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Ohio Department of Transportation

Central Office 1980 West Broad Street Columbus, OH 43223


John Kasich, Governor Jerry Wray, Director

Date: January 16, 2015


To: All Current Holders of the Location and Design Manual, Volume 2
Re: Location and Design Manual, Volume Two Revisions
Transmitted herewith are revisions to the Location and Design Manual, Volume 2.
The following revisions have been made:

Revisions / Additions in Red


Section 1002.1 Additional guidance/requirements allowing a single pipe material
Section 1002.3.7 Added SS833
Section 1005 Removed requirement for ODOT to secure a floodplain permit, Added
guidance regarding Flood Hazard Mapping and the ODOT Self-Permit Process
Section 1009.2.1 Removed guidance regarding specifying a pipe material for 6
underdrains
Table 1104-1 Removed 33 size
Section 1105.2.2 Removed guidance regarding burying replacement concrete box
culverts
Section 1117.2.2 Vegetated Biofilter revisions
Figure 1117-4 Vegetated Ditch Example Removed
Appendix A Added forms LD-50; No-Rise Certification and LD-51; Floodplain Letter
of Compliance Template
Sample Plan Note D112; Item 611-Conduit Bored or Jacked Removed 0.5 reference
Sample Plan Note D121; Item Special-Pipe Cleanout Added 3 pay items

The online revisions of the Location and Design Manual, Volume 2 can be found at
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/Engineering/Hydraulics/Pages/default.aspx in PDF format.
Technical questions or recommended changes should be directed to Jeff Syar (614) 275-1373 or
Matt Cozzoli (614) 466-3152.
Respectfully,

Jeff Syar, P.E.


Office Administrator
Office of Hydraulic Engineering

An Equal Opportunity Employer

Notice
To ensure proper receipt of future revisions to the manual, please visit the online Design
Reference Resource at: http://www.dot.state.oh.us/drrc/.
This manual is produced by the Office of Hydraulic Engineering.
Technical questions, recommended changes, or suggestions should be sent to:
Ohio Department of Transportation
Attn: Jeffrey Syar, P.E.
Administrator, Office of Hydraulic Engineering
1980 West Broad Street
Columbus, Ohio 43223
(614) 275-1373

Table of Contents
(Revised January 2015)
Preface ........................................................................................................................................................... i
Ohio Counties ...............................................................................................................................................iii
Concordance .................................................................................................................................................iii
Glossary of Terms ......................................................................................................................................... v
Design Reference Documents...x

1000 Drainage Design Criteria


1001 Hydraulic Design Criteria ................................................................................................................ 10-1
1001.1 Responsibilities .......................................................................................................... 10-1
1001.2 Natural Streams ......................................................................................................... 10-1
1002 Pipe Criteria .................................................................................................................................... 10-1
1002.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 10-1
1002.2 General Requirements................................................................................................ 10-2
1002.3 Conduit Types ............................................................................................................ 10-2
1003 Hydrology ........................................................................................................................................ 10-6
1003.1 Estimation of Magnitude and Frequency of Floods on Ohio Streams ........................... 10-6
1004 Flood Clearance .............................................................................................................................. 10-7
1004.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 10-7
1004.2 Design Year Frequency .............................................................................................. 10-7
1005 Highway Encroachments on Flood Plains ...................................................................................... 10-7
1005.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 10-7
1005.2 Type of Studies .......................................................................................................... 10-9
1006 Allowable Headwater ...................................................................................................................... 10-9
1006.1 Design Storm ............................................................................................................. 10-9
1006.2 Culvert Headwater Controls ........................................................................................ 10-9
1006.3 Bridge Headwater Control ........................................................................................ 10-10
1006.4 Controls Specific to Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) ................................................... 10-11
1007 Pipe Removal Criteria ................................................................................................................... 10-11
1007.1 General .................................................................................................................... 10-11
1007.2 Asbestos pipe ........................................................................................................... 10-11
1008 Conduit Design Criteria ................................................................................................................. 10-12
1008.1 Corrugated and Spiral Rib Steel and Aluminum Pipes, and Corrugated Steel and
Aluminum Pipe Arches ......................................................................................................... 10-12
1008.2 Rigid Pipe ................................................................................................................. 10-12
1008.3 Thermoplastic Pipe ................................................................................................... 10-13
1008.4 Corrugated Steel and Aluminum Box Culverts and Corrugated Steel Long Span Culverts.
............................................................................................................................................ 10-13
1008.5 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts ............................................................... 10-13
1008.6 Precast Reinforced Concrete Three-Sided Flat-Topped Culverts .............................. 10-14
1008.7 Precast Reinforced Concrete Arch Sections ............................................................. 10-14
1008.8 Precast Reinforced Concrete Round Sections .......................................................... 10-15
1008.9 Arch or Flat Slab Top Culvert Foundations ................................................................ 10-16
1008.10 Bridge Foundations ................................................................................................ 10-17
1008.11 Waterproofing Membrane ....................................................................................... 10-17
1008.12 Precast Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab Tops, Catch Basin Tops, and Inlet Tops ..... 10-18
1008.13 Wingwall Design ..................................................................................................... 10-18
1009 Subsurface Pavement Drainage ................................................................................................... 10-18
1009.1 General .................................................................................................................... 10-18
1009.2 Types of Subsurface Drainage.................................................................................. 10-18
1010 Maintenance of Traffic Drainage ................................................................................................... 10-20
1010.1 General .................................................................................................................... 10-20
1011 Temporary Structures ................................................................................................................... 10-20

1100 Drainage Design Procedures


1101 Estimating Design Discharge .......................................................................................................... 11-1
1101.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 11-1
1101.2 Procedures ................................................................................................................. 11-1
1102 Open Water Carriers ....................................................................................................................... 11-4
1102.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 11-4
1102.2 Types of Carriers ........................................................................................................ 11-5
1102.3 Ditch Design Criteria - Design Traffic Exceeding 2000 ADT ........................................ 11-6
1102.4 Ditch Design Criteria - Design Traffic of 2000 ADT or Less ....................................... 11-10
1102.5 Design Aids for Ditch Flow Analysis .......................................................................... 11-11
1103 Pavement Drainage ...................................................................................................................... 11-11
1103.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-11
1103.2 Design Frequency .................................................................................................... 11-12
1103.3 Estimating Design Discharge .................................................................................... 11-12
1103.4 Capacity of Pavement Gutters .................................................................................. 11-12
1103.5 Pavement Flow Charts ............................................................................................. 11-13
1103.6 Bypass Charts for Continuous Pavement Grades ..................................................... 11-13
1103.7 Grate Catch Basins and Curb Opening Inlets in Pavement Sags............................... 11-14
1103.8 Bridge Deck Drainage .............................................................................................. 11-14
1103.9 Slotted Drains and Trench Drains ............................................................................. 11-15
1104 Storm Sewers ................................................................................................................................ 11-15
1104.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-15
1104.2 Design Considerations.............................................................................................. 11-16
1104.3 Layout Procedure ..................................................................................................... 11-18
1104.4 Storm Sewer Design Criteria .................................................................................... 11-18
1104.5 Hydraulic Design Procedure ..................................................................................... 11-19
1104.6 Combined Sanitary Sewer Separation ...................................................................... 11-20
1105 Roadway Culverts ......................................................................................................................... 11-20
1105.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-20
1105.2 Stream Protection ..................................................................................................... 11-20
1105.3 Types of Culvert Flow ............................................................................................... 11-24
1105.4 Design Procedure ..................................................................................................... 11-24
1105.5 Use of Nomographs .................................................................................................. 11-25
1105.6 Design Criteria ......................................................................................................... 11-26
1105.7 Special Considerations ............................................................................................. 11-27
1106 End Treatments ............................................................................................................................. 11-28
1106.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-28
1106.2 Headwall Types ........................................................................................................ 11-29
1106.3 Concrete Apron ........................................................................................................ 11-30
1107 Rock Channel Protection (RCP) ................................................................................................... 11-30
1107.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-30
1107.2 Culvert RCP Types ................................................................................................... 11-30
1107.3 Bridge RCP .............................................................................................................. 11-30
1108 Agricultural Drainage..................................................................................................................... 11-31
1108.1 Farm Drain Crossings ............................................................................................... 11-31
1108.2 Farm Drain Outlets ................................................................................................... 11-31
1109 Longitudinal Sewer Location ......................................................................................................... 11-31
1109.1 Under Pavement ...................................................................................................... 11-31
1109.2 Under Paved Shoulder ............................................................................................. 11-32
1109.3 Approval ................................................................................................................... 11-32
1110 Reinforced Concrete Radius Pipe and Box Sections ................................................................... 11-32
1110.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-32
1111 Sanitary Sewers ............................................................................................................................ 11-32
1111.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-32
1111.2 Manholes ................................................................................................................. 11-32
1112 Notice of Intent (NOI) .................................................................................................................... 11-32
1112.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-32
1112.2 Routine Maintenance Project .................................................................................... 11-33

1112.3 Watershed Specific NOI Requirements ..................................................................... 11-34


1113 Erosion Control at Bridge Ends ..................................................................................................... 11-35
1113.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-35
1113.2 Corner Cone............................................................................................................. 11-35
1114 Temporary Sediment and Erosion Control ................................................................................... 11-35
1114.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-35
1114.2 Cost Estimate for Temporary Sediment and Erosion Control ..................................... 11-35
1115 Post Construction Storm Water Structural Best Management Practices ...................................... 11-36
1115.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-36
1115.2 Project Thresholds for Post-Construction BMP ......................................................... 11-36
1115.3 Water Quality and Water Quantity Treatment ............................................................ 11-37
1115.4 Water Quality Volume ............................................................................................... 11-38
1115.5 Water Quality Flow ................................................................................................... 11-38
1115.6 Project Type - Redevelopment and New Construction .............................................. 11-38
1116 BMP Selection and Submittals ...................................................................................................... 11-40
1116.1 BMP Selection .......................................................................................................... 11-40
1116.2 BMP Submittals ........................................................................................................ 11-41
1117 BMP Toolbox ................................................................................................................................. 11-41
1117.1 Manufactured Systems ............................................................................................. 11-41
1117.2 Vegetation Based BMP............................................................................................. 11-42
1117.3 Extended Detention .................................................................................................. 11-45
1117.4 Retention Basin ........................................................................................................ 11-48
1117.5 Bioretention Cell ....................................................................................................... 11-49
1117.6 Infiltration ................................................................................................................. 11-51
1117.7 Constructed Wetlands .............................................................................................. 11-54
1118 Bridge Hydraulics .......................................................................................................................... 11-55
1118.1 General .................................................................................................................... 11-55
1118.2 Hydrology and Hydraulics (H&H) Report ................................................................... 11-55
APPENDIX A Reproducible Forms
APPENDIX B Sample Plan Notes
APPENDIX C Drainage Design Aids
Appendix C has been removed
from
the
printed
manual.
Drainage Aids can be found at
the OHE webpage.

Preface
Purpose
This Drainage Design Manual has been prepared as a guide for the hydraulic design of highway drainage
facilities. Drainage is one of the essential components of roadway design.
Drainage facilities for most roadway projects account for approximately 25% of the total construction cost
of the project. This cost justifies a careful and scientific hydraulic analysis.

Application
Design drainage facilities following the recommended design procedures noted in this manual to minimize
the following:

Damage of private property due to flooding


Inconvenience to the motorist during moderate to heavy rainfall
Disturbance to the environment

Numerous charts have been prepared and are included in the Drainage Design Aids Section of this
manual to assist the Drainage Design Engineer with the hydraulic analysis. Other design charts are
available in Hydraulic Engineering Circulars and Hydraulic Design Series prepared by the Federal
Highway Administration. Reference is made to those charts as required.
This manual is neither a textbook nor a substitute for engineering knowledge, experience, or judgment. It
is intended to provide uniform procedures for implementing drainage design decisions and assure quality
and continuity in drainage of highways in Ohio. Although the manual is considered a primary source of
reference by personnel involved in drainage design in Ohio, it must be recognized that the practices
suggested may be inappropriate for some projects because of fiscal limitations or other justifiable
reasons.
Consideration must also be given to justifiable hydraulic design standards adopted by city, county, or
other local governments when designing facilities under their jurisdiction.

Preparation
The Drainage Design Manual has been developed by the Office of Hydraulic Engineering (OHE). Errors
or omissions should be reported to the Administrator, Office of Hydraulic Engineering, Ohio Department
of Transportation,1980 W. Broad Street, Columbus, Ohio 43223.

Format and Revisions


Updating the manual is intended to be a continuous process. Revisions will be issued periodically by
OHE and will be available on the Design Reference Resource Center (DRRC) webpage:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/drrc/Pages/default.aspx. All revisions are shown in red text, and each page
has the latest date shown in the bottom corner.

January 2015

ii

January 2015

Ohio Counties
County
Adams
Allen
Ashland
Ashtabula
Athens
Auglaize

Code
ADA
ALL
ASD
ATB
ATH
AUG

Belmont
Brown
Butler

BEL
BRO
BUT

11
9
8

Carroll
Champaign
Clark
Clermont
Clinton
Columbiana
Coshocton
Crawford
Cuyahoga

CAR
CHP
CLA
CLE
CLI
COL
COS
CRA
CUY

11
7
7
8
8
11
5
3
12

Darke
Defiance
Delaware

DAR
DEF
DEL

7
1
6

Erie

ERI

Fairfield
Fayette
Franklin
Fulton

FAI
FAY
FRA
FUL

5
6
6
2

Gallia
Geauga
Greene
Guernsey

GAL
GEA
GRE
GUE

10
12
8
5

Hamilton
Hancock
Hardin
Harrison
Henry
Highland
Hocking
Holmes
Huron

HAM
HAN
HAR
HAS
HEN
HIG
HOC
HOL
HUR

8
1
1
11
2
9
10
11
3

Jackson
Jefferson

JAC
JEF

9
11

Knox

KNO

Lake
Lawrence

LAK
LAW

12
9

January 2015

District
9
1
3
4
10
7

County
Licking
Logan
Lorain
Lucas

Code
LIC
LOG
LOR
LUC

District
5
7
3
2

Madison
Mahoning
Marion
Medina
Meigs
Mercer
Miami
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan
Morrow
Muskingum

MAD
MAH
MAR
MED
MEG
MER
MIA
MOE
MOT
MRG
MRW
MUS

6
4
6
3
10
7
7
10
7
10
6
5

Noble

NOB

10

Ottawa

OTT

Paulding
Perry
Pickaway
Pike
Portage
Preble
Putnam

PAU
PER
PIC
PIK
POR
PRE
PUT

1
5
6
9
4
8
1

Richland
Ross

RIC
ROS

3
9

Sandusky
Scioto
Seneca
Shelby
Stark
Summit

SAN
SCI
SEN
SHE
STA
SUM

2
9
2
7
4
4

Trumbull
Tuscarawas

TRU
TUS

4
11

Union

UNI

Van Wert
Vinton

VAN
VIN

1
10

Warren
Washington
Wayne
Williams
Wood
Wyandot

WAR
WAS
WAY
WIL
WOO
WYA

8
10
3
2
2
1

iii

Concordance
Anti-seep Collar
11-46
Asbestos
10-11
Backwater Analysis
10-8, 11-22, 11-24
Bankfull
Design
11-6, 11-26, 11-27
Discharge
11-21
Catch Basin
Ditches
11-9, 11-10
Pavement
11-13, 11-18
Bypass Flow
11-13
Grates
11-9
Conduits
Flexible
11-6, 11-9, 11-16, 11-29, 11-32
Rigid
10-1, 10-10, 10-19, 11-16
Type A
10-2
Type B
10-3, 11-15
Type C
10-4, 11-15
Type D
10-4, 11-28
Type E
10-4, 10-5
Type F
10-4, 11-15, 11-31
Corrugated Metal Pipe
Box Culverts
10-13
Flexible
11-16, 11-29
Pipe Arches
10-2
Cover height
maximum
10-13, 10-14, 10-15
minimum10-1, 10-12, 10-13, 10-14, 10-15, 1116, 11-23, 11-28
Culvert
Bankfull Design
11-6, 11-26, 11-27
Design Frequency
10-7, 11-5
Design Method
11-24
Durability
10-2, 10-3, 10-4
Entrance Loss
11-26
Headwater
11-24, 11-27
Improved inlet
11-28
Inlet Control
11-24, 11-28
Outlet Control
10-3, 11-24
Ditches
Design Criteria
11-6, 11-10
Protection
11-6
Shear Stress
11-7
Special
11-5
End Treatment
Cutoff Wall
11-22
Full-Height Headwall
11-29
Half-Height Headwall
11-28, 11-29
Energy Dissipator
10-2
Farm Drain
10-4, 11-31
FEMA
vi, 10-9
Filter Fabric
10-18, 11-30
Flood

iv

Hazard Evaluation
10-8
Plain
vi, 10-7, 10-8, 11-6, 11-23
Plain Coordinator
10-7, 10-10
Plain Culverts
11-23
Foundations
v
Hydraulic Grade Line
vii, 11-18
Hydrology
Rational Equation
11-18
Coefficient of Runoff11-3, 11-17, 11-18, 1119
Rainfall Intensity
11-1, 11-4, 11-19
Strip Method
11-12
Time of Concentration11-1, 11-2, 11-12, 1119
USGS Regression Equations
10-6
Manhole
10-18, 10-19, 11-19, 11-31
natural stream
ix, 10-1, 11-20, 11-24
Pavement Drainage
Design Frequency
11-11
Sag
11-13, 11-14
Spread
11-12
pH
viii, 10-3
Plans,Temporary structure
10-20
Precast Concrete Pipe
Arch
10-14, 10-15
Box Culvert
10-13, 10-17, 11-25, 11-28
Rigid
10-1, 11-16
Three-sided Flat Topped10-2, 10-13, 10-14,
10-17, 11-20, 11-28
Rock Channel Protection10-2, 11-7, 11-8, 11-29,
11-48
Sanitary Sewer
11-16, 11-31, 11-32
Soil Bioengineering
11-6
Spread Footings
v
Storm Sewer
Access
11-17
Design Considerations
11-16
Design Frequency
11-18
Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan
11-34,
11-35
Subsurface Drainage
Aggregate Drains
10-17, 10-19
Construction Underdrains
10-19
Edge Drains
10-17, 10-19
Pipe Underdrains
10-17, 10-18, 10-19
Tailwater
10-9, 11-24, 11-27
Temporary structure, culverts
10-20
Temporary structure, hyraulic storm year 10-20
Temporary structures
10-20
Thermoplastic Pipe
10-12, 11-19, 11-32
USGS
x, 10-6, 11-50
Waterproofing
10-17

January 2015

Glossary of Terms
Aggregate Drain - A trench filled with granular material extending laterally from the pavement base or
subbase layer to an outlet on the roadway foreslope with the intent of draining surface and/or ground
water away from the pavement base and/or subbase.
Anti-seep Collar Device that prevents the flow of water through the surrounding soil around a conduit
that is used as an outlet for an infiltration, retention, or detention basin.
Apron - Paving at a pipe inlet or outlet, or upstream of a catch basin, constructed along the channel
bottom to prevent scour.
Backwater Analysis - The determination of water surface profiles measured at specific locations upstream
from a constriction causing an increased flow depth upstream.
Bankfull Discharge The flow or stage of a stream corresponding to the highest level of active deposition.
It is the discharge that, on the average, fills a main channel to the point of overflowing. For simplicity, it is
generally considered to be approximately the 2 year discharge.
Bridge Structure that has a span greater than or equal to 10 feet as measured in a parallel direction to
the roadway centerline.
Camber - A slight convex curve constructed into the bottom of a pipe to overcome anticipated settlement
problems.
Cast-in-place Structure - A concrete drainage structure which is placed in forms and cured at its final
location. Precast beams on cast-in-place foundations are considered cast-in-place structures.
Catch Basin - A structure for intercepting flow from a gutter or ditch and discharging the water through a
conduit.
Coefficient of Runoff (C) - A value, varying with the ground and ground cover, which is used in the
Rational formula to determine the amount of a rainfall which is directed to streams and not absorbed into
the ground.
Conduit - A closed structure such as a pipe that has a span less than 10 feet as measured in a parallel
direction to the roadway centerline.
Corner Bearing Pressure - The pressure generated at the corners of pipe arch structures.
Culvert - A structure which is typically designed hydraulically to take advantage of submergence at the
inlet to increase hydraulic capacity. A structure used to convey surface runoff through embankments. A
structure, as distinguished from a bridge, which is usually covered with embankment and is composed of
structural material around the entire perimeter, although some are supported on spread footings with the
stream bed serving as the bottom of the culvert.
Cutoff Wall - A wall that extends downward from the end of a structure to below the expected scour
depth, or to a scour-resistant material.
Design Discharge (Q) - The peak rate of flow for which a drainage facility is designed. Usually given in
cubic feet per second (cfs).
Design Service Life - The average usable life of a pipe or structure. Certain drainage situations require a
50-year life, more stringent situations require a 75-year design life.
Design Storm - A given rainfall amount, areal distribution, and a time distribution, used to estimate runoff.
The rainfall amount is either a given frequency (25-year, 50-year, etc.) or a specific large value.

January 2015

Detention Basin A structure that holds water for a short period of time before releasing it to the natural
water course.
Diversion Dike - An embankment to control or to deflect water away from a soil bank.
Drainage Area - The area contributing discharge to a stream at a given point.
Drop-down Entrance (Drop inlet) - A type of inlet which conveys the water from a higher elevation to a
lower elevation smoothly without a free fall at the inlet.
Elliptical Pipe - Pipe which is manufactured with a span greater than rise to be utilized in shallow cover
situations.
Ephemeral Stream A stream or reach of stream that does not flow for parts of the year. As used here,
the term includes intermittent streams with flow less than perennial. It is located above the water table
year-round. Ground water is not a source of water supply.
Feasible Term used to define BMP practicability. BMP shall be: technically feasible, implemented
within the procured highway right-of-way, safe for the traveling public and ODOT maintenance personnel,
cost effective as compared to the benefit, and will be legal at the State, Federal, and Local levels.
FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Flood Fringe The portion of the floodplain outside of the floodway.
Flood Hazard Evaluation - The act of determining if flood levels within a watercourse for a 100-year flood,
or other recurrence interval floods have a significantly increased detrimental impact on upstream
property.
Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) - The official map of a community on which FEMA has delineated both
the special hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.
Flood Insurance Study A book with information regarding flooding in a community that is developed in
conjunction with the FIRM. It discusses the engineering methods used to develop the FIRMs.
Flood Plain Lowland and relatively flat areas adjoining inland and coastal waters including, at a
minimum, that area subject to a one percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year. This area
encompasses the floodway and the floodway fringe.
Flood Plain Culverts Relief culverts that are placed in addition to a bankfull culvert at a higher elevation
across the flood plain to allow multiple outlets for floodwaters. Flood Plain Study - A more extensive
analysis of the effects of flood levels on upstream property than the Flood Hazard Evaluation. This
analysis is to be used when upstream properties appear to have been subjected to a significantly
increased detrimental effect from the flood flows.
Floodway The portion of the floodplain which is effective in carrying flow, within which this carrying
capacity must be preserved and where the flood hazard is generally highest.
Flowline see Thalweg
Forebay Depressed area that offers pretreatment of sediment laden storm water prior to a retention,
detention, or infiltration basin.
Friction Slope - The slope of the energy grade line.
Granular Material - A term relating to the uniform size of grains or crystals in rock, larger than sand or pea
gravel.

vi

January 2015

Grate - A type of screen made from sets of bars used to allow the interception of flow, and also to cover
an area for pedestrian or vehicular traffic.
Headwall - The structural appurtenance placed at the open end of a pipe to control an adjacent highway
embankment and protect the pipe end from undercutting.
Headwater - That depth of water impounded upstream of a culvert due to the influence of the culvert
constriction, friction, and configuration.
Highest Known Water Elevation The highest known flood water in record.
Hydraulic Grade Line - A line coinciding with the level of flowing water in an open channel. In a closed
conduit operating under pressure, a line representing the distance water would rise in a pitot tube at any
point along a pipe. The hydraulic grade line is equal to the pressure head (P/) along the pipe.
Hydraulic Gradient - The slope of the hydraulic grade line for a storm sewer or culvert.
Idealized Channel Geometry - Physical, geometric, and hydraulic characteristics of a channel determined
from empirical relationships.
Impervious Surface Hardened pavement surface.
Infiltration Rate The rate at which water penetrates the surface of the soil at any given instant. The rate
can be limited by the infiltration capacity of the soil or the rate at which water is applied.
Inlet - A structure for capturing concentrated surface flow. May be located along the roadway, in a gutter,
in the highway median, or in the field.
Inlet Control - The situation where the culvert hydraulic performance is controlled by the entrance
geometry only.
Intermittent Stream A stream that is dry for part of the year, ordinarily more than 3 months.
Manhole - A structure by which one may access a closed drainage system.
MS4 Phase II Regulated Area Area that has been designated by the Ohio EPA that requires a storm
water management plan to discharge storm water.
Multiple Cell Culvert - A culvert with more than one barrel.
New Development Project Projects that change the land use of a site from undeveloped to developed
characteristics.
Normal Water Elevation The water elevation in a stream which has not been affected by a recent heavy
rain runoff. The water level which could be found in the stream most of the year. This elevation will be
lower than the ordinary high water.
Ordinary High Water The line on the shore established by the fluctuation of water and indicated by
physical characteristics such as: a clear natural line impressed on the bank, shelving, changes in the
character of soil, destruction of terrestrial vegetation, or other appropriate means that consider the
characteristics of the surrounding areas. This elevation is lower than the highest known water.
Outlet Control - The situation where the culvert hydraulic performance is determined by the controlling
water surface elevation at the outlet, the slope, length and roughness of the culvert barrel, as well as the
entrance geometry.
Overland Flow - Water which travels over a surface and reaches a stream.

