr, dmslietal., 1998

tbr, ber Erwinetal.,2000

cph,pnt Khulet at.,2001

mcd Sandbrinket al.,2000

e
e
e

adg Hama lainenetal., 1997

phu, tbr Ghislainet al.,200 1

!
(P158

+ tbr,phu El - Kharbotlyeta l., 1996

tbr,ktz,vrn, tar, stn Collinset al., 1999

+ tbrl eonards-Schippersetal., 1992

'. 1

+ tbr,phu E!-Kharbotlyetal., 1994

tbr Meyereta l.,1998

blb Naesseta l.,2000

tbr Brignetietal., 1997


adg CelebiTopraketa l.,2002
tb rRitteretal., 1991

tbr Bendahmaneetal., 1991

... tbr, phu, vrn Jacobseta t., 1996

tbr, DeJo ngetal., 1977

tbr, phu Tomm iskaeta l., 1998

... tbr Pinedaeta l., 1993. tbr,phu,adg Gebhardtetal., 1993

A tbr, spgKre keet al., 1996


.6. tb r,adg RouppevanderVoortetal., 1997
.A. tbr,adg Sradshawetal., 1998
.A. tbr, vrn,o pl, adg, phu RouppevanderVoort etal., 1998
.A. tbr, vrn,adg, spg, phu RouppevanderVoortetal.. 2000
T che, yun, tbr Zimnoch-Guzowska eta l., 2000

.A.
.A.

tbr,spgKreikeet al., 1993

tbr, spg Kreikeet al., 1994

+tbr Hehletal.,1999

**

adg Hamalainenetal.,2000
che, yun, tbr Marczewski et al.. 2001

... tbr Baroneetal., 1990. tbr Ball~oraetal., 1995

Farmers also need help in developing the

..

GP3 4

1:=

'1.I 111

XI
CP54

i:*

GP76

lt

if,

TG313

..

li

GP79

..

GP82

111

1:

CP44

! .

)f'.j[,/<i

IX

rj... r
!.

1i
..

VI

i'liii! 11~ij...

!1 11

J!

V
CP31

1 1111:!

FOR POTA TO

'-

IV
TG49

GP29 1

blb,tbr Brownet al.,1996

delivery or to carry out processing at the village

terms on which they will do business and in

level - anothe r area in which CIP can provide

finding reputable companies that will accept

advice.

those terms and stick to them. "As a public-sector

The benefits from this type of backing are

institute, our job is to take the part of the small

multiple. Th ey include in creased income flo ws

producer," says Devaux. "Resource-poor farmers

for farmers; more jobs in processing, packaging

are often inexperienced in dealing with buyers

and marketing; new high-value products for

and their bargaining power tend s to be weak."

consumers; and a safer future for sorne unique

They need to form collectives to protect their

crops . This is a remarkable pay-off for a small

interests, as we ll as t o organize production and

initial injection of public money.

RURAL BACKWATER

Media coverage of China's economy tends to


focus on the booming cities of the lowlands and
the coast where annual growth tops 1O percent.
The country's mountainous rural hinterland,
where the pace of development is much slower,
attracts less attention. This is, however, where

(OOPERATION

PAYS:

CIP

SUPPORTS

China's estimated 60 million poor and hungry


live, most of them in the densely populated
southwestern provinces of Chongqing, Guizhou,

(HINA S ORIVE
TO ENO
HUNGER ANO
POVERTY

CIP's COLLABOHATION
1

WITH (HINA S POTATO


RESEARCH PROGRAMS
DATES BACI< TO THE

Sichuan and Yunnan.


Paradoxically, many of this region's hungriest
people are farmers. Typically they are solitary
women or older married couples, often
belonging to minority cultural groups, who raise
crops and livestock on tiny farms of less than
0.25 hectare. They supplement their meager
incomes from agriculture with remittances from
their husbands or children, who have joined the

MID-1980s.

exodus to the cities in search of labor.

INTHE

EARLY 19905,

THE PARTNERS SINGLED


1

OUT (HINA S SOUTHWESTERN PROVINCES AS

Closely associated with rural poverty in


China's southwest and therefore central to its
eradication is that stalwart of peasant economies,
the potato. The crop is grown in three main
zones: the plains and valfeys, where it is sown

MERITING SPECIAL

in winter to reach nearby urban markets in


ATTENTION

spring when prices are highest; the steeply


sloping low- to mid-hills where it is a mixed

Continued on page 68

subsistence and cash crop, often grown twice a

the farmers thought it constituted the entire

year with sowings in spring and early autumn;

species.

and the high plateaus, just below the snows of

o
e

lt isn 't difficult to understand why Mira

the peaks, where it is virtually the only crop that

caught on . With its northern European origins, it

can be grown during a brief season in high

had proved well adapted to the variable but

summer. Whereas the first two zones have filled

harsh conditions of the southwestern mountai s.

up with people, the third is extremely remote

Mira is a trustworthy "rustic" potato of the kin

and has few inhabitants. In many areas, potatoes

that has fueled peasant economies the world

are strip-cropped with maize -

over. lt yields well year after year, is a staunc

the region's

other important food crop - but monocropping

ingredient of soups and stews, tastes good an

is also practiced.

fills stomachs, especially during long winter

"Southwest China presents us with a classic


challenge," says CIP economist Tom Walker. "In

months when there isn't much else to eat.


But the farmers' ignorance of other varietie

68 1

this largely rural region, increasing the production

was symptomatic of a dangerous dependence.

of staple food crops such as potato and maize is

The narrow genetic base of their potato

the way to drive broad-based economic

production placed them at risk of crop failure

development in which the poor can participate."

pests and diseases. Already, Mira's resistance t


late blight-which devastated potato fields un

<

DANGEROUS DEPENDENCE

similar conditions in lreland in the 1840s -

Despite potato's importance to these rural

breaking down. The farmers complained that

populations, when Walker asked farmers in a

when blight struck, their yields fell drastically t

remote village in Chongqing Province what they

6-7.5 tons per hectare, compared with 18-22

had learned from a farmer field school they had

tons per hectare in a normal year. The quality

recently attended, he got an unexpected reply:

their seed tubers had also declined under the

'There is more than one kind of potato." lt turned

continuous onslaught of viruses.

out that until then they had known only one East

wa

lt was clear that increasing biodiversity in t e

German variety called Mira, introduced back in

region was crucial to protecting farmers' food

the 1950s. Mira had become so prevalent that

security. Over the past decade, Chinese

researchers have stepped up their efforts to

Cooperation 88 is highly responsive to inputs

develop and disseminate a wider range of

and delivers a massive yield gain over Mira,

improved varieties, often using materials supplied

producing up to 60 tons per hectare when

by CIP. Those efforts are now paying off.

monocropped. lt also has another advantage:


with its unifarmly large tubers and shallow eyes,

WIDER BASE

it is better far processing . This is an important

In 1990, CIP sent the seeds of a cross known as

characteristic in regions emerging from

S-88 to Wang Jun, a professor at the Root and

subsistence into market economies, enabling

Tuber Crop Research lnstitute of Yunnan Normal

farmers to sell their surpluses not just to local

University, in Kunming. Tested in an experimental

markets but also to a growing number of

plot, S-88 yielded better than ali the other

factories producing chips, starch and other

selections under evaluation. lts promise was

products.

recognized by Ting Fei, a senior plant breeder at

But researchers still feel the need to broaden

the county level, who worked with Wang and

the genetic base far patato farmers in China.

other researchers to further evaluate S-88 in

"Cooperation 88 is merely the first in a stream

Yunnan's government-sponsored provincial trials.

of new materials that will reach farmers' fields,"

In 1995 this work led to the release of a new

notes Zhang Yongfei, one of the team who

variety, which the team named Cooperation 88

worked with Wang and is now a plant breeder

to reflect the importance of partnership in its

himself. He and his colleagues are busy

development and testing.

developing the next generation of improved

As the researchers had expected, Yunnan

varieties. These will have more stable resistance

farmers took to the new variety immediately. By

to late blight disease and will be more suitable

late 2001, less than seven years after its release,

far intercropping than Cooperation 88, which

Cooperation 88 covered an estimated 20 percent

tends to compete too aggressively with

of the area devoted to patato in the province. lt

companion crops and is therefare best

had also spilled over into neighboring Sichuan

monocropped. Other traits receiving attention

and Chongqing . And its seeds were being traded

include resistance to bacteria! wilt, as well as

over China's borders, into Vietnam and Burma.

early maturity.

5EED DYNAMOS MAKE THE DIFFERENCE

with the introduction of technologies -for tiss e

The rap id spread of Cooperation 88 owes much

culture and virus-free seed production, for

to Yunnan's dynamic seed sector. China's

instance -to speed up seed multiplication and

southwest enjoys the same advantages for seed

guarantee its quality. Farmers can obtain small

production as the Andes in Latn America: strong

loans from rural banks to buy seed or other

demand for seed on the plains, where

inputs, and seed tubers of new varieties are

commercial farmers grow the crop for market,

made available at subsidized prices from count

coupled with ideal conditions for the production

agricultura! bureaus during the first few years of

of healthy seed in the mountains, where the

production.

cool, dry climate reduces the risk of pests and


cr:

<

di sea ses.

The seed sector in other provinces is less


well organized, according to Crissman. In

Yunnan has decided to capitalize on these

Sichuan, production sites are widely scattered

advantages. "The province has the most positive

and there is less formal policy support. Guizho

policy environment for the potato seed sector

and Chongqing have generally lower altitudes,

that

offering fewer opportunities for quality seed

have seen in a developing country," says

CIP economist Charles Crissman, who visited the

production. All three provinces, however, can

region recently to assess the potential for impact.

catch up to sorne extent by following their

The lead comes from the Provincial Department

more progressive neighbor's example.

of Agriculture, which provides financia! support

Even in Yunnan, several constraints still hold

for seed program development in designated

back the seed sector, and potato production as a

areas. The department has linked this investment

whole. "Many farmers don't yet appreciate the

Whether monocropped or intercropped with maize, potato makes a big contribution to nutrition in rural China.

value of good seed," says Zhang. "As a result,

With the support of the Centro Internacional de

they aren't willing to pay a premium for it,

Mejoramiento de Maz y Trigo CIMMYT), provincial

putting quality seed producers at a disadvantage."

researchers have introduced modern hybrids and

And when farmers do obtain good seed, they are

improved open-pollinated varieties, contributing

seldom able to get the most out of it. "Except on

to a steady rise in yields to over 3 tons per

larger farms near cities, the use of inputs remains

hectare by the late 1990s, nearly double their

low, so there is a large gap between the yields

level in 1970.

achieved on research stations and those on

"Together, potato and maize are doing much

farmers' fields. For sorne farmers, potato is still a

to pull the region out of poverty and hunger," says

'lazy crop' - one for which they just plant the

Walker. Turning farmers' deficits into surpluses has

seed then wait for the harvest," Zhang adds.

already increased food security and incomes. lt is


also triggering growth in other sectors, notably the

IMPACT AHEAD

processing industry and livestock production, both

Despite these problems, the prospects for

of which are valuable sources of additional cash

achieving substantial impact in the southwest

for farmers. The demand for meat, in particular, is

are good, Crissman argues. Coupled with higher

growing rapidly as incomes rise.

yields, expansion in the area cultivated should

China does not intend to rest on its

allow a quantum leap in production over the

achievements in reducing hunger and poverty

next few years, with large surpluses meeting

since its economic reforms of 1978. The

growing demands from Hong Kong and the

government is determined to finish the job it

coast, as well as Malaysia, Singapore and other

has started and is channelling the necessary

Southeast Asian and Pacific markets. Already,

additional resources into the southwest. CIP will

orders are coming in from as far afield as

continue to support these efforts through

Shanghai.

research, training and information activities. The

Progress with potatoes is running in tandem


with another regional success story, that of maize.

high probability of success indicates that, once


more, cooperation pays.

(HINA'S PUSH TO ERADICATE POVERTY

China is almost alone among developing countries in having consistently applied, over
nearly 25 years, a large-scale, nationwide program to eradicate poverty. The government's
commitment to this mission - and its focus on the rural, agricultura! sector - has
undoubtedly contributed to the success of cooperation with CIP.
China launched its anti-poverty program in 1978, along with a package of economic
reforms to speed up growth. The first major achievement was agricultura! reform: price
controls were relaxed and collectives were disbanded, providing small-scale farmers with
incentives to increase their productivity. Then, in 1986, the government launched a largescale drive to eradicate poverty in the more underdeveloped rural areas, specifically targeting
the center and west of the country with special funds and favorable policies. A third phase
began in 1994, when a seven-year priority poverty alleviation program was launched,
focusing again on the problems associated with rural poverty. Throughout the program,
development initiatives have been complemented by direct relief in the form of food and
clothing for the poorest households and the destitute. Key disadvantaged groups, such as
ethnic minorities, the disabied and women, have also been singled out for special initiatives.
The program is remarkable for its sustained, all-round assault on the ful! range of factors
that create and perpetuate poverty. lnfrastructure, education, health, farming and basic
services have ali received attention. Using funds targeted to poor counties, the program has
built roads and railways, opened up new areas of farmland and brought drinking water,
electricity and telecommunications to villages among the most remote in the world. In
agriculture, the government has strengthened the capacity for research and promoted
production and processing in the poorest provinces and counties. Farmers are receiving
credit for establishing enterprises in aquaculture, poultry and crop production, and many are
adopting new technologies as their access to markets improves.
Since 1978, the percentage of people in the rural population considered poor, by
Chinese standards, is estimated to have fallen from 30 percent to less than 3 percent.

80TTOM-UP APPROACH TO LEARNING

lt's eight o'clock on a fine tropical morning.


Twenty farmers are stooping, crouching or down
on ali faurs in a fi eld of sweetpotato, their heads
and necks craned at awkward angles as they
peer at the plants. From time to time someone
remove s an insect or a damag ed leaf and places

f ULL

MARKS FOR

ADAPTABILITY:

FARMERS

REAP

MULTIPLE

it in a plastic bag, then makes a quick note on a


scrap of paper.
In half an hour or so, the group's facilitator
will call the farmers back to the shade of a

BENEFITS FROM

large tree . Here they will farm small groups to

FIELD SCHOOLS

compare notes and record their finding s on


larg e sheet s of paper that wi ll be used to make
pre sen tations to the others.

,, 11\J

After these presentations, every observation


will be aired and sifted in a plenary sess ion
befare th e discussion moves on to the big
qu estion: what to do next in the field. Wait
another week to see how the insect population
develops? Or take action to control pests now?

1 1 il 1

Th e farmers will end their debate by making a


collective decision. Then they will reassemble to
F. ,

discu ss what constitutes good planting material

'

EFll '>

'

and how it can help combat th e pests and


diseases that appear in the field . Finally, they will
set up their own experiment to test their idea s
befare returning home to their farms.