January 2015

vii

Perennial Stream A stream that flows continuously for all or most of the year. The water table is located
above the stream bed for most of the year.
Permeability The quality of the soil that enables water to move downward through the soil profile. It is
measured in units of inches per hour.
pH - The reciprocal of the negative logarithm of the Hydrogen ion concentration. Neutral water has a pH
value of 7. A measure of the acidity of a substance, if less than 7; alkalinity if greater than 7.
Pipe Arch - Pipe which is manufactured with a span greater than rise (semicircular crown, small-radius
corners, and large radius invert) to be utilized in shallow cover situations.
Pipe Underdrain - A longitudinal subsurface drainage system composed of a perforated pipe at the
bottom of a narrow trench filled with permeable material and lined with a geotextile in erodible soils, with
the intent of draining surface and/or ground waters away from the pavement base and/or subbase.
Porosity The volume of voids divided by the total volume and multiplied by 100.
Prefabricated Edge Drain - A longitudinal underdrain system utilizing a narrow trench and a vertically
elongated, perforated water carrier with the intent of draining surface and/or ground water away from the
pavement base and/or subbase.
Prefabricated Structure - Any drainage structure which is manufactured off site and transported to the
location of intended use. It may be of various materials, including concrete, clay, metal, thermoplastics,
etc. It may be of various shapes including circular, elliptical, rectangular, arched, etc.
Premium Joints - Watertight joints.
Pretreatment Preliminary filtering of sediment laden storm water prior to secondary treatment through a
structural best management practice.
Rainfall Intensity (i) - The amount of rainfall occurring in a unit of time, normally given in inches per hour.
Reference Reach - A length of channel with stable geometric, physical, and hydraulic characteristics. A
representation of the desired outcome of a restored channel.
Retention Basin A structure that holds water on a permanent basis.
Roughness Coefficient (n) - The measure of texture on the surface of channels and conduits. Usually
represented by the n-value coefficient used in Mannings open channel flow equation.
Runoff - That part of the precipitation which runs off the surface of a drainage area after all abstractions
are accounted for.
Sanitary Sewer - A conduit or pipe system which carries household and/or industrial wastes. Sanitary
sewers do not convey storm water.
Sediment Basin - A basin or tank in which stormwater containing settleable solids is retained, to remove
by gravity or filtration a part of the suspended matter.
Sediment Dam - A dam that is designed to allow suspended sediment to settle out of flowing water in a
controlled area.
Short-circuiting The act of storm water bypassing the intended route.
Soil Bioengineering The use of live and dead plant materials, in combination with natural and synthetic
support materials, for slope stabilization, erosion reduction, and vegetative establishment.

viii

January 2015

Spring Line - The locus of the horizontal extremities of a transverse section of a conduit.
Step Backwater or Standard Step Method - An iterative use of the energy equation for determining the
water surface profile of an open channel.
Storm Sewer - A conduit or pipe drainage system that conveys storm water, subsurface water,
condensate, or similar discharge, but not household or industrial wastes.
Thalweg The lowest bed elevation in a natural channel cross section. Also used in reference to the
profile line extending down a channel along the lowest bed elevation.
Tailwater - The depth of flow in the stream directly downstream of a drainage facility, measured from the
invert at the culvert outlet. Often calculated for the discharge flowing in the natural stream without the
highway constriction. Term is usually used in culvert design and is the depth measured from the
downstream flow line of the culvert to the water surface.
Time of Concentration (tc) - Time required for water to flow from the most distant point on a drainage area
to the measurement or collection point.
TMDL (total maximum daily load) Regulated Stream An Impaired water body as defined by the Ohio
EPA that can still meet water quality standards if the daily maximum pollutant load is regulated.
Two Stage Channel A channel that contains a cross sectional area for low and high discharges.
Water of The United States - Water bodies subject to Army Corps of Engineers jurisdiction through
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. They include all interstate waters such as lakes, rivers, streams
(including intermittent streams) and wetlands. Ephemeral streams are included if they have a clearly
defined channel.

January 2015

ix

Design Reference Documents


Highway Hydrology (FHWA Hydraulic Design Series No. 2)
Design Charts for Open Channel Flow (FHWA Hydraulic Design Series No. 3)
Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts (FHWA Hydraulic Design Series No. 5)
River Engineering For Highway Encroachments (FHWA Hydraulic Series No. 6)
Design of Stable Channels with Flexible Linings (Federal Highway Engineering Circular No. 15)
Evaluating Scour at Bridges (FHWA Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18)
Stream Stability at Highway Structures (FHWA Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 20)
Urban Drainage Design Manual Second Edition (FHWA Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 22)
Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures Experience, Selection, and Design Guidance
(FHWA Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23)
Estimation of Peak-Frequency Relations, Flood Hydrographs, and Volume - Duration - Frequency
Relations of Ungaged Small Urban Streams in Ohio (USGS Open-File Report 93-135)
Estimation of Flood Volumes and Simulation of Flood Hydrographs for Ungaged Small Rural Streams in
Ohio (USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 93-4080)
Culvert Durability Study (ODOT/L&D/82-1)
Internal Energy Dissipators for Culverts (FHWA/OH-84/007)
Standard Construction Drawings (ODOT)
Construction and Material Specifications Handbook (ODOT)
Rainwater and Land Development, Ohios Standards for Stormwater Management Land Development
and Urban Stream Protection (Third Edition, 2006).
Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Practices and Processes (United States Department of
Agriculture), October 1998
Additional design resources can be found at the FHWA website at:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/hydpub.htm.

Bankfull Characteristics of Ohio Streams and Their Relation to Peak Streamflows (Scientific
Investigations Report 2005-5153)
A Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Web Application for Ohio (Scientific Investigations Report 20065312
FHWA Ultra Urban BMP webpage. (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ultraurb/index.htm)
USEPA National Pollutant Discharge webpage
(http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/menuofBMP/menu.cfm)
Urban Runoff Quality Management, WEF Manual of Practice No. 23, 1998, published jointly by the WEF
and ASCE.
Ohio Environmental Protection Agencyhttp://www.epa.state.oh.us

January 2015

Table of Contents
(Revised January 2015)

1000 Drainage Design Criteria


1001 Hydraulic Design Criteria ................................................................................................................ 10-1
1001.1 Responsibilities ............................................................................................................... 10-1
1001.2 Natural Streams .............................................................................................................. 10-1
1002 Pipe Criteria .................................................................................................................................... 10-1
1002.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 10-1
1002.1.1 Deviation by ODOT Districts ........................................................................... 10-1
1002.1.2 Deviation by Local ........................................................................................... 10-1
1002.2 General Requirements .................................................................................................... 10-2
1002.2.1 Pipe Materials ................................................................................................. 10-2
1002.2.2 Outlet Velocity Control .................................................................................... 10-2
1002.2.3 Special Shapes ............................................................................................... 10-2
1002.2.4 Structure File Number/Culvert File Number .................................................... 10-2
1002.3 Conduit Types ................................................................................................................. 10-2
1002.3.1 Type A Conduits ............................................................................................. 10-2
1002.3.2 Type B Conduits ............................................................................................. 10-3
1002.3.3 Type C Conduits ............................................................................................. 10-4
1002.3.4 Type D Conduits ............................................................................................. 10-4
1002.3.5 Type E Conduits ............................................................................................. 10-4
1002.3.6 Type F Conduits .............................................................................................. 10-4
1002.3.7 Culvert Rehabilitation ...................................................................................... 10-5
1003 Hydrology ........................................................................................................................................ 10-6
1003.1 Estimation of Magnitude and Frequency of Floods on Ohio Streams ............................ 10-6
1003.1.1 General ........................................................................................................... 10-6
1003.1.2 Alternate Discharge Sources for Bridges ....................................................... 10-6
1003.1.3 Limitations ....................................................................................................... 10-6
1004 Flood Clearance .............................................................................................................................. 10-7
1004.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 10-7
1004.2 Design Year Frequency .................................................................................................. 10-7
1005 Highway Encroachments on Flood Plains ...................................................................................... 10-7
1005.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 10-7
1005.1.1 Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) ........................................................................ 10-7
1005.1.2 Flood Hazard Mapping .................................................................................... 10-8
1005.1.3 ODOT Self-Permit Process ............................................................................. 10-8
1005.2 Type of Studies ............................................................................................................... 10-9
1005.2.1 Flood Hazard Evaluation................................................................................. 10-9
1005.2.2 Detailed Flood Plain Study .............................................................................. 10-9
1006 Allowable Headwater ...................................................................................................................... 10-9
1006.1 Design Storm .................................................................................................................. 10-9
1006.2 Culvert Headwater Controls ............................................................................................ 10-9
1006.2.1 Design Storm Controls .................................................................................... 10-9
1006.2.2 Check Storm Controls ................................................................................... 10-10
1006.2.3 Limitations ..................................................................................................... 10-10
1006.2.4 Controls Specific to Flood Plain Insurance Studies ...................................... 10-10
1006.3 Bridge Headwater Control ............................................................................................. 10-10
1006.4 Controls Specific to Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) ...................................................... 10-11
1007 Pipe Removal Criteria ................................................................................................................... 10-11
1007.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 10-11
1007.2 Asbestos pipe................................................................................................................ 10-11
1008 Conduit Design Criteria ................................................................................................................. 10-12
1008.1 Corrugated and Spiral Rib Steel and Aluminum Pipes, and Corrugated Steel and
Aluminum Pipe Arches .............................................................................................................. 10-12
1008.1.1 Material Durability ......................................................................................... 10-12
1008.1.2 Designation and Thickness ........................................................................... 10-12
1008.1.3 Cambered Flow Line ..................................................................................... 10-12

1008.1.4 Height of Cover ............................................................................................. 10-12


1008.1.5 Foundation Reports ...................................................................................... 10-12
1008.2 Rigid Pipe ...................................................................................................................... 10-12
1008.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10-12
1008.2.2 Height of Cover ............................................................................................. 10-13
1008.3 Thermoplastic Pipe ....................................................................................................... 10-13
1008.3.1 Height of Cover ............................................................................................. 10-13
1008.4 Corrugated Steel and Aluminum Box Culverts and Corrugated Steel Long Span Culverts.
.................................................................................................................................................. 10-13
1008.4.1 Designation and Thickness ........................................................................... 10-13
1008.4.2 Height of Cover ............................................................................................. 10-13
1008.4.3 Foundation Reports ...................................................................................... 10-13
1008.5 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts .................................................................. 10-13
1008.5.1 Designation ................................................................................................... 10-13
1008.5.2 Height of Cover ............................................................................................. 10-14
1008.5.3 Structural Design Criteria .............................................................................. 10-14
1008.6 Precast Reinforced Concrete Three-Sided Flat-Topped Culverts ................................ 10-14
1008.6.1 Designation ................................................................................................... 10-14
1008.6.2 Height of Cover ............................................................................................. 10-14
1008.6.3 Structural Design Criteria .............................................................................. 10-14
1008.6.4 Foundation Reports ...................................................................................... 10-14
1008.7 Precast Reinforced Concrete Arch Sections ................................................................ 10-14
1008.7.1 Designation ................................................................................................... 10-14
1008.7.2 Height of Cover ............................................................................................. 10-15
1008.7.3 Structural Design Criteria .............................................................................. 10-15
1008.7.4 Foundation Reports ...................................................................................... 10-15
1008.8 Precast Reinforced Concrete Round Sections ............................................................. 10-15
1008.8.1 Designation ................................................................................................... 10-15
1008.8.2 Height of Cover ............................................................................................. 10-16
1008.8.3 Structural Design Criteria .............................................................................. 10-16
1008.8.4 Foundation Reports ...................................................................................... 10-16
1008.9 Arch or Flat Slab Top Culvert Foundations ................................................................... 10-16
1008.10 Bridge Foundations ..................................................................................................... 10-17
1008.11 Waterproofing Membrane ........................................................................................... 10-17
1008.12 Precast Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab Tops, Catch Basin Tops, and Inlet Tops ...... 10-18
1008.13 Wingwall Design.......................................................................................................... 10-18
1009 Subsurface Pavement Drainage ................................................................................................... 10-18
1009.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 10-18
1009.2 Types of Subsurface Drainage ..................................................................................... 10-18
1009.2.1 Pipe Underdrains .......................................................................................... 10-18
1009.2.2 Construction Underdrains ............................................................................. 10-19
1009.2.3 Prefabricated Edge Drains ............................................................................ 10-19
1009.2.4 Aggregate Drains .......................................................................................... 10-19
1010 Maintenance of Traffic Drainage ................................................................................................... 10-20
1010.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 10-20
1011 Temporary Structures ................................................................................................................... 10-20

1000 Drainage Design Criteria


1001 Hydraulic Design Criteria
1001.1 Responsibilities
The Office of Hydraulic Engineering (OHE) is responsible for the hydraulic design standards for all
surface drainage systems and bridge structures owned and maintained by the Department. Further
responsibility includes: conduit durability, culvert inspection and inventory, post construction storm water
best management practices, and the Departments Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4)
program.

1001.2 Natural Streams


Channel designs and channel relocations of all natural streams passing through a proposed highway
facility will be the responsibility of the owner. All other channel designs and channel relocations of natural
streams are the responsibility of OHE.

1002 Pipe Criteria


1002.1 Introduction
The Departments Pipe Criteria governs the determination of the size and type of pipe specified or
permitted for the various items of highway drainage financed totally or in part with state or federal funds.
Deviations from this Pipe Criteria concerning type of pipe or pipe placement must be based on sound
engineering judgment and/or life cycle cost analysis. Deviations involving the specification of only one
type of pipe material where special conditions prevail must include sound engineering judgment such as:

Excessive cover for a rigid pipe.


Where a larger corrugated pipe would require a higher pavement grade to satisfy minimum cover
requirements or require more cells than a rigid alternate.
Where a metal pipe arch would be required as an alternate to a round rigid pipe.
The outfall velocity would require an energy dissipater.
Site conditions prevented the existing conduit material to meet design service life. Verification
that the existing conduit material had been correctly designed to ODOT durability design needs to
be documented.

The use of a single material type is subject to the approval of OHE.


1002.1.1 Deviation by ODOT Districts
ODOT Districts may submit a written request for deviation from this Pipe Criteria. Include documentation
that justifies the deviation and the completed Drainage Criteria form (see Appendix A). Submit the
documentation to the Administrator of OHE.
1002.1.2 Deviation by Local
Proposed deviations from this Pipe Standard and/or construction specifications by local political
subdivisions or agencies will be considered for all portions of the project that are maintained by the
political subdivision or agency.
ODOT Districts may permit a deviation from this Pipe Standard provided the local political subdivision or
agency agrees to fund any additional costs inferred due to the conduit material selection or preferred
construction methods. The deviation requires alternate bid items, per Section 1307.2.7 of L&D Volume 3,
to determine the additional costs. The alternatives include ODOTs Pipe Standard/construction methods
and the locals material selection/construction methods. Add additional notes or details as required by the
local.
January 2015

10-1

Drainage Design Criteria


1002.2 General Requirements
1002.2.1 Pipe Materials
The type of pipe materials listed under the various conduit types in Section 611.02 of the Construction
and Material Specifications are considered equal within their size, structural and material durability
limitations.
1002.2.2 Outlet Velocity Control
When permissible pipe alternates have different velocity characteristics, the design specified for erosion
control will satisfy the most severe velocity condition of the permissible alternates. In this case, erosion
control refers to controls placed in the stream channel at the outlet end of the pipe such as rock channel
protection, and does not refer to energy dissipaters.
Where the calculated culvert outlet velocity exceeds 20 feet per second or 15 feet per second in areas of
poor soil such as fine sand or sandy silt, roughness elements (protruding concrete rings inside the pipe)
may be specified at the outlet end of the alternates to reduce the velocity below the maximum allowable.
The design of internal energy dissipator ring chambers is provided in report FHWA/OH-84/007 Internal
Energy Dissipators for Culverts. This report and ring chamber details can be obtained from OHE.
Where the outlet velocity for a corrugated pipe is less than 20 feet per second while the outlet velocity for
a smooth pipe requires a ring chamber, the corrugated pipe may be specified exclusively.
1002.2.3 Special Shapes
Special shaped conduits (elliptical concrete, corrugated metal arch or pipe arch, or prefabricated box or
three-sided structures) are generally limited for use under shallow cover installations or extremely low or
restrictive headwater control otherwise requiring multiple circular conduits to satisfy allowable headwater
conditions. Generally elliptical concrete and corrugated metal pipe arch of the required size to satisfy
hydraulic conditions are to be shown on the plan.
Special shaped conduits may be provided to conform to the cross-sectional geometry of sensitive
streams identified in the environmental documentation.
Where corrugated metal and structural plate pipe arches are specified or permitted, a foundation
investigation shall be submitted as required by Section 1008.1.5.
1002.2.4 Structure File Number/Culvert File Number
Structures having an opening measured along the centerline of roadways of 10 or greater require a
Structure File Number (SFN). Multiple openings where the extreme ends of the openings are 10 or
greater also require a SFN, where the clear distance between opening is less than half of the smaller
contiguous opening.
Structures having an opening measured along the centerline of roadway of less than 10 require a Culvert
File Number (CFN). The CFN is provided by the District Office in accordance to the Culvert Management
Manual.

1002.3 Conduit Types


1002.3.1 Type A Conduits
Type A conduits shall be designated for soil-tight, sealed-joint, open-ended cross drains under pavements
and paved shoulders. The minimum size culvert (or cross drain) to be specified shall be based on the
roadway type and depth of fill from the flowline to roadway surface.
10-2

January 2015

Drainage Design Criteria


The minimum required round (or equivalent deformed) pipe sizes are listed in Figure 1002-1. For culverts
under freeways or high fills (16 feet), the size shall be increased one pipe size over the required size to
allow for future repair. Ensure the pipe is only upsized once.
All hydraulically adequate pipe alternates which provide the required service life shall be shown on the
plans and listed in the pertinent pay item. In the applicable size ranges, alternates should include, vitrified
clay, concrete, plastic, corrugated steel, and corrugated aluminum. For corrugated metal pipe, the
corrugation profile which requires the thinnest metal shall be listed. Where durability requires increased
thicknesses of the corrugated steel alternate, the 1-inch corrugation profile should be specified for pipe
diameters over 48 inches. For the steel corrugation profile specified, all combinations of thickness and
protection providing the required service life shall be specified.
If the alternates listed in the plan are different sizes, show the pipe length associated with the smallest
pipe size.
When extending existing Type A conduits, ensure the extensions match the existing material in kind.
Furnish all Type A conduits under State and Federal routes with a minimum service life of 50 years. Use
a service life of 75 years at sites that have one of the following characteristics:
1. Fill Height >= 16 feet (measured from flowline to finished grade)
2. Freeways
The pH of the normal stream flow and the presence of abrasive flow conditions are factors that determine
the material durability and service life. Measure the pH of the normal stream flow in the field using a
calibrated pH meter capable of measuring to a tenth. Determine if the streambed material is abrasive by
observation. Presence of sand, pea gravel, or sharp cobbles where a stream gradient or flow is sufficient
to cause movement of the material would be an indicator that the site is abrasive. Otherwise, the site
should be considered non-abrasive. Field measurement of pH is required. Use Figures 1002-2 and
1002-3 if flow is not present in the conduit.
Use Figures 1002-4, 5 and 6 to determine the pipe materials for the design service life. These tabulations
are based on the ODOT Culvert Durability Study and later reports.
Ensure the pH and abrasiveness determination is included in the plans in accordance to L&D, Volume 3.
If it is known that future flow conditions will be more corrosive than existing conditions, specify protection
that is greater than what is currently required. Submit documentation of the known future flow condition
and the proposed additional protection..
1002.3.2 Type B Conduits
Type B conduits shall be designated for soil-tight, sealed joint sewers under pavements, paved shoulders,
and commercial or industrial drives.
In areas with highly erodible soils (e.g., fine sands or silts), premium joints shall be provided.
Additional protection (epoxy coating as per 706.03 for concrete pipe and polymer coating per 707.04 for
asphalt paved corrugated steel pipe) shall be provided for storm sewers carrying corrosive flow.
Conduit placed through MSE walls or in the fill of MSE walls are limited to 706.02 with joints per 706.11.
The design service life for all Type B conduit is 75 years. No additional design considerations are
required to achieve the design service life.

January 2015

10-3

Drainage Design Criteria


1002.3.3 Type C Conduits
Type C conduits shall be designated for soil-tight, sealed joint sewers not under pavements, paved
shoulders, or commercial or industrial drives.
In areas with highly erodible soils (e.g., fine sands or silts), premium joints shall be provided.
Additional protection (epoxy coating as per 706.03 for concrete pipe and polymer coating per 707.04 for
asphalt paved corrugated steel pipe) shall be provided for storm sewers carrying corrosive flow.
The design service life for all Type C conduit is 75 years. No additional design considerations are
required to achieve the design service life.
1002.3.4 Type D Conduits
Type D conduits shall be designated for pipes under driveways and bikeways. The minimum size
required is 12 inches. For sizes 24 inches and larger, it will be necessary to submit calculations and
specify pipe sizing required to satisfy the hydraulic controls. Such analyses shall be submitted with the
Drainage Review plans. The design frequency used to analyze the hydraulic performance of the Type D
conduit is the same as that used for the flow capacity of the connected ditch or channel and the
headwater for that frequency shall not exceed a point 1 foot below the edge of the pavement. If potential
exists for the drive pipe headwater to encroach on the adjacent roadway, the drive pipe shall be sized
utilizing a design frequency as per 1004.2.
Generally, the pipe alternates listed in 611.02 of the Construction and Material Specifications are
applicable, except that equal size corrugated pipe will provide satisfactory alternates for sizes smaller
than 24 inches. If the control is critical, a hydraulic analysis will be required to determine the proper size
of pipe alternates.
Drive pipes under commercial or industrial drives shall be designed for material durability as per 1002.3.1.
Additional protection for residential and field drives may be specified if conditions warrant.
1002.3.5 Type E Conduits
Type E conduits shall be designated for farm drain headers inside or outside of the right-of-way lines.
Headers are ordinarily provided to intercept small, closely spaced lines in a tiled field thereby precluding
the need for numerous field tile outlets through the backslope of the highway ditch.
1002.3.6 Type F Conduits
Type F conduits shall be designated where a butt joint or a short length jointed pipe would be undesirable
as noted below:
A. For the steep portion of a median outlet under an embankment slope 4:1 or steeper, including any
necessary pipe bends.
B. For the outlets of underdrains or farm drains through the slope or connecting to a drainage structure.
When used for underdrain outlets, the following pay item description shall be used: Item 611
"
Conduit, Type F for Underdrain Outlets. Provide 10 feet of conduit at each outlet into a drainage
structure.
C. For farm drains larger than 12 inches that outlet through slopes flatter than 4:1, provide a 20 foot
length of Type F Conduit with an animal guard at the outlet.
D. For pipe underdrains that span the trench of a lower conduit, unless the crossing is more than 12
inches above the granular backfill of the lower conduit, provide a minimum length of 10 feet of Type F
Conduit.

10-4

January 2015

Drainage Design Criteria


Type F conduits may be used beyond the paved shoulder to eliminate a ditch in front of a yard where
such ditch elimination can be justified. When required by hydraulic analysis, all proper sized alternates
shall be specified.
1002.3.7 Culvert Rehabilitation
A range of material applications and solutions are available for culvert rehabilitation. These solutions are
used to extend the service life of existing conduits by adding durability or in some cases structural
strength. The following specifications or methods are available:
A. CMS 611.11 Field Paving of Existing Pipe
B. Supplemental Specification 833 Conduit Renewal Using Spray Applied Structural Liner
C. Supplemental Specification 834 Conduit Renewal Using Resin Based Liner
D. Supplemental Specification 837 Liner Pipe (various material)
E. Supplemental Specification 841 Conduit Renewal Using Spiral Wound Liner
F. Supplemental Specification 937 Polyethylene Liner Pipe
G. Supplemental Specification 938 Steel Reinforced Thermoplastic Ribbed Pipe
Field paving of existing conduits has been a solution to add durability to conduits for many years. This
solution is a cost effective way to add many years of service life to an existing conduit provided the culvert
has good structural shape and is structurally sound (ie: not moving). This solution should always be
evaluated first.
Supplemental Specification 833 Conduit Renewal Using Spray Applied Structural Liner is a solution that
provides structural rehabilitation to existing conduits via a spray application. The interior of the conduit is
spray lined with a factory blended cementitious, geopolymer or resin based material.
Supplemental Specification 834 Conduit Renewal Using Resin Based Liner is a solution that adds
durability by placing a resin based material on the interior of the existing conduit via a spray application.
This solution will add service life to an existing conduit.
Supplemental Specification 837- Liner Pipe offers a solution that lines an existing conduit with another
conduit. This specification requires the slip-lined conduit to be grouted in-place and in some cases would
be considered a structural solution if the slip-lining material is designed accordingly. Supplemental
Specifications 937 & 938 are additional material options utilized by Supplemental Specification 837.
Ensure all available Liner Pipe materials in Supplemental Specification 837 are shown in the plans if they
satisfy the hydraulic conditions. Ensure the hydraulic calculations are evaluated for the alternative slipline materials. Submit all Liner Pipe projects to OHE for review and approval if one material alternative is
specified in the plans. Furnish a cost analysis verifying the use of a single material option.
Supplemental Specification 841 Conduit Renewal Using Spiral Wound Liner is a unique solution that
may be used to line various shaped conduits such as: Round, Elliptical, Box, or Pipe Arch. This solution
custom manufactures the conduit on site from polyvinyl chloride material with either a special machine or
by manual labor. The manufactured conduit is placed into the existing conduit and the void is filled with
grout. This solution adds durability to the existing host conduit. Use of this solution requires approval
from OHE. The culvert rehabilitation method shall be designed to match existing headwater conditions.
Appropriate erosion control measures shall be designed for increased outlet velocities.
If the proposed design does not meet the existing headwater conditions or the outside diameter constraint
described above, contact OHE for approval.

January 2015

10-5

Drainage Design Criteria


Additional information and guidance for culvert rehabilitation can be found at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/Engineering/Hydraulics/Pages/default.aspx

1003 Hydrology
1003.1 Estimation of Magnitude and Frequency of Floods on Ohio Streams
1003.1.1 General
USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 89-4126 Techniques for Estimating Flood-Peak
Discharges of Rural Unregulated Stream in Ohio was developed cooperatively by the United States
Geological Survey and the State of Ohio. This bulletin is an update of Bulletin 32 (1959), Bulletin 43
(1969), and Bulletin 45 (1977). This report provides the latest hydrologic information for determining the
magnitude and frequency of floods for rural streams in Ohio. USGS Report 06-5312 StreamStats is a
USGS web based application for estimating stream flow statistics and basin characteristics on
unregulated streams. Use StreamStats or the techniques presented in Report 03-4164 to determine the
design peak discharge for hydraulic structures designated by or for ODOT. When applying this
technique, the tributary with the largest contributing drainage area, not the longest reach, should be
considered. USGS Water Resources Investigation Report 93-4080 Estimation of Flood Volumes and
Simulation of Flood Hydrographs for Ungaged Small Rural Streams in Ohio shall be used to determine
flood volumes and hydrographs for rural areas within the limits prescribed in the report.
1003.1.2 Alternate Discharge Sources for Bridges
Discharge estimates may be calculated by other methods for comparisons against verified flood elevations and other known river data to ensure that the most realistic discharge for the area is used for the
design of the waterway opening. Submit calculations and comparisons to the Office of Hydraulic
Engineering for review.
Flood Insurance Studies (FIS); U.S. Corps of Engineer Flood Studies; U.S. Soils Conservation Studies;
U.S. Water Resources Data and other reliable sources may be used as reference information in estimating discharges and flood elevations. However, for waterway crossings located in a FIS area, the base
discharge (Q100) from the FIS takes precedence over all other calculated discharges.
Where a U.S. Geological Survey estimate is in conflict with that of another agency, contact the agency in
order to resolve the discrepancy. In general, the U.S. Geological Survey estimate is given preference.
Design proposed structures upstream or downstream from a flood control facility for discharges as
supplied by the U.S. Corps of Engineers, Ohio Department of Natural Resources or the agency responsible for the flood control facility.
1003.1.3 Limitations
Specific limitations on the use of the USGS reqression equations can be found in each report. The USGS
Report 89-4126 and USGS 2006-5312 were developed for flood-peak discharge estimates for
unregulated streams draining rural basins.
USGS Open File Report 2432 "Estimation of Peak-Frequency Relations, Flood Hydrographs, and
Volume - Duration - Frequency Relations of Ungaged Small Urban Streams in Ohio may be used in the
design of culverts, detention basins, large storm sewers, and large open channels with urban drainage
areas within the limits prescribed in the report.
Use the rational method (Section 1101.2.2) in the design of pavement inlets, roadway ditches, culverts,
and small storm sewers. Use this method for drainage areas up to a maximum of 200 acres where no
well defined natural channel exists and sheet flow prevails.

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For additional guidance on the proper use of USGS regression equations see Transportation Research
Record 1319 Report Information Needs for the Proper Application of Hydrologic Regional Regression
Equations.

1004 Flood Clearance


1004.1 General
Where a new highway crosses or is located in a flood plain, the highway grade shall normally be set such
that the low edge of the pavement will clear the design water surface profile for existing conditions by 3
feet, and bridges (low chord) will generally clear the water surface profile of the design year frequency
flood. These clearances may be reduced where an economic comparison of alternatives shows that a
reduction in clearance will result in significant savings, giving full consideration to future flood-related
costs relative to: highway operation, maintenance, and repair; highway-aggravated flood damage to other
property; and for additional or interrupted highway travel.
Flood clearances may also be reduced to protect important ecological resources as identified in the
environmental documentation. An economic comparison of alternatives shall be performed to determine
the future flood-related costs relative to: highway operation, maintenance, and repair; highwayaggravated flood damage to other property; and for additional or interrupted highway travel.

1004.2 Design Year Frequency


Freeways or other multi-lane facilities with limited access..... 50 Year
Other Highways (2000 ADT and over) and Freeway Ramps..25 Year
Other Highways (under 2000 ADT)........ 10 Year
*Bicycle pathway.. 5 Year
* Unless otherwise approved by OHE.

1005 Highway Encroachments on Flood Plains


1005.1 General
The requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, Volume 23, Part 650A, shall be followed for all
projects. All highways that encroach on flood plains, bodies of water or streams, shall be designed to
permit conveyance of the 100-year flood without causing significant damage to the highway, the stream,
body of water or other property.
Hydraulically design structures and/or channels to convey the design-year discharge. Ensure the
structure and/or channel will convey the 100-year discharge without causing property damage.
Inundation of the highway is acceptable for the 100-year discharge, but it is not permitted for the designyear discharge. Water surface elevations caused by existing structures do not have to be lowered to
meet the 100-year discharge.
Longitudinal highway encroachments require alternative location studies to be summarized in the
Conceptual Alternatives Study (L&D Section 1403.3).
1005.1.1 Flood Insurance Studies (FIS)
Special consideration must be given when designing a structure located within a reach of channel that is
part of a FIS. Perform a step backwater analysis of the flood plain to the extent required due to the
proposed work. The proposed maximum allowable 100-year water surface elevation is limited to the
existing 100-year water surface elevation presented in the FIS. Inform the Local Floodplain Coordinator
of any proposed construction within the limits of a flood prone area as designated by an FIS (see 1006.4).
Compliance to federal, state and local floodplain standards is required; however, obtaining a permit from
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the Local Floodplain Coordinator is not required for work administered by or for the Department. The
Department will self-permit under this process. In order to maintain and verify compliance, thorough
documentation is necessary. A Letter of Compliance and depending on the Zone a No-Rise Certification
will need to be submitted to the Local Flood Plain Coordinator. Locally administered projects are required
to obtain a permit from the Floodplain Coordinator.
http://soilandwater.ohiodnr.gov/portals/soilwater/pdf/floodplain/Floodplain%20Manager%20Community%2
0Contact%20List_10_14.pdf
1005.1.2 Flood Hazard Mapping
Flood hazard areas identified on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) are identified as a Special Flood
Hazard Area (SFHA). SFHA are defined as the area that will be inundated by the flood event having a 1percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. The 1-percent annual chance flood is
also referred to as the 100-year event. Floodways are created by a computer model that places
encroachments within the floodplain until a 1 foot surcharge is established using the 100 year event
discharge (see Figure 1006.1). The water elevation determined from the computer model for the
floodway is referred to as the base flood elevation (BFE). Local authorities may reduce the allowable
surcharge below the 1 foot criteria, which is why early coordination with the Local Floodplain Coordinator
is required.
The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) administers the Floodplain Management Program for
Ohio. ODNR has authority over Local Floodplain Coordinators in accordance to Ohio Revised Code.
Additional information can be found at: http://soilandwater.ohiodnr.gov/water-use-planning/floodplainmanagement
SFHAs are labeled as different Zones. Flood Insurance Zone designations may be accessed at the
following web site:
https://msc.fema.gov/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/info?storeId=10001&catalogId=10001&langId=1&content=floodZones&title=FEMA%2520Flood%2520Zone%2520Designations
The more common FIS Risk zones are as follows:
ZONE

DESCRIPTION

Areas subject to inundation by the 1-percent-annual-chance flood event. Because


detailed hydraulic analyses have not been performed, no BFE or flood depth is
shown.

AE, A1-A30

Areas subject to inundation by the 1-percent-annual-chance flood event determined


by detailed methods. BFEs are shown within these zones. (Zone AE is used on new
and revised maps in place of Zones A1-A30).

Construction within Zone A requires documentation through the ODOT self-permit process and
coordination with the Local Floodplain Coordinator. A BFE has not been established. Limit the water
surface surcharge to the requirements from the Local Floodplain Coordinator or one (1) foot, whichever is
less. Contact OHE if the allowable surcharge required by the Local Floodplain Coordinator is not
feasible.
DConstruction within Zone AE or A1-A30 requires documentation through the ODOT self-permit process,
coordination with FEMA, ODNR, and the Local Floodplain Coordinator. The allowable rise above the
BFE surcharge is limited to zero (0.00 feet). If the BFE is exceeded than a variance is required.
1005.1.3 ODOT Self-Permit Process
Furnish a letter of compliance and hydraulic calculations to the Local Floodplain Coordinator in Zone A
areas. Ensure the documentation is kept in the project file.
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Furnish a letter of compliance, no-rise certification and hydraulic calculations to the Local Floodplain
Coordinator if the rise above the BFE is zero (0.00 feet). Ensure the documentation is kept in the project
file.
See Appendix A for LD-50; No-Rise Certification and LD-51; Floodplain Letter of Compliance Template.
Furnish a non-compliance letter requesting a variance along with hydraulic calculations to the Local
Floodplain Coordinator and ODNR if the rise above the BFE is not zero (0.00). Further coordination
between the Local Floodplain Coordinator, ODNR and FEMA is required. Ensure the documentation is
kept in the project file.

1005.2 Type of Studies


1005.2.1 Flood Hazard Evaluation
A flood hazard evaluation is required for all water course involvements except for crossings where
roadway culverts are provided to satisfy minimum size requirements. . A Flood Hazard Evaluation is a
condition statement regarding the nature of the upstream area, the extent of upstream flooding, and
whether buildings are in the 100 year frequency flood plain. Perform the following for a flood hazard
evaluation:
A. Determine the water surface elevation of the design year and 100-year flood.
B. Delineate the water surface elevation for the design year and 100-year flood on a topographic map or
a digital map.
C. Evaluate the significance of any increase in the flooding limits.
1005.2.2 Detailed Flood Plain Study
If the Flood Hazard Evaluation indicates a significant increase in the flooding of upstream property, a
Detailed Flood Plain Study is required. Furnish a Detailed Flood Plain Study in highly urbanized areas
where the potential for flooding cannot be accurately assessed without an analysis of the entire flood
plain. For prefabricated structures, the Detailed Flood Plain Study, including a step-backwater analysis,
will be authorized after review of the Flood Hazard Evaluation, by OHE.

1006 Allowable Headwater


1006.1 Design Storm
The frequency of the design storm shall be as stated in Section 1004.2.

1006.2 Culvert Headwater Controls


1006.2.1 Design Storm Controls
Headwater depth for all culverts (Type A Conduits) shall not exceed any of the following controls for the
design storm:
A. 2 feet below the near, low edge of the pavement for drainage areas 1000 acres or greater and 1 foot
below for culverts draining less than 1000 acres.
B. 2 feet above the inlet crown of the culvert or above a tailwater elevation that submerges the inlet
crown in flat to rolling terrain.

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C. 4 feet above the inlet crown of a culvert in a deep ravine.
D. 1 foot below the near edge of pavement for bicycle pathways.
1006.2.2 Check Storm Controls
Headwater depth for all culverts (Type A Conduits) shall not exceed any of the following controls for the
applicable check frequency storm.
A. 2 feet below the lowest ground elevation adjacent to an occupied building for a 50-year storm (it is not
intended, however, to lower existing high water elevations around buildings).
B. The designer should generally limit the maximum 100-year headwater depth to twice the diameter or
rise of the culvert.
C. A replacement structure should be sized to prevent overtopping by the 100-year flood where such
overtopping would not occur with the existing structure.
D. A replacement structure should be sized such that flooding of upstream productive land is not
increased for the 100-year flood when compared to the existing structure. Judgment shall be used in
implementing this criteria, considering the type of upstream property and sensitivity to the accuracy of
the computed flood stages.
E. No increase in 100-year headwater elevation shall occur in a FEMA designated floodway.
1006.2.3 Limitations
1006.2.1 B and C; and 1006.2.2 B, are arbitrary headwater controls. When 1006.2.1 B is applicable, use
smooth pipe to establish the allowable headwater in feet. When 1006.2.1 C controls, use corrugated pipe
to establish the headwater and thereby permit the same headwater elevation regardless of type of pipe.
More heading will be considered if pipe sizes can be reduced and not cause flooding damage upstream
or excessive outlet velocity.
1006.2.1 B and C are arbitrary controls and generally apply to small culverts. Where large structures
(greater than or equal to 10 feet in span) are involved, the structure should be sized to pass the design
storm while maintaining a free water surface through the structure, unless tail water controls.
The near low edge of pavement is the location where roadway overtopping will occur. This may or may
not be located directly over the culvert. Where the overtopping point on the roadway is outside the
watershed break, the ditch break overflow elevation should be utilized as a headwater control in lieu of
1006.2.1 A.
1006.2.4 Controls Specific to Flood Plain Insurance Studies
When making an encroachment on a NFIP designated floodplain in the floodway fringe, the rise in the
water surface above the natural 100 year flood elevation is limited by the community. Contact the
community to determine the allowable rise.
No increase in the 100 year water surface is allowed when encroaching on a NFIP designated floodway.

1006.3 Bridge Headwater Control


Evaluate the headwater generated by a bridge in accordance to a flood hazard evaluation. Ensure the
headwater meets the following:
A. Match the existing headwater for a bridge replacement for the design storm and the check flood to the
maximum extent practicable. Any increase in headwaters verify the upstream impacts

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B. Design flood does not contact the low chord for new structures on new alignment.
C. Regulations from Conservancy Districts if they are more restrictive than the Departments
D. Controls specific to a FIS.

1006.4 Controls Specific to Flood Insurance Studies (FIS)


Contact the local floodplain coordinator early in the design process to determine the allowable headwater
increase and or the permitting requirements. A current list of floodplain coordinators may be found at:
http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Portals/7/floodpln/communitylist.pdf.
When making an encroachment on a FIS designated floodplain in the floodway fringe, the rise in the
water surface above the natural 100 year flood elevation is limited by the community. See Figure 1006-1
for a graphical definition of the floodway, floodway fringe, and flood plain.
No increase in the 100 year water surface is allowed when encroaching on a FIS designated floodway.

1007 Pipe Removal Criteria


1007.1 General
Use the following guidelines to determine whether an existing pipe, regardless of type, being taken out of
service should be abandoned or removed.
A. Pipes 8 inches in diameter or rise, or less, regardless of depth or height of fill, may be abandoned in
place.
B. Pipes 10 inches through 24 inches in diameter or rise with less than 3 feet of final cover should be
removed or filled; with more than 3 feet of final cover they may be abandoned in place. (The designer
should use discretion in removing small pipes under existing rigid pavement or base, which is to
remain in place.)
C. Pipes over 24 inches in diameter or rise should generally be removed. (The designer should use
discretion in removing any pipe with more than 10 feet of cover.)

1007.2 Asbestos pipe


Asbestos pipe is a regulated material. Designers should make reasonable efforts to identify existing
asbestos pipes in the plans and, when necessary, provide appropriate removal quantities.
In the past, pipe containing asbestos was allowed on ODOT, LPA and utility projects under the following
specifications:

ASTM C663 Asbestos-Cement Storm Drain Pipe


AASHTO M217
AWWA C400
AWWA C603
ASTM C296 Asbestos-Cement Pressure Pipe
ODOT CMS 707.09 Asbestos Bonded Bituminous Corrugated Steel Pipe and Pipe Arches
(Circa 1983)
ODOT CMS 706.15 Asbestos Cement Perforated Underdrain Pipe (Circa. 1973)

Transite is a common brand name for a type of asbestos pipe. Asbestos can also be found in insulation
wrapped around water pipes.
Reasonable efforts to identify asbestos pipes would include the following:
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A. Examination of original construction plans and specifications.
B. Contact with the owner of the pipe (e.g., utility company or LPA).
C. Inspection of the pipe for markings when the pipe is exposed during routine maintenance operations.
Removal of asbestos pipe is specified in the most current CMS as Item 202 Asbestos Pipe Removed. For
projects to be constructed under the 1997 CMS, use Item 202 Pipe Removed, As Per Plan and indicate
that the pipe must be removed by a certified asbestos contractor.
Asbestos is a hazard only when it becomes airborne. Pipes that are otherwise unaffected by ODOT work
do not need to be removed simply because they contain asbestos.
Not all asbestos pipes will be identified by a records search. Construction inspectors are being advised to
test suspicious pipe for asbestos. If asbestos pipe is identified, the contractor will be compensated by
change order.

1008 Conduit Design Criteria


1008.1 Corrugated and Spiral Rib Steel and Aluminum Pipes, and Corrugated
Steel and Aluminum Pipe Arches
1008.1.1 Material Durability
The Criteria outlined in Section 1002 specifying types of protective coatings and/or extra metal thickness
shall be followed.
1008.1.2 Designation and Thickness
The corrugation profile and required metal thickness for structural strength is furnished by the
Manufacturer in accordance to Construction and Material Specifications Handbook (CMS) Item 611.
1008.1.3 Cambered Flow Line
Where soil conditions at the site indicate that appreciable settlement is expected, provide a cambered
flow line. Show the cambered flow line as a vertical curve following the Manufacturer recommendation.
1008.1.4 Height of Cover
See General Notes for Figures 1008-1 through 1008-6 and 1008-15 through 1008-19 for minimum height
of cover.
1008.1.5 Foundation Reports
Conduct an investigation of the supporting foundation material to estimate the bearing capacity of the
material and determine that no settlement will occur. A foundation investigation is required for all
proposed metal pipe installations with 100 feet of fill or more and all pipe arch installations. Submit the
foundation report with the Stage 1 review.
Refer to section 1008.9 for information on foundation types.

1008.2 Rigid Pipe


1008.2.1 General
Where soil conditions at the site indicate that appreciable settlement is expected, provide a cambered
flow line. Show the cambered flow line as a vertical curve following the Manufacturer recommendation.
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1008.2.2 Height of Cover
The maximum allowable height of cover is measured from the top of the pipe to the pavement surface.
The minimum cover, from the top of the pipe to the top of the subgrade, or finish grade for pipe not under
pavements, is 9 inches; however, in no installation shall the distance from the top of the pipe to the
pavement surface be less than 15 inches.

1008.3 Thermoplastic Pipe


1008.3.1 Height of Cover
The maximum allowable height of cover is measured from the top of the conduit to the pavement surface
or to finished grade for pipes not under pavement.
The minimum cover, from the top of the pipe to the top of the subgrade, is 12 inches; however, in no
installation shall the distance from the top of the pipe to the pavement surface, or finish grade for pipes
not under pavement, be less than 18 inches.

1008.4 Corrugated Steel and Aluminum Box Culverts and Corrugated Steel Long
Span Culverts.
1008.4.1 Designation and Thickness
The corrugation profile and metal thickness required shall be in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD
Bridge Design Specifications design methodologies. Structural strength design is furnished by the
Manufacturer in accordance to Construction and Material Specifications Handbook (CMS) Item 611.
The skew of the structure relative to the roadway shall be given in 1 increments and typically should not
exceed 15.
1008.4.2 Height of Cover
In no case shall the minimum cover, measured from the trough of the corrugation profile to the pavement
surface, be less than 18 inches. In addition to the above requirements, corrugated steel and aluminum
box culverts shall be provided with adequate cover to ensure that the culvert rib stiffeners are located
completely within the subgrade.
1008.4.3 Foundation Reports
Conduct an investigation of the supporting foundation material and estimate the bearing capacity of the
foundation material. Submit the foundation report for all proposed metal box and long span culvert
installations with the Stage 1 review.

1008.5 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts


1008.5.1 Designation
The allowable sizes of Precast reinforced concrete box culverts shall be as given in Figure 1008-14. The
pay item description shall include the height of cover (design earth cover), rounded to the highest 1 foot.
Structures with a span of 12 feet or less shall be designed as per ASTM C 1577.
Structures with spans 14 feet or greater require a special design. CMS Item 706.05 refers to SS 940
which lists the special designs for each span and fill height (design cover).

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1008.5.2 Height of Cover
The maximum allowable height of cover is measured from the top of the culvert to the pavement surface.
The maximum height of cover will be limited to 10 feet. Greater covers may be provided contingent upon
the approval of the Manufacturer. A special design is required.
1008.5.3 Structural Design Criteria
The design loading information shall be included on the Culvert Detail Sheet or Site Plan.
Structures with spans 14 feet or greater are designed with the HL-93 loading. A 60 psf future wearing
surface is included in the dead loading only for structures with spans 14 or greater.

1008.6 Precast Reinforced Concrete Three-Sided Flat-Topped Culverts


1008.6.1 Designation
Precast reinforced concrete three-sided, flat-topped culverts shall have a minimum clear span of 14 feet
and minimum opening rise of 4 feet; and a maximum clear span of 34 feet and maximum opening rise of
10 feet.
The individual culvert units may be skewed in 5 increments with a maximum skew of 30. Designate the
skew of the structure relative to the roadway in 1 increments with a maximum skew of 30.
The minimum deck thickness for the culvert units is 12 inches and the minimum leg thickness for the
culvert units is 10 inches. The design should be based on these dimensions.
1008.6.2 Height of Cover
The maximum allowable height of cover is measured from the top of the culvert to the pavement surface.
The maximum height of cover should be limited to 5 feet. Greater covers may be provided contingent
upon the approval of the Manufacturer.
1008.6.3 Structural Design Criteria
Design Flat-topped, three-sided culverts in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications
design methodologies.
The design loading information (HL-93) shall be included on the Culvert Detail Sheet or Site Plan. Spans
greater than 12 feet shall have an additional load of 60 psf to allow for future roadway resurfacing.
1008.6.4 Foundation Reports
Conduct an investigation of the supporting foundation material and estimate the bearing capacity of the
foundation material. Submit the foundation report for all proposed flat-topped, three-sided culvert
installations with the Stage 1 review.
Show the footing and/or pedestal wall vertical and horizontal unfactored reaction forces in the plans.
Refer to section 1008.9 for information on foundation types.

1008.7 Precast Reinforced Concrete Arch Sections


1008.7.1 Designation
Precast reinforced concrete arch sections have a clear span of 12 to 34, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60 feet and an
opening rise of 4 feet through 13 feet (maximum). Use of other sizes requires that a Proprietary Waiver

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Request (Proprietary Product Approval Request) be completed and signed by the contracting agency. This form
may be found at the following web site:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/Planning/LocalPrograms/Pages/Local-Let-Procedures-andDocuments.aspx.
Designate the skew of the structure relative to the roadway in 1 increments with a maximum skew of 30.
Individual culvert sections may only be skewed with written permission from OHE.
Obtain the deck thickness and leg thickness for the culvert units from the manufacturer. Show the
maximum and minimum cover on the plans. Design the footing keyway based on the leg thickness plus 6
inches. Design the guardrail post length based on the deck thickness and cover.
Precast reinforced concrete arch sections may only be used for roadway grade separation structures with
written approval from the OSE. Standard design modifications, including but not limited to increased
concrete thickness, concrete admixtures, epoxy coating of concrete surfaces and epoxy coating of
reinforcing steel may be required for approval for use as roadway grade separation structures.
1008.7.2 Height of Cover
The maximum allowable height of cover is measured from the top of the culvert to the finished surface.
The maximum height of cover is limited to 12 feet. Cover greater than 12 feet may be provided
contingent upon the approval of the Manufacturer.
The minimum cover, from the top of the arch sections to the top of the pavement is 12 inches. However,
in no case shall the top of the arch sections be located above the top of subgrade.
1008.7.3 Structural Design Criteria
Precast Reinforced Concrete Arch Sections are designed in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge
Design Specifications design methodologies.
Show the design loading information (HL-93) with the future wearing surface load of 60 psf on the Culvert
Detail Sheet or Site Plan.
1008.7.4 Foundation Reports
Conduct an investigation of the supporting foundation material and estimate the bearing capacity of the
foundation material. Submit the foundation report for all precast reinforced concrete arch section culvert
installations with the Stage 1 review.
Show the footing and/or pedestal wall vertical and horizontal unfactored reaction forces in the plans.
Refer to section 1008.9 for information on foundation types.