That was a day in the life of the farmer field

AN EVOLVING MODEL

school at Turi, a village in East Java. The farmers

While the basic principies of the farmer field

met in this way weekly, throughout the cropping

school have remained the same, their applicati n

cycle. After the harvest, they compared the yields

has evolved over the past decade. CIP has bee

they had achieved in their "learning field" with

a part of that evolution.

those of non-participating farmers on adjacent


land.
The field school concept was developed in

The Center's involvement dates from 1995,


when Van de Fliert and other members of CIP'
Southeast Asian team began working with

the late 1980s by the Food and Agriculture

lndonesian partners to adapt the FFS model to

Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as a

integrated management of sweetpotato pests.

way of introducing integrated pest management

establish the necessary protocols, the scientists

(IPM) to rice farmers. The idea was to achieve

trained small teams of farmer researchers and

impact in a way that differed radically from top-

development workers from NGOs to conduct a

down extension methods.

participatory assessment of farmers' IPM needs n

"lnstead of telling farmers what to do, we

four Javanese villages. But when the teams

design activities that enable them to observe,

entered the villages, they found that the farme s

deduce and decide for themselves," says Elske

were less concerned with pests and diseases

Van de Fliert, an IPM specialist who worked on

than they were with the problems of marketin

field schools with FAO before joining CIP in

their crop. And whereas losses to even the mo t

1994.

serious insect pests were generally low, there

This emphasis on discovery-based learning

were huge variations in yields, mainly associate

helps to ensure that farmers will internalize new

with crop management practices such as the u e

knowledge and skills, empowering them to make

of fertilizers .

better decisions on how to manage their crops. lt

All this suggested a broader agenda than t e

also kindles a spirit of enquiry and collective

IPM curriculum of the origina l project proposal

action that lasts after the FFS has finished,

At community-level workshops in 1996, the

helping farmers to meet new challenges as they

partners decided to switch to an integrated cr p

emerge.

management (ICM) framework. "The switch w s

the direct result of farmers' participation," notes

Peru. This work was driven by two overlapping

Van de Fliert.

interests: to help farmers control late blight

The next evolutionary step carne when

di sease and to evaluate and disseminate new

institutions in Vietnam decided to adapt the

potatoes with resistance to the disease. To

lndonesian model to their country's needs. In

achieve these dual objectives, the scientists

Vietnam, unlike Indonesia, the whole sweetpotato

included various participatory research (PR)

plant- vines and roots -

elements, forming a new model known as the

is commonly used as

animal feed. In a 1999 planning workshop,


researchers, farmers and extension workers

PR-FFS.
'The idea was to generate a large data set

endorsed the ICM-FFS approach developed in

that would be useful to scientists, and at the

Indonesia, noting that the broad currculum and

same time to try the new materials out with

simultaneous emphasis on economics and

farmers," says Osear Ortiz, the CIP social scientist

ecology were particularly attractive.

who coordinated the project. "In conventional

In the 2001-02 pilot seasons they realized ,

research, the ba se line data used to formulate

however, that it would be beneficia! to farmer s

hypotheses are often collected from no more

to broaden the FFS currculum to include

than two sites over a couple of growing seasons.

utilization and processing aspects in addition to

When farmers conduct research in their own

production. CIP and national partners had

fields, in many locations, you get much more

recently developed a new labor-saving

information at a lower cost."

technique for process ing vines for pig feed,

The new model successfully met the project's

involving the use of fermentation instead of

combined research and extension objectives.

boiling. The technique was included in the new

Multi-locational trials within the PR-FFS showed

curriculum, providing a vehicle for its

that a number of new breeding lines performed

dissemination.

outstandingly across locations, even under

Meanwhile, CIP's Lima -based scientists had

extreme disease pressure. Sorne of these lines

begun adapting farmer field schools for potato,

have now been officially released as new

starting with four pilot schools launched in

varieties and others are spreading spontaneously,

collaboration with CARE in the Cajamarca area of

giving farmers much earlier access to them than

Continued on page 78

f "Viva farmer

ield schools!"
proclaim these
puppets

if they had been evaluated through the formal

8ROADENING THE AGENDA INCREASES IMPACT

research system. And as in Indonesia, broadening

At each stage of its evolution, the FFS has

the project's initially narrow focus on pests to

increased its impact by broadening its scope.

include other problems raised by farmers resulted


in a set of priorities more sharply focused on

models is the boost they give to the disseminat on

their needs, as well as stronger farmer ownership

of new technologies," says CIP economist Tom

of the FFS process.

Walker. "Piggy-backing technologies on the FFS,

Success with the four pilot schools in Peru

o:

can accelerate adoption." Experiences in lndone ia,

countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. As in

Peru and Vietnam have been borne out by tho e

Peru, the aim is to design and disseminate

of the recent six-country project, which has led to

technologies and practices for the control of late

varietal releases in nearly every participating

blight. But a further aim has been built into the

country.

<

Ortiz and his colleagues believe the sharin

conditions in each country, in preparation for

of skills and resources among institutions wit

training farmers and scaling up the approach.

distinct comparative advantages is another ke

'This time we made adaptation an explicit

such as new crop varieties or improved process ng,

sowed the seeds for a larger project linking six

project proposal: to adapt FFS to suit local

,__

"One of the biggest benefits of the new FFS

to broadening the impact- and the reach -

goal," says Ortiz. "Our previous experience shows

the FFS. The six-country project takes its cue

that there is no blueprint for a successful FFS and

from previous CI P experiences, su ch as that

that the agenda needs to be left open, as in

CARE in Peru, by inviting NGOs and extension

participatory research." Hence the different subset

services to participate alongside research

of problems being addressed alongside late blight

institutes. In sorne countries, close relationshi s

in each country: seed management in Bangladesh,

have been forged between institutions that had

potato tuber moth in Bolivia, bacteria! wilt in

seldom worked together in the past. In Ugan a,

Uganda, to give but a few examples. All countries,

for example, the NGO Africare has developed a

however, are evaluating new resistant breeding

joint workplan with the National Agricultura!

lines, thereby laying a foundation for the same

Research Organization (NARO): Africare suppo ts

rapid dissemination as observed in Peru.

the fieldwork while NARO provides technical

Continued on pag

ith

80

SOLIVIAN FARMERS GO TO THE TOP OF THE CLASS

Potato farmers in Cochabamba, Bolivia, have achieved spectacular gains in income


through their participation in FFS. The schools have taught them how to increase
ther yields by making more efficent use of fungicdes to control late blght.
Although the farme rs described late blight as their main problem, their
conventional practices for controlling the disease were not very effective. They
made only two to four fungicide applications to the crop, with the first of these
made too late and with too long an interval between the others. In addition, they
reled almost entirely on systemic fungicides, risking the development of resistance.
During the early 1990s, the Fundacin para la Promocin e Investigacin de
Productos Andinos (PROINPA) developed a strategy for more efficient che mical
control, beginning with the use of a systemic fungicide 1O days after the plants
had emerged and followng this with the alternating use of systemic and contact
products at 7- to 14-day intervals, depending on the weather. The foundation then
imparted this strategy to farrners, first through talks at field days, then through
repeated sessions wth fxed groups of farrners, and finally through farrner feld
schoo ls.
The FFS approach achieved by far the best results. Farmers exposed to the
strategy during feld days and in group sessions subsequently tended not to rnake
the crucial frst application before disease symptoms appea r. In contrast, t hose
who had participated in the feld schools had a deeper understanding of the
nature of the pathogen and so of the need for this early, preventve applcaton.
While farmers tra ined in fixed groups increased their incomes by as much as
US$762 per hectare per year, they were far outstripped by the FFS partici pants,
who rnade gans of up to US$2,4 l 5.

e::

2:_

<

.-i~ -

, __. _";

Across the world, farmers appreciate the value of learning as they reap the benefits from their participation in field schoo s.

back-up, and the two are working together to

process and so continue it afterwards. An

write and test a field guide. In addition, the

evaluation of the sweetpotato FFS in lndonesi

project builds on the experiences of other

concluded that an FFS focused only on IPM

institutions in implementing not only FFS but

would have had far less impact than the mor, ,

also other forms of participatory research and

broadly focused ICM-FFS, which raised farmersr

development, such as village research

incomes by up to 24 percent. Besides pests a111d

committees. "The result is a fascinating process

natural enemies, farmers singled out seed

of cross-fertilization," says Ortiz. "We hope to

health, field sanitation and nutrient management

combine the strengths of ali the models."

as areas in which they had improved their

z
X

Farmer participation in determining the FFS


curriculum has also helped to extend its range,

practices.
In Peru, where farmers also intervened to

as well as its benefits, increasing both the

broaden the agenda, a workshop held after t e

immediate impact and the likelihood that

project showed that farmers were keen to

farmers will take ownership of the learning

continue their learning process and to extend it

even further to cover cereals, legumes and

group. And you may need two to three seasons

livestoc k. Participants in the six-country project

with a group befare the participants feel

have reported a similar exten sio n of re sea rch

confid ent and knowl edgea ble enough to teach

activities carried out by farmers' groups, w ho

others. In this respect th e very adaptability of

have gained greatly in strength and confidence

th e model works against it. The tendency to

through the FFS experience.

expand the curri culum to include ali farmers '

This wide buy-in is paying off. "All of th e


countries involved in the six-country project have
refined their methodologies and have published

problem s slows down the learning process even


further."
Sca ling up is likely to be even more difficult

or will publish FFS field guides," reports Ortiz.

in diverse rainfed cropping systems than in the

"What's more, most partners have taken steps to

more uniform irrigated system s. Faci litators will

institutionalize th e method ." There is also a good

find that the solutions that work in their own

meas ure of spontaneous dissem ination, which

small patch of fi elds don't necessarily apply

may lead to add itional impact at the loca l level.

beyond th e village boundaries. The multiple

For exa mple, 68 percent of farmers participating

crop s grown in rainfed systems could severely

in th e pilot sweetpotato ICM-FFS in Indon es ia sa id

overbu rd en the FF S curriculum. And there is

they had spread information on ICM to nea rby

usually only one cropping season a year, so

non-participating farmers.

schools cannot follow one another in quick


succession as th ey can in th e multiple cropping

SCALING UP: lHE CHALLENGE REMAINS

systems of irrigated areas. These considerations

Scaling up is the final challenge in delivering th e

add weight to th e arg ument th at FFS should

multiple benefits of the new FFS models to

teach expe riment al sk ill s and the basic principies

farm ers. lt is also the hardest.

of ecosyste m manageme nt rath er than specific

"As a reso urce-inten sive mod el, the FFS is


faced with th e sa me sca ling up problems as

te ch no log ies.
What ca n be done to speed up dissemination?

other participatory research and development

Ortiz stresses that th e foundation for expanded

approaches," says Walker. "Coverage is low, with

efforts must be more training. The FAO has

only 20 or so farmers typically included in a

trained NGO and governmental staff, initially in

Southeast Asia and more recently in Africa and

movement and a supportive policy environment

Latin America . In sorne countries, notably

According to Van de Fliert, around 40 percent of

Indonesia and Vietnam, national programs have

the FFS in the country are now organized and 1 d

also played a lead role. For example, the pilot

by farmer-trainers, the first of whom participate

sweetpotato schools in Indonesia encouraged the

in a two-week Training of Trainers course hoste

country's Directorate of National Food Production

by the national program .

to design a program to train a further 12,000

As well as launching schools, the farmer-

farmers. But numbers alone don't tell the whole

trainers hold seasonal technical meetings and

story. "The quality of training is just as important

training workshops. These forums have evolved

as the quantity," says Ortiz. "And much depends

into local, provincial and national farmers'

on how faithful facilitators are to their training

organizations, whose agenda includes policy an

once they start implementing FFS independently."

institutional issues as well as technology

The biggest impact from the FFS is still in the


82

country where it all started, Indonesia. But the

enterprises at the village level to nationwide

impact there isn't solely to do with a longer

congresses involving thousands of people.

history of exposure. Other factors have played a

<

development. Their activities vary from collectivl

lt remains to be seen whether other countries

part in creating what appears to have become a

can emulate lndonesia's success. lf they can,

self-sustaining movement among farmers, in which

millions of small-scale farming families across the

the FFS is part of a broader agenda. These factors

developing world could soon reap the benefits o

include the creation of a strong and dedicated

the FFS accrued to their food security and incom s,

national program on IPM, a receptive NGO

as well as to their health and environment.

CIP IN 2001

ONOR CONTRIBUTIONS
The lnter'national Potato Cent er is gratefu l for the generous
support of ali our donors, part icularly those w ho contribute
with unrestricted contributions. The fund ing we receive
enables us to carry out high qua lity research and training
designed to contribute to reducing poverty and achieving
food secwrity on a sustained basis in t he poorest countries of
t he world. CI P's revenues in 2001 were lower t han they were
in 2000, reftecting a general trend of decreasing funding to

Donor (ranked by

agricu ltura! research. We are actively seeking new partners


and additional sources of funding to maintain operations ata
sustainable and stable level. This will enable us to make a
solid contribution in the years to come to our goals: food
security, hea lthy environments and less poverty through
research, traini ng, information and technical assistance on
potato, sweetpotato, Andean root and tuber crops, natu ral
resources and mount ain ecologies.

leve! of contnbut1on
~

Swiss Agency for Development and


Cooperation (SDC)

2,868'

United States Agency for lnternational


Developme_nt (USAID)
lnternationa l Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD/World Bank Group)
Government of Japan
European Commission (EC)
Department for lnternationa l Development
(DFID),UK

2, 142 b

Danish lnternationa l Development Agency


(DAN IDA)

1,964
1,428
1,142'
943
8 18d

802
Government of Netherlands
746
Government of Germany
Swedish lnternational Development Cooperation
648
Agency (SIDA)
6 11
Government of Luxembourg
Canadian lnternational Development Agency (CIDA) 598
515
Government of Au stria
500
Govern ment of Peru
Australian Centre for lnternational Agricult ura !
343
Research (ACIAR)
333
lnternat ional Livestock Research lnstitute (ILRI)
300
Government of Spain
285
lnternational Fund for Agricultura! Development
(I FAD)
lnternational Development Research Centre (IDRC) 246
180
Government of ltaly
170
The McKnight Foundation
165
Government of Norway
140
Government of China
105
F0rd Fou ndati0n

Government of the Republic of Korea


Government of France
Government of Belgium
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA)/Universit y of Missouri
Government of South Africa
lnternational Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC)
Government of the lslamic Republic of lran
Rockefe ller Foundation
Organ ization of Petroleum Expor:ting Countries
(OPEC) Fund for lnternationa l Development
Government of India
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations (FAO)
Govern ment of Brazil
Proyecto Nacional de Manejo de Cuencas
Hidrogrficas y Conservacin de Suelos
(PRONAMACHS/Asociacin Benefica PRISMA), Peru
Technova - Toy0ta
lnternational Pla nt Genetic Resources lnstitute (I PGRI)
Consultat ive Group on lnternational Agricu ltura!
Research (CGIAR) Participatory Research and Gender
Ana lysis Project
Wallace Genetic Foundation lnc
5ervicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria (SENASA), Peru
Government of Mexico
Government of Thailand
Fondo Regiona l de Tecnologia Agropecuaria
(FONTAGRO/Red Int ernaciona l de Metodologia de
Investigacin de Sistemas de Produccin RIMISP)
Government of Philippines
TOTAL

a lncludes US$120,000 for an associate expert

b lncludes US$88,000 for university partners in the USA


e Comprises US$802,000 for work on sustainable land use iI the Andes and US$340,000 for work on conservation of Andean root and tuber crop diversity

d lncludes US$89,0QO far an associate expert


e 1ncludes U5$47,000 for an associate expert

80
68
66
52

-z

.,,

....