1008.8 Precast Reinforced Concrete Round Sections


1008.8.1 Designation
Precast reinforced concrete round sections are one or two piece structures with a clear span of 12, 16,
20, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60, 66, 72, 78 and 84 feet available in various rises and shapes. Use of other
sizes requires that a Proprietary Waiver Request (Proprietary Product Approval Request) be completed and
signed by the contracting agency. This form may be found at the following web site:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/Planning/LocalPrograms/Pages/Local-Let-Procedures-andDocuments.aspx
Designate the skew of the structure relative to the roadway in 1 increments with a maximum skew of 30.
Individual culvert sections may only be skewed with written permission from OSE.
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Obtain the section thickness for the sections from the manufacturer. Show the maximum and minimum
cover on the plans. Design the footing keyway based on the section thickness plus 8 inches. Design the
guardrail post length based on the section thickness and cover.
Precast reinforced concrete round sections may only be used for roadway grade separation structures
with written approval from OHE. Standard design modifications, including but not limited to increased
concrete thickness, concrete admixtures, epoxy coating of concrete surfaces and epoxy coating of
reinforcing steel may be required for approval for use as roadway grade separation structures.
1008.8.2 Height of Cover
The maximum allowable height of cover is measured from the top of the round sections to the finished
surface. The maximum height of cover is limited to 12 feet. Cover greater than 12 feet may be provided
contingent upon the approval of the Manufacturer.
The minimum cover, from the top of the round sections to the top of the pavement is 12 inches. However,
in no case should the top of the arch sections be located above the top of subgrade.
1008.8.3 Structural Design Criteria
Design Precast Reinforced Concrete Round Sections in accordance with AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
Specifications design methodologies.
For all spans, show the design loading information (HL-93) with the future wearing surface load of 60 psf
on the Culvert Detail Sheet or Site Plan.
1008.8.4 Foundation Reports
Conduct an investigation of the supporting foundation material and estimate the bearing capacity of the
foundation material. Submit the foundation report for all precast reinforced concrete round section
installations with the Stage 1 review. Include with the foundation report a letter from the manufacturer
stating the reactions for foundation design.
Show the footing and/or pedestal wall vertical and horizontal unfactored reaction forces in the plans.
Refer to section 1008.9 for information on foundation types.

1008.9 Arch or Flat Slab Top Culvert Foundations


Arch or flat slab topped culverts are supported on either spread footings or deep foundations such as
piles or drilled shafts. When a series of precast, three-sided structures are used to produce a multiple
span structure over a waterway, spread footings are not permitted.
Provide a spread footing founded a minimum of 4 feet below the flow line on competent, scour resistant
native soils when there is no evidence of stream scour or degradation. Place the top of the footing below
the calculated contraction scour. Extend the leg of the culvert in order to lower the footing depth to a
maximum bottom depth of seven feet below the thalweg. Use deep foundations for all other cases.
Reasonable and prudent hydraulic analysis of a bridge design requires that an assessment be made of
the proposed bridges vulnerability to undermining due to potential scour. Because of the extreme hazard
and economic hardships posed by a rapid bridge collapse, special considerations must be given to
selecting appropriate flood magnitudes for use in the analysis.
The hydraulics engineer must always be aware of and use the most current scour forecasting technology.
Reference HEC-23, Volume 2, Section 6, Design Guideline 18, to estimate scour depths for three sided
structures, for all flow conditions. Use K r of 0.38, for the riprap sizing equation (18.1). Use Type C Rock

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Channel Protection as a minimum.
Access and/or download the HEC-23 publication from the
publications section of the http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/engineering/hydraulics/library_listing.cfm .
Provide a cost comparison justification study between alternative structure types, including bridges, when
utilizing a deep foundation. Submit the cost comparison justification study during the preliminary
engineering phase.
Provide a keyway in the foundation to set the arch or flat slab topped culverts into. The width of the
keyway is a minimum of 6 inches wider than the precast leg (3 inches on both sides of the leg). The
depth of the keyway is a minimum of 3 inches.

1008.10 Bridge Foundations


Perform a scour evaluation for all bridges not founded on scour resistant bedrock. When evaluating
scour for a replacement structure, review all inspection reports for evidence of stream degradation
(lowering of stream bed), scour or previous scour countermeasures. Compute scour depths with the
equations in HEC-18 (Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18, Pub. No. FHWA NHI 01-001), Evaluating
Scour at Bridges.
Consider scour depth in the design of the substructures and the location of the bottom of footings and
minimum tip elevations for piles and drilled shafts.
All major rehabilitation work requires a scour evaluation. The scour evaluation may consist of
determining what the bridge is founded on. For example, for a bridge rehabilitation, noting that the bridge
is founded on scour resistant bedrock or deep foundations to bedrock, would constitute the scour
evaluation. As a minimum, piles shall be embedded 15 ft. below the streambed elevation.
Provide a narrative of findings and recommended scour counter-measures in the Structure Type Study.
Include a statement regarding the susceptibility of the stream banks and flow line to scour, and also the
susceptibility of the piers and abutments to scour.
1008.10.1 Scour Design Flood Frequencies
Bridge foundations are designed to withstand the effects of scour caused by hydraulic conditions from
floods larger than the design flood. The frequencies for the scour design flood and the scour check flood
are determined by the hydraulic design flood frequency used to hydraulically size the bridge. Use the
following table to determine the flood frequency for scour:

Hydraulic Design Flood


Frequency
Q10
Q25
Q50

Scour Design Flood


Frequency
Q25
Q50
Q100

Scour Check Flood


Frequency
Q50
Q100
Q500

1008.11 Waterproofing Membrane


Apply an external waterproofing membrane to all precast reinforced concrete box culverts, three-sided
flat-topped culverts, arch culverts and round sections. Use Item 512 Waterproofing, Type 2 along the
vertical sides and Type 2 or 3 across the top of the structure. Type 3 waterproofing shall be used if
pavement is to be used directly on top of the structure. Provide an overlap of a minimum of 12 inches of
the top membrane to the vertical membrane.

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1008.12 Precast Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab Tops, Catch Basin Tops, and Inlet
Tops
Precast Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab Tops, Catch Basin Tops, and Inlet Tops shall be designed in
accordance with ASTM C478.
When the structure is under pavement and the span is greater than 10 feet, the design loading for the
structural design shall be HL-93.

1008.13 Wingwall Design


When not using the standard construction drawings or design data sheets, design wingwalls in
accordance to the current AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Assume no passive forces are
acting on the toe of the wall.

1009 Subsurface Pavement Drainage


1009.1 General
Subsurface pavement drainage is required on all projects. An exception may be made where the project
is located in an area having a granular subgrade. The subsurface drainage design shall be submitted
with the Preliminary Drainage review for approval.

1009.2 Types of Subsurface Drainage


There are three means of draining the pavement subsurface - pipe underdrains, prefabricated edge
drains, and aggregate drains. Generally, pipe underdrains are used with paved shoulders and curbed
pavements (Figures 1009-1 through 1009-7 and 1009-11). Prefabricated edge drains are typically used
where existing concrete pavement with paved shoulders are to remain. Aggregate drains are used with
bituminous surface treated shoulders, aggregate shoulders, and for spot improvements (Figures 1009-8
and 1009-9). Additional examples of typical underdrain and edge drain placements can be found in the
Sample Plan Sheets.
1009.2.1 Pipe Underdrains
Pipe underdrains are used on both sides of the pavement and are typically carried through super elevated
sections. Pipe underdrains are not required within the limits of the MSE wall select granular backfill. The
maximum pavement width for each pipe underdrain is 24 feet. Figures 1009-1 through 1009-7 show
locations for pipe underdrains with respect to several shoulder designs. Figure 1009-11 shows locations
of pipe underdrains through a superelevated section.
Pipe underdrains generally follow the profile grade of the roadway as long as the pipe underdrain
maintains a positive or zero slope. For these cases, hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to ensure the
proper drainage of the subbase and subgrade.
Underdrain depth is measured from the bottom of subbase to the bottom of the underdrain trench. Base
pipe and shallow pipe underdrains are typically 4-6 inches in diameter. The 4 and 6 inch underdrains are
considered equivalent in hydraulic capacity for the base pipe and shallow pipe underdrains. Use a 6 inch
underdrain if the outlet interval is greater than 500 feet or if the subgrade is saturated.
Base pipe underdrain has a constant depth of 18 inches or less and the shallow pipe underdrain has a
depth greater than 18 inches with a maximum of 30 inches. Where a dual underdrain system is provided
(shoulder greater than or equal to 8 feet), the edge of shoulder underdrain is supplemental to the edge of
pavement underdrain and is typically a base pipe underdrain with a depth of 18 inches. If dual
underdrains are being provided on a super elevated section, the edge of pavement underdrain is not
required on the high side.
10-18

January 2015

Drainage Design Criteria


Rock cut underdrains are used in cut sections when a rock, shale, or coal subgrade exists. The depth of
the rock cut underdrain should be 6 inches below the cut surface of the rock (Figure 1009-10).
Deep pipe underdrains have a constant depth greater than 30 inches with the maximum depth at 50
inches below subbase. These are typically 6 inches in diameter. Deep pipe underdrains are used in cut
sections, or areas with a high water table, to drain the subgrade.
Unclassified underdrains are those having a variable depth below profile grade within a single continuous
longitudinal run. Variable depth pipe underdrains (unclassified) shall be avoided where pipe underdrains
of a constant depth can be provided.
Underdrains which outlet to a slope should be provided with an outlet per SCD DM-1.1.
Underdrain outlets should be provided at a desirable interval of 500 feet with a maximum interval of 1000
feet. Underdrain outlets should be provided at a desirable interval of 300 feet, with a maximum interval of
500 feet, where free draining base is utilized. It is desirable to outlet underdrains at least 12 inches above
the flow line of a receiving ditch; and 12 inches above the flow line of a receiving catch basin, manhole, or
pipe with 6 inches as a minimum. Underdrain outlets shall be type F conduit.
When underdrain spans the trench of a lower conduit (utility, storm sewer, culvert, etc.) and the vertical
distance between the trench and underdrain is less than or equal to 12 inches, a type F conduit should be
used to span the lower trench. Use a minimum of 10 feet.
A fabric filter wrap should be used when existing soils consist of a sandy or sandy-silt composition.
Where necessary, the depth of the underdrains may vary slightly. Underdrain outlet pipe outletting into a
roadway ditch or fill slope should maintain a minimum slope of 1%. Outlets should not be located at the
top of high (over 20 feet) 2:1 fill slopes. If this cannot be accomplished by adjusting the spacing, special
outlet treatments will be required.
1009.2.2 Construction Underdrains
In fine-grained soils excess water in the subgrade is the principal cause of unstable soil conditions during
construction. Adequate subgrade drainage can be achieved by using temporary pipe underdrains. These
underdrains are sacrificial in nature and are intended to work throughout the construction process.
Construction Underdrains are usually placed in the centerline of the roadway. They may also be placed
in the ditch line, if the water is coming in from a cut section at a higher elevation.
The outlets for the construction underdrains are the same pipe material and backfill as construction
underdrains (not Type F). The outlets should be discharged into a catch basin, manhole, pipe, or ditch. If
discharging into a ditch, a precast concrete reinforced outlet is not required.
1009.2.3 Prefabricated Edge Drains
Prefabricated edge drains are located at the edge of existing concrete pavement on resurfacing projects
where the existing pavement and paved shoulders are being retained. If existing paved shoulders are
being replaced, a 4 inch shallow pipe underdrain at the edge of pavement shall be used in lieu of the
prefabricated edge drain.
1009.2.4 Aggregate Drains
Aggregate drains should be located at 50 foot intervals on each side of the pavement and staggered so
that each drain is 25 feet longitudinally apart from the adjacent drain on the opposite side. If used on rigid
pavements, the drains shall be located at each end of each transverse joint. For superelevated
pavements, the drains should be located on the low side only, at each transverse joint in rigid pavement

January 2015

10-19

Drainage Design Criteria


and at 25 foot intervals for other pavement. Figures 1009-8 and 1009-9 show aggregate drains for
several treated shoulder designs.

1010 Maintenance of Traffic Drainage


1010.1 General
Positive drainage during Maintenance of Traffic (MOT) operations is furnished under items 614 and 615
of the CMS for most projects. Evaluate MOT drainage for projects on Interstates and Expressways that
have one or more of the following or as directed by the District:
A. Multi-phased MOT operations
B. Profile changes in the roadway that temporarily create a sag point different than the final design
C. Traffic maintained adjacent to concrete barrier with less than 2 feet clear distance from the edge of
lane to the edge of barrier
Furnish a minimum dry lane width of 10 feet for each travelled lane. Determine the spread of water on
the pavement using a 2 year design frequency unless a different frequency is specified by the District.
Provide MOT drainage by utilizing permanent drainage items for final design and temporary drainage
items. Temporary drainage items may include items such as inlets, storm sewers, culverts, ditches,
perforated conduits, catch basins, conduits jacked and bored, opening cuts in concrete barrier, French
drains, pavement saw cut openings, etcetera. These drainage items may conflict with future MOT phases
and may require removal quantities in subsequent MOT phases.
Use permanent drainage items for final design where feasible. Furnish a minimum diameter of 12 inches
for temporary storm sewer and 18 inches for temporary culverts.
Provide temporary drainage items on the MOT plan per plan note D124.

1011 Temporary Structures


The design year and other hydraulic requirements for temporary structures are defined in CMS 502.02.
Ensure scour depth is accounted for in the in the design of a temporary bridge and foundation.
Show the water surface elevation (high water) and velocity of the design year discharge on the
temporary structure plans. Ensure the design year discharge does not contact the lowest portion of the
superstructure of a temporary bridge.
Culvert pipes may be used in lieu of a bridge structure provided controls specified in Section 1006 are not
exceeded for the design year discharge.
Refer to Section 500 of the Bridge Design Manual for other details regarding temporary structures.

10-20

January 2015

1000 Drainage Design Criteria List of Figures


Figure

Subject

1002-1

Minimum Culvert Sizes

1002-2

Water pH Contours - Average for Counties

1002-3

Water pH Contours - Values of Individual Culverts

1002-4

Requirements for Concrete Pipe Protection

General Notes for Figures 1002-5 and 1002-6


1002-5(50)

Requirements for Corrugated Metal Pipe Thickness and Protection at


Non-Abrasive Sites - 50-year Design Service Life

1002-5(75)

Requirements for Corrugated Metal Pipe Thickness and Protection at


Non-Abrasive Sites - 75-year Design Service Life

1002-6(50)

Requirements for Corrugated Metal Pipe Thickness and Protection at


Abrasive Sites - 50-year Design Service Life

1002-6(75)

Requirements for Corrugated Metal Pipe Thickness and Protection at


Abrasive Sites - 75-year Design Service Life

1006-1

Floodway Schematic

General Notes for Figures 1008-1 through 1008-9


1008-1

Minimum Height of Cover - Corrugated Steel Pipe

1008-2

Minimum Height of Cover - Corrugated Steel Pipe Arches

1008-3

Minimum Height of Cover - Structural Plate Corrugated Steel Pipe

1008-4

Minimum Height of Cover - Structural Plate Corrugated Steel Pipe Arches


(18-inch Corner Radius)

1008-5

Minimum Height of Cover - Structural Plate Corrugated Steel Pipe-Arches


(31-inch Corner Radius)

1008-6

Minimum Height of Cover - Corrugated Steel Spiral Rib Pipe

1008-7

Table Deleted January 2013

1008-8

Table Deleted January 2013

1008-9

Table Deleted January 2013

General Notes for Figures 1008-10 through 1008-14


1008-10

Table Deleted January 2013

1008-11

Reinforced Concrete Circular Pipe

January 2015

1000 Drainage Design Criteria List of Figures


Figure

Subject

1008-12

Reinforced Concrete Elliptical Pipe

1008-13

Table Deleted January 2013

1008-14

Maximum Allowable Height of Cover - Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts

General Notes for Figures 1008-15 through 1008-21


1008-15

Minimum Height of Cover - Corrugated Aluminum Pipe

1008-16

Minimum Height of Cover - Corrugated Aluminum Pipe Arches

1008-17

Minimum Height of Cover - Structural Plate Corrugated Aluminum Pipe

1008-18

Minimum Height of Cover - Structural Plate Corrugated Aluminum Pipe Arches

1008-19

Minimum Height of Cover - Corrugated Aluminum Spiral Rib Pipe

1008-20

Table Deleted January 2013

1008-21

Table Deleted January 2013

1009-1

Typical Pipe Underdrain Locations

1009-2

Typical Pipe Underdrain Locations

1009-3

Typical Pipe Underdrain Locations

1009-4

Typical Pipe Underdrain Locations

1009-5

Typical Pipe Underdrain Locations

1009-6

Typical Pipe Underdrain Locations

1009-7

Typical Pipe Underdrain Locations

1009-8

Typical Aggregate Drain Locations

1009-9

Typical Aggregate Drain Locations

1009-10

Typical Rock Cut Underdrain

1009-11

Typical Pipe Underdrain Locations

January 2015

General Notes Figures 1002-5 and 1002-6


Tables 1002-5(50) & 1002-5(75)
Tables 1002-5(50) and 1002-5(75) are based on equations 6 and 8 from the ODOT Location & Design
publication 82-1, Culvert Durability Study including:

A 15-year service life for Bituminous Coating with Invert Paving for culverts 54 and larger.

A 25-year service life for Bituminous Coating with Invert Paving for culverts 48 and smaller.

A 35-year service life for Aluminum Coating with pH above 5.0

A 50-year service life for Polymeric Coating

All base metals must provide a minimum of 10 years of service life.

Corrugated aluminum alloy pipe (707.21 and 707.22) and aluminum alloy structural plate pipe (707.23)
are acceptable with the minimum thickness required to satisfy cover conditions for all non-abrasive sites
with a pH between 5.0 and 9.0
A blank space in the table indicates that a gage, which satisfies the design service life, is not available.

Tables 1002-6(50) & 1002-6(75)


Tables 1002-6(50) and 1002-6(75) are based on equations 7 and 9 from the ODOT Location & Design
publication 82-1, Culvert Durability Study including:

A 15-year service life for Bituminous Coating with Invert Paving for culverts 54 and larger.

A 25-year service life for Bituminous Coating with Invert Paving for culverts 48 and smaller.

A 35-year service life for Aluminum Coating with pH above 5.0.

A 50-year service life for Polymeric Coating

All base metals must provide a minimum of 10 years of service life.

Corrugated aluminum alloy pipe (707.21 and 707.22) with Concrete Field Paving and aluminum alloy
structural plate pipe (707.23) with Concrete Field Paving are acceptable with the minimum thickness
required to satisfy cover conditions for all abrasive sites with a pH between 5.0 and 9.0
A blank space in the table indicates that a gage, which satisfies the design service life, is not available.

Abbreviations and Symbols


*

Concrete field paving shall be epoxy coated per 706.03 for pH < 5.0

**

Externally coated per AASHTO M243

w/CFP With concrete field paving of invert

General Notes - Figures 1008-1 through 1008-9


Thickness
The following table shows the available commercial thicknesses for metallic coated steel and the
corresponding gage number:
Metal Thickness
Inches

Gage Number

0.064

16

0.079

14

0.109

12

0.138

10

0.168

0.188
0.218
0.249
0.280

7
5
3
1

The maximum available sheet thickness for aluminum coated corrugated steel pipe (707.01, 707.02,
707.05, 707.07; all with aluminum coating) or polymer coated corrugated steel pipe (707.04) is 0.138.

Minimum Cover
The minimum cover is measured from the top of the pipe or pipe-arch to the top of subgrade; however, in
no installation shall the distance from the top of the pipe or pipe-arch to the top of the wearing surface or
finished grade be less than the figure values plus 6 inches.

Maximum Cover
The maximum height of cover is measured from the top of the pipe or pipe-arch, to the top of the wearing
surface

Revised July 2014

Designation

707.02, 707.04, 707.07, 707.11 and 707.14


(5" x 1" Corrugations)

707.01, 707.04, 707.05, 707.11 and 707.13


(2 2/3" x 1/2" Corrugations)

Pipe

MINIMUM HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 1


CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE
HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 1
Corrugated Steel Pipe
Pipe
Diameter

Minimum Cover

(inches)

(inches)

12
15
18
21
24
27
30
36
42
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
36
42
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
90
96
102
108
114
120

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
18
18
18
18

1008-1
Reference Section
1008.1.2

Revised July 2014

Designation

707.02, 707.04, 707.07, 707.11 and 707.14


(5" x 1" Corrugations)

707.01, 707.04, 707.05, 707.11 and


707.13 (2 2/3" x 1/2" Corrugations)

Pipe

MINIMUM HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 2


CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE ARCHES
HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 2
Corrugated Steel Pipe Arches
Pipe Dimentions
Span X Rise

Minimum Cover

(inches)

(inches)

17 x 13
21 x 15
24 x 18
28 x 20
35 x 24
42 x 29
49 x 33
57 x 38
64 x 43
71 x 47
77 x 52
83 x 57
40 x 31
46 x 36
53 x 41
60 x 46
66 x 51
73 x 55
81 x 59
87 x 63
95 x 67
103 x 71
112 x 75
117 x 79
128 x 83
137 x 87
142 x 91

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
15
15
15
15
15
18
18
18
18
18
21
21
24
24
24

1008-2
Reference Section
1008.1.2

Revised July 2014

MINIMUM HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 3


707.03 STRUCTURAL PLATE CORRUGATED
STEEL PIPE
HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 3
707.03 Structural Plate Corrugated Steel Pipe
Pipe
Diameter

Pipe
Diameter

Minimum Cover

(inches)

(feet-inches)

(inches)

60
66
72
78
84
90
96
102
108
114
120
126
132
138
144
150
156
162
168
174
180
186
192
198
204
210
216
222
228
234
240
246
252

5'0"
5'6"
6'0"
6'6"
7'0"
7'6"
8'0"
8'6"
9'0"
9'6"
10'0"
10'6"
11'0"
11'6"
12'0"
12'6"
13'0"
13'6"
14'0"
14'6"
15'0"
15'6"
16'0"
16'6"
17'0"
17'6"
18'0"
18'6"
19'0"
19'6"
20'0"
20'6"
21'0"

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
36
36

1008-3
Reference Section
1008.1.2

Revised January 2013

MINIMUM HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 4


707.03 STRUCTURAL PLATE
CORRUGATED STEEL PIPE ARCHES

1008-4
Reference Section

HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 4


707.03 Structural Plate Corrugated Steel Pipe (18-inch Corner Radius)
Pipe
Dimentions

Minimum Cover

Span X Rise
(feet-inches)

(inches)

6'1" x 4'7"
6'4" x 4'9"
6'9 x 4'11"
7'0" x 5'1"
7'3" x 5'3"
7'8" x 5'5"
7'11" x 5'7"
8'2" x 5'9"
8'7" x 5'11"
8'10" x 6'1"
9'4" x 6'3"
9'6" x 6'5"
9'9" x 6'7"
10'3" x 6'9"
10'8" x 6'11"
10'11" x 7'1"
11'5" x 7'3"
11'7" x 7'5"
11'10" x 7'7"
12'4" x 7'9"
12'6" x 7'11"
12'8" x 8'1"
12'10" x 8'4"
13'5" x 8'5"
13'11" x 8'7"
14'1" x 8'9"
14'3" x 8'11"
14'10" x 9'1"
15'4" x 9'3"
15'6" x 9'5"
15'8" x 9'7"
15'10" x 9'10"
16'5" x 9'11"
16'7" x 10'1"

18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
36
36

1008.1.2

Revised January 2013

MINIMUM HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 5


707.03 STRUCTURAL PLATE CORRUGATED
STEEL PIPE ARCHES

1008-5
Reference Section

HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 5


707.03 Structural Plate Corrugated Steel Pipe (31-inch Corner Radius)
Pipe
Dimentions

Minimum Cover

Span X Rise
(feet-inches)

(inches)

13'3" x 9'4"
13'6" x 9'6"
14'0" x 9'8"
14'2" x 9'10"
14'5" x 10'0"
14'11" x 10'2"
15'4" x 10'4"
15'7" x 10'6"
15'10" x 10'8"
16'3" x 10'10"
16'6" x 11'0"
17'0" x 11'2"
17'2" x 11'4"
17'5" x 11'6"
17'11" x 11'8"
18'1" x 11'10"
18'7" x 12'0"
18'9" x 12'2"
19'3" x 12'4"
19'6" x 12'6"
19'8" x 12'8"
19'11" x 12'10"
20'5" x 13'0"
20'7" x 13'2"

24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36
36

1008.1.2

Revised January 2013

MINIMUM HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 6


FOR CORRUGATED STEEL
SPIRAL RIB PIPE

Designation
(3/4" x 7 1/2" Corrugations)

707.12

Pipe

HEIGHT OF COVER TABLE 6


Corrugated Steel Spiral Rib Pipe
Pipe
Diameter

Minimum Cover

(inches)

(inches)

18

12

21
24
30
36
42
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
90

12
12
12
12
15
15
15
15
18
18
18
18
18

1008-6
Reference Section
1008.1.2

General Notes - Figures 1008-10 through 1008-14


Minimum Cover
See Section 1008.2.2

Maximum Cover
The maximum height of cover is measured from the top of the pipe or elliptical pipe to the top of the
wearing surface.

Revised January 2013

1008-11

REINFORCED CONCRETE
CIRCULAR PIPE

Reference Section
1008.2.1

706.02 Reinforced Concrete Circular Pipe


Pipe
Diameter

Wall Thickness

(inches)

(inches)

12
15
18
21
24
27
30
36
42
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
90
96
102
108
114
120
126
132
144

2
2.25
2.5
2.75
3
3.25
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8
8.5
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
12

Revised January 2013

1008-12

REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELLIPTICAL PIPE

Reference Section
1008.2.1

706.04 Reinforced Concrete Elliptical Pipe


Equivalent
Round

Pipe
Rise X Span

Wall
Thickness

Diameter

Equivalent
Round

Pipe
Rise X Span

Wall
Thickness

Diameter

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

(inches)

18
24
27
30
36
42
48
54
60
66
72
78
84
90
96
102
108
114
120
132
144

14x23
19x30
22x34
24x38
29x45
34x53
38x60
43x68
48x76
53x83
58x91
63x98
68x106
72x113
77x121
82x128
87x136
92x143
97x151
106x166
116x180

2.75
3.25
3.5
3.75
4.50
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
9.75
10
10.5
11
12
13

36

45x29

4.5

42

53x34

48

60x38

5.5

54

68x43

60

76x48

6.5

66

83x53

72

91x58

7.5

78

98x63

84

106x68

8.5

90

113x72

96

121x77

9.5

102

128x82

9.75

108

136x87

10

114

143x92

10.5

120

151x97

11

132

166x106

12

144

180x116

13

Revised January 2014

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE HEIGHT OF


COVER - REINFORCED CONCRETE
BOX CULVERTS

1008-14
Reference Section
1008.5

706.05 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts


Box Rise (ft)

Box
Span

10

10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10

*Height of Fill (Maximum)

(ft)
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

10
10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10
10
10
10

Approval of OHE is required for sizes other than those listed above.
Spans 14' or greater shall be designed for HL93 live load with an
additonal 60psf for a future wearing surface.

General Notes - Figures 1008-15 through 1008-21


Thickness
The following table shows the available commercial metal thicknesses for aluminum pipe:

Metal Thickness
Inches
707.21, 707.22 & 707.24
0.060
0.075
0.105
0.135
0.164

Metal Thickness
Inches
707. 23
0.100
0.125
0.150
0.175
0.200
0.225
0.250

Minimum Cover
The minimum cover is measured from the top of the pipe or pipe arch to the top of subgrade; however, in
no installation shall the distance from the top of the pipe or pipe arch to the top of the wearing surface or
finished grade be less than the figure values plus 6 inches.

Maximum Cover
The maximum height of cover is measured from the top of the pipe or pipe arch to the top of the wearing
surface.

Table of Contents
(Revised January 2015)

1100 Drainage Design Procedures


1101 Estimating Design Discharge .......................................................................................................... 11-1
1101.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 11-1
1101.2 Procedures ...................................................................................................................... 11-1
1101.2.1 Statistical Methods .......................................................................................... 11-1
1101.2.2 Rational Method .............................................................................................. 11-1
1101.2.3 Coefficient of Runoff ....................................................................................... 11-3
1101.2.4 Rainfall Intensity .............................................................................................. 11-4
1102 Open Water Carriers ....................................................................................................................... 11-4
1102.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 11-4
1102.2 Types of Carriers............................................................................................................. 11-5
1102.2.1 Standard Roadway (Roadside) Ditches .......................................................... 11-5
1102.2.2 Special Ditches ............................................................................................... 11-5
1102.2.3 Median Ditches ............................................................................................... 11-5
1102.2.4 Channel Relocations ....................................................................................... 11-5
1102.2.5 Channel Linings and Bank Stabilization ......................................................... 11-6
1102.3 Ditch Design Criteria - Design Traffic Exceeding 2000 ADT .......................................... 11-6
1102.3.1 Design Frequency ........................................................................................... 11-6
1102.3.2 Ditch Protection ............................................................................................... 11-6
1102.3.3 Roughness ...................................................................................................... 11-8
1102.3.4 Catch Basin Types .......................................................................................... 11-9
1102.3.5 Calculated Catch Basin Spacing .................................................................... 11-9
1102.3.6 Arbitrary Maximum Catch Basin Spacing ..................................................... 11-10
1102.4 Ditch Design Criteria - Design Traffic of 2000 ADT or Less ......................................... 11-10
1102.4.1 Design Frequency ......................................................................................... 11-10
1102.4.2 Shear Stress Protection ................................................................................ 11-10
1102.4.3 Roughness .................................................................................................... 11-10
1102.4.4 Catch Basin Types ........................................................................................ 11-11
1102.5 Design Aids for Ditch Flow Analysis ............................................................................. 11-11
1102.5.1 Earth Channel Charts ................................................................................... 11-11
1102.5.2 Rectangular Channel Charts......................................................................... 11-11
1103 Pavement Drainage ...................................................................................................................... 11-11
1103.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-11
1103.2 Design Frequency ......................................................................................................... 11-12
1103.3 Estimating Design Discharge ........................................................................................ 11-12
1103.4 Capacity of Pavement Gutters ...................................................................................... 11-12
1103.5 Pavement Flow Charts .................................................................................................. 11-13
1103.6 Bypass Charts for Continuous Pavement Grades ........................................................ 11-13
1103.6.1 Curb Opening Inlets ...................................................................................... 11-14
1103.6.2 Grate or Combination Grate and Curb Opening Inlet ................................... 11-14
1103.7 Grate Catch Basins and Curb Opening Inlets in Pavement Sags ................................ 11-14
1103.8 Bridge Deck Drainage ................................................................................................... 11-14
1103.9 Slotted Drains and Trench Drains ................................................................................. 11-15
1104 Storm Sewers ................................................................................................................................ 11-15
1104.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-15
1104.2 Design Considerations .................................................................................................. 11-16
1104.2.1 Storm Sewer Depth ....................................................................................... 11-16
1104.2.2 Storm Sewer Access ..................................................................................... 11-17
1104.2.3 Rock Excavation for Storm Sewer ................................................................ 11-17
1104.3 Layout Procedure .......................................................................................................... 11-18
1104.3.1 Plan ............................................................................................................... 11-18
1104.3.2 Profile ............................................................................................................ 11-18
1104.4 Storm Sewer Design Criteria ........................................................................................ 11-18
1104.4.1 Design Frequency ......................................................................................... 11-18

1104.4.2 Hydraulic Grade Line .................................................................................... 11-18


1104.4.3 Coefficient of Runoff ..................................................................................... 11-19
1104.4.4 Time of Concentration................................................................................... 11-19
1104.4.5 Pipe Roughness Coefficient.......................................................................... 11-19
1104.4.6 Minimum Storm Sewer Pipe Size ................................................................. 11-19
1104.4.7 Maximum Storm Sewer Slope ...................................................................... 11-19
1104.5 Hydraulic Design Procedure ......................................................................................... 11-19
1104.6 Combined Sanitary Sewer Separation .......................................................................... 11-20
1105 Roadway Culverts ......................................................................................................................... 11-20
1105.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-20
1105.2 Stream Protection ......................................................................................................... 11-20
1105.2.1 Bankfull Discharge Design ............................................................................ 11-21
1105.2.2 Depressed Culvert Inverts ............................................................................ 11-22
1105.2.3 Paved Depressed Approach Aprons ............................................................ 11-23
1105.2.4 Flood Plain Culverts ...................................................................................... 11-23
1105.2.5 Energy Control Structures............................................................................. 11-24
1105.3 Types of Culvert Flow ................................................................................................... 11-24
1105.4 Design Procedure ......................................................................................................... 11-24
1105.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11-24
1105.4.2 Hydraulic Analysis ......................................................................................... 11-24
1105.5 Use of Nomographs ...................................................................................................... 11-25
1105.5.1 Outlet Control ................................................................................................ 11-25
1105.5.2 Inlet Control ................................................................................................... 11-25
1105.6 Design Criteria .............................................................................................................. 11-26
1105.6.1 Design Frequency ......................................................................................... 11-26
1105.6.2 Maximum Allowable Headwater.................................................................... 11-26
1105.6.3 Method Used to Estimate Storm Discharge.................................................. 11-26
1105.6.4 Scale of Topographic Mapping Used to Delineate Contributing Drainage Areas
..................................................................................................................................... 11-26
1105.6.5 Mannings Roughness Coefficient n ........................................................... 11-26
1105.6.6 Entrance Loss Coefficient ke ...................................................................... 11-26
1105.6.7 Minimum Cover ............................................................................................. 11-26
1105.6.8 Maximum Cover ............................................................................................ 11-26
1105.6.9 Maximum Allowable Outlet Velocity .............................................................. 11-27
1105.6.10 Headwall Type ............................................................................................ 11-27
1105.6.11 Contacts With County Engineer .................................................................. 11-27
1105.6.12 Minimum Pipe Size ..................................................................................... 11-27
1105.6.13 Ordinary High Water Mark .......................................................................... 11-27
1105.7 Special Considerations ................................................................................................. 11-27
1105.7.1 Tailwater........................................................................................................ 11-27
1105.7.2 Multiple Cell Culverts .................................................................................... 11-28
1105.7.3 Improved Inlets ............................................................................................. 11-28
1106 End Treatments ............................................................................................................................. 11-28
1106.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-28
1106.1.1 Usage ............................................................................................................ 11-28
1106.1.2 End Treatment Grading ................................................................................ 11-29
1106.2 Headwall Types............................................................................................................. 11-29
1106.2.1 Half-Height Headwalls .................................................................................. 11-29
1106.2.2 Full-Height Headwalls ................................................................................... 11-29
1106.3 Concrete Apron ............................................................................................................. 11-30
1107 Rock Channel Protection (RCP) ................................................................................................... 11-30
1107.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-30
1107.2 Culvert RCP Types ....................................................................................................... 11-30
1107.3 Bridge RCP ................................................................................................................... 11-30
1108 Agricultural Drainage..................................................................................................................... 11-31
1108.1 Farm Drain Crossings ................................................................................................... 11-31
1108.2 Farm Drain Outlets ........................................................................................................ 11-31
1109 Longitudinal Sewer Location ......................................................................................................... 11-31

1109.1 Under Pavement ........................................................................................................... 11-31


1109.2 Under Paved Shoulder .................................................................................................. 11-31
1109.3 Approval ........................................................................................................................ 11-32
1110 Reinforced Concrete Radius Pipe and Box Sections ................................................................... 11-32
1110.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-32
1111 Sanitary Sewers ............................................................................................................................ 11-32
1111.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-32
1111.2 Manholes ....................................................................................................................... 11-32
1112 Notice of Intent (NOI) .................................................................................................................... 11-32
1112.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-32
1112.2 Routine Maintenance Project ........................................................................................ 11-33
1112.3 Watershed Specific NOI Requirements ........................................................................ 11-34
1113 Erosion Control at Bridge Ends ..................................................................................................... 11-35
1113.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-35
1113.2 Corner Cone.................................................................................................................. 11-35
1114 Temporary Sediment and Erosion Control ................................................................................... 11-35
1114.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-35
1114.2 Cost Estimate for Temporary Sediment and Erosion Control ....................................... 11-35
1115 Post Construction Storm Water Structural Best Management Practices ...................................... 11-35
1115.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-35
1115.2 Project Thresholds for Post-Construction BMP ............................................................ 11-36
1115.3 Water Quality and Water Quantity Treatment............................................................... 11-37
1115.4 Water Quality Volume ................................................................................................... 11-37
1115.5 Water Quality Flow ........................................................................................................ 11-38
1115.6 Project Type - Redevelopment and New Construction ................................................. 11-38
1115.6.1 Redevelopment Projects ............................................................................... 11-38
1115.6.2 New Construction Projects............................................................................ 11-38
1115.7 Treatment Requirements for Projects .............................................................. 11-39
1116 BMP Selection and Submittals ...................................................................................................... 11-40
1116.1 BMP Selection............................................................................................................... 11-40
1116.2 BMP Submittals............................................................................................................. 11-40
1117 BMP Toolbox ................................................................................................................................. 11-41
1117.1 Manufactured Systems ................................................................................................. 11-41
1117.2 Vegetation Based BMP ................................................................................................. 11-42
1117.2.1 Vegetated Filter Strip .................................................................................... 11-42
1117.2.2 Vegetated Biofilter ......................................................................................... 11-43
1117.3 Extended Detention ...................................................................................................... 11-44
1117.3.1 Detention Basin ............................................................................................. 11-45
1117.3.2 Underground Detention................................................................................. 11-47
1117.3.3 Design Check Discharge .............................................................................. 11-48
1117.4 Retention Basin ............................................................................................................. 11-48
1117.4.1 Water Quality Basin and Weir ....................................................................... 11-49
1117.5 Bioretention Cell ............................................................................................................ 11-49
1117.6 Infiltration ....................................................................................................................... 11-50
1117.6.1 Infiltration Trench .......................................................................................... 11-51
1117.6.2 Infiltration Basin ............................................................................................ 11-52
1117.7 Constructed Wetlands ................................................................................................... 11-54
1118 Bridge Hydraulics .......................................................................................................................... 11-54
1118.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-54
1118.2 Hydrology and Hydraulics (H&H) Report ...................................................................... 11-55
1118.2.1 Analysis ......................................................................................................... 11-55
1118.2.2 Narrative........................................................................................................ 11-55

1100 Drainage Design Procedures


1101 Estimating Design Discharge
1101.1 General
In order to properly design highway drainage facilities, it is essential that a reasonable estimate be made
of the design and check discharges. Some of the more important factors affecting runoff are duration,
intensity and frequency of rainfall; and the size, imperviousness, slope, and shape of the drainage area.
Use suitable topographic mapping to determine the contributing drainage area. For drainage areas over
100 acres, a 7.5 minute U.S. Geological Survey Quadrangle will ordinarily suffice. For smaller areas, or
where discharges are calculated using the rational method, smaller scale maps (1=50 to 1=800) may
be more appropriate.
Other methods that use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as USGS Stream Stats are
acceptable. The use of contours generated from LiDAR data collected through the Ohio Statewide
Imagery Program (OSIP) is also acceptable. LiDAR tools are available through GEOPAK to facilitate the
use of LiDAR data. Consult the ODOT GEOPAK V8i LiDAR Tools User Guide at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/Engineering/Production/CADD/Pages/GPKManual.aspx
A proper evaluation should be made of the land use throughout the drainage area. Changes in land use
within the drainage area which will occur in the immediate future shall be taken into account when
determining design discharges. However, probable land use changes beyond this should not be
assumed when determining design discharges. It is the responsibility of the local permitting/zoning
agency to ensure proper land and water management techniques are utilized. These techniques will
minimize the adverse effects of a change in land use. Post Construction Storm Water Best Management
Practices are used on roadway projects in an effort to minimize quality and quantity impacts as well (see
section 1115).

1101.2 Procedures
1101.2.1 Statistical Methods
See Section 1003.
1101.2.2 Rational Method
The rational method is considered to be more reliable for estimating runoff from small drainage areas,
less than the acreage for the USGS Regions; and for areas that contribute overland flow and shallow
concentrated flow to the roadway ditch or pavement. The design discharge Q is obtained from the
equation:

Q = CiA
where:
Q
=

Discharge in cubic feet per second

Coefficient of runoff

Average rainfall intensity in inches per


hour, for a given storm frequency and
for a duration equal to the time of
concentration.

Drainage area in acres

January 2015

11-1

Drainage Design Procedures


The time of concentration is the time required for runoff to flow from the most remote point of the drainage
area to the point of concentration. The point of concentration could be a culvert, catch basin or the
checkpoint in a roadway ditch used to determine the need for velocity protection. Time of concentration is
designated by tc and is the summation of the time of overland flow to, the time of shallow concentrated
flow "ts" and the time of pipe or open channel flow td.
Overland flow is that flow which is not carried in a discernible channel and maintains a uniform depth
across the sloping surface. It is often referred to as sheet flow. The time of overland flow may be
obtained from Figure 1101-1, a similar overland flow chart, or from the equation:
to 1.8(1.1-C) (L)(1/2)
(s)(1/3)
where:
to
=

Time of overland flow in minutes

Coefficient of runoff

Distance to most remote location in


drainage area in feet (300 ft. max)

Overland slope (percent)

These methods should not be used to determine the time of travel for gutter, swale, or ditch flow.
This equation and Figure 1101-1 assume a homogeneous drainage area. Where the overland flow area
is composed of segments with varying cover and/or slopes, the summation of the time of concentration
for each segment will tend to over-estimate the overland flow time, to. In this case it may be more
appropriate to use an average runoff coefficient "C" and an average ground slope in the Overland Flow
Chart.
Sheet flow is assumed to occur for no more than 300 feet after which water tends to concentrate in rills
and then gullies of increasing proportion. This type of flow is classified as shallow concentrated flow. The
velocity of shallow concentrated flow can be estimated using the following relationship:
V = 3.281ks0.5
where:
V
=

Velocity in fps

Intercept coefficient
(see Table 1101-1)

Overland slope (percent)

11-2

January 2015

Drainage Design Procedures


Table 1101-1
Types of
Surface

Intercept
Coefficient k

Forest with heavy ground litter

0.076

Min. tillage cultivated; woodland

0.152

Short grass pasture

0.213

Cultivated straight row

0.274

Poor grass; untilled

0.305

Grassed waterways

0.457

Unpaved area; bare soil

0.491

Paved area

0.619

Shallow concentrated flow generally empties into pipe systems, drainage ditches, or natural channels.
The velocity of flow in an open channel or pipe can be estimated using the Manning's equation.
The travel time for both shallow concentrated flow and open channel or pipe flow is calculated as follows:

t s or t d =
where:
ts
=

L
60V

Travel time for shallow concentrated


flow in minutes

td

Travel time for open channel or pipe


flow in minutes

Flow length in feet

Velocity in fps

Where a contributing drainage area has its steepest slope and/or highest "C" value in the sub-area
nearest the point of concentration, the rational method discharge for this sub-area may be greater than if
the entire contributing drainage area is considered. The maximum runoff rate for a sub-area should be
considered only if greater than that for the entire area.
1101.2.3 Coefficient of Runoff
The coefficient of runoff is a dimensionless decimal value that estimates the percentage of rainfall that
becomes runoff. The recommended values for the coefficient of runoff for various contributing surfaces
are shown in Table 1101-2. Where two values are shown, the higher value ordinarily applies to the
steeper slopes.
For Residential areas, lot size should also be considered in choosing the appropriate value for the
coefficient of runoff. Generally, a higher value should be associated with smaller lots and a lower value
should be associated with larger lot sizes. The selected coefficient should be based upon an estimation of
the typical slope, lot size, and lot development.
The total width contributing flow to a given point usually consists of surfaces having a variable land cover
and thereby requires a weighted coefficient of runoff C. The weighted coefficient is obtained by
averaging the coefficients for the different types of contributing surfaces, as noted in the following
example:
January 2015

11-3

Drainage Design Procedures

Table 1101-2
Types of
Surface

Coefficient
Runoff C

Pavement & paved shoulders

0.9

Berms and slopes 4:1 or flatter

0.5

Berms and slopes steeper than 4:1

0.7

of

Contributing areas
Residential (single family)

0.3-0.5

Residential (multi-family)

0.4-0.7

Woods

0.3

Cultivated

0.3-0.6

Contributing Land Use


Width W
20 feet
Paved Area
40 feet
Earth Berms &
Slopes
140 feet
Residential Area
200 feet
Summations

C CW
0.9 18
0.7 28
0.6 84
130

Weighted C = 130/200 = 0.65

1101.2.4 Rainfall Intensity


The average rainfall intensity i in inches per hour may be obtained from the Intensity-DurationFrequency curves shown on Figure 1101-2. Each set of curves applies to a specific geographic area, A,
B, C, or D as shown on the Rainfall Intensity Zone Map, Figure 1101-3. The geographic areas were
established from an analysis of rainfall records obtained from Weather Bureau stations in Ohio. Some
political subdivisions may have developed curves for their specific area similar to Figure 1101-2. Such
curves may be based on a much longer period of record and provide more reliable information. Any local
curves proposed by the designer should be cleared with the Office of Hydraulic Engineering (OHE) prior
to incorporating that information in the drainage calculations.

1102 Open Water Carriers


1102.1 General
Open water carriers generally provide the most economical means for collecting and conveying surface
water contributing to the roadway. The required capacity of a water carrier involves a determination of
the velocity and depth of flow for a given discharge. These characteristics can best be obtained from
charts that are based on Mannings equation. Channel flow charts have been prepared for all the
common water carrier shapes and are included in the Drainage Design Aids. A ditch computation sheet
similar to that provided in the Appendix shall be used to perform or summarize ditch calculations. As a
guideline, the relative minimum roadway ditch grades should be 0.50% with a recommended absolute
minimum of 0.25%. Lower grades may be used on large channels as necessary. Open water carriers
should maintain a constant slope wherever possible. The proper location of a ditch outfall is quite
important. Existing drainage patterns should be perpetuated insofar as practicable. Care should be
taken to not capture an existing stream with the roadside ditch. If this is necessary, the designed ditch
shall be in accordance to Section 1102.2.4.
11-4

January 2015

Drainage Design Procedures


1102.2 Types of Carriers
1102.2.1 Standard Roadway (Roadside) Ditches
The various roadside ditches shown in Volume I, Roadway Design, have proven to be safe and to provide
adequate flow capacity. A ditch is considered to be standard when the centerline is parallel to the edge of
the pavement and the flowline is a uniform distance below the edge of pavement. A modification of the
above is required when the grade of the pavement is too flat to provide acceptable ditch flow, thereby
creating the need for a special ditch. Channel charts, Drainage Design Aid Figures 1100-1 through 110010, are included for use in determining velocity and depth of flow for standard ditches having variable side
slopes.
1102.2.2 Special Ditches
Special ditches other than the modified standard roadway ditch described in Section 1102.2.1 above,
include the following:
A. The steep ditch beyond the toe of the embankment used to carry the flow from a cut section to the
valley floor.
B. Toe of fill ditch which is separated from the toe of fill by a minimum 10 foot wide bench, having a
minimum transverse slope of inch per foot toward the ditch.
C. Deep parallel side ditches separated from the pavement by a wide bench or earth barrier.
The special ditches described in A, B and C above are ordinarily trapezoidal in shape and appropriate
charts for the hydraulic analysis are included in this section of the manual or in the FHWA publication
Design Charts for Open Channel Flow Hydraulic Design Series No. 3. It is required that the calculated
flowline elevation be shown on each special ditch cross section.
1102.2.3 Median Ditches
The median ditches that are an integral part of all earth medians have the same shape and capacity
features as the standard roadside radius ditch and the appropriate ditch chart is applicable for the
hydraulic analysis. The fully depressed earth median provides adequate hydraulic capacity and the
appropriate flow charts in the Drainage Design Aid Figures 1100-11, 1100-12 and 1100-13 have been
developed for that shape. The rounding shown on the charts varies from 8 feet to 4 feet, depending on
the width of the median. The slight discrepancy in the rounding from that shown in Volume I, Roadway
Design, is not considered to affect the accuracy of the charts.
1102.2.4 Channel Relocations
Major channel relocations should be avoided. However, if it becomes necessary to relocate a channel
adhere to the following:
The design year frequency used for channel relocations shall be that given in Section 1004.2.
All channel relocations shall carefully be designed to preclude erosion or unreasonable changes in the
environment.
Whenever possible, channel relocations shall be restricted to the downstream end of proposed culverts.
The relocated channel shall be of a similar cross-section. Where the existing channel exhibits a two-stage
cross section morphology, it shall be replaced with like kind. The two-stage channel is comprised of two
distinct areas. The first of these is a meandering bankfull width that carries the channel-forming
discharge. The second area is the flood plain width. See Figure 1102-2 for a graphical representation of
the major channel features.