>
.....

so
43
40
40
38

"1:l

o
>

-;

('>
'T>

...

.......,

:n

37
34
30

1 89

>
z
z

'-

25
21

>

?:l

.,,

"'
13
12
11

10
8
5
5
4

3
18,692

IV

FINANCIAL REPORT
CIP's t otal reve nues in 200 1 were US$ 19.0 million (18 percent
less tha n t he 2000 revenues of US$23.3 million). Thi s revenue
comprises US$9.0 million of unrestricted donations and
USS 1O milliem of restricted donations. At the end of 2001,
US$3.3 milli on (17 percent of tota l revenues) had not been
received. The allocation of CIP's funds to its research activities
is shown below.

Allocation of funds to CIP act ivities, 2001 and 2000


2001
CIP activities

2000

o:;

US$ millions % US$ millions %

Potato

8.8

46

10.8

46

Sweetpotato

5.8

31

7.2

31

Andean roots and tubers

2.2

12

0.9

1.3

Natural resource management 1.6

The budget review and the prudent financia! po licies


adopted during the year made it possible to reduce the
percentage of indirect costs from 16 perce nt in 2000 to 1
percent in 200 1. As a resu lt of new austerity measures to e
implemented d uri ng 2002, it is expected that indirect co ts
w ill conti nue to decline.

f.

o
N

Prudent liquidity po licies, however, have made it possiblf:l to


operate in an uncertain environment. CIP is currently
exploring with multinationa l banks new options that will
allow more flexibi lity in liquidity management.

The statement be low summarizes CIP's finances in 2001 .


copy of the comp lete audited financia ! statement may be l
requested from the office of the Deputy Director Genera ljfor
Corporate Development at CIP headquarters in Lima, Penj .

Statement of financia! position


Year ending 31 December 200 1 (co mpared wi th 2000)
111

(including CONDESAN)
Global Mountain Program

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

11

111

(GMP)
90

Global lnitiative on Late


Blight (GILB)
Urban and peri-urban
agriculture (SIUPA)
Financia! operating reserve

:::

2.6

11

19.0

100

23.3

100

The main reasons for the lower reve nues in 2001 were a
sharp fa ll in unrestricted donations and exchange rate losses.
CIP's donations are received in US dolla rs (41 percent), euros
(23 percent) and various other currencies (36 percent),
making revenues sensitive to exchange rate volati lity in
international financia! markets. During 2001 there was a rise
in t he va lue of the US dollar against other international
currencies, especial ly the Japanese yen and the euro, and a
consequent fal l in these currencies in US doll ar te rms.
In response to the drop in income, CIP rest ructured its
budget, monitored expenses closely and made a major
effort to obtain new donations. Despite t hese actions, the
budget deficit reached US$1 mil lion, and as a res ult t he
financia! operating reserve was reduced from US$3.1 mil lion
to US$2.J mi llion. At the end of 2001 the cash position stood
at US$4.9 mil lion.
Liquidity p rob lems, largely due to delays in the receipt of
contributions, have been a challenge during previous yea rs.

As sets
Current asset s
Cash and cash equivalent
Accounts receivable:
Donors
Emp loyees
Othe rs
lnventories
Advances
Prepaid expenses
Tota l current assets
Property and equipment, net
Total assets

4,850
4,052
368
244
667
324

---11
10,641
3,274
13,915

Liabilities and net assets


Cu rrent liabilities
Accounts payable
Donors
Others
Accrua ls
Tota l current liabilities

1,030
5,402
1,575
8,007

Net assets .
Appropriated
Unappropriated
Tota 1 net as sets

3,846
2,062
5,908

Total liabilities and net assets

13,91 S

5,47 ~

3,57~

26
32
57 1
39
16
10,77
3,35
14,132

14, 132

THE

RESEARCH PROGRAM

CIP's research program comprises 13 projects (restructured


from 17) that address the most pressing constraints to
improving livelihoods through potato and sweetpotato
production and use, managing natural resources in mountain
ecosystems and preserving and exploiting underutilized

Andean root and tuber crops. Within the 13 projects are


three that formally recognize CIP's increasing success in
convening and facilitating research among a large number
of partners around global (potato late blight and urban
agriculture) and regional (Andean ecoregional) themes.

CIP's research projects and project leaders

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1O
G1

G2
Rl

Project

Leader

lntegrated management of late blight


Uptake and utilization of improved p0.tato production technologies
True potato seed
lntegrated pest management for root and t!Jber crops
Sweetpotato improvement and virus control
Post-harvest quality, nutrition and market impact of root and tuber crops
Biodiversity and genetic resources of roots and tuber crops
lntegrated natural resource management in mountain agro-ecosystems
Gene discovery, evaluation and mobilization for crop improvement
Global commodity analysis and impat assessment of potato and sweetpotato technologies
SIUPA (Strategic lnitiative on Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture)
GILB (Global lnitiative on Late Blight)
CONDESAN (Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the
Andean Ecoregion)

J Landeo

PROJECT

1. INTEGRATEO MANAGEMENT OF LATE BLIGHT

Late blight in patato, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora


infestans, continues to be the most devastating patato
disease worldwide and the cause of huge crop losses,
particularly in less developed countries. CIP's highest
research priority is to develop, adapt and integrate
technologies for managing late blight of potato. CIP
scientists have already produced (through classical breeding
techniques) and deployed improved populations and
advanced clones with durable resistance to this disease, for
utilization by developing countries in particular. Combined
efforts by projects 1 and 9 are beirig directed towards the
development and use of state-of-the-art molecular tools for
tapping newer sources of resistance. Components of
integrated disease management (IDM) are being developed
to complement host resistance in overall IDM strategies. The
farmer field school (FFS) farmer participatory approach is
being used to integrate components for disease control.
Crop and disease models linked to geographic information
systems (GIS) are being used to understand the complexities
of the disease's epidemiology across diverse aglo-ecologies
and to develop simple decision-support systems (DSS) for
disease management.

C Crissman
E Chujoy
A Lagnaoui
DP Zhang
M Hermann
W Roca
R Quiroz
M Bonierbale
T Walker
G Prain
G Forbes
J Posner (un1il July 2001)
/E Mujica

improved production and management of seed potatoes,


either in formal programs or in informal farmer systems, is a
key factor in improving patato productivity. We focws on the
introduction of new genetic materials and on overcoming the
constraints caused by potato viruses and bacteria! wilt.
PROJECT3. TRUEPOTATOSEED

True potato seed (TPS) enables a crop to be grown in areas


where traditional production systems fail, for example where
seed tubers are scarce or not available. By facilitatiflg the
transfer of improved. TPS hybrids in such areas of the tropics
and subtropics, CIP aims to expand patato cultivation and
increase its efficiency (reduce production co'sts, increase
yields). This project concentrates on breeding parents for
hybrid TPS production and improving TPS hybrids for needed
specific traits such as late-blight resistance, earliness and
seed set. This research is back-stopped by the TPS utilization
activities in CIP's Project 2 and by the work of local
organizations (private sector, NGOs, NARS) in efforts to
commercialize TPS systems and thus underpin developing
small industries.
PROJECT4. INTEGRATEO PEST MANAGEMENT FOR ROOT ANO
TUBERCROPS

PROJECT 2. UPTAKE ANO UTILIZATION OF IMPROVEO POTA TO


PROOUCTIONTECHNOLOGIES

The aim of this project is to develop and disseminate


production technologies that can improve on-farm yields and
hence the welfare of farm families. The project is centered
thematically and philosophically on seed potatoes, either
clona! or true patato seed (TPS), as a delivery mechanism for
new technologies. Because seeds transmit pests and diseases,

Root and tuber crops are among the wo.rld's most important
food crops, with a great potential to improve food security,
eradicate starvation and alleviate poverty in resource-poor
countries. For many farmers, these crops are not only their
food staple but also their principal source of cash income.
Root and tuber crops are commonly grown in production
systems where biotic factors such as weeds, nematodes, pests
and diseases limit yields. In the developing world, insect pests

91

...

o
N

,_

"'o.o

.;;

pose a serious constraint to potato and sweetpotato


production and hence to the capacity of farmers to secure a
livelihood; losses 1n the field and in storage can easily reach 50
percent of total yield. Besides the economic losses, current
farmer control practices rely on the use of highly toxic
pesticides applied with little or no protective equipment,
causing substantial damage to the health of people and the
environment. And tne use of chemical pesticides is increasing
rapidly, particularly where farmers are intensifying
production methods in order to sell in urban mar kets, and
where the crnps are expanding into agro-ecological regions
and planting seasons outside tneir traditional range. To
ac:hieve its goal of increasing farmer income and food security
by reducing pest losses, while protecting the health of
pmducers, consumers and the environment, this project
adopts a systematic and comprehensive approach to Ci: rop
protection. More specifically, this implies maintaining pest
populations at acceptable levels using combinations of
control techniques ancf practices, and with due consideration
of the soe:io-economic and environmental consequences.

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PROJECT 5. SWEETPOTATO IMPROVEMENT ANO VIRUS CONTROL

This project aims at improving the productivity, nutritional


quality and utilization of sweetpotato through the
development and adoption of new varieties with enhanced
post-harvesting chara,teristic:s and .o f technologies for
controlling sweetpotato virus diseases. Current project
aGtivities iflclude vitamin A biofortification through
development and deployment of beta-carotene-rich
sweetpotato in sub-Saharan Africa and southwest Asia,
genetic improvement of dry matter and starch yields to
facilitate diverslfied use of sweetpotato in China and
Southeast Asia and application of tecnnologies for producing
healthy planting material in low-input farming systems.
PROJECT 6. PosT-HARVEST QUALITY, NUTRITION ANO MARKET
IMPACTOF ROOT ANO TUBER CROPS

1--

This project has two main objectives. The first is to alleviate


rural poverty by linking farmers with markets and thus
assisting them in income generation through diversified and
expanded post-harvest use of roots and tubers; in this context
the ident ification of market opportunities, equitable rural
enterprise development and product development are
central concerns._Project activities aim at imprQving
processing technologies and farmer access to markets;
identifying novel root and tuber products; developing
methodologies for successful product and small agroeAterprise developmeAt; and increasing awareness of specific
health benefits from eating roots and tubers. The seeond
objective is to prevent vitamin A deficiency by promoting the
iAcreased i:Jse of orange-flesh sweetpotatoes in regions where
this nutritional disorder is rampant. lnitially concentrating on
East Africa, the project has established a partnership, called
VITAA (Vitamin A for Africa), which engages the agriculture,
health and nutritioA communities in an effort to boost the
demand for, and use of, orange-flesh sweetpotatoes by those
most _threatened by vitamin A deficiency.

PROJECT 7. 8 100IVERSITY ANO GENETIC RESOURCES OF ROOT


ANO TUBER CROPS

The overall objective of this project is to characterize and


secure the long-term conservation of potato, sweetpotato l .
and other Andean root and tuber crop genetic resources
through global and regional collaborative research on the
management of seed, field and in vitro genebaAks. The pro et
also explores technologies to improve cryopreservation
methods for the long-term conservation of potato and
sweetpotato cloAes. Project activities include research to
improve pathogen elimination and health assurance
procedures for worldwide distribution of healthy clones;
linking rnllections with the conservatioA of biodiversity
carried out by farmers (in situ/ on farm conservation);
rationalization of germplasm collections (coverage,
redundancies, clonal identity, core collections); promoting
ccess to, and use of, genebank holdings througn the
identification and evaluation of new sources of priority trai s;
and upgrading and improving the quality of databases
containing information and documentation of root and tu er
crop genetic resources, and linking these databases to
georeferenced and genetic information.
PROJECT 8. INTEGRATEO NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 1
MOUNTAIN AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS

Mountain ecosystems are found on every continent and


~
sustain an estimated 1O percent of the world's population. n
addition, billions of people living in the lowlands depend o
these ecosystems for food and other resources (water, raw
materials, energy). Mountain ateas are also important sour es
of plant and animal div~rsity, both wild and domestic. In th
past few decades, environmental changes and rapid increa es
in population densities in mountain areas have increased
problems for planning effective resource management
strategies. Despite the global recognition of the importan e
of these areas following the lead of the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, ma y
mountain communities continue to live in poverty. Throug
integrated natural resource management research, CIP an
other Future Harvest GeAters are working to alleviate pove y,
increase food security and protect the environment in
mountain areas. The goal of this project is to contribute to
more productive and sustainable natural resource
management in selected mountain areas. The managemen
practices, methodologies, policy recommendations and
analytical tools being developed jointly with NARS, and
complemented with appropriate training, will enhance th
capability of local and national researc:hers and authorities o
analyze their problems, search for windows of opportunity,
and to assess, ex-ante, the tradeoffs of iAterventions.
PROJECT9. GENE OISCOVERY, EVALUATION ANO MOBILIZATI N
FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT

Strategic germplasm evaluation is conducted in


collaboration with CIP's biodiversity conservation project
(Project 7) to identify and characterize new sources of

resistance to late blight, bacteria! wilt and viruses; such new


resistam:e sources are needed to develop broad-based
potato varieties less dependent on pesticides and other
inputs. The project's applied breeding program develops
resistam:e to major patato viruses (PLRV, PVY and PVX) to
protect crops from the degenerative diseases that are
important in tropical lowland regions where vector
pressures are high and capacity for the production of healthy
V'egetative seed is limited. Molecular tools and information
are used to identify and moni~or resistance to potato late
blight and viruses and to help improve productivity, postharvest quality and nutritional and market value of
sweetpotato and potato through better understanding and
more efficient manipulation of carbohydrate gene networks.
In addition, novel resistance mechanisms are engineered,
and foreign genes are mobilized to confront priority
diseases and pests for which conventional breeding does not
offer ready solutions. High levels of multiple virus resistance
are developed in advanced potato clones and parental lines
that also possess the productivity and use characteristics
that are needed for variety development in collaboration
with national breeding programs.
PROJECT 10. GLOBAL COMMOOITY ANAL YSIS ANO IMPACT
ASSESSMENT FOR POTATO ANO SWEETPOTA TO
TECHNOLOGIES

This project functions as a capstone in CIP's revised project


portfolio. lnformation is generated for scientists, research
administrators, policy-makers and donors for decisionmaking on technology design, resource allocation, policy
formulation and investment options related to potato and
sweetpotato improvement and utilization. Sorne of the
specific objectives are to: quantify the agronomic, economic,
social and environmental effects of improved potato and
sweetpotato technologies; document the rate of return and
tt;Je eff.ect on poverty of CIP's research; assess the level and
adequacy of investment in potato and sweetpotato oop
improvement iri developing countries; assemble and
maintain price and production databases for priority setting;
evaluate the effects of potato price instability on diverse
groups in society; assist in improving domestic potato and
sweetpotato marketing and international potato trade
benefiting developing countries; and participate in
generating the most informative commodity projections
with specialized institwtions.