January 2015

11-5

Drainage Design Procedures


The proposed channel should be designed such that it matches the existing channel as closely as
possible in regards to existing geomorphic conditions (e.g., channel slope and length, velocity, depth of
flow, cross-sectional geometry, channel sinuosity, energy dissipation, etc.). The existing channel
geometry and physical characteristics should be established from reference reaches and idealized
geometry. The reference reaches should be selected from stable channel reaches close to the relocated
section or in locations with similar watershed and valley conditions.
The relocated channel should be designed to duplicate the existing hydraulic properties for the bankfull
design frequency. The flood clearance criteria given in Section 1005 should also be met.
Additional information on the design of relocated channels can be found in the United States Department
of Agriculture publication, Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Practices and Processes. The
principals given in this publication utilize idealized channel geometry. The actual design should be
refined using the channel geometry and physical characteristics of reference reaches.
1102.2.5 Channel Linings and Bank Stabilization
The use of soil bioengineering should be used to stabilize banks for relocated or impacted channels when
practicable. Native plant species should be used when feasible.
Bank stabilization using bioengineering is covered in the previously referenced USDA publication as well
as the AASHTO Model Drainage Manual and the USDA Engineering Field Handbook, chapter 16, part
650. The design procedures and methods for determining the effectiveness of the traditional channel
linings are covered in the Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 15 Design
of Stable Channels With Flexible Linings.

1102.3 Ditch Design Criteria - Design Traffic Exceeding 2000 ADT


1102.3.1 Design Frequency
Determine the depth of flow using a 10-year frequency storm, and determine the shear stress and width
of the ditch lining (if required) using a 5-year frequency storm. Where a flexible ditch lining is required for
calculated stresses exceeding the allowable for seed, the minimum width of the lining shall be 7.5 feet.
Additional required width is in increments of 3.5 feet. The installed width of all ditch linings is centered on
the flow line of the ditch. The depth of flow shall be limited to an elevation 1 foot below the edge of
pavement for the design discharge. The depth of flow in toe of slope ditches shall be further limited such
that the design year discharge does not overtop the ditch bank.
1102.3.2 Ditch Protection
The shear stress for the five-year frequency storm shall not exceed the values shown in Table 1102-1 for
the various flexible linings.

11-6

January 2015

Drainage Design Procedures


Table 1102-1
Allowable Shear Stress
Permanent Protection
Allowable Shear
Protective Lining
Stress (psf)
Seed (659)

0.40

Sodding, Ditch
Protection (660)

1.0

Temporary Protection
Ditch Erosion Protection
Mat Type___ (670)
A

1.25

1.50

2.0

E
F
G

2.25
0.45
1.75

The temporary linings will reach a value of 1.0 psf upon vegetation establishment. Use the temporary
lining shear stress values in Table 1102-1 on a temporary basis only (6 months or less).
Calculate the actual shear stress by the following equation:

ac= 62.4 . D . S
D= Water surface depth ft
S = Channel slope ft/ft
2
ac = Actual shear stress lbs/ft
If the calculated shear stress exceeds that shown in table 1102-1 then use the following permanent shear
stress values within the stated limitations:
A. Seeding and Erosion Control with Turf Reinforcing Mat (Supplemental Specification 836) where the
ditch slope is less than 10% and maximum shear stress are as follows:
Turf Reinforcing
Mat Type
Type 1
Type 2
Type 3

Maximum Shear
Stress (psf)
2.00
3.00
5.00

B. Type B, C or D Rock Channel Protection may be used to line the ditch if the nearest point of the lining
is outside the design clear zone or located behind guardrail or barrier. The actual shear stress is
based upon the parameters of the channel slope and depth of flow for the 5-year discharge. The
shear equation is valid for discharges less than 50 cfs with slopes less than 10% when evaluating
Rock Channel Protection.

January 2015

11-7

Drainage Design Procedures


Allowable Shear Stress
2
RCP Type
a lbs/ft
B
6
C
4
D
2
C. Type B or C RCP may be utilized for lining ditches on steep grades (slopes from 10%- 25%) that
carry flow from the end of a cut section down to the valley floor. Use HEC-15 procedures with a
safety factor of 1.5 for steep gradient channels (refer to HEC-15).
Contact OHE for further guidance of RCP usage for 5-year discharges greater than or equal to 50 cfs.
D. Tied concrete block mat protection (601) may be used for slopes and swales with 2:1 or flatter side
slopes with profile grades at 25% or less. The matting may be used within the clear zone provided
that the top of the blocks are flush with the finished grade. Install per the manufacturers
recommendations. The allowable shear stress for each type is shown in table 1102-2.
Table 1102-2
Tied Concrete Block Mat Shear Stress
Type
Allowable Shear Stress (lbf/ft2)
1
3
2
5
3
7

E. Articulating concrete block revetment system (601) may be used for slopes and channels with 2:1 or
flatter side slopes. The revetment may be used within the clear zone provided that the top of the
blocks are flush with the finished grade. Install per the manufacturers recommendations. The
allowable shear stress for each type is shown in table 1102-3.
Table 1102-3
Articulating Concrete Block Revetment System Shear Stress
Type
1
2
3

Allowable Shear Stress (lbf/ft2)


17
20
23

F. A concrete lining should be considered only as a last resort. Contact OHE, before using a concrete
lining.
1102.3.3 Roughness
Suggested values for Mannings Roughness Coefficient n for the various types of open water carriers
are listed in Table 1102-3.

11-8

January 2015

Drainage Design Procedures


Table 1102-3
Roughness
Coefficient
Bare Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.02
Seeded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.03
Sod
....................
0.04
Item 670 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.04
Erosion Control Matting . . . . . . .
0.04
Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.015
Bituminous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.015
Grouted Riprap . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.02
Tied Concrete Block Mat . . . . . .
0.03
Rock Channel
0.06 for ditches
Protection . . . . . . . . . . . 0.04 for large channels
Type of Lining

1102.3.4 Catch Basin Types


The Standard No. 4, 5, and 8 Catch Basins are suitable for the standard roadside designs covered in
Volume I, Roadway Design. The tilt built into the basin top provides a self-cleaning feature when the
basins are used on continuous grades and the wide bar spacing minimizes clogging possibilities, thereby
resulting in an efficient design. The bases of the 4, 5 and 8 Catch Basins can be expanded to
accommodate larger diameter conduits by specifying Standard
Construction Drawing CB-3.4. The bar spacing can be decreased, when desirable for safety reasons, by
specifying Grate E for the No. 4 and Grate B for the No. 5. Provide 150 feet of ditch erosion protection
upstream of all No. 4, 5 and 8 Catch Basins, regardless of velocity. The following catch basin types are
generally recommended based on the size and shape of the ditch.
A. Standard No. 4 for depressed medians wider than 40 feet.
B. Standard No. 5 for 40 foot radius roadside or median ditches. (Use Grate B where pedestrian traffic
may be expected.)
C. Standard No. 8 for 20 foot radius roadside or depressed medians 40 feet or less in width.
D. Standard No. 2-2-A may be used in trapezoidal toe ditches where the basin is located in a rural area.
The basin should also be located outside the design clear zone or behind guardrail where the
protruding feature of the basin is not objectionable. The capacity of the side inlet catch basin window,
for unsubmerged conditions, may be determined by the standard weir equation:
Q=CLH3/2
where C is a weir coefficient, generally 3.0, L is the length of opening in feet, H is the distance from
the bottom of the window to the surface of the design flow in feet. The catch basin grate is
considered as an access point for the storm sewer and its capacity to admit flow is ignored for
continuous grades.
E. Standard No. 2-2-B should be used where minor, non-clogging flows are involved such as yard
sections and the small triangular area created by the guardrail treatment for a depressed median at
bridge terminals. Standard No. 2-3 through No. 2-6 catch basins should be provided where a larger
base is required to accommodate pipes larger than 21 inches in span or sewer junctions, or where a
No. 2-2-B catch basin will not provide adequate access to the sewer.
F. In urban areas, Standard Side Ditch Inlets should be used to drain small areas of trapped water
behind curbs and/or between driveways.
1102.3.5 Calculated Catch Basin Spacing
Catch basins must be provided to intercept flow from open water carriers when the depth of flow or
velocity exceeds the maximum allowable for
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Drainage Design Procedures


the design storm for all highway classifications. The standard ditch catch basins, designated Catch Basin
No. 4, Catch Basin No. 5, and Catch Basin No. 8, include an earth dike. The dike is approximately 12
inches above the flowline of the grate, immediately downstream from the catch basin and serves to block
the flow on continuous grades and create a sump condition.
When the calculated depth of flow or velocity exceeds the maximum allowable at the checkpoint in the
ditch, a catch basin or ditch lining will be required. However, the capacity of the catch basin may be less
than the capacity of the ditch and thereby control the catch basin spacing. Figure 1102-1 may be used to
check the capacity of a catch basin grate in a sump. To use Figure 1102-1, the calculated discharge at
the ditch checkpoint shall be doubled to compensate for possible partial clogging of the grate.
In cut sections, the accumulated ditch flow shall be carried as far as the capacity, allowable depth, or
velocity of flow will permit. The first catch basin in the roadside or median ditch will determine the need
for a storm sewer system required for the remainder of the cut. Velocity control should be extended as
far as inexpensive flexible ditch linings will permit.
Consideration should also be given to providing positive outlets for underdrains and providing access to
longitudinal sewer systems when locating ditch catch basins.
1102.3.6 Arbitrary Maximum Catch Basin Spacing
Catch basins are required at the low point of all sags and the earth dike noted in Section 1102.3.5 shall
be omitted. The maximum distance between catch basins in depressed medians in fill sections shall be
as shown in Table 1102-4. Where underdrains are utilized, catch basins shall be provided at a maximum
spacing of 1000 feet (500 feet with free draining base) to provide a positive outlet for underdrains.
Table 1102-4
Depressed Median Catch Basin Spacing
(Fill Sections)

Median Width

Desirable
Spacing

Maximum
Spacing

84 feet

1250 feet

1500 feet

60 feet

1000 feet

1250 feet

40 feet

800 feet

1000 feet

1102.4 Ditch Design Criteria - Design Traffic of 2000 ADT or Less


1102.4.1 Design Frequency
A 5-year frequency storm shall be used to determine the depth of flow, and a 2-year frequency to
determine the shear stress of flow and width of ditch lining, where needed. The depth of flow shall be
limited to an elevation 9 inches below the edge of pavement for the design discharge. The depth of flow
in toe of slope ditches shall be further limited such that the design year discharge does not overtop the
ditch bank. The minimum width of lining shall be in accordance with Section 1102.3.1.
1102.4.2 Shear Stress Protection
Shear stress protection shall be in accordance with 1102.3.2 except that a 2-year frequency event shall
be used.
1102.4.3 Roughness
The roughness used for the hydraulic analysis shall be based on the Manning's Roughness Coefficient
values shown in Table 1102-3.
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1102.4.4 Catch Basin Types
Standard No. 5 Catch Basins, No. 2-2-A Catch Basin (within their safety limitations as discussed in
Section 1102.3.4(D)) and No. 2-2-B Catch Basins should be considered for the lower ADT highways.
Standard No. 4 Catch Basins should be used where additional capacity is required.

1102.5 Design Aids for Ditch Flow Analysis


1102.5.1 Earth Channel Charts
Standard radius roadside ditch charts have been prepared, based on the Mannings equation, to facilitate
the hydraulic analysis of ditch flow and are included in the Drainage Design Aids. Some of the more
commonly used trapezoidal channel charts are also included.
Other trapezoidal channel charts (with 2:1 - 2:1 side slopes and bottom widths varying from 2 feet to 20
feet are available in the Federal Highway Administration publication referenced in section 1102.2.2.
All earth channel charts have been prepared using a Manning's Coefficient of Roughness of 0.03, which
is recommended for a seed lining (Construction and Material Specifications Item 659). Qn and Vn scales
have been included on all channel charts so that the channel flow may be analyzed for any value of n
depending on the roughness of the channel or lining.
1102.5.2 Rectangular Channel Charts
Vertical side channel charts that can be used to analyze the open channel flow in box culverts are
included in the Federal Highway Administration publication Design Charts for Open Channel flow,
previously referred to.

1103 Pavement Drainage


1103.1 General
When curbs are provided at the edge of pavement or paved shoulder, (primarily in urban areas), it is
necessary to determine the proper type of pavement inlet (or catch basin) to control the spread of water
and depth of flow on the pavement. Present day geometric design has resulted in relatively flat
transverse and longitudinal pavement slopes. These slopes require more pavement inlets (or catch
basins) and consequently result in an appreciable increase in the drainage cost. To alleviate the above,
where curb is permissible, standard curb and gutter should be used adjacent to the pavement.
On normal section multi-lane highways where three (3) or more lanes are sloped in the same direction, it
is desirable to counter the resulting increase in flow depth by increasing the cross slope of the outermost
lanes. The two (2) lanes adjacent to the crown line should be pitched at the normal slope of 1.6 percent,
and successive lane pairs or portions thereof outward, should be increased by 0.4 percent. Refer to
Location and Design - Volume 1, Roadway design for additional geometric design criteria.
If paved shoulders are provided, the drainage cost will be decreased appreciably due to the large volume
of flow that can be carried on the pavement shoulder without exceeding the allowable depth of 1 inch
below the top of curb or a maximum of 5 inches; a maximum depth of 6 inches is permissible where a
barrier shape is provided adjacent to the pavement.
Furnish a drainage design that will reduce the need for bridge scuppers by intercepting the flow prior to
the bridge.
A pavement drainage computation sheet similar to that provided in the Appendix shall be used to perform
or summarize necessary computations.
Additional information concerning pavement drainage can be obtained from the Federal Highway
Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 22, "Urban Drainage Design Manual."

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Drainage Design Procedures


1103.2 Design Frequency
Pavement inlets (or catch basins) shall be spaced to limit the spread of flow on the traveled lane
(considered to be 12 feet wide) as shown in Table 1103-1. The allowable spread may be increased
slightly for streets carrying predominantly local traffic and with design speeds less than 45 mph. Design
shall be based upon the following frequencies:
Freeways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Years
High volume highways (over 6000 ADT
5 Years
Rural or 9000 ADT Urban) . . .
All other highways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Years
For underpasses or other depressed roadways where ponded water can be removed only through the
storm sewer system, the spread shall be checked for a 50-year storm for Freeways and high volume
highways as defined above, and for a 25-year storm for other multiple lane highways. Typically, this
criteria does not apply to 2-lane facilities. Contact OHE if encountered. The ponding will be permitted to
cover all but one through lane of a multiple lane pavement. The depth of flow at the curb shall not exceed
1 inch below the top of the curb for the design discharge regardless of the type of highway. A maximum
depth of 6 inches is permissible where a barrier shape is provided adjacent to the pavement.
Table 1103-1
Allowable Pavement Spread*
Freeways
0 feet
High Volume Highways (Over 6000
ADT rural or 9000 ADT urban)
45 mph
< 45mph
All other Highways

4 feet
2 lanes
4 lanes
2 lanes

6 feet
8 feet
6 feet

4 lanes

8 feet

*Pavement spread applies to the through lane only

1103.3 Estimating Design Discharge


Runoff contributing to curbed pavements shall be estimated by the rational method, as explained in
Sections 1101.2.2, 1101.2.3 and 1101.2.4.
The time of concentration tc shall be the actual time of concentration calculated according to Section
1101.2.2 with an absolute minimum time of 10 minutes.
In urban areas, where justifiable (e.g. contributing drainage area would be difficult to determine), the strip
method may be used to determine contributing drainage areas. The strip method assumes a
contributing drainage area of 150 feet taken on each side of the roadway centerline.

1103.4 Capacity of Pavement Gutters


A pavement gutter has a right triangular shape, with the curb forming the vertical leg and the straight
pavement slope, the gutter plate of a curb and gutter, or a paved shoulder forming the hypotenuse. A
standard curb and gutter adjacent to a straight pavement slope, or paved shoulder, forms a composite
gutter section which complicates the flow analysis. In most cases, the top width of the water surface in a
pavement gutter far exceeds the height of the curb. The hydraulic radius does not accurately describe
the gutter cross section in this situation, thereby requiring a modification to the Mannings equation to
analyze the gutter flow. The accepted modification results in the following equation:

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Drainage Design Procedures

where:
Q
=
Z
=

0.56 1/2 8/3

Discharge in cubic feet per second


Reciprocal of the pavement cross
slope
Mannings Coefficient of Roughness
(Table 1102-3)

Longitudinal pavement slope

Depth of flow in gutter section at


curb in feet

Figure 1103-1 provides a graphical solution for the above equation and its use is comparatively simple for
straight transverse pavement slopes. However, the use of the Nomograph to determine depth of flow at
the curb and resulting spread on the pavement for composite sections is much more involved.

1103.5 Pavement Flow Charts


Charts have been prepared for the more commonly used curbed pavement typical sections, and they are
included in the Drainage Design Aids. The charts are particularly helpful for determining the flow for
composite pavement sections where the spread can be read directly from the appropriate Pavement Flow
Chart.
To use the charts, enter with a predetermined design discharge (total flow) Qt in the gutter in cubic feet
per second and proceed vertically to intersect the longitudinal gutter slope line. At that intersection, read
the spread in feet shown on the diagonal spread lines.
The spread of flow will generally control the pavement inlet or catch basin spacing, where the transverse
and longitudinal slope of the pavement is relatively flat. The above is prevalent in long flat sag vertical
curves, where a flanking inlet (or catch basin) should arbitrarily be provided on both sides of the low point
in a pavement sag. This is particularly so for Freeways. Three inlets or catch basins in a sag can be
justified only on the basis of need for other highway classifications. Usually a Standard 6 foot pavement
inlet or No. 3A catch basin will be adequate, and they should be placed where the grade elevation is
approximately 0.20 feet higher than at the low point. Furnish a CB-No. 3 at the sump.
Inlets or catch basins should arbitrarily be placed upstream of all intersections, bridges and pedestrian
ramps. When justified, inlets (or catch basins) should be located a minimum of 10 feet off drive aprons,
intersection return radii, pedestrian ramps or curb termini.

1103.6 Bypass Charts for Continuous Pavement Grades


Bypass charts are included for the standard pavement inlets and catch basins in the Drainage Design
Aids. Bypass for a given structure can be read directly from the chart (At the intersection of the spread,
determined in Section 1103.5, and the longitudinal gutter slope, read the bypass flow Qb on the abscissa).
Experience has proven that, for greater efficiency, inlets should be sized to bypass a minimum of 10% to
15% of the design discharge. This criterion should be used to determine the type or length of inlet to be
used in a given location. It is not intended to establish the required spacing. The most efficient design
maintains the allowable spread on continuous grades and at the sag.
The bypass for a catch basin or inlet should be added to the total flow in the adjacent downstream gutter
section.

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Drainage Design Procedures


1103.6.1 Curb Opening Inlets
The flow bypassing a standard curb opening inlet, for pavement transverse slopes or combination of
slopes differing from the charts included in the Drainage Design Aids, may be obtained from Figure 11032. The use of curb opening inlets should be avoided where bicycle traffic is expected.
1103.6.2 Grate or Combination Grate and Curb Opening Inlet
The standard pavement catch basin in this category is considered to intercept all the flow over the grate
when used on continuous grades. A portion of the flow outside of the edge of the grate will also be
intercepted, the amount varying with the depth of flow y along the edge of the grate. The depth y can
be determined from Figure 1103-1, and the resulting flow spilling over the edge of the grate from Figure
1103-2, using a inch local depression for straight transverse pavement slopes, or no local depression
for a composite gutter section. The local depression mentioned above is at the front face of the grate
closest to the centerline of the roadway. This depression is not the same depression identified in the in
the standard construction drawings. The curb opening of a combination catch basin on a continuous
grade will admit some flow, particularly if there is a partial clogging of the grate; however, the additional
capacity should be considered as a factor of safety only.

1103.7 Grate Catch Basins and Curb Opening Inlets in Pavement Sags
The spread determined from the pavement flow charts need not be checked any closer than 25 to 50 feet
on either side of the sag, well beyond the limits of the local depression. The spread in the sag should be
determined from the depth of flow at the edge of grate using Figure 1103-3 and should include the total
flow (contributions from each side of the sag vertical curve) reaching the inlet or catch basin.
Standard No. 3 catch basins should be used in pavement sags. The capacity of the grates to admit flow
is based on the depth of ponding around the grates. The capacity of the grates shown in Figure 1103-3 is
based on weir flow over the edge of the grate, up to a depth of 0.4 feet. For greater depths, the total area
of grate opening is considered, with no deduction made for possible clogging. When evaluating the
spread in a depressed sag for a 25-year or 50-year event, the capacity of the window shall be considered.
This capacity may be obtained from Figure 1103-4. The curb opening capacity should be added to the
grate capacity for submerged conditions.
Where the low point of a sag vertical curve occurs in a drive, a No. 6 catch basin should be provided at
the low point with flanking No. 3A catch basins as per Section 1103.5.
No. 6 catch basins may be used along curbed roadways and medians provided that the grate capacity is
not exceeded.

1103.8 Bridge Deck Drainage


Furnish a minimum longitudinal grade of 0.3% for the bridge deck surface when using concrete parapets.
Minimize or eliminate the number of scuppers. Calculate the allowable spread of flow using procedures
described in Section 1103. Locate scuppers inside the fascia beam unless the parapet and beam
spacing make this impractical. Furnish scuppers with vertical drops or nearly vertical drops when
feasible. If a scupper pan is required, angle the pan as steeply as possible.
Furnish an uncollected / free fall as per SCD GSD-1-96. Substitute heavy duty cast iron deck drains as
currently manufactured by Neenah or equal, when SCD GSD-1-96 will not physically fit due to parapet,
beam line and the deck overhang. If a drainage collection system is required ensure that it meets the
following:
A. System is sloped greater than or equal to 15 degrees
B. Bends have a minimum radius of 18 inches
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Drainage Design Procedures


C. Bends have angles greater than 90 degrees
D. Cleanout plugs are easily and safely accessible

E. F1008-1urnish drainage collection when using finger joints or sliding plates. Provide a neoprene
drainage trough under finger joints. Show the necessary deck drainage outlet locations on the
preliminary structure site plan. Include this information in the Structure Type Study (BDM 201).
Place scuppers with drainage collection systems as close as feasible to the substructure unit which drains
them. Place uncollected / free fall scupper downspouts as far away from any part of the structure as
possible.
See Section 1113 for bridge bypass flow.

1103.9 Slotted Drains and Trench Drains


Slotted and Trench drains are used to capture sheet flow in areas where curb is not present to collect and
direct flow to a catch basin such as a gore area.
Trench drains and slotted drain systems are susceptible to clogging and are not recommended where
significant sediment or debris load is present.
Locate trench drains and slotted drains longitudinally with the edge of pavement. Ensure the drain and
any surrounding concrete is outside of the travelled way. Locate trench drains at the end of commercial
drives to intercept large flows before entering into the travelled way.
Outlet the drains to a Catch Basin No.6 to aid in cleanout.
Furnish a Catch Basin No. 6 at minimum 100 ft. intervals to facilitate cleanout for slotted drains. Refer to
SCD DM-1.3 for slotted drain details. Furnish Plan Note D120 when utilizing slotted drain.
Specify supplemental specification 839 and 939 when using trench drain.