PROJECTG1. SIUPA (STRATEGIC INITIATIVE ON RBAN ANO


1
PERl-URBAN AGRICULTURE)

The Strategic lnitiative on Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture


(SIUPA) was launched by the CGIAR in late 1999 in response
to growing urban populations and urban poverty and the
increased dependence of city dwellers on farming. CIP is the
convening center for the initiative. SIUPA's goals are to
contribute to increased food security, improved nutritional
status and higher incomes for urban and peri-urban farmers

while mitigating negative environmental and health impacts;


and to establish the perception of urban and peri-urban
agriculture as a positive, productive and essential
component of sustainable cities. SIUPA has established a set
of research activities in regional sites collectively known as
Urban Harvest. CIP is one of several Future Harvest centers
implementing research activitles with other international
and national agencies in such fields as sustainable
agroprocessing and livestock enterprises, quality aspects of
vegetable production systems, and the contribution of urban
agriculture to human nutrition.
PROJECT G2. GILB (GLOBAL INITIATIVE ON LATE 8UGHT)

The Global lnitiative on Late Blight (GILB) was convened by


CIP in 1996 in response to the escalating agricultura! crisis
brought about by the evolution of more aggressive and
fungicide-resistant forms of the patato late blight pathogen,
Phytophthora infestans. GILB stimulates collaborative and
complementary research and technology transfer among
developing and developed countries by improving
communications among researchers and institutions. GILB
has established regional and thematic linkage groups to
encourage people to work together and to identifiy
additional opportunities for collaboration. To assist these
groups, GILB has sponsored meetings and developed World
Wide Web pages for each group. To facilitate access to
information, a Global Late Blight lnformation System, with
numerous resources and links, has been established online at
the GILB web address. A newsletter is distributed three times
a year to GILB members in 79 countries. GILB sponsored an
international conference in 1999 and is planning another for
2002. GILB )s managed by a steering committee representing
different regions of the world where late blight is important.
PROJECTR1. CONDESAN (CONSORTIUMFORTHE
SusrAINABLE OEVELOPMENT OF THE ANOEAN
EcoREGION)

CONDESAN is an open and dynamic consortium of diverse


organizations, each one contributing its knowledge and
expertise on research and/or rural development, that works
on the interlocking issues of sustainable natural resource
management, increasing rural incomes and social equity.
The objective is to strengthen local capacity to understand
natural resource management and to develop
environmentally sound production systems and policies that
can enhance life in the Andes. Focusing mainly on poor
farmer groups of the highlands, CONDESAN concentrates its
fieldwork at seven benchmark sites that broadly represent
the major ecological zones. Cross-sectional and common
themes, however, are prometed for the entire region.
lnfoAndina, th electronic information system, is a key
component of the Consortium's team-building strategy.
Through coordination and facilitation activities by a small
coordination unit, the project aims to create effective and
strong linkages between research and rural development
partners.

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5ELECTED PUBLICATIONS BY (1 p STAFF


Abalo G, Hakiza JJ, Kakuhenzire RM, El-Bedewy R and
Adipala E. 2001. Agronomic performance of twelve elite
potato genotypes in south-western Uganda. African Crop
Science Journal 9:17- 24.

Fuglie KO and Walker TS. 2001 . Economic incentives antj


resource allocation in U.S. public and private plant breedi ~ g.
Journal of Agricultura/ and Applied Economics 33(3):459-;
473.

Anderson PK, Martin JH, Hernandez P and 1,,agnaoui A.


2001. Bemisia afer sens Lat. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)
outbreak in the Americas. Florida Entomologist 84(2): 316317. www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/fe84p316.pdf

Gabriel J, Carrasco E, Garca W, Equise H, Navia O,


R, Ortuo N, Franco J, Thiele G and Estrada N. 2001.
Experiencias y logros sobre mejoramiento convencional y
seleccin participativa de cultivares de papa en Bolivia.
Revista Latinoamericana de la Papa 12:169-192.

Bernet T, Ortiz O, Estrada RO, Quiroz R and Swinton SM.


2001 . Tailoring agricultura! extension to different
production contexts: A user-friendly farm-household model
to improve decision-making for participatory research .
Agricultura/ Systems 69:183-198.

'"'

94

Tor~ez

Garrett KA, Nelson RJ, Mundt CC, Chacn MG, Jaramill1>


RE and Forbes GA. 2001 . The effects of host diversity andl
other management components on epidemics of potato lf te
blight in the humid highland tropics. Phytopathology
91 :993-1000.

Bernet T, Pradel W and Walker TS. 2001. The importance


of farmers' income security for enhancing regional
development: Evidence from southern Peru. Livestock
Research for Rural Deve/opment 13(3). www.cipav.org .co/
lrrd/lrrd 13/3/bern 133.htm

Ghislain M and opo L. 2001. Lineamientos para el


desarrollo y la utilizacin de organismos genticamente
modificados. Revista Agronoma 157:49.
1

Bernet T, Staal S and Walker T. 2001. Changing milk


production trends in Peru: Small-scale highland farming
versus coastal agrobusiness. Mountain Research and
Development 21 (3) :268-275.

Ghislain M, Trognitz B, Herrera MR, Solis J, Casallo G,


Vasquez C, Hurtado O, Castillo R, Portal L and Orrillo 111j.
2001 . Genetic loci associated with field resistance to late 1
blight in offspring of Solanum phureja and tuberosum grcjwn
under short-day conditions. Theoretical Applied Geneticsl
103 :433-442 .

Brck H, Jureit C, Hermann M, Schulz A and Sattelmacher


B. 2001 . Effects of water and nitrogen supply on water-use
efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination in edible canna
"(Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) . Plant Biology 3:326-334.
Campilan O, Dreschel P and Jocker D. 2001 . Monitoring
and evaluation: lts adaptation to urban and peri-urban
agriculture. Urban Agriculture 5:40- 42. www.rauf.org/no5/
40camp.pdf
del Rio Al:I, Bamberg JB, Huamn Z, Salas A and Vega SE.
2001. Association of ecogeographical variables and RAPO
marker variation in wild potato populations of the USA. Crop
Science 41 :870-878.
El-Bedewy R, Olanya OM, Ewell PE, Lung'aho C, Ojiambo
P and Karinga J. 2001. Evaluation of potato clones
(Population A & B) for resistance to late blight infection in
Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 9:215-223.
Fregene M, Okogbenin E, Mba C, Angel F, Suarez MC,
Gutierrez J, Chavarriaga P, Roca W, Bonierbale M and
Tohme J. 2001. Genome mapping in cassava improvement:
Challenges, achievements and opportunities. Euphytica
120(1):159-165.
Fuglie KO and Kascak C. 2001 . Adoption an.;l diffusion of
natural-resource-conserving agricultura! tecnnology.
Review of Agricultura/ Economics 23:385-402.

Graves C. (ed.) 2001. The Potato, treasure of the Andes. C ~ P,


Lima. 208 p. 222 color and black and white phot0graphs, 41
illustrations.
Hijmans RJ and Spooner DM. 2001 . Geography of wild
potato species. American Journal of Botany 88:2101-211 2.
www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/88/11/2101
Hijmans RJ. 2001. Global distribution of the potato crop.
American Journal of Potato Research 78:403-412.
Hijmans RJ, Guarino L, Cruz M an'd Rojas E. 2001.
Computer tools for spatial analysis of plant genetic resou ces
data: l. DIVA-GIS. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter
127:15-19.
Kinyua ZM, Smith JJ, Lung'aho C, Olanya M and Priou
2001. On-farm successes and challenges of producing
bacteria! wilt-free tubers in seed plots in Kenya. African
Science Journal 9:279-285.

S
l
op

Knudsen SR, Hermann M and Sorensen M. 2001. Flowe ng


in six clones of the Andean root crop arracacha (Arracacia
xanthorrhiza Bancroft). Journal of Horticultura/ Science ar) d
Biotechnology 76(4):454-458.
Lemaga B, Kanzikwera R, Kakuhenzire R, Hakiza JJ an1
Manzi G. 2001. The effect of crop rotation on bacteria! w ilt
incidence and potato tuber yield. African Crop Science
Journal 9:257-266.

Lemaga B, Siriri D and Ebanyat P. 2001 . Effect of soil


amendments on bacteria! wilt incidence and yield of
potatoes in southwestern Uganda. African Crop Science
Journal 9:267-278.

Rasmussen C, Jacobsen S and Lagnaoui A. 2001 . Las


polillas de la quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) en el Per:
Eurysacca (lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Revista Peruana de
Entomologa 42:57-59.

Liu QC, Zai H, Wang Y and Zhang DP. 2001. Efficient plant
regeneration from embryogenic suspension cultures of
sweetpotato. In Vitro Ce/Ju/ar and Development Bio/ogyPlant 37:564-567.

Rasmussen C, Lagnaoui A and Delgado P. 2001.


Phytomyptera sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae): An important natural
control agent of the quinoa moths, Eurysacca spp.
(Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in central Peru. The Tachinid
Time 14:5-6.

Mamani P, Botello R, Condori ,8, Moya H and Devaux A.


2001 . Efecto del tipo de labranza con traccin animal en las
caractersticas fsicas del suelo, conservacin de la humedad,
el crecimiento y en la produccin del cultivo de la papa.
Revista Latinoamericana de la Papa 12(1 ):130- 151 .
Mamani P, Pereira R and Devaux A. 2001. Los herbicidas,
una alternativa para el control de la maleza spergula arvensis
en el cultivo de papa en Bolivia. Revista Latinoamericana de
la Papa 12(1 ):35-48.
Mayton H, Forbes GA, Mizubuti ESG and Fry WE. 2001 .
The roles of three fungicides in the epidemiology of ;iotato
late blight. Plant Disease 85:1006-1012.
Mukalazi J, Adipala E, Sengooba T, Haki2a JJ, Olanya M
and Kidanemariam HM. 2001 . Metalaxyl resistance, mating
type and pathogenicity of Phytophthora infestans in Uganda.
Crep Protection 20:379-388 .
Mukalazi J, Adipala E, Sengooba T, Hakiza JJ, Olanya M
and Kidanemariam HM. 2001 . Variability in potato late
blight severity and its effect on tuber yield in Uganda.
African Crop Science Journal 9:195 - 201.
Nelson RJ, Orrego R, Ortiz O, Mundt M, Fredrix M and
Vien NV. 2001 . Working with resource-poor farmers to
manage plant diseases. Plant Disease 8S(7):684-695.
Ojiambo PS, Namanda S, Olanya OM, El-Bedewy R,
Hakiza JJ, Adipala E and Forbes G. 2001. lmpact of
fungicide application and late blight development on plant
growth parameters and yield in the tropical highlands of
Kenya and Uganda. African Crop Science Journal 9:225- 233.

Rees D, Kapinga
M, Kiozya H and
market value and
urban markets in
41:142-150.

R, Mtunda K, Chilosa D, Rwiza E, Kilima


Munisi R. 2001. Damage reduces both
shelf-life of sweetpotato: A case study of
Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Science

Salas A, Spooner DM, Huamn Z, Maita RVT, Hoekstra R,


Schuler K and Hijmans RH. 2001. Taxonomy and new
collections of wild potato species in central and southern
Peru in 1999. American Journal of Patato Research 78:197207 .
Sherwood S and Larrea S. 2001. Looking back to see ahead:
Farmer lessons and recommendations after 15 years of
innovation and leadership in Ginope, Honduras. Agriculture
and Human Values 18(2):195-208.
Spooner DM and Hijmans RJ. 2001 . Potato systematics and
germplasm collecting 1989-2000. American Journal of
Patato Research 78(4):237- 268.
Spooner DM, Van den Berg RG, Rivera-Pea A, Velguth P,
del Rio A and Salas AR. 2001. Taxonomy of Mexican and
Central American members of Solanum Series Conicibaccata
(Sect. Petota). Systematic Botany 26(4):743-756.
Thiele G, van de Fliert E and Campilan D. 2001 What
happened to participatory research at the lnternational
Potato Center? Agriculture and Human Values 18(4):429446.
Thiele G, Nelson R, Ortiz O and Sherwood S. 2001.
Participatory research and training : Ten lessons from Farmer
Field Schools in the Andes. Currents (Swedish University of
Agricultura! Sciences) 27:4-11 . www.ibyr.adm.slu.se/
currents/cu rr27b.pdf

Olanya OM, Adipala E, Hakiza JJ, Kdera JC, Ojiambo P,


Mukalazi J, Forbes G and Nelson R. 2001. Epideniology
and population dynamics of Phytophthora infestans in SubSaharan Africa: Progress and constraints. African Crop
Science Journal 9:185 - 193.

Trognitz BR and Hermann M. 2001. lhheritance of tristyly in


Oxalis tuberosa (Oxlidaceae) . Heredity 86:564-573.

Perez WG, Gamboa JS, Falcon YV, Coca M, Raymundo RM


and Nelson RJ. 2001 . Genetic structure of Peruvian
populations of Phytophthora infestans. Phytopathology
91 :956- 965.

Trognitz BR, Orrillo M, Portal L, Romn C, Ramn P, Perez


S and Chacn G. 2001 . Evaluation and analysis of reduction
of late blight disease in a diploid patato progeny. Plant
Pathology 50:281-291 .

Pumisacho M and Sherwood S. (eds.) 2001. Technical guide


to potato pmduction in Ecuador. INIAP, Ecuador, and CIP,
Lima. 320 p.

Zhang DP, Huamn Z, Rodriguez F and Ghislain M. 2001 .


ldentifying duplitates in sweetpotato [lpomoea batatas (L.)
Lam] cultivars using RAPD. Acta Horticulturae 546:535-541.

,...,
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TRAINING

HIGHLIGHTS

The topics covered by CIP's training curriculum respond


directly to the center's main research areas centered on
the production and use of CIP's mandate crops and the
conservation and management of natural resources. There
is a growing demand for training on natural resource
management in mountain areas and on conservation of
root and tuber genetic material.
CIP leads training sessions and workshops, organ-izes and
sponsors international conferences, and develops training
materials. The more than 40 main training events conducted
across the world in 2001 were attended by participants from
63 countries. These activities focused on research
methodologies, tools and techniques for developingo

country scientists, and on capacity building for sustainabl e


production, targeted at NGOs, government organizations
and development agencies. At CIP headquarters, individu I
training was provided for participants from 22 countries. ~IP
also supported training at distant locations by distributing
publications and manuals, as welll as through the use of
electronic media, including downloads of manuals, articl ~
and reports from CIP's training website (www.cipotato.or /
training), and e-conferences and workshops.
Cll? continues to develop its website and interactive
CD-ROMs to support training activities organized by CIP
headquarters and regional offices, and by CIP-related
networks.

Main group training events

'"'
a:

-,
Course: Methods for detecting bacteria! wilt in
potatoes and their application to seed programs (17)

Department of
Agriculture (Thailand)

Bangladesh, India, Philippines,


Thailand, Vietnam

Workshop: lnformation systems for genetic resources


management (21)

Colombia, Ecuador, India, Peru, Venezuela

Workshop:Planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating


potato integrated pest management programs (39)

Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador,


Peru, Venezuela

1O" lternational Congress of Andean crops (209)

CONDESAN,FUNDANDES,
Argentina, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada,
Universidad Jujuyand Ministerio Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, France, Mexico, Peru
de la Produccin (Argentina)

Course: Application of statistics to agricultura!


research (24)

Universidad Nacional
Daniel Alcides Carrin (Peru)

Peru

Workshop: In situ conservation of root and tuber crops (16)

SDC

Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Program meeting: Ex situ conservation of Andean


root and tuber crops (16)

SDC

Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, ltaly, Peru,

Workshop: Complementing genetic resistance


for late blight in the Andes (23)

GILB, PAPA ANDINA, PROINPA

Bolivia,Colombia,Ecuador,Guatemala,
Netherlands, Peru, USA, Venezuela

Workshop: NCM-ELISA in potato (12)

lnciia, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka

Meeting: Sweetpotato pig-feeding project in VietAam:


Lao Forage Smallholder Project (11)

Vietnam

Workshop: True potato seed (14)

Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru,


Sri Lanka, Vietnam

Courses: Potato seed procjuction, held in Huanuco and


Caja marca, Peru (77)

DFID

Peru

Course: Patato seed production at farmers' field level


in Bangladesh (17)

BARI

Bangladesh, India

Course: Modeling for crops (DSSAT: decision support


system for a.:rotechnology transfer, version 3.5) and milk
production (13)

PRONAMACHS

Ecuador, Peru

Workshop:Challenges in integrated mountain


watershed management (37)

IDRC

Belgium, Bhutan, Bolivia, Canada,Chile,China,


Ecuador, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Peru

Workshop: Geographic information systems for


phytogenetic resources management (34)

IPGRI

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador,


ltaly,Peru

Workshop: In situ conservation of agrobiodiversity (41)

SDC,SGRP

Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Chile, Ecuador, France,


Germany, Indonesia, ltaly, Mexico, Nepal, Peru,
Philippines, Spain, Switzerland, UK, USA

Workshop: Prevention and control oftuber moth


(recia solanivora) (29)

ICA, StNASA, SESA

Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

W_orkshop: Economic impactevaluation in


agricu ltural technology (18)

FAO,IFAD,McKnight
Foundation, PAPA ANDINA

Bolivia, Colomli>ia, Ecuador, Netherlands, Peru,


Switzerland, USA

Course: Scientific paper and proposal writing al'ld


oral sdentific presentation (26)

PRAPACE

Burundi, Eritrea, Ethio.pia, Kenya, Madagascar,


Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, UK, Zaire

Seminar: Biotechnology and development in


Andean countries (101) _

CamBioTec(Canada),
Ministerio de Relaciones
Exteriores (Peru), UNIOO

Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Ca nada, Chile, Colombia,


India, Mexico, Peru, USA

Workshop: Progress and prospects ofparticipatory


selection of advanced potato clol'les (12)

FDR, FOVlDA, INIA (Peru),


CODESE

Ecuador, Peru

Course: Diagnosis ofviruses and viroids in the maira


crops grown in Chancha mayo Valley (20)

Universidad Nacional Daniel


Alcides Carrin (Peru), SENASA

Peru

Meeting:Appropriate methodologyfor urban and


peri-urban agricultura! research planning (29~

ACIAR,RUAF

Bangladesh, Belgium, Germany, Ghana, Indonesia,


Ken~a, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Senegal, South
Africa, Tanzania, UK, USA, Vietnam, Zimbabwe

2'' Latin-Amerian symposium on roots and tubers (89)

SLAR', loJniversidad Nacional


Agraria La Molina (Peru)

Argentina, l'lrazil, Ca nada, Colombia, Costa Rica,


Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland,
ltaly, Mexico, Peru, Spain, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela

Worksnop: Cro;i protection research program (30)

DFID

Bolivia

Symposium: Sweetp0tato: Food and health for tl'le future (95) Universidad Nacional Agraria
La Molina (Peru), ISHS

ArgentiAa,Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium,


CaAada, China, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Germany,
India, Indonesia, ltaly, Ja pan, Malawi, Malaysia, New
Zealand, Nigeria, North Korea, Peru, Philippines,
Soutrn Africa, South Korea, Spain, Tunisia, liurkey,
Uganda, Uruguay, USA

Workshop: Review and planning of IDM/FFS activities in


Nepal (25)

SDC

Afghanistan, India, In dones la, Nepal, Pakistan,


Philippines, Vietnam

Workshop: Participatory monitoring and eval uation for


integrated cropmanagement (49)

SDC,UPWARD

Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan,


Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam

Course: Participatory research and development (38)

UPWARD

Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India,


Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Nigeria, Philippines,
Tanzania, Trinidad & Tobago, Vietnam;Zimbabwe
Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, l:lganda

Training for breeders: Marker-assisted breeding (6)


Course: Use of ELISA kits for detection of Ralstonia
solanacearum in seed potatoes (13)

FCRI, NCVESC

Vietnam

Workshop: TFaining oHrainers for FFS (89)

EARO,IFAD,SHDI

Ethiopia

Course: Participatory research methodologies (27)

McKnightFoundatior;i

Kenya

Workshops: 1. Pota to seed systems. 2. Quality control


techniques (120)

China, North Korea, Vietnam

Workshop: ELISA kits for pathogen diagnosis (30)

China, North Korea,Vietnam

Course: Participatory monitoring and evaluation (37)

lJPWARD

Philippines

Study tour and workshop: lntegrated pest management (13)

PRGA

Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand

C0urse: Sustainable agro-enterprise developmeAt ina


micro-regional context (3)

UPWARD

Philippines

Workshop: Review of recent developrnent in sweetpotato


utilization research in China (20)

China

F.:ull names of externa! sDonsors cal"I be f0und in the list of Donor Gontributions (pa$e 89) or the list of CIP's Partners (pages 98- 99)

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CIP's

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PARTNERS

AARI Aegean Agricultura! Research lnstitute, Turkey AARI Ayub Agricultura! Research lnstitute, Pakistan AAS Academy of Agricultura! Sciences, North Korea ABDLO
lnstitutefor Agrobiology and Soil Fertility, Netherlands ADT Akukuranut Development Trust, Kenya A FRENA African Resource Network in Agro-Forestry, Uganda AFRICAllE,
Uganda AGDIA lnc, USA AGERI Agriculture Genetic Engineering Research lnstitute, Egypt Agricultura! Research Council, South Africa Agricultura! Research lnstit ~ te,
Tanzania Agriculture and Agri-Fo0d, Ca nada AHI African Highland Ecoregional Program, East Africa Ainshams University, Facultyof Agriculture, Egypt AIT Asian lnstit~ te
ofTechnology, Thailand AKF Aga Khan Foundation, Switzerland Alemaya University of Agriculture, Ethiopia Angola Seeds of Freedom Project Anhui Academy of
Agricultura! Science, China APPRI Agricultura! Plant Protection Research lnstitute, Egypt APROSEPAAsociacin cle Productores de Semilla de Papa, Bolivia Arapai Coll<jge.
Uganda ARARIWA Association for Andean Technical-Cultural Promotion, Peru ARC Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt ARC Agricultura! Research Corporation, Sud pn
ARCAgricultural Research Council,South Africa ARCSAustrian Research CentersSeibersdorf,Austria ARDCAgricultural Research and DevelopmentCentre, Uganda A EA
Agricultura! Researchand Extension Authority, Yemen ARI Agricultura! Research lnstitute, Pakistan ARI Agricultura! Research lnstitute, Tanzania ARO Agricultura! Rese ch
Organ izatioo, Israel ASAR Asociacin de Servicios Artesanales y Rurales, Bolivia ASARE CA Association fer Strengthening Agricultura! Research in Eastern and Central Af ca,
Uganda ATDTPAgriculturalTechnology DevelopmentandTransferProject, Rwanda AT-Uganda Appropriate Technology Uganda AVRDC Asian Vegeta ble Research nd
Development Center, Taiwan Awasa Research Centre, Ethiopia BADC Bangladesh Agricultura! Develo1Dment Corporation BAR Bu rea u of Agricultura! Research, Depart
nt
of Agriculture, Philippines BARI Bangladesh Agricultura! Research lnstitute BBA Federal Biological Research Centrefor Agricultureand Forestry, lnstituteforBiolog cal
Control, Germany BenguetState University, Philippines BIOGEN Biodiversidad y Gentica, Peru BRAC Bangladesh Rural AdvancementCommittee BRC Biotechnol gy
Research Center, Vietnam BRRI Bangladesh Rice Research lnstitute BTA Biotecnologa Agropecuaria SA, Chile BUCADEF Buganda Cultural Development Foundation, Uga da
Bvumbwe Research Station, Malawi CAAS Chinese Academyof Agricultura! Sciences CABI Bioscience, Kenya, UK CAB lnternational, Kenya CAF Collegefor Agricul re
and Forestry, Vietnam CamBioTec, Canada CARDI Caribbean Agricultura! Research and Development lnstitute, Trinidad CARE Cooperative for Assistance and R lief
E.verywhere, USA CARE-Bangladesh CARE-Kenya CAREPeru CARE-Rwanda Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium CavSU Cavile State University, Philippines CBC Ce tro
Bartolom de las Casas, Peru CECOACAM Central de Cooperativas Agrarias de Caete y Mala, Peru CEDEPAS Centro Ecumnirn de la Promocin y Accin Social, ru
CEMOR Cemor Editores & Promotores, Peru CENA Civil Engineers NetworkAfrica, South Africa Cendrawasih University, 1ndonesia Centro de Investigacin en Biotecnolo la,
Costa Rica Centros de Reproduccin de Entomgenos y Entomopatgenos, Cuba CERGETYR Centro Regional de Recursos Genticos de Tu be rosas y Races, Peru CFP Ci ies
Feeding People,Canada CGIARConsultative Groupon lnternational Agricultura! Research, USA Chiang Mai University, Thailand China Agricultura! University, Chi a
Christian AID, DR Congo CIAAB Centro de Investigaciones Agrcolas A Boerger, Uruguay CIAD Center for lntegrated Agricultura! Development, China CIAT Ce tro
Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Colombia CICA Centro de Investigacin en Cultivos Andinos, Peru CIED Centro d.e Investigacin, Educacin y Desarrollo, P ru
CIMMYT Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico CIRAD Centre de coopration internationale en recherche agronomique pour le dveloppem~nt,
France CIRNMA Centro de Investigacin de Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, Peru CLADES Consorcio Latinoamericano de Agroecologa y Desarrollo, Peru Clem on
University, USA CLSU Central Luzon State l!lniversity, Philippines CNCQS Chinese National Centre forQuality Supervision and TestofFeed CNPH Centro Naciona de
Pesquisa de Hortali,as, Brazil CODESE Comite deSemilleristas, Peru Comunit de Yaounde, Cameroon CONAM Consejo Nacional del Ambiente, Peru CONCYTECCon ejo
Nacional de Ciencia yTecnologia, Peru CONDESAN Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion, Peru Consorcio Surandino, Peru COP SA
Cooperacion Peruano Aleman de Seguridad Alimentaria, Peru Cornell University, USA CORPOICA Corporacin del Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Colombia C PI
Chongqing Plant Protection lnstitute, China CPRA Centre de perfectionnementet de recyclage agricole deSaida, Tunisia CPRI Central Po tato Research lnstitute, In ia
CPRS Central Patato Research Station, India CRIBA Centro Regi0nal de Investigacin en Biodiversidad Andina, Peru CRIFC Central Research lnstitute for Food Cr ps,
Indonesia CRIH Central Research lnstitute far Horticulture, Indonesia CRP-CU Centre de recherchepublic-Gabriel Lippmann, Luxembourg CRS Catholic Relief Servi es,
Kenya, Uganda, Sudan CTCRI Central TuberCrops Research lnstitute, India DAE Departmentof Agricltural Extension, Bangladesh DARHRD Departmentof Agricult ral
Research and Human Resource Development, Eritrea DECRG, Developmnt Economics Research Group, World Bank, USA Oepartment of Agriculture, Philippi s
Departmentof Agriculture, Thailand Departmentof Agriculture, Phichit Horticultura! Research Center, Thailand Direccin Nacional de Sanidad Vegetal, Cuba Directo ate
of Root Crop Production, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia DPP Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam DRCFC O lat
Research Center for Food Crops, Vietnam OROS Department of Research and Development Services, Bhutan EARO Ethiopian Agricultura! Research Organization (form rly
IAR), Ethiopia EARRNET Eastem Africa Rootcrops Research Network, Uganda ECABREN Eastern and Central Africa Bean Research Network, Uganda EMBRAPA Emp esa
Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuria, Brazil Empresas de Cultivos Varios del Ministerio de Agricultura, Cuba ENEA Comitato Nazionale perla Ricerca e perlo Svilu po
dell'Energia Nucleare e de lle Energie Alternative, ltaly Erbacher Foundation, Germany ESH Eco le suprieure d'horticulture, l"unisia ETH Eidgenoessische Technis he
Hochschule, Switzerland FAOCommunity IPM Program, Vietnamand Indonesia FAO Feod and Agriculturerganization ofthe United Nations, ltaly FAPESP Funda,a de
Amparo Pesquisado Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil FCRI Food Crops Research lnstitute, Vietnam '.FDR Fundacin para el Desarrollo Rural, Peru FOFIFA/FIFAMANOR CeJ tre
nationalde la recherche applique au developpment rural, Madagascar FONAIAP Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Venezuela Food Crop Rese rch
lnstitute, Vietnam FOODNET (ASARECA network implemented by JITA) FORTIPAPA Fortalecimiento de la Investigacin y Produccin de Semilla de Papa, Ecuador FOV DA
Fomenta dela Vida, Peru FSP Foragesfor Smallholders Project,CIAT, Colombia FUNDAGRO Fundacin para el Desarrollo Agropecuario, EcuadorFUNDANDES Funda in
para el Ambiente Natural y el Desarrollo, Argentina GAASGuangdong Academyof Agricultura! Sciences, China GILB Global lnitiative on Late Blight, Peru GKF Gram en
Krishi Foundation, Bangladesh GLKS lnstitute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Germany- HAU Hanoi Agriculture University, Vietnam Hong Doc University, Vi et am
Hong Kong University, China HORDI, HorticulturalResearch and Development lnstitute, Sri Lanka HRI Horticulture Research lnstitute, Egypt HUAF Hue Universit for
Agricultureand'Forestry, Vietnam Hung LocAgricultureResearch Center, Vietnam Hasanuddin University, Indonesia IAC lnternationa~Agricultural Centre, Netherl~ds
IAF lnter-American Foundation, USA IAl-ISP lnter-American lnstitute far Global Change Research, lnitial Science Program, Brazil IAN Instituto Agronmico Naci al,
Paraguay-IAO lstituto Agronomicoper l'Oltremare, ltaly IAS lnstitute of AgricultuFal Sciences, Ministryof Agricultureand Rural Development, Vietnam IASA lnsti uto
Agropecuario Superior Andino, Ecuador !AV lnstitut AgronomiqueetVtrinaire Hassan 11, Morocco IBC lnstitutefor Breeding of Crop Plants, Federal Centerfor Bree ing
Research<m Cultivated Plants, Germany ICA Instituto Colombiana Agropecuaria, Colombia ICAR lndian Council of Agricultura! Research, India ICASA lnternati nal
Consortium for Agricultura! SystemsApplications, USA ICIMOD lnternational Centrefor lntegrated Mountain Development, Nepal ICIPE lnternational Cent retor In ect
Physiology and Ecology, Kenya ICO CEDEC Instituto de Capacitacin del Oriente. Bolivia ICRAF lnternational Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Kenya ICRI AT
lnternational Crops Research lnstitute forthe Semi-AridTropics, India ICRW lnternational Center for Research on Women, USA IDEA Instituto lnternacional de Es tu ios
Avanzados, Venezuela IDIAP lnstitutodeJnvestigacin Agropecuaria de Panam, Panama IEBR lnstituteofEcology and Biological Resources, Vietnam IESR/INTA lnsti uto
de Economa y Sociologa Rural del INTA, Argentina IFDC lnternational Fertilizer Development Center, USA IFPRI lnternational Food Policy Research lnstitute, USA I AR
Polish Plant Breeding andAcclimatization lnstitute, Poland ~ ISHS lnternational Societyfor Horticultura! Sciences, Belgium IJN Instituto de Investigacin Nutricional, P ru
~IRR,lnternational lnstitute of Ru~al Recopstruction, Philippines llTA lnterna}ional lnstituteofTropical Agriculture, Nigeri~ ILRI lnternational Uvestock Rese\rch lnsti te,
Ethiopia-and Kenya IMA Instituto de Manejo de Agua y MeciioAmbiente, Peru INCA GRO Innovacin y Competitividad para el Agre Peruano, Peru INERA, lnstitutnatio ale
d'etudesetde recherchesagricoles, DRCongo INIA Instituto Nacional de lnvestigacaoAgronmica, Mozambique INIA Instituto Nacional de Investigacin Agraria, P ru
INIA Instituto Nadonal de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile INIA Instituto Naciona 1de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Uruguay INIA Instituto Nacional de Investigad nes
y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, Spain INIAP Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Ecuador INIFAP Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Foresta es y
Agropecuarias, Mexico INIVIT Instituto Nacional de Investigacin de Viandas Tropicales, Cuba INRA lnstitut national de la recherche agronomique, France INRA lns itut
national de la recherche agronomique, Morocco INRAT lnstitutnational de la recherche agronomiquede Tunisie, Tunisia Instituto Rural Valle Grande, Caete, Peru I TA
lnstlhuto Nacional de Tecnologa Agropebuaria,Argentinq lnternational Accord, Rwanda, Uganda IPAC Instituto de Promocin Agropecuaria y Comunal, Perr IPB lnsl itut
Pertanian Bogorlndonesia IPDA Instituto de Promocin y Desarrollo Agrario, PeruIPGRI lnternational Plant Genetic Resources lnstitute, ltaly IPR lnstitute for Po ato
Research, Poland IRA lnstitut de rechercheagronomique, Cameroon IRAD lnstitutde rechercheagricole pour le dveloppement, Cameroon IRD lnstitutde reche che
pour le dveloppement {formerlyORSTOM), France IRRI lnternational Rice Research lnstitute, Philippines ISABU Jnstitut des sciencesagronomiquesdu Burundi ISAR lns itut