1104 Storm Sewers


1104.1 General
Storm sewer systems are designed to collect and carry storm water runoff from the first pavement or ditch
inlet, or catch basin to the predetermined outlet. (Further reference to inlets infers either inlets or catch
basins). Long cut sections often result in the need for longitudinal trunk sewers to accept the flow from a
series of inlets. The proper location of a sewer outlet is important. Existing drainage patterns should be
perpetuated insofar as practicable. Careful consideration should be given to the possibility of actionable
damage for the diversion of substantial volumes of flow. Long fill sections requiring median or pavement
drains may best be served by transverse sewers that outlet independently at the toe of fill ditch.
Storm sewer systems shall be sized to convey the current flow from areas naturally contributing to the
highway or from intercepting existing storm sewers. Adherence to Local drainage criteria and standards
is not applicable for ODOT owned and maintained drainage assets. Storm sewer systems may be
oversized at the request of a local government entity to convey flow from areas beyond those considered
highway responsibility or increased flows from anticipated development with the approval of the OHE.
The additional cost to construct the increased sized storm sewer system will be the responsibility of the
local government. The proration of project funds and local government funds will be determined from
estimated construction costs. The project funding participation will be determined as a percentage of the
total cost of the affected plan items. The percentage will be computed by dividing the estimated cost to

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Drainage Design Procedures


construct a highway responsibility system only by the estimated cost to construct the oversized system.
The affected plan items and participation percentage will be noted in the plan general summary.
Type B conduit shall be specified for storm sewers under pavement, paved shoulders and commercial or
industrial drives and Type C conduits for storm sewers beyond those limits. However, the type of conduit
shall not be changed for a short run of conduit which would ordinarily require a change in conduit type.
As an example of the above, Type B should be used for a transverse conduit that is required to drain an
earth median catch basin in an embankment section under the pavement to a point approximately 10 feet
from the embankment slope. A concrete collar, as per Standard Construction Drawing DM-1.1, should be
provided to connect the Type B and a Type F Conduit, located back of, and parallel to, the embankment
slope. Type F conduit, 707.05 Type C or 707.21 shall be provided for the pipe specials required to
negotiate the bend at the top and bottom of the embankment. A detail is provided in Figure 1104-1.
The Construction and Material Specifications stipulate the permissible pipe shapes and materials. Storm
sewer designs will be based on round pipe, and the choice of the permissible material types for the
conduit specified will be the contractors option. When extending existing Type B & C conduits, the
extensions will match the existing material in kind. The length of conduit to be paid for will be the actual
number of linear feet, measured from center-to-center of appurtenant small structures. No deduction will
be made for catch basins, inlets or manholes that are 6 feet or less across, measured in the direction of
flow. Conduits placed on slopes steeper than 3:1 or with beveled or skewed ends are measured along
the invert.
Changes to grade may occur at existing manholes due to proposed work. With a decrease in grade of
not more than 6 inches or an increase in grade of not more than 12 inches the existing structure may be
Adjusted to Grade. Where grade elevation changes are greater, the existing structure should be
Reconstructed to Grade.

1104.2 Design Considerations


1104.2.1 Storm Sewer Depth
Keep a storm sewer system as shallow as possible, consistent with the following controls:
A. Provide a minimum cover of 9 inches from the top of a rigid pipe to the bottom of the pavement
subbase; however, in no installation shall the distance from the top of the rigid pipe to the pavement
surface be less than 15 inches. Provide a minimum cover of at least 18 inches for pipe not under
pavement.
B. Provide a minimum cover of 12 from the top of flexible pipe to the bottom of the pavement subbase;
however, in no installation shall the distance from the top of the flexible pipe to the pavement or
ground surface be less than 24.
C. Provide a minimum cover of 4 from the top of extra strength pipe to the bottom of the pavement
subbase; however, in no installation shall the distance from the top of the extra strength pipe to the
pavement surface be less than 10 inches. Provide a minimum cover of at least 4 if not under the
pavement. Check with OHE to determine the required extra strength. If 10 inches of minimum cover
is not achievable, the pipe is required to be special designed and shown as per plan.
D. Provide a sufficient depth to permit the use of precast inlets, catch basins and manholes. Refer to the
Standard Construction Drawings for this information. In no installation shall the top of pipe be in the
precast top section of the inlet, catch basin or manhole. See Table 1104-1 for maximum storm
sewer pipe thicknesses.
E. Provide a sufficient depth to avoid interference with existing utilities such as sanitary sewers, the
grade of which cannot be changed.
F. Provide a sufficient depth to create a positive outlet for underdrains. It is desirable to maintain the
underdrain outlet 12 inches above the flow line of the outlet structure with 6 inches as a minimum.
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G. Provide sufficient slope to maintain a minimum velocity of 3 feet per second, for self-cleansing. This
velocity is calculated using the just full Mannings Equation.
H. Match the crown of a smaller upstream pipe in a longitudinal trunk sewer to the crown of the adjacent
downstream pipe.
I.

Minimum invert elevation = finished grade minimum cover wall thickness (per Table 1104-1)
inside diameter

Table 1104-1
Dimensions of Wall Thickness for Storm Sewer
Inside
Diameter
(inch)
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
36
42
48
54
60
66
72

Wall Thickness
(inch)
2
2-1/4
2-1/2
2-3/4
3
3-1/4
3-1/2
4
4-1/2
5
5-1/2
6
6-1/2
7

Outside
Diameter
(inch)
16
19-1/2
23
26-1/2
30
33-1/2
37
44
51
58
65
72
79
86

Where proposed highway storm sewers or ditches will interfere with existing private drains carrying
treated or untreated sanitary flow, submit the names and addresses of the affected property owners to the
District Deputy Director. Obtain the above information well in advance of the Field Drainage Review so
the appropriate provisions of Directive No. 22-A can be followed (found in the Appendix A).
1104.2.2 Storm Sewer Access
Most standard catch basins and pavement inlets will provide sufficient access to small shallow sewers.
Catch basin or pavement inlets can be used to negotiate changes in sewer sizes or minor horizontal or
vertical direction changes within the size limitation of the structure, but more pronounced changes may
require manholes.
It may be necessary, or desirable to locate longitudinal trunk sewers away from the curb to provide for a
utility strip between the curb and the sidewalk and to avoid a conflict with the underdrain system. This will
require properly spaced manholes in the sewer line. Small sewers (under 36 inches in diameter) located
under or near the edge of pavement, should be accessible at intervals not to exceed 300 feet. For
sewers sized 36 to 60 inches manholes should be spaced every 500 feet maximum. Manholes should be
provided every 750 to 1000 feet maximum for larger sewers.
1104.2.3 Rock Excavation for Storm Sewer
If it is known that bedrock will be encountered in the excavation for storm sewer installation, relocate the
storm sewer. If bedrock cannot be avoided, separate the quantities of the storm sewer in rock and
include 611, As Per Plan in the plans.
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Drainage Design Procedures


1104.3 Layout Procedure
1104.3.1 Plan
A print of the plan sheets involved should be used to spot catch basins and inlets that are required to
drain the project and satisfy maximum allowable depth and/or spread of flow. A strip map showing the
delineated drainage area and topography is required. The map will provide the designer with a means of
determining the drainage area and the weighted coefficient of runoff for the individual areas contributing
flow to the required storm sewer system.
1104.3.2 Profile
A profile of the existing and proposed pavement or ground line over the proposed sewer location should
be plotted. On the same profile, plot the locations of catch basins, inlets and manholes, along with a
tentative storm sewer system.

1104.4 Storm Sewer Design Criteria


1104.4.1 Design Frequency
All storm sewers shall be sized to flow just full (i.e. depth of flow for maximum discharge) for a 10-year
frequency storm. The size is determined by working downstream from the first sewer run. It will be
acceptable to use a discharge of a more frequent occurrence if consistent with local criteria (depending
upon the design ADT of the roadway) or to avoid extensive replacement of an existing downstream
drainage system.
1104.4.2 Hydraulic Grade Line
Starting at the storm sewer system outlet and working upstream, the elevation of the hydraulic grade line
at the upper end of each sewer run should be determined using a 25-year frequency. It will be
acceptable to use a discharge of a more frequent occurrence if consistent with local critera (depending
upon the design ADT of the roadway) or to avoid extensive replacement of an existing downstream
drainage system. Ordinarily, the hydraulic grade line will be above the top of the pipe, causing the
system to operate under pressure. If, however, any run in the system does not flow full, (pipe slope
steeper than the friction slope) the hydraulic grade line will follow the friction slope until it reaches the
normal depth of flow in the steep run. From that point, the hydraulic grade line will coincide with the
normal depth of flow until it reaches a run flatter than the friction slope for that run.
The starting elevation for the hydraulic grade line determination should be the higher of either: the
downstream tail water channel water surface elevation or (dc+D)/2 at the system outlet. Section 1105.6.1
The intensity i in the rational equation Q=CiA [Q=CiA/360] used to determine the check discharge (25year frequency) shall be the same for all sewer runs as that calculated for the last, or downstream run, in
a continuous sewer system.
The hydraulic grade line shall not exceed the following for any roadway with greater than 2000 ADT:
A. 12 inches below the edge of pavement for sections without curb.
B. The elevation of a curb opening inlet or grate elevation of a pavement catch basin.
Consideration shall be given to a reduction in the design frequency and to more liberal hydraulic grade
line controls for less important highways than those noted above.
The check discharge, to determine the elevation of the hydraulic grade line for highways having
depressed sags that must be drained by storm sewers, shall be based on a 50-year frequency. One
directional lane of a multiple lane highway or one-half of a lane on a 2-lane highway should be passable
when the sewer system is discharging the 50-year storm.
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Drainage Design Procedures


Storm sewers for all highways shall satisfy a 50-year check to preclude flooding of buildings or extensive
flooding of private property.
If the hydraulic grade line exceeds the limits noted above, the controlling sewer size shall be increased.
(These criteria are not intended to lower existing high water elevations)
1104.4.3 Coefficient of Runoff
The weighted coefficient of runoff shall be determined as explained in Section 1101.2.3
1104.4.4 Time of Concentration
The time shall be determined as explained in Section 1101.2.2. A minimum time of concentration of 15
minutes to the first ditch catch basin and 10 minutes to the first pavement inlet shall be used. The actual
calculated time of concentration shall be used when values greater than these minimums occur.
1104.4.5 Pipe Roughness Coefficient
A Mannings n of 0.015 shall be used for sewers 60 inches in diameter and under, and 0.013 for larger
sewers. The basic n value for smooth pipe, concrete, vitrified clay, bituminous lined corrugated steel or
thermoplastic is 0.012. The increased values are recommended for sewers to compensate for minor
head losses incurred at catch basins, inlets and manholes located in a storm sewer system.
1104.4.6 Minimum Storm Sewer Pipe Size
A minimum pipe diameter of 15 inches shall be used for Freeways and Freeway ramps (Where an
existing storm sewer is to remain in service, it is not necessary to replace, hydraulically adequate pipes to
meet this criterion) and 12 inches for other highways.
1104.4.7 Maximum Storm Sewer Slope
For storm sewers designated as Type B or Type C, the maximum slope is 25%. For storm sewers with
slopes that exceed 25%, designate as Type F.

1104.5 Hydraulic Design Procedure


With the layout suggested in Section 1104.3, start with the upper catch basin or inlet and determine the
value of CA for the contributing flow (CA is the product of the weighted coefficient of runoff and the
drainage area). Next, determine the time of concentration for the first area and the corresponding rainfall
intensity i from the proper curve shown on Figure 1101-2. The design discharge Q to use to determine
the required size of the first sewer from MH No. 1 to MH No. 2 is the product of Ca x i [0.0028CA x i]. At
manhole No. 2, determine the value of CA for the additional area contributing at that point and add to the
CA for MH No. 1.
Compute the time of flow in the storm sewer from MH No.1 to MH No. 2 in minutes and add to the time of
concentration at MH No. 1. Check the time of concentration for the area contributing to MH No. 2, and
use the larger of the two as the duration for the new value of rainfall intensity for computing the design
flow from MH No. 2 to MH No. 3.
It is obvious that the process is quite involved, and a storm sewer computation sheet similar to that
provided in the Appendix shall be used to tabulate the required information. The calculations for lateral
connections to the longitudinal trunk sewer should be tabulated separately from the trunk sewer
calculations. Software developed by ODOT (CDSS) is available online and can be used for these
calculations. StormCAD may also be used for these calculations. Other software packages may be
utilized with approval from OHE.

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1104.6 Combined Sanitary Sewer Separation
When the Combined Sanitary Authority is under court order to address frequent overflow of the sanitary
system due to storm sewer impacts, every effort should be made to furnish an exclusive outfall for the
storm sewer when feasible. Coordination with the Local is required. While adherence to Local drainage
standards is not applicable for ODOT owned and maintained drainage assets it may be possible for the
Department to incorporate the needs of the local entity subject to review and approval of OHE.
The Department will fund storm sewer conduit and drainage structures to ensure positive drainage of the
roadway when a separation is feasible. Conduit and structures required for sanitary sewer will be funded
by the Local. All conduit located outside of the Department owned right-of-way will be funded by the
Local.
Conduit will be furnished for the most feasible and direct route of storm or sanitary sewer as determined
by the Department.

1105 Roadway Culverts


1105.1 General
A culvert generally carries a natural stream under the highway embankment. The culvert horizontal and
vertical alignment should approximate that of the natural channel and thereby minimize stream impacts
and the need for channel relocations. Ensure the upstream invert is not below the natural channel unless
the culvert has depressed inverts, a paved depressed approach apron, or an improved inlet.
Optimum culvert design (i.e., best hydraulic performance and least environmental impacts) occurs when
the roadway alignment is normal to the flow in the channel and is located on a relatively straight and
stable section of the channel. Roadway alignment needs to be considered early in the design process to
provide optimum culvert design. The proposed roadway should avoid stream confluences. Culverts
should not be placed on skews in excess of 45 or as further limited in Section 1008.
Check the design with a single-cell round pipe as a first choice. In cases where required cover or
discharge precludes a round pipe, select a shape that reduces the vertical requirements while maintaining
the hydraulic capacity. Check the design with the following shapes in order of minimum cost to increasing
cost: single-cell elliptical concrete, metal pipe-arch, prefabricated box culvert or three-sided structure. For
justification of multiple cell culverts, see Section 1105.7.2.
In general, maintain the existing upstream and downstream hydraulics when replacing an existing culvert.
In cases where these parameters must be modified, evaluate any upstream and downstream impacts.
Culvert location should perpetuate existing drainage patterns (depth of flow, direction of flow, overbank
flow) to the maximum extent practicable. Diversion of substantial volumes of flow requires regulatory
consideration and possible actionable damage.
Label the depth or elevation of the Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) for jurisdictional waterways on the
Culvert Detail Sheet for all culverts. The depth is measured from the centerline of the waterway. The
OHWM is calculated per Section1105.6.13 or determined by the Office of Environmental Services.

1105.2 Stream Protection


Stream protection practices are provided to improve stream channel stability. Erosion of the stream
channel can migrate upstream and downstream without proper protection at the structure.

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Provide stream protection practices (water quantity treatment) for all culvert projects when the project
earth disturbing acreage exceeds the thresholds for post-construction Best Management Practices (BMP)
outlined in Section 1115.2. Exceptions for providing stream protection to meet post-construction BMP
requirements are noted in Section 1115.3. In addition to post-construction BMP requirements, waterway
permit conditions and site specific features may require the use of practices described throughout this
Section.
Stream protection for culvert projects is provided through the use of the following practices:

Bankfull discharge design


Depressed culvert inverts
Paved depressed approach aprons
Flood plain culverts

For existing culvert replacements, inspect the channel for erosion that has caused undercutting or
downcutting at the inlet of the culvert. At locations with evidence of undercutting or downcutting, provide
a concrete apron according to Section 1106.3 at the inlet and outlet of the culvert to restore previous
stream elevations and provide stream protection.
The use of each stream protection practice is limited based on project specific conditions.
If the stream protection practices listed above are not applicable or available based on project type, site
constraints or limitations, the project is not exempt from providing stream protection BMP. Other methods
of stream protection must be used.
In addition to the stream protection practices described within this Section, the following post-construction
storm water BMP may be utilized within available right-of-way or right-of-way being obtained for roadway
purposes to provide stream protection and treat storm water runoff when the project earth disturbed area
is equal to or exceeds one acre:

Extended Detention (See Section 1117.3)


Retention Basin (See Section 1117.4)
Bioretention Cell (See Section 1117.5)
Infiltration Methods (See Section 1117.6)
Constructed Wetlands (See Section 1117.7)

See Sections 1115 through 1117 for further information concerning post-construction storm water BMPs.
1105.2.1 Bankfull Discharge Design
Culverts utilizing Bankfull Discharge Design are required to convey the bankfull discharge with minimum
change in the stream energy for the adjoining channel sections when compared to the existing conditions.
The proposed culvert will minimize the impact to the stream channel by closely matching the existing
depth of flow with the proposed depth of flow for the bankfull discharge.
Provide Bankfull Discharge Design for all culverts conveying streams with the following exceptions:

The culvert is a replacement structure (permitted under the Regional General Permit for ODOT or
a Nationwide Permit #3 - Maintenance).

The culvert rise is 30" or less.

The culvert is located on bedrock.

The culvert slope exceeds 1%.

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If multiple cell culverts are provided, ensure only one culvert conveys the bankfull discharge. Place the
invert of additional culverts at the water surface elevation generated by the bankfull discharge.
Use the following design steps when performing a bankfull discharge design:
1. Determine the bankfull discharge using USGS report 2005-5153, Bankfull Characteristics of Ohio
Streams and Their Relation To Peak Streamflows. Use the regression equation that utilizes
USGS map-based explanatory variables.
The report can be obtained from USGS at:
http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2005/5153/.
2. Determine the culvert size from traditional culvert hydraulic design.
3. Depress the culvert invert according to Section 1105.2.2.
4. Determine the depth of flow for the pre-developed channel using the bankfull discharge at
locations 25 feet before the culvert inlet, at the culvert, and 25 feet beyond the culvert outlet.
Determine the depth of flow for the bankfull discharge based on field-obtained stream crosssections and the use of a standard step-backwater water-surface profile model such as HEC-RAS
or the use of other software capable of calculating depth of flow based on Mannings equation.
5. Determine the depth of flow for the post-developed channel using the bankfull discharge at the
same locations identified in Step 4 through use of a standard step-backwater water-surface
profile model such as HEC-RAS or the use of other software capable of calculating depth of flow
based on Mannings equation. The cross section at the culvert will reflect the geometry of the
culvert.
6. Compare the depth of flow from step 4 to step 5. Adjust the culvert dimensions until the postdeveloped condition flow depth (Step 5) is approximately equal to the pre-developed flow depth
(Step 4).
7. Add flood plain culverts if required (see section 1105.2.4).
8. Determine if the culvert meets the required hydraulic design controls. Upsize the culvert as
required
1105.2.2 Depressed Culvert Inverts
Provide depressed inverts for all culverts designed to convey the Bankfull Discharge Design.
Depressed culvert inverts will produce a natural channel bottom within the culvert. The natural channel
bottom provides a substrate for passage of migratory species.
The depressed culvert will fill naturally, such that the channel bed in the culvert will be continuous with the
adjacent channel sections.
Verify that the culvert meets the required hydraulic design controls realizing that the portion of the culvert
depressed will eventually fill with natural substrates. Upsize the culvert as required.
End treatments for culverts with depressed inverts consist of Item 601 Riprap, 6 Reinforced Concrete
Slab with a cutoff wall on both inlet and outlet ends. See standard construction drawing DM-1.1 for
details.
Depress the culvert invert according to Table 1105-1:

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Table 1105-1
Type A Conduit
Invert Depression
Pipe Diameter or Rise
Depression
<36
None
36-60
6
66-120
12
126-180
18
186-252
24
>252
30
Modifications to the standard headwalls are not necessary for the depression depths noted above.
Depressed inverts are not required for precast reinforced concrete three-sided flat-topped culverts with a
natural channel bottom.
1105.2.3 Paved Depressed Approach Aprons
In many cases, the hydraulic operation of a culvert can be improved by depressing the flowline at the
entrance below the channel flowline. The drop-down will alleviate a minimum cover condition, provide for
additional headwater depth, and decrease the culvert outlet velocity by reducing the culvert slope.
The abrupt change in natural channel slope is effected with a short length of concrete paving to prevent
downcutting of the stream. The dimensions of the slab are site specific. However, for ease of
construction, a 2:1 downslope should be used as the maximum descending slope. A 3-foot length of
paving should be provided along the natural channel slope prior to the drop-down. A cut-off wall must be
provided at the upstream end.
In general, limit drop-down entrances to 4 feet, or one pipe diameter or rise, whichever is greater.
The Federal Highway Administration has conducted extensive research and studies of paved depressed
approach aprons, and recommended design procedures are included in Hydraulic Design Series No. 5,
"Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts."
1105.2.4 Flood Plain Culverts
For all new bankfull culvert installations, consider the use of flood plain culverts. In wide flood plains, the
installation of a new single culvert constricts the flow of water at the entrance section. The concentrated
outflow from the culvert can initiate downstream channel degradation. Flood plain culverts can be used to
minimize the effects of this new concentrated discharge by spreading the discharge throughout the flood
plain or flood prone area on the outlet side of the culvert.
Provide flood plain culverts when the flood plain width is greater than two (2) times the width produced by
the bankfull discharge design.
Flood plain culverts are installed adjacent to the single culvert. Place flood plain culvert inverts at the
water surface elevation that is generated by the bankfull discharge design.
Locate the flood plain
culverts within the flood plain at a location well beyond the single culvert. Furnish a minimum of two flood
plain culverts. Figure 1102-2 illustrates the location of flood plain culverts with respect to the bankfull
channel and flood plain.
Flood plain culverts are not hydraulically designed or accounted for in the hydraulic design of the single
culvert. Use Figure 1002-1 (other column) to determine the required diameter. The line and grade of
the culvert should approximate that of the natural flood plain.

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1105.2.5 Energy Control Structures
Provide energy control structures for all culverts with an outlet velocity greater than five feet per second.
The use of energy control structures does not constitute water quantity treatment for post-construction
BMP purposes.
An energy control structure reduces the amount of erosive energy generated by a culvert. Use the
following for an energy control structure:

Broken-Back Culvert
Rock Channel Protection
Energy dissipator (Riprap Basin)
Drop Structure

Provide an energy dissipator when the outlet velocity exceeds the values shown in Figure 1107-1.
Energy dissipaters create a forced hydraulic jump within the structure or immediately downstream of the
structure, thus reducing the flow velocity. FHWA Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 14 provides design
guidance and procedures for various energy dissipators. A riprap basin is the most cost effective energy
dissipator.
Contact OHE prior to using an energy dissipator.

1105.3 Types of Culvert Flow


Laboratory tests sponsored by the FHWA have established two general types of culvert flow: (1) flow with
inlet control, or (2) flow with outlet control. Nomographs have been prepared for use in the determination
of culvert headwater for the appropriate control.
Under inlet control, the headwater HWI is directly related to the cross-sectional area of the culvert barrel
and the inlet geometry. Under outlet control, the headwater HWO is further influenced by tailwater
depth in the outlet channel and the slope, length and roughness of the culvert barrel. As shown in Figure
1105-3, culverts operate with a free water surface if the headwater is equal to or less than 1.2D, and with
a submerged entrance if the headwater is greater than 1.2D, where D is the diameter or rise of the pipe.

1105.4 Design Procedure


1105.4.1 General
The design of a culvert involves a determination of the appropriate design and check discharges. The
process begins with a delineation of the drainage area, in acres [hectares], on a suitable topographic
map.
The design discharge Q for most culvert drainage areas will be obtained by procedures described in
Section 1003.1.2 of this manual. The Rational method should be used to obtain the discharge from small
and other unusual drainage areas as noted in Section 1101.2.2
A representative cross-section of the embankment at the proposed culvert site, along with a profile of the
natural stream or ground line, will be required to determine the approximate length and slope of the
culvert.
1105.4.2 Hydraulic Analysis
The hydraulic analysis of a culvert, including a determination of the headwater depth and outlet velocity
for the design discharge, is simplified by the use of Pipe Flow Charts and the headwater and head
nomographs noted in Section 1105.4. The charts are included with the Drainage Design Aids, beginning
with Figure 1100-200.
To preclude the need for a determination of the probable type of flow under which a culvert will operate
for a given set of conditions, the headwater depths may be computed using the nomographs for both inlet
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and outlet control. The size of pipe is then selected by using the control giving the higher headwater
limitation.
The relationship of the headwater to the diameter or height of the culvert HW/D is read directly from the
inlet control nomograph and the HWI equals that value multiplied by D. HWO is computed by the
equation HWO=H+ho - SoL.;/ The loss of head H is read from the flowing-full nomograph and the
tailwater depth ho, is the greater of either the normal depth of flow in the outlet channel or the depth as
flow passes through the outlet of the pipe, calculated as (dc+D)/2. D is the diameter or rise of the culvert
and dc is the critical depth of flow which may be read from the critical depth curve shown on each Pipe
Flow Chart.
The above procedure is reasonably accurate for the majority of culvert flow conditions. For culverts
operating with outlet control (see Figure 1105-1, Class 1-A and 1-B), where the calculated headwater
(using the appropriate nomograph) is less than 0.75D, a backwater analysis can be justified and is
recommended.
A culvert analysis sheet similar to that provided in the Appendix shall be used to tabulate all the pertinent
factors required to determine the controlling headwater for each culvert type being considered for a given
location. The analysis sheet includes other information valuable to the reviewer and it is to be included
with other supporting data for required review submissions.
Hydraulic analysis of culverts may also be performed utilizing the Federal Highway Administration
Hydraulic Design Series No. 5, Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts. Computer programs such as
FHWA HY-8 or ODOTs CDSS software package may be used. CDSS may be downloaded from the
Hydraulics website.
For replacement projects, an analysis of the existing structure shall be performed. Use the same analysis
method when comparing the existing and proposed structures. For bridge replacements, the acceptable
method of hydraulic analysis is HEC-RAS.