des sciences agronomiques du Rwanda ISHS lnternational Society for Horticultura! Sciences, USA ISNAR lnternational Service for National Agricultura! Research,
Netherlands ISTPC Instituto SuperiorTecnolgico Pblico de Caete, Peru IWMI lnternational Water Management lnstitute, Sri Lanka IZ lnstytut Ziemniaka, Poland JAAS
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultura! Sciences, China Jerusalen de Porcon Cooperative, Peru JKUAT Jamo Kenyatta University of AgricultureandTechnology, Kenya JTIKJaringan
Tani Tanah Karo, Indonesia KARI Kenyan Agricultura! Research lnstitute Kaugu & Katheri Farmers, Kenya KEPHIS Kenya Plant Health lnspectorate Service La Habana
University, Chemistry Faculty, Cuba Lake Basin DevelopmentAuthority, Kenya LDI Landscape Developmentlntervention, Madagascar Louisiana S,tate University, USA
Lucana, Bolivia MAE Ministredesaffairesetrangres, France Makerere University, Uganda MARDI Malaysia Agriculture Research Development lnstitute, Malaysia MARS'
Mwara Agricultura! Research lnstitute, Indonesia Max Planck lnstitutefor Plant Breeding Research, Germany McMaster University, Cana da Mianning Agriculture Bu rea u,

China Michigan Sta te University, USA Mfnisterio Presidencia,Peru Ministerio Relaciones Exteriores, Peru Ministryof Agriculture, E:cuador Ministryof Agriculture, Eritrea
Ministryof Agricultureand Cooperatives, Division ofResearch and Development, Tanzania Ministryof Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt MIP Programa de Manejo
Integrado de Plagas, Dominican Republic Mississippi State University, USA Mitra Tani, Indonesia MMSU Mariano Marcos State University, Philippines Montana State
University, USA Mountain Forum, USA MSIRI Mauritius Sugar lndustry Research lnstitute Municipalidad Distrital Baos del Inca Peru NI Vavilov lnstitute, Russia NAARI
Namulonge Agricultura! and Animal Research lnstitute, Uganda Nagoya University,Japan Nanchong Agricultura! Research lnstitute,Chlna NAR.C National Agricultura!
Research Centre, Pakistan NARC Nepal Agricultura! Research Council NARO National Agricultura! Research O'ganization, Uganda National lnstitute of Animal Husbandry,
Vietnam NCGR National Center for Genome Resources, USA NCVESC National Center for Variety Evaluation and Seed Certification, Vietnam Nijmegen Unive'5ity,
Netherlands- Njabini FarmerGroup, Kenya Nkozi University, Uganda NOMIARC Northern Mindanao Agricultura! Research Center, Philippines NomorionteetabKibagenge,
Kenya North Carolina Sta te University, USA NPRCRTC Northern Philippines Root Crops Research andTraining Center, Philippines NPRC National Pota to Research Centre
Tigoni, Kenya NPRP National Pota to Research Program, Nepal NRI Natural Resources lnstitute, UK NRSP-6USDA Pota to Production lntroduction Station-Wisconsin, USA
NUS National University of Singapore ODER Oficina de Desarrollo Rural-Chalaco, Peru Ohio Sta te University, USA Oregon Sta te University, USA ORS Oficina Regional
de Semillas, Bolivia PCARRD Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Philippines PDL Proyecto Desarrollo Lechero,
Bolivia POP Patato Development Program, Nepal REDCAPAPA Red Estrategica para el Desarrollo de Cadena Agroalimentaria de la Papa, Ecuador- PGS Plant Genetic
Systems, Belgium Philippine Root Crops Research and Training Center- PIA Programa de Investigacin Agropecuaria, Bolivia PICA Programa de Investigacin de Cultivos
Andinos, Peru PICTIPAPA Programa Internacional de Cooperacin delTizn Tardo de la Papa, Mxico Plan lnternational, Kenya PlantGene Expression Center, University
of California-Berkeley, USA Plant Research lnternational, Netherlands PNS-PRODISE Programa Nacional de Semillas del Proyecto de Desarrollo Integral de Semillas, Peru
Pontificia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador- Pota to Research Centre, Agricultureand Agri-Food, Ca nada Patato Seed Program, Canary lslands, Spain PPD PlantProtection
Department, Ministryof Agricultureand Rural Development, Vietnam PPRI Plant PathologyResearch lnstitute, Egypt PRAPACE Programme rgional de l'amlioration de
la culture de la pomme de terre et de la pata te do u ce en Afrique centra le et de l'est PRCRTC, Philippine Root Crop Research and Training Center PRECODEPA Programa
Regional Cooperativo de Papa, Mexico PRE OUZA Proyecto de Mejoramiento para Resistencia Duradera en Cultivos Altos en la Zona Andina, Ecuador- PRGA Program for
Participatory Research and Gender Analysis, CGIAR, USA PRPINPA Fundacin para la Promocin e Investigacin de Productos Andinos, Bolivia PROMETAS Promocin y
Mercadeo de Tubrculos Andinos, Universidad Mayor de San Simn, Bolivia PRONAMACHCS Proyecto Nacional de Manejo de Cuencas Hidrogrficas y Conservacin de
Suelos, Peru Proyecio Papa Andina, Peru PROSHIKA, A Centrefor Human Development,Bangladesh PRP PotatoHesearch Programme, Nepal PSPDP PakisJan-Swiss Potato
Development Program RANTIK Ltd, Bangladesh RAU Rajendra Agricultura! University, Bangladesh ROA Rural DevelopmentAgency, Korea RORS Rangpur Dinajpur Rural
Society, Bangladesh REFSO Rural Energy and Food SecurityOrganization, Kenya RegionalAgricultural Research and DevelopmentCentre, Sri Lanka RIAP Research lnstitute
for Animal Production, Indonesia RIFAV Research lnstitute for Fruits and Vegetables, Vietnam RIFCB Research lnstitute for Food Crops Biotechnology, Indonesia RILET
Research lnsti!uteforLegume andTuberCrops, Indonesia RIV Research lnstituteforVegetables, (formerly LEHRI), Indonesia RNC-RCJakar, Bhutan RCRC-VASrRootCrop
Research Center, Vietnam Agricultura! Science lnstitute Rothamsted ExperimentStation, UK RUAF Resource Centrefor Urban Agricultureand Forestry, Netherlands SAAS
Shangdong Academy of Agricultura! Sciences, China SAAS SiEhuan Academy of Agricultmal Sciences, China SARDl-UMCOR Sustainable Agricultura! and Rural
Development lnitiative-United Methodist G:ommittee on Relief, DR Congo SARIF Sukamandi Research lnstitutefor Food Crops, Indonesia SARRNET Southern Africa Root
Crops Research Network SASA Scottish Agricultura! ScienceAgency, UK Sasakawa-Glollal 2000, Ethiopia SavetheChildren (UK ltd), Ethiopia SCRI Scottish Crop Research
lnstitute, UK SEAG Servicio de Extensin Agrcola y Ganadera, Paraguay SEARCA Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) Regional CenterforGraduate
Study and Research in Agriculture, Philippines SEMTA Servicios Mltiples de Tecnologas Apropiadas, Bolivia SENASA Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria, Peru SENASAG
Servicio Na.cional de Sanidad Agropecuaria e Inocuidad Alimentaria, Bolivia SENASEM Service national de se manees, DR Congo SEPA Unidad de Produccin de Semilla
de Papa, Bolivia SESA Servicio Ecuatoriano de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Ecuador SGRP System-wide Genetic Resources Program, CGIAR SGUA Support Gro.up on Urgan
Agriculture, Ca nada SHDI Self-Help Development lntemational, Ethiopia SINITIA Sistema Nacional de Investigacin y Transferencia de Tecnologa Agraria, Peru SITIOS
Servicios Inteligentes y Tecnologas Complejas Superiores Ltd, Bolivia SLART Sociedad Latinoamericano de Races y Tubrculos, Peru SM-CRSP Soil Ma 0 agement
Collaborative Research Support Program, USA SNSA Service national des statistiques agricoles, DR Congo SOCADI DO Soroti Catholic Oiocese Development 0Fganization,
Uganda Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania South China Agricultura! University South China Petate Center Southern Regional Agricultura! Bu rea u, Ministryof
Agriculture, Ethiopia SouthwestAgricultural University, China SPG Sociedad Peruana de Gentica, Peru SPI Smart Plant lnternational, USA SPPC Centr de Investigacin
de Semilla de Papa, Yemen SukaramiAgric_ultural Technelogy Assessmentlnstitute, Indonesia Swedish Universityof Agricultura! Sciences, Sweden SYNGENTA, USA
TALPUY Grupo de Investigacin y Desarrollo de Ciencias y Tecnologa Andina, Peru TARI Taiwan Agricultura! Research lnstitute TCA Tarlac College of Agriculture, Philippines
TCRC Tuber Crops Research Centre, Bangladesh Technova lnc,Japan Teso Community Development Project, Keny TFNC Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre Thai Nguyen
University, Vietnam Thang Binh District Agriculture and Rural Development Bureau, Vietnam The Sainsbury Laboratory, UK Tibetan Academyof Agricultura! and Animal
Science, China Tim Peta ni Pemandu PHT Pengalengan, lnclonesia UANRDEN Urban Agricultu re National Research, Development and Extension Network, Philippines Ugunja
Community Resource Centre, Kenya UNDP United Nations Developnent Programme UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization Universidad Austral,
Chile Universidad Ca jama rea, Peru Universidad Catlica de Santa Maria, Peru Universidad Central, Ecuador Universidad Central de las Villas, Cuba Universidad de
Ambato, Ecuador- Universidad de Caldas, Colombia Universidad Federal Rie deJaneiro, Brazil Universidad Jorge BasadreGrohmann de Tacna, Peru Universidad Jujuy,

Argentina Universidad Mayor de San Simn, Bolivia Universidad Nacional Agraria, Peru Universidad Nacional Daniel AlcidesCarrin, Peru Universidad Nacional de Bogot,
Colombia Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca, Peru Universidad Nacional del Centro del Peru, Peru Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizan, Peru Universidad Nacional
Mayor de San Marcos, Peru Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad deCusco, Peru Universidad Nacional San Cristbal de Huamanga de Ayacucho, Peru Universidad

Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru Universidad Politcnica del Ejrcito, Ecuador Universidad Privada Hunuco, Pern Universidad Ricardo Palma, Peru Universidad San Luis
Gonzaga de lea, Peru Universidad Tecnolgica Equinocial, Ecuador- University of Asma ra, Eritrea University of Bangor, UK University ofBirming ham, UK U niversity ofBriti.sh
Colombia, Canada University of California (Berkeley), USA UniversityofCalifornia (Davis), USA Universityof Edinburgh, UK Universi!y of Georgia, USA Universlty of
Gttingen, Germany University of Ho~enheim, Germany U niversity of KaSsel, Germany University of Kiel, Germany University of Minnesota, USA Un iversity of Missouri,
USA University of Nairobi, Kenya Universityof Na ples, ltaly University of New Brunswick, Ca nada University of Queensland, Australia Universityof the Philippines-Los
Baos University ofTbingen, Germany University ofVeszprem, Hungary University of Wisconsin, USA University of Ya o u nde, Cameroon UNSPPA Uganda National Seed
Patato Producers' Association, Uganda UPM University Putra Malaysia UPWARD Users' Perspectives with Agricultura! Research and Development, Philippines- USDA United
Sta tes Department of Agriculture US PotatoGenebank, USA USVL United Sta tes Vegeta ple Laboratory, USA VASI Vietnam Agricultura! Science lnstitute VietnameseGerman Technical Cooperation Pota to Prom0>tion Project Virginia Polytechnic lnstituteand Sta te University, USA Virus-free Patato Tubersand Cutting Production Centers
ofYunnan Agricultura! Department, Cllina VISCA Vi sayas Sta te College of Agriculture, Philippines Volea ni lnstitute, Israel VSSP Vegeta ble Seed and Seed Patato, Pakistan
WE World Education (and local partner NGOs) Winrock lnternational, Uganda World Vis ion, Angola, Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, USA WRC WheatResearch Centre,
Bangladesh WUR Wageni ngen University Research Centre, Netherlands XSPRC Xuzhou Sweet Patato Research Center, China YPPP Yeme ni Plant Protection Project YPPSE
Foundation forSocio-Economic Development. Indonesia Yunnan Agricultura! University, China

STAFF
employees worldwide, from scientists to clerical staff to
field workers, contributes to this mission in the various
functions they perfoirm, anc;I all form an essential part of
CIP's working team . Although ali their names do not app r
in this Annual Report, we recognize and greatly apprecia e
ali their efforts.

Director General-Hubert Zandstra

Christine Graves, Senior Advisor


Mariella Altet, Externa! Relations Manager
Ruth Arce, Administrative Assistant
Marcela Checa, Administrative Assistant
Mara Elena Lanatta, Bilingual Seeretary
Lilia Salinas, Administrative Assistant
Gladys Neyra, Administrative Assistant
Mara Ins Ros, Business Development Associate' '
Hayde Zelaya, Administrative Assistant

Accounting Unit
Miguel Saavedra, General Accountant
Eliana Bardalez, Senior Accountant
Edgardo de los Ros, Senior Accountant
Andres Garcia, Accountant Assistant'
Denise Giacoma, Supervisor
Rodmel Guzmn, Accountant Assistant
Ursula Jimnez, Accountant Assistant2
Blanca Joo, Accountant
Silvia Loayza, Bilingual Secretary 2
Eduardo Peralta, Accountant
Katrina Roper, Bilingual Secretary'
Csar Tapia, Accountant Assistant
Budget Unit
Alberto Monteblanco, Senior AG:countant
Treasury Unit
Lenny Guazzotti, Treasury Assistant'
Milagros Patio, Treasurer
Sonnia Solari, Chief Cashier

flNANCE ANO AOMINISTRATION

(ROP IMPROVEMENT ANO GENETIC RESOURCES DEPARTMENT

Human Resources
Lucas Reao, Human Resources Manager
Janneth Carballido, Compensation and Benefits Assistant
Mnica Ferreyros, Auxiliary Services Supervisor
Sor Lapouble, Auxiliary Services Assistant
Gicela Olive ~a, Organization and Methods Assistant'
Estanislao Prez, Compensation and Benefits Assistant
Martha Pirola, Social Wrker, Supervisor
L,ucero Schmidt, Nurse
Mara Amela Tvara, Bilingual Secretary
Yoner Varas, Compensation and Benefits Assistant
Logistics and General Services
Aldo Tang, Logistics and General Services Manager
Pilar Bernui, Bilingual Secretgry
Silvia Crdova, Bilingual Secretary
Hugo Davis, Vehicle Maintehance Officer
Ximena Ganoza, Purchasing Supervisor
Atilio Guerrero, Vehicle Programmer
Jorge Locatelli, Security Supervisor
Jorge Luque, Warehouse Supervisor
Antonio Morillo, Maintenance Supervisor
Jos Pizarro, Purchasing Supervisor

Merideth Bonierbale, Senior Potato Breeder, Head*


Walter Amorc;)s, Agronomist, Research Associate
Carlos Arbizu, Andean Crops. Specialist3
Enrique Chujoy, Geneticist*
Ramzy EH:ledewy, Plant Breeder (CIP-Nairobi)
Nelly Espinola, Nutritionist, Research Associate
Anne Forbes, Plant Breeder, Associate Scientist' (CIP-Quit
Marc Ghislain, Molecular Biologist
Michael Hermann, Andean Creps Specialist*
Miguel Helle, Andean Crops Coordinator
Sven Jacobsen, Plant Breeder
Regina Kapinga, Sweetpotato Breeder' (GP-Kampala)
Juan Landeo, Plant Breeder*
Carlos Ochoa, Taxeinomist, Scientist Emeritus
William Roca, Plant Cell Physiologist*
Alberto Salas, Agronomist, Research Associate
Asep Setiawan, Sweetpotato Breeder (CIP-Bogor)
K C Thakur, Potato Breeder2 (CIP-Delhi)
Mahesh Upadhya, Plant Breeder, Visiting Principal
Scientist ad honorum
Dapeng Zhang, Plant Breed.er, Bioinformatics Unit Head*

Deputy Director General for Finance and


Administration-Hector Hugo Li Pun
Deputy Director General for Research-Wanda Collitis 2
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Director for lnternational Cooperation-Roger Cortbaoui

DIRECTOR GENERAL' S FFICE

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CIP's staff is comprised of a diverse group of highly


qualified individuals with varied backgrounds and
nationalities. This diversity is integrated into a coordinated
effort to achieve a common goal: alleviate poverty and
increase food security while protecting the earth's natural
resource base. Each and every one of CIP's more than 400

FFICE OF THE (HIEF flNANCIAL FFICER

Carlos Alonso, Chief Financia! Offieer'


Carlos Nio-Neira, Chief Financia! Officer2
Amalia Lanatta, Administrative Assistant

Sammy Agili, Sweetpotato Breeder, Research Assistant'


(CIP-Nairnbi)
Jairo Aginyah, Potato Breeder, Research Assistant 1
(CIP-Nairobi)
Mercedes Ames, Biologist, Research Assistant' 3
Ciro Barrera, Plant Pathologist, Research Assistant

Carolina Bastos, Research Assistant 3


Jorge Benavides, Biologist, Research Assistant
Gabriela Burgos, Biologist, Research Assistant 13
Rolando Cabello, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Giselle Cipriani, Biologist, Research Assistant
Wilmer Cullar, Biologist, Research Assistant 13
Lorena Danessi, Bilingual Secretary
Silvia de la Flor, Bilingual Secretary
Felipe de Mendiburu, Statistician, Research Assistant
Luis Daz, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Jorge Espinoza, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Rosario Falcn, Biologist, Research Assistant
Manuel Gastelo, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Ren Gmez, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Enrique Grande, Technician
Mara Luisa Guevara, Biologist, Research Assistant3
Carmen Herrera, Biologist, Research Assistant
Mara del Rosario Herrera, Biologist, Research Assistant
Osear Hurtado, Research Assistant 3
Fedora ltabashi, Systems Analyst, Research Assistant
Philip Kiduyu, Technician, Plant Quarantine Station
(CIP-Nairobi)
Mariana Martin, Bilingual Secretary
lvn Manrique, Research Assistant
Elisa Mihovilovich, Biologist, Research Assistant
Mara Cecilia Miki, Research Assistant3
Sam Namanda, Potato Breeder/Pathologist, Research
Assistant (CIP-Kampala)
George Ngundo, Chief Technician, Plant Quarantine
Station (CIP-Nairobi)
Luis opo, Biologist, Research Assistant
Matilde Orrillo, Biologist, Research Assistant
Ana Luz Panta, Biologist, Research Assistant
Giovana Perazzo, Biologist, Research Assistant' 3
Leticia Portal, Biologist, Research Assistant 3
Daniel Reynoso, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Flor de Mara Rodrguez, Research Assistant
Genoveva Rossel, Research Assistant 3
Rosa Salazar, Bilingual Secretary
Reinhard Simon, Visiting Scientist (University of Jena,
Germany)
Tjintokohadi, Research Assistant (CIP-Bogor)
Judith Toledo, Biologist, Research Assistant
Andrs Valladolid, Plant Breeder, Research Assistant
i=anny Vargas, Agronomist, Research Assistant

(ROP PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

Lwis Salazar, Virologist, Principal Scientist, Head


Nicole Adler, Plant Pathologist' (CIP-Quito)
Jess Alczar, Agronomist, Research Associate
Solveig Danielsen, Associate Expert (The Royal Veterinary
and Agricultura! University, Denmark) 2A
Gregory Forbes, Plant l"athologist* (CIP-Quito)
Edward French, Scientist Emeritus
Segundo Fuentes, Plant Pathologist, Research Associate
Upali Jayasinghe, Virologist (CIP-Bogor)
Magnus Kuhne, Entomologist, Associate Scientist 1

Aziz Lagnaoui, Entomologist*


Berga Lemaga, Agronomist, PRAPACE Coordinator3
(CIP-Kampala)
Charlotte Lizrraga, Plant Pathologist, Assistant
Coordinator, Global lnitiative on Late Blight
Rebecca Nelson, Molecular Pathologistl.*
Modesto Olanya, Pathologist (CIP-Nairobi)
Mara Palacios, Biologist, Research Associate
Sylvie Priou, Bacteriologist
Marc Siporleder, Agronomist, Associate Scientist 2
Lod J Turkensteen, Adjunct Scientist (based in
Netherlands)
Elske van de Fliert, IPM Specialist (CIP-Bogor)
Yi Wang, Plant Physiologist, Liaison Scientist (CIP-Beijing)
ll:dnar Wulff, Molecular Plant Pathologist
Pedro Aley, Plant Pathologist, Research Assistant
Ida Bartolini, Biochemist, Research Assistant
Mnica Blanco, Bilingual Secretary
Vernica Caedo, Biologist, Research Assistant
Maria Gabriela Chacn, Pathologist, Research Assistant
(CIP-Quito)
Carlos Chuquillanqui, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Carmen Dyer, Administrative Assistant
Violeta Flores, Biologist, Research Assistant
Soledad Gamboa, Biologist, Research Assistant
Govinda Guevara, Plant Pathologist, Research Assistant 1
(CIP-Quito)
Liliam Gutarra, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Fran-cisco Jarrn, Pathologist, Research Assistant (CIP-Quito)
Joseph Mudiope, Entomologist, Research Assistant
(DFID-CRF Project, Soroti) 3 (CIP-Kampala)
Norma Mujica, Agronomist, Research Assistan.t
Giovanna Muller, Biologist, Research Assistant
Vincent Ogiro, Research Assistant 2 (CIP-Kampala)
Peter Ojiambo, Pathologist/Potato Breeder, Research
Assistant 2 (CIP-Nairobi)
Ricardo Orrego, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Wilmer Prez, Plant Pathologist, Research Assistant
Karina Petrovich, Bilingual Secretary
Paola Ramn, Pathologist, Research Assistant 2 (CIP-Quito)
Magnolia Santa Cruz, Biologist, Research Assistant
Ana Maria Taboada, Biologist, Research Assistant
Jorge Tenorio, Biologist, Research Assistant
Roger Torres, Research Assistant 13
Miguel Vega, Pathologist, Research Assistant (CIP-Quito)
Alcira Vera, Biologist, Research Assistant
Warsito Tantowijoyo, Entomologist, Research Assistant
(CIP-Bogor)
Julia Zamudio, Bilingual Secretary
Octavio Zegarra, Biologist, Research Assistant

PRODUCTION 5YSTEMS ANO NATURAL RESOURCE


MANAGEMENT 0EPARTMENT

Roberto Quiroz, Land Use Systems Specialist, Head*


Walter Bowen, Soil Scientist (IFDC) 4 (CIP-Quito)
Coen Bussink, Geographic lnformation Scientist

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Andr Devaux, Agronomist, Coordinator, Andean Patato


Project (Papa Andina, Peru)
Fernando Ezeta, Agronomist, CIP-LAC Regional
Representative
Alberto Gonzles, Phytopathologist, Research Associate
Vital Hagenimana, Food Scientist (NRl)'A (CIP-Nairobi)
D0minique Herv, Visiting Scienrist (IRD) 2 A
Osear Hidalg0, Project Leader (CIP/SDC Project, lslamabad) 23
Robert Hijmans, Geographic lnformation Scientist
Sarath llangantileke, Postharvest Specialist, CIP-SWA
Regional Representative (CIP-De fhi)
M S Kadian,_Agronomist (CIP-Delhi)
Berhane Kiflewahid, ASARECA/CIP, Comdinat or,
Technology Transfer Project3 (CIP-Na irobi)
Carlos Len-Velarde, Alilimal Production Systems
Specialist (ILRl) 4
Elias Mujica, Anthropologist, Adjunct Scientist, CONDESAN'*
P K Mukherjee, Sweetpotato Scientist (CIP--Oelhi)
Joshua Posner, Agronomist, Coordinator, CONDESAN ''*
Sushma Arya, Accountant/Program Coordinator (CIP-Delhi)
Guillermo Baigorria, Climatologist, Research Assistant
Carolina Barreda, Agronomist, Research Assistant'3
Lilin Basantes, Training Specialist, Research
Assistant (CIP-Quito)
Jimena Bazoalto, Research Assistant
Gnanashyam Bhandari, Accou_ntant (CIP/ SDC
Project, Kathmandu)'
Musuq Briceo, Research Assistant'3
Paola Campodnico, Bilingual Secretary''
Mariana Cruz, Biologist, Research Assistant' 3
Ral Jaramillo, Soil Scientist, Research Assistant (CIP-Quito)
Jos Jimnez, Computer Systems Specialist (CIP-Quito)
Henry Jurez, Agronom ist, Research Assistant'
Mara de los Angeles Laura, Bilingual Secretary, CONDESAN
Kurt Manrique, Agronomist, Research Assistant 13
Atif Manzoor, Accountant (CIP/SDC Project, lslamabaci)'
Rosario Marcovich, Bilingual Secretary
Isabel Mel, Bilingual Secretary
L Mony, Secretary (CIP-Delhi)
Ana Mara Ponce, lnfoAndina, CONDESAN '
Zareen Siddiqi, Secretary (CIP/ SDC Project, lslamabad)'
Fannia Virginia Suri, Seed Technologist, Research Assistant
(CiP-Bogor)
lvonne Valdizn, Bilingual Secretary
Percy Z:orogasta, Research Assistant

Keith Fuglie, Agricultura! Economist, CIP-ESEAP Regional


Representative (CIP-Bogor)
Osear Ortiz, Special Project Coordinator
Dai Peters, Postharvest Specialist2 (CIP-Hanoi)
Gordon Prain, Social Anthropologist, SIUPA Coordinator*
Sonia Salas, Food Technologist, Research Associate
Steve Sherwood, Training Specialist (CIP-Quito)
Graham Thiele, Technology Transfer Specialist, Andean
Patato Project (Papa Andina, B01ivia) 3
David Yanggen, Agricultura! Ernnomist, Associate Scientis
(Montana State University) 4 (CIP-Quit0)
Regula Zuger Caceres, Agricultura! Economist'
Ral Alva rez, Economist, Research Assistant2
Cherry Leah Bagalanon, Human Ecologist, UPWARD Progra
Associate (CIP-Los Baos)
Carlos Basilio, Soil Scientist, UPWARD Research Fellow
(CIP-Los Baos)
Ral Boncodin, Botanist, UPWARD Program Associate,
(CIP-Los Baos)
Silvia Cruzatt, Research Assistant 2
Patricio Espinoza, Agricultura! Economist, Research
Associate (CIP-Quito)
Cristina l'onseca, Agronomist, Research Assistant
Toteng Hidayat, Facilities Manager (CIP-Bogor)
Elijah lgunza, Administrative Assistant (CIP-Nairobi)
Dessy Kusbandi, Executive Secretary (CIP-Bogor)
Sukendra Mahalaya, Research and lnformation Manageme
Officer (CIP-Bogor)
Luis Maldonado, Economist, Research Assistant
Ana Luisa Muoz, Bilingual Secretary
Rosemary Muttungi, Secretary (CIP-Nairobi)
Kusye Nawawi, Accountant (CIP-Bogor)
Emily Ndoho, Secretary (CIP-Nairobi)
Alice Njmoge, Secretary (CIP-Nairobi)
Simon Obaga, Accounts Clerk (CIP-Nairobi)
Vctor Surez, Statistician, Assistant
Zandra Vsquez, Bilingual Secretary
Caecilia Afra Widyastuti, Rural Sociologist, Researcher
(CIP-Bogor)
Y J Yang, Administrative Assistant (CIP-Beijing)
P Zhou, Secretary/Accountant (CIP-Beijing)

TRAININGAND (OMMUNICATIONS 0EPARTMENT

Patricio Malagamba, Head


Mercedes Suito, Bilingual Seuetary

Publications Unit
SOCIAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT

Thomas Walker, Economist, Principal Scientist, Head*


Thomas Bernet, Economist, Swiss Associate Expert'3
Dindo Campilan, Sociologist, UPWARD Coordinator
(CIP-Los Baos)
Charles Crissman, Economist* (CIP-Nairobi) 5
Rubn Dara Estrada, Natural Resourc;:es Economist
(SDC Mountain Agriculture) 4 (based at CIAT)
Peter Ewell, Economist, CIP-SSA Regional
Representative (CIP-Nairobi)

John Stares, Managing Editor, Head


Abigail Hollister, Writer/ Editor2
Candelaria Atalaya, Photographer
Mariella Corvetto, Communication Ser.vices Ceordinator
Ruth Delgado, Exhibits/Display Assistant
Nini Fernndez-Concha, Graphic Designer, Assistant
Milton Hidalgo, Graphic Designer, Assistant
Cecilia Lafosse, Chief Desgner
Godofrede Lagos, Print Chief
Paul Moneada, Webmaster 1

Anselmo Morales, Graphic Designer, Assistant


Zoraida Portillo, Spanish Writer/ Editor
Alfredo Pucdni, Graphic Designer, Assistant
Siny Varughese, Program Associate (Publicat ions and
Documentation) (CIP-Delhi)
Training Unit
Gisella Canessa, Training Liaison Officer'
Edda Echeanda, Multimedia Developer
Martha Huanes, Training Coordinator
Margarita Lopez, Training Assistant 2
Library a.nd Bookshop
Cecilia Ferreyra, Head Libraran
Rosa Ghilardi, Bilingual Secretary
Griselda Lay, Libraran, Assistant
Flix Muoz, Distri):lution, Assistant
Glenda Negrete, Librarian, Assistant

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY UNIT

Anthony Collins, Head


Liliana Bravo, Server Administrator
Andrea Cceres, Systems Development Support
Osear Carmelo, Helpdesk Administrator
Moiss Fernndez, Systems Analyst, Database Administrator
Erik?J Orozrn, Server Administrator

Dante Palacios, Systems Support'


Giancarlo Rodrguez, Systems Support
Sal Rodrguez, Web Systems Analyst'
Edgardo Torres, Sysrems Development Administrator
Christian Valdivia, Server Administrator2
Alberto Vlez, Systems and Network Administrator
Roberto del Villar, Maintenance Administrator
Diana Zevallos, Administrative Systems Analyst'3

flELD RESEARCHSUPPORT

Vctor Otaz, Head


Csar Aguilar, Agronomist, Field/ Greenhouse Supervisor,
Research Assistant (San Ramn)
Magaly Aspiazu, Administrative Assistant (Santa Catalina)
(CIP-Quito)
Su sana Barriga, Accountant (Santa Catalina) (CIP-Quito)
Roberto Duarte, Agronomist, Field/ Greenhouse Supervisor
(La Molina)
Hugo Goyas, Agronomist, Field/ Greenhouse Supervisor
(Huancayo)
Carmen Lara, Secretary
Ricardo Rodrguez, Agrcrnomist, Field/Greenhouse
Supervisor (Santa' Catalina) (CIP-Quito)

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* Proj ect leader


1 Joi ned CIP in 2001
2 Left CIP in 2001
3 Funded by special proj ect
4 Joint appoi ntment
5 Transferred from CIP Q uito in Aug ust

GLOBAL CONTACT POINTS

CIP's main contact points are listed below. For more details,
please contact the lnternational Cooperation Office at the

CIP Headquarters address below, or using the following


email : cip-international -cooperation @cgiar.org.

CIP HEAOQUARTERS

SouTH ANO WEsT As1A (SWA)

lnternational Patato Center (CIP)


Avenida La Malina 1895, La Molir.ia
Lima 12, Peru
Tel : +51 1 349 6017
Fax: +51 1 317 5326
email: cip@cgiar.org
Website: www.cipotato.org

Regional Office
lnternational Patato Center
c/o IARI Campus, Pusa
New Delhi 110012, India
Tel: +91 11 585 0201
Fax: +91 11 573 1481
email: cip-delhi@cgiar.org
1
Contact: Sarath llangantileke, SWA Regional Representatir

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LATIN AMERICA ANO THE (ARIBBEAN CLAC)


EAST ANO SoUTHEAST ASIA ANO THE PACIFIC (ESEAP)

Regional Office
(same address, telephone and fax as CIP Headquarters)
Direct tel: +51 1 317 5315
email: cip-lac-office@cgiar.org
Contact: Roger Cortbaoui, LAC Regional Representative
Ecuador Liaison Office
lnternational Patato Center
Estacin Experimental Santa Catalina INIAP
Km 17 Panamericana Sur
Sector Cutuglagua Cantan Meja
Apartado 17-21-1977
Quito, Ecuador
Tel: +593 2 2690 362/ 2690 363
Fax: +593 2 2692 604
email: cip-quito@cgiar.org
Website: www.quito.cipotato.org
Contact: Gregory Forbes, Liaison Scientist

Sue-SAHARAN AFRICA (SSA)

Regional Office
lnternational Patato Center
PO Box 25171
Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: +254 2 632 054
Fax: +254 2 630 005 or 631 499
email : cip-nbo@cgiar.org
Cofltact: Peter Ewell, SSA Regional Representative
Uganda liaison Office
lnternational Patato Center
c/ o PRAPACE (see address below)
email: r.kapinga@cgiar.org or r.kapinga@infocom.co.ug
Contact: Regina Kapinga, Liaison Scientist

Regional Office
lnternational Patato Center
Kebun Percobaan Muara
Jalan Raya Ciapus
Bogar 16610, IAdonesia
Tel: +62 251 317 951 / 313 687/ 333 667
Fax: +62 251 316 264
email: cip-bogor@cgiar.org
Website: www.eseap.cipotato.org
Contact: Keith Fuglie, ESEAP Regional Representative
China Liaison Office
lnternational Patato Center
e/ o The Chinese Academy of Agricultura! Sciences
Zhong Guan Cun South Street 12
West Suburbs of Beijing
Beijing, People's Republic of China
Tel: +86 10 6897 5504
Fax: +86 1 O 6897 5503
email: cip-china@cgiar.org
Contact: Yi Wang, Liaison Scientist
Vietnam Liaison Office
lnternational Patato Center
32 Linh Lang
Cong Vi, Ba Dinh
Hanoi, Vietnam
Tel and fax: +84 4 834 8481
Email: cip-hanoi@fpt.vn
Contact: Keith Fuglie, Acting Coordinator

G~OBAL, REGIONAL ANO SYSTEMWIDE INITIATIVES

Andean Potato Project-Papa Andina


Peru

PRAPACE-Regional Potato and Sweetpotato


lmprovement Program for East and Central Africa

(same address, telephone and fax as CIP headquarters)


email: papa-andina@cgiar or a.devaux@cgiar.org or
thiele@cip.org .ec
Website: www.cipotato.org/papandina
Contact: Andr Devaux, Project Coordinator

Plot 106, Katalima Road, Naguru


PO Box 22274
Kampala, Uganda
Te!: +256 41 286 209
Fax: +256 41 286 947
email: prapace@infocom.co.ug or berga@imul.com
Contact: Berga Lemaga, PRAPACE Coordinator

Ec:uador
(same address, telephone and fax as CIP Liaison Office
Ecuador - see below)
email: g.thiele@cgiar.org
Contact: Graham Thiele

CONDESAN-Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion


(same address, telephone and fax as CIP headquarters)
email: condesan @cgiar.org
Website: www.condesan.org
Contact: Hctor Cisneros, Coordinator

GILB-Global lnitiative on Late Blight


(same address, telephone and fax as CIP headquarters)
email: gilb@cgiar.org
Website: www.cipotato.org/gilb
Contact: Gregory Forbes, GILB Coordinator

GMP-Global Mountain Program


(same address, telephone and fax as CIP headquarters)
email: r.quiroz@cgiar.org
Contact: Roberto Quiroz, Program Coordinator

SIUPA-CGIAR Strategic lnitiative on Urban and


Peri-urban Agriculture
(same address, telephone and fax as CIP headquarters)
email: g.prain@cgiar:org
Contact: Gordon Prain, SIUPA Coordinator

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UPWARD-Users' Perspectives with Agricultura!


Research and Development
e/o IRRI
DAPO 7777
Metro Manila, Phil.ippines
For courier: PCARRD Complex
Los Baos, Laguna, 4030 Philippines
Tel: +63 49 536 0235
Fax: +63 49 536 1662
email: cip-manila@cgiar.org
Website: www.eseap.cipotato.org/ upward
Contact: Dindo Campilan, UPWARD Coordinator

CIP IN THE WORLD


SOUTH ANDWEST ASIA (SWA}

LATINAMERICAAND
THE CARIBBEAN -

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(LAC}
SOUTHEASTASIA
ANDTHE
PACIFIC (ESEAP)
SUB-SAHARANAFRICA (SSA}

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FUTURE HARVEST
CIP is one of 16 food and environmental research
organizations known as the Future Harvest Centers. The
centers, located around the world, conduct research in
partnership with farmers, scientists, and policymakers to
help alleviate poverty and increa se food security while
protecting the natural resou rce base. The Future Harvest
Centers are principally funded thr.ough the 58 countries,
private foundations, and regional and international
organizations that make up the Consultative Group on
lnternational Agricultura! Research (CGIAR).
In 1998 the centers supported by the CGIAR created Future
Harvest as a charitable an d educational organization
designed to advance the debate on how to feed the world 's

growing population without destroying the environmen ~,


and to catalyze action for a world with less poverty, a
healthier human family, well-nourished children and a
better environment. Future Harvest reaches out to medi ~,
academics, scholars, and scientists in the world's premier
peace, environment, health, population and developmen
research organizations, as well as to policy-makers and ci il
society, and it enlists world-renowned leaders to speak o its
behalf. Future Harvest raises awareness and support for
research, prometes partnerships, and sponsors on-theground projects that bring the results of research efforts o
farmers' fields in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
For more, visit www.futureharvest.org or www.cgiar.org

FUTURE HARVESTNTERS

ISNAR

ICARDA

ICRISAT

SYRIA

INDIA

NETHERLANDS-

ICLARM
MAlAYSIA

IRRI

llTA
NIGERIA

KENYA

'

CIFOR
INDONESIA

CIAT
Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical
Center for lnternational Forestry Research
CIFOR
CIMMYT Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de
Maz y Trigo
Centro Internacional de la Papa
CIP
!CARDA lnternational Center for Agricultura!
Research in the Dry Areas
ICLARM lnternational Center for Living Aquatic
Resources Management
ICRAF
lnternational Centre for Research in
Agroforestry

ICRISAT

lnternational Crops Research lnstitute for the


Semi-Arid Tropics
lnternational Food Policy Research lnstitute
IFPRI
lnternational lnstitute of Tropical Agriculture
llTA
ILRI
lnternational Livestock Research lnstitute
IPGRI
~nternational Plant Genetic Resources lnstitut$
IRRI
lnternational Rice Research lnstitute
ISNAR
lnternational Service for National
Agricultura! Research
IWMI
lnternational Water Management lnstitute
WARDA West Africa Rice Development Association

PHOTO (REDITS
PAGE

PAGE

FRONT(OVER

HUNGER

(clockwise from top left) Alejandro Balaguer (2), CIP


Archives, Gordon Prain, Robert Hijmans, Jess Alczar

53

fROM THE DIRECTOR GENERAL

(clockwise from top left) Alejandro Balaguer,


Candelaria Atalaya, CIP Archives

HEALTH

7
9
11

12
17
18-19
22-23

(clockwise from top left) Alejandro Balaguer (2),


Jesws Alczar
Alejandro Balaguer
(left to right) Maria Atieno, Alejandro Balaguer,
Regina Kapinga , Louise Sserunjogi
Alejandro Balaguer
Jess Alczar
(left to right) Stephen Sherwood, Patricio Espinosa,
CIP Archives, Stephen Sherwood (2)
Stephen Sherwood

55
57

58
65
66-67
70

73
76-77

80

INBRIEF

Alejandro Balaguer (all)


(clockwise from top) CIP Archives, Norma Mujica,
CIP-PSNRM (2)
(clockwise from top) Ebbe Schi0ler (2), Candelaria
Atalaya, CIP Archives
(counter clockwise from top left) ACIAR (2), CIP
Archives, Osear Hidalgo

83
84

85
HABITAT

25
27
28

32-33
37
39
41
45
46-47
50

(clockwise from top left) CIP Archives, CIP-PSNRM,


Gordon Prain
CIP-PSNRM
(clockwise from top left) CIP Archives, CIP-PSNRM,
An.bal Solimano, CIP Archives (2), CIP-PSNRM, Anbal
Solimano, CIP Archives
CIP Archives
Gordon Prain
Gordon Prain
Gordon Prain (ali)
CIP Archives
(left to right) Norma Mujica, Octavio Zegarra, Jess
Alczar, Alonso Luyo, CIP Archives
Candelaria Atalaya

(clockwise from top left) CIP Archives, Gordon Prain,


Robert Hijmans
CIP Archives
(clockwise from top left) CIP Archives (3), Carlos
Arbizu, CIP Archives (4)
Walter Amors
Robert Hijmans
CIP Archives
Robert Hijmans (ali)
Gordon Prain
Alejandro Balaguer
(clockwise from top left) Elske van de Fliert, Gordon
Prain, Osear Ortiz, Elske van de Fliert, Osear Ortiz (2)

86

CIP
87

IN

2001
(clockwise from top left) Candelaria Atalaya, Pedro
Baca (2)

BACKCOVER

(clockwise from top left) Alejandro Balaguer,


Candelaria Atalaya, CIP Archives, CIP PSNRM, Gordon
Prain, CIP Archives