1105.5 Use of Nomographs


1105.5.1 Outlet Control
To determine the loss of head H for a given concrete pipe culvert with a grove-end entrance and
discharge Q, proceed as follows: By straight line, connect culvert size with ke=0.2 (length scale) and
obtain a point on the turning line. Connect the turning line point with the computed discharge Q and
read the head loss H. Follow the same procedure for a corrugated metal pipe except using ke=0.9
(length scale). The ke value for additional shapes can be found in the Federal Highway Administration
publication referenced in Section 1105.3.1.
Should the roughness coefficient n of the proposed pipe differ from that shown on the chart, adjust the
measured culvert length by the length factor given on Design Aid Figure 1100-247. For an example, see
Drainage Design Aid Figure 1100-247.
The Federal Highway Administration publication referenced in Section 1105.3.1 offers nomographs for
culvert shapes not available in the Drainage Design Aids. Their use is recommended for special culvert
shapes.
1105.5.2 Inlet Control
To determine the headwater HW for a given discharge Q, size and type of culvert, proceed as follows
using appropriate Figures 1100-245, 1100-246 (Drainage Design Aids). Use Figure 1100-245 for a round
corrugated metal pipe culvert and Figure 1100-246 for a round smooth-lined pipe culvert. By a straight
line, connect the culvert size with the discharge Q, extend a diagonal line to Scale (1) and thence by
horizontal line to Scale (3). Based on a groove-end entrance and a Standard HW-2.1 headwall
recommended for concrete pipe culverts, the HW/D relationship is obtained by an average of the (2) and
(3) Scale values. Follow the same procedure for a corrugated metal pipe with a Standard HW-2.2
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Drainage Design Procedures


headwall, where HW/D is the average values read from Scales (1) and (3). Use Scale (2) for the HW/D
relationship for concrete box culverts.

1105.6 Design Criteria


1105.6.1 Design Frequency
The design frequency shall be as stated in Section 1004.2
It should be noted that a Flood Hazard Evaluation using a check discharge based on the 100-year flood
frequency shall be made for all culverts as noted in Section 1005.2.1.
1105.6.2 Maximum Allowable Headwater
See Section 1006.
1105.6.3 Method Used to Estimate Storm Discharge
See Sections 1003 and 1101.
1105.6.4 Scale of Topographic Mapping Used to Delineate Contributing Drainage Areas
See Section 1101.1
1105.6.5 Mannings Roughness Coefficient n
The n values for corrugated metal pipe are given in Figure 1105-2. The n value for all smooth flow
pipe is 0.012. Use a weighted Mannings n for bankfull designed culverts or analyzing older culverts with
sediment deposition.
1105.6.6 Entrance Loss Coefficient ke
See Table 1105-2 or Appendix D of Federal Highway Hydraulic Design Series No. 5, "Hydraulic Design of
Roadway Culverts.
Table 1105-2
Type A Conduit
Entrance Loss Coefficient ke
Type of Pipe

Headwall Type
Full One-Half None

Concrete, Vitrified
0.2
(thick wall) *
Corrugated Metal
0.25**
(thin wall)
*
groove end entrance
**
with beveled entrance

0.2

0.2

0.9

0.9

Plastic conduits without a welded bell inlet will be designed as a corrugated metal conduit. Plastic
conduits with a welded bell inlet will be designed as a concrete conduit. In both cases, the mannings n
value for plastic is 0.012.
1105.6.7 Minimum Cover
See Section 1008
1105.6.8 Maximum Cover
See Section 1008
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1105.6.9 Maximum Allowable Outlet Velocity
See Figure 1107-1
1105.6.10 Headwall Type
See Section 1106.2
1105.6.11 Contacts With County Engineer
Contact shall be made with the County Engineer at the beginning of the design process to ascertain ditch
cleanout grades and watersheds, and the design shall be based on that information. Form LD-33
(available in the Appendix) shall be used to document approval.
1105.6.12 Minimum Pipe Size
As specified in Section 1002.3.1
1105.6.13 Ordinary High Water Mark
Calculate the OHWM using the 2 year depth of flow in the stream or channel or as determined by the
Office of Environmental Services.

1105.7 Special Considerations


The following are special conditions that will be encountered in the hydraulic design of culverts that
warrant clarification. Apply appropriate stream protection practices as described in Section 1105.2 when
using special design considerations.
1105.7.1 Tailwater
Tailwater at a culvert outlet can greatly affect the size of culvert required at a specific site. For this reason
a proper evaluation shall be made of the outlet channel so that a reasonable estimate of the tailwater can
be calculated.
A determination of the normal depth of flow in the outlet channel, when the culvert is discharging the
design flow, normally establishes the culvert tailwater. A close examination of the downstream channel
may however, reveal a temporary or permanent obstruction that will control the operation of the culvert.
In some cases, the culvert will outlet near a river or other fluctuating water surface stream that could
control its operation.
Where that drainage area of the culvert is very much less than the receiving watercourse (i.e. 100 times)
the effect of the receiving watercourse generally may be disregarded.
Where the drainage areas of the culvert and receiving watercourse are nearly equal, concurrent flood
peaks may be assumed.
Where there is a significant, but not excessive, difference in the drainage area of the culvert and receiving
stream, the following design procedure should be used and the culvert sized using the combination that
results in the highest headwater.
A. Compute the culvert headwater using the proper design frequency for the culvert and a lesser
frequency for the receiving stream water surface elevation (i.e. culvert tailwater elevation) depending
upon the difference in drainage areas; say a 25-year culvert and a 10-year stream.
B. Use 10-year frequency for the culvert and 25-year for the stream.

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In some locations, a high tailwater will control the operation of a culvert to such an extent that a
substantial increase in pipe size will be required for a negligible decrease in the headwater elevation. For
this case, the culvert size should be based on a practical tailwater elevation (e.g. [dc+D]/2).
1105.7.2 Multiple Cell Culverts
A single-cell culvert should be the designers first choice within practical limitations.
Occasionally, low headwater requirements, high fills, or bankfull design will create the need for multiple
cells. For these cases, it is desirable to limit the number of cells to two. Experience has proven that
multiple cells well aligned with a relatively straight channel, will operate satisfactory. However, a bend in
the immediate upstream channel may cause the inside cell to collect debris during normal periods of
runoff and thereby substantially reduce the capacity of the culvert.
1105.7.3 Improved Inlets
Consider improved inlets attached to the entrance end of the culvert to reduce headwater or culvert size.
The improved inlet will alleviate a minimum cover condition and provide for additional headwater depth.
Culverts on relatively steep slopes and controlled by inlet control can see a reduction in the culvert size
by furnishing an improved inlet.
Consider the following two general types of inlets in the following order:
A. Side-taper - A tapered end section from a round to an oval shape for a pipe, or a square to a
rectangular shape for a prefabricated box. The length of the taper section is usually made 1.5 times
the diameter or rise of the culvert.
B. Slope-taper - A combination of side-taper preceded by a drop in the culvert flow line. The drop can
be similar to a paved drop-down entrance or a more sophisticated reinforced concrete drop provided
by a formed cast-in-place section with vertical sides.
The improved inlet has the advantage of admitting more flow and thereby tending to fill the culvert barrel
and reduce the culvert outlet velocity. The savings in culvert cost must justify the additional cost of the
improved inlet.
The Federal Highway Administration has conducted extensive research and studies of improved inlets,
and recommended design procedures are included in Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 13, "Hydraulic
Design of Improved Inlets for Culverts."

1106 End Treatments


1106.1 General
Headwalls, or other approved end finishes, shall be provided at the open ends of all Type A, B and C
conduits. Headwalls should also be provided for Type D conduits greater than 24 inches in diameter or
rise. Generally, headwalls are not recommended for Type E and F conduits.
In order to reduce the entrance loss in culverts, the bell end should be located upstream and the spigot
end should be located downstream. Details shown in the plan should convey this to the Contractor when
necessary. Figures 1106-2 and 1106-3 show typical end details for a concrete box culvert.
1106.1.1 Usage
The selection of the headwall type is based on safety and economics. Standard HW-2.1 and 2.2 halfheight headwalls are recommended for round, elliptical, or pipe arch culverts where a clear zone is
provided. Full height headwalls should be provided where a significant reduction in culvert length can be
realized with large-span culverts (10 feet or greater) with foreslopes flatter than 2:1 or where right-of-way
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Drainage Design Procedures


limits the culvert length. Full-height headwalls shall be provided for prefabricated box culverts and threesided structures.
The use of special end treatments may be required by Section 602.6 of Volume 1, Roadway Design.
Details are available from the Office of Hydraulic Engineering. Justification for the use of this type of end
treatment shall accompany the request for details. Miter-cut (step-bevel) end sections, when required,
shall be shown on the Culvert Detail Sheet.
When half-height headwalls are provided, they should be built perpendicular to the end of the conduit to
eliminate the need for a skew cut. In addition to the required headwall, the upper, or exposed, half of
conduits having a diameter or rise greater than or equal to 126 inches shall be miter-cut (step-bevel) to fit
the embankment slope.
1106.1.2 End Treatment Grading
The prevailing embankment slope shall be projected to the back edge of the top of the headwall to
establish the required culvert length as shown in Figure 1106-1. When the roadway foreslopes are flatter
than 2:1, a 2:1 slope shall be provided from the back edge of the top of the headwall to a minimum of 1
foot, with 2 feet, above the top of the culvert. The change in embankment slope shall be warped on each
side of the conduit to fit the prevailing slope. In no case shall the distance from the pavement edge to the
point where the embankment slope changes to 2:1 be less than the design clear zone width (see Section
601, Volume 1, Roadway Design) unless guardrail is provided.
Clear zone grading should only be provided at culverts when the requirements of Section 307.2.1 of
Volume 1, Roadway Design are met.
The prevailing embankment slope shall be warped on either side of a skewed culvert to assure equivalent
soil loading and proper side support of the pipe. This is especially true for flexible pipes with large skews
and/or large diameters.

1106.2 Headwall Types


1106.2.1 Half-Height Headwalls
If the size of the conduit exceeds that shown in the Standard Construction Drawing HW-2.1 and HW-2.2
tables, the dimensions shown in the tables may be expanded to accommodate the larger size conduits.
Payment for half-height headwalls shall be on a cubic yard basis for Item 602, Concrete Masonry.
Masonry quantities for standard half-height headwalls may be obtained from the appropriate standard
construction drawing. The quantity of concrete masonry provided in the plans shall be based on the pipe
alternate requiring the largest quantity of concrete masonry.
1106.2.2 Full-Height Headwalls
The appropriate full-height headwall for round pipes shown on Standard Construction Drawing HW-1.1
may be considered at the entrance end, when the savings in the reduced size and length of the conduit
will offset the additional cost of the headwall. This will most likely apply where corrugated steel pipe is
specified, due to cover or size requirements, and the bevel provided for the full-height headwall will
substantially reduce the entrance loss. Dimensions of full-height headwalls may be expanded to
accommodate pipe sizes larger than 84 inches.
Design full-height headwalls for box, 3-sided and arch culverts per Section 300 of the Bridge Design
Manual and the latest AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Payment for non-standard fullheight headwalls is on a cubic yard basis for Item 511 and pounds of Item 509. Subdivide the quantities
for non-standard full-height headwalls in to quantities for headwalls, wingwalls and footers and add plan
note D118 to the plans.
Include appropriate plan notes from Section 600 of the Bridge Design Manual in the project plans.

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Drainage Design Procedures


An investigation of the supporting foundation material shall be conducted and the bearing resistance of
the foundation material estimated. The level of detail required for the foundation investigation shall be
commensurate with the importance of the structure. Such information shall be submitted for all proposed
full-height headwall installations and submitted with the Stage 1 review.
The inlet wingwall footings of full-height headwalls shall be armored with Type B rock channel protection,
with filter, to preclude scour.

1106.3 Concrete Apron


Provide a reinforced concrete riprap cutoff wall, as shown on Standard Construction Drawings DM-1.1
when the depth of the rock channel protection (if necessary), including the 6 inch granular filter, exceeds
the depth of the headwall.
Provide concrete riprap at the inlet end of the culvert where the existing culvert has been undercut.
Concrete riprap shall be in accordance with Section 1105.2.3. Concrete riprap is not necessary at the
inlet of culverts with full height headwalls that have a footing toe extending 3.5 feet or more below
proposed channel grade.

1107 Rock Channel Protection (RCP)


1107.1 General
RCP is used to control erosion and as a scour countermeasure. It is used at the outlet of culverts and
storm sewers, or for lining ditches on steep grades. It is used as a scour countermeasure at wingwalls of
full-height headwalls, along footings of 3-sided structures, corner cones, and under bridges.

1107.2 Culvert RCP Types


There are four types of RCP that are used in various situations. The use of the proper type at culvert and
storm sewer outlets can be determined from Figure 1107-1. Type A is generally used beyond the outlet
of the larger conduits having outlet velocities in excess of 12 feet per second and Type B and C for
conduits having an aggregate filter where the protected slope is steeper than 3:1. A filter should always
be specified to prevent soil piping through the rock. A fabric filter is appropriate in most cases. An
aggregate filter should be used when the RCP is under water. The cost of the filter is included in the unit
bid price for Item 601 Rock Channel Protection with Filter.

1107.3 Bridge RCP


Furnish RCP armor for bridges over waterways at the following locations:
A. The entire spill-through slope
B. Front side of abutments and wingwalls
C. Corner cones
Use the following table to determine the Type of RCP to use:

11-30

Channel Mean Velocity (ft/s)

RCP Type

Thickness

0-8

2-0

8-10

2-6

above 10

3-0

January 2015

Drainage Design Procedures


Special circumstances such as protection on the outside of curves or in northern regions of the state on
pooled water where ice flow is a concern may require greater rock thickness.
Show on the Site Plan the locations, length, and the top of slope elevations for the RCP. Show the RCP
in greater detail in the roadway section in conjunction with the channel plans. It is more economical to
provide bank protection during the initial construction in order to provide sufficient embankment protection
to minimize future maintenance.
Limit stream channel excavation to that portion of the channel one foot above normal water elevation in
order to minimize intrusion and to preserve the natural low water channel.

1108 Agricultural Drainage


1108.1 Farm Drain Crossings
Where it is necessary to continue an existing farm drain crossing under the highway, the pipe shall be
Type B Conduit, one commercial size larger than the existing farm drain within the right-of-way limits.
Occasionally, it will be desirable to provide a farm drain crossing under a highway on new location to
satisfy the future need for adequate farm drainage. It is recognized that the required length of a Type B
Conduit will provide a betterment for the property owner, but it does preclude the need for a much more
expensive crossing after the highway is built. Such a crossing is considered a blind and the cost of the
installation, including suitable terminal markings at the right-of-way lines, will generally not be eligible for
federal participation.

1108.2 Farm Drain Outlets


Existing farm drains that outlet through the backslope of the roadway ditch shall terminate with a
minimum length of 10 feet of equivalent size Type F conduit. When outletting existing plastic farm drains,
one size larger Type F conduit shall be used. An Animal Guard and Erosion Control Pad as shown on
Standard Construction Drawing DM-1.1 shall be provided.
To provide for possible sedimentation, the invert of the Type F conduit shall be a minimum of 6 inches,
with 12 inches being desirable, above the ditch flow line.

1109 Longitudinal Sewer Location


1109.1 Under Pavement
Longitudinal sewers will not be permitted under the pavement of a limited or controlled access facility.
Also, the length of transverse sewers under pavements shall be held to a minimum, with the objective of
having no manholes in the pavement. Contact OHE if this cannot be accommodated to discuss a possible
resolution.
For other facilities, storm sewers should be located outside the limits of the pavement. However, in
locations where this would create conflicts with existing utilities (e.g. waterlines, sanitary sewers, gas
lines, etc.) the storm sewer may be located under the pavement. Care should be taken to avoid placing
manholes in vehicle wheel-paths or within an intersection. Place the center of the manhole in the lane
when feasible.
Where an out-to-out clearance of 5 feet cannot be provided between parallel storm and sanitary sewers,
premium joints shall be provided on the storm sewer.

1109.2 Under Paved Shoulder


The above shall also apply to paved shoulder areas, unless it is determined that the cost of any other
possible location is prohibitive.

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Drainage Design Procedures


1109.3 Approval
Exceptions to the above shall be submitted in the early stages of the design to the Office of Hydraulic
Engineering for review and approval.

1110 Reinforced Concrete Radius Pipe and Box Sections


1110.1 General
To comply with the capabilities of manufacturers to provide satisfactory and economical radius pipe or
box sections, a minimum radius of 100 feet shall be specified.
The method of manufacturing the radius pipe or box sections will be an option of the producer, subject to
inspection and approval by the Ohio Department of Transportation, Office of Materials Management.
As an alternate to radius pipe, pipe specials may be specified to negotiate the specified radius, provided
they do not reduce the hydraulic performance established by the initial design. The bends shall be
located so that they shall closely follow the alignment of the radius pipe.

1111 Sanitary Sewers


1111.1 General
Any sanitary sewer, whether new or relocated, shall be constructed using resilient and flexible gasket
joints, in accordance with Construction and Material Specification 706.11 for circular concrete pipe or
706.12 for clay pipe. Permissible thermoplastic pipes shall also be specified.
Discharges of treated sanitary flow from abutting property into highway drainage systems are only
permitted if the discharge is authorized by the Local Health Department.

1111.2 Manholes
All new manholes for sanitary sewer lines shall be built in accordance with the Standard Construction
Drawings. Precast manholes shall have joints in accordance with 706.11 of the Construction and Material
Specifications.

1112 Notice of Intent (NOI)


1112.1 General
A NOI is a one-page application form for requesting coverage under a National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) general permit for storm water discharges from Ohio EPA. The applicant(s)
must certify their intention to comply with the NPDES general permit by submitting a NOI.
Submit a NOI for all projects where combined Contractor and Project Earth Disturbing Activity (EDA) are
one acre or more. In addition, when the combined Project and estimated Contractor EDA are just less
than one acre, the project designer may choose to increase the estimated Contractor EDA to avoid the
possibility of work on the project being initiated without a NOI. Earth disturbing activity is defined as any
activity that exposes bare ground or an erodible material to storm water and anywhere Item 659 Seeding,
or Item 660 Sodding is being furnished. Routine Maintenance Projects, as defined by Section 1112.2, do
not require a NOI.
The Total Earth Disturbing Activity acreage, which includes the Project Earth Disturbing Activity acreage
(earth disturbed area within the project construction limits) and the Contractor Earth Disturbing Activity
acreage such as: field offices, batch plants, and borrow/waste pits, shall be estimated. The location and
size of the Contractor Activities can be estimated using the NOI Acreage Calculation Form (Figure 11121).
11-32

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Drainage Design Procedures


Non-contiguous portions of projects sold under one contract, such as multiple culvert replacements, may
be treated as separate projects for the purposes of obtaining an NOI . If the project sites are located
mile or more apart and the areas between the activities are not being disturbed, the sites can be
considered separate. If each site is below the project earth disturbed area threshold of one acre of EDA,
no post-construction BMP or NOI will be required. If one or more individual sites meet the project earth
disturbed area thresholds, an NOI is required for the project sites that exceed the EDA threshold. The
NOI application should reflect the Project and Contractor EDA for all project sites that exceed the
threshold. Post-construction BMPs will be required only at the individual project sites that exceed the
Project EDA threshold.
Non-contiguous multiple part projects (i.e. Part 1/Part 2) sold as one project should be evaluated with
respect to each Part. Parts that meet the definition in Section 1112.2 for Routine Maintenance Projects or
have a project EDA under one acre do not need to be included in the disturbed acreage calculations for
determining the need for a NOI or post-construction BMP. Post-construction BMPs will be required only
for individual parts that exceed the Project EDA threshold. Follow standard NOI procedures for a Project
Part with routine maintenance activities exceeding five acres or a Project Part that includes construction
(non-routine maintenance) activities.
For projects where all runoff is collected in a combined sewer, a NOI is not required.
coordination with the agency responsible for the receiving treatment plant is required.

However,

Prepare a Project Site Plan as required by Location and Design, Volume 3, Section 1308 for all projects
that require a NOI.

1112.2 Routine Maintenance Project


For the purposes of submitting for coverage under a NPDES permit, a Routine Maintenance Project is
one in which all of the Project Earth Disturbing Activities are routine operations that do not change the
line, grade, or the hydraulic capacity of the facility and involve total earth disturbing activities of less than
5 acres. Permanent erosion control items shall be included in the plans, if required. Routine
maintenance projects do not require a NOI.
Projects with five or more acres of earth disturbed area cannot be classified as Routine Maintenance
Projects. These projects require a NOI and post-construction BMPs, regardless of work type.
The following activities are considered routine maintenance activities:
Abutment Repairs - repairs to bridge abutments
Bridge Deck Overlays - replacing the wearing surface on bridges
Bridge Deck Replacement - replacing the entire deck on bridge
Chip Sealing - placing asphalt or polymer binder and stone on existing paved roadways
Fence Repair / Replacement - repairing or replacing existing fencing and/or posts
Lighting Maintenance
Loop Detector Repairs - repairing loop detectors in existing pavement
Pothole Filling
Tree/brush Removal
Signal Installation / Maintenance - installing / repairing / replacing traffic signals and poles where
previous ones existed
Signing Maintenance - repairing / replacing traffic signs and posts
Noise Wall Repair
Full Depth Pavement Repairs - isolated repairs of pavement build-up down to subgrade
Partial Depth Pavement Repairs - isolated repairs of surface courses of pavement
Linear Grading - reshaping of graded shoulders to establish proper drainage away from
pavement
Berm Repair or Topsoil placement along shoulders - placing berm material or topsoil on
shoulders adjacent to pavement to eliminate drop-offs.
Ditch Cleanout - maintaining or restoring original flow line and cross-section only
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Drainage Design Procedures

Guardrail Installation / Replacement - installing / repairing with minor grading work to create
proper grade for end assemblies where previous guardrail existed.
Culvert Replacement - replacing a culvert with same line, grade and hydraulic capacity; must be
within parameters of the USAC Nationwide Permit #3.
Culvert Repair / Lining - repairing or lining existing culvert maintaining same line, grade and
hydraulic capacity, must be within parameters of the USAC Nationwide Permit #3
Resurfacing - replacing several inches of asphalt wearing course by milling existing asphalt and
replacing with new.
Curb Repairs - repairing existing curbing along a roadway.
Sidewalk replacement of sidewalk without other drainage or roadway improvements.
Isolated slide repairs.

Post construction storm water best management practices are not required for routine maintenance
projects.

1112.3 Watershed Specific NOI Requirements


Additional requirements for projects located in certain designated watersheds are required by Ohio EPA.
These projects require coverage under an Ohio EPA watershed specific NPDES permit.
Coordinate projects in the following watersheds with Central Office Office of Hydraulic Engineering:

Big Darby Creek (entire watershed)


Olentangy River (portion of watershed as regulated under permit number OHC200001)

In addition to post-construction BMP requirements, watershed specific NPDES permits include the
following requirements:

Groundwater Recharge Mitigation, if applicable


Riparian Setback Mitigation
Temporary Sediment Basin Locations
Ohio EPA review and approval of the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP)

Provide groundwater recharge calculations, riparian setback calculations, and temporary sediment basin
locations to Central Office Office of Hydraulic Engineering with the BMP submittals as outlined in
Section 1116.2. Groundwater recharge calculations and riparian setback calculations shall be based on
impacts outside the existing roadway right-of-way. Determine the riparian setback limits according to the
Permit and identify the setback limits on the Project Site Plan.
Mitigation for groundwater and riparian setback will be determined through coordination between the
District, Central Office Office of Hydraulic Engineering and Ohio EPA prior to submittal of the NOI
application.
Determine soil types required for groundwater recharge calculations using the NRCS Web Soil Survey
website.
While sediment basin locations are typically provided by the Contractor, designers of projects being
developed under watershed specific NPDES permits shall identify locations with capacity to store
sediment volumes required by these permits. The location and calculations for the sediment basins shall
be shown on the Project Site Plan. Additional temporary sediment and erosion control features will be
added to the SWPPP by the Contractor.
Submit the NOI, Project Site Plan, proposed mitigation and supplemental calculations to the Ohio EPA at
least two months prior to plan package submittal to ensure that there are no delays.

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January 2015

Drainage Design Procedures

1113 Erosion Control at Bridge Ends


1113.1 General
Collect and carry bridge deck drainage that flows off the ends of the bridge in accordance to the following:
A. Flow less than 0.75 ft3/s or for bridges without MSE walls Furnish a flume, as shown on Standard
Construction Drawing DM-4.1,
B. Flows greater than 0.75 ft3/s or bridges without MSE walls - Furnish an integral curb provided on the
approach slab with a standard catch basin located off the approach. Include a bridge terminal
assembly at the trailing end of bridge barrier. Use a Catch Basin No. 3A, as shown on Standard
Construction Drawing CB-2.2. Provide Type F conduit (707.05 Type C) for an outlet down the
embankment slope and armor the outlet to prevent erosion.
C. Bridges with MSE Walls Furnish a barrier on the approach slab with a standard inlet basin. Locate
the inlet a minimum of 25 feet beyond the limits of MSE wall soil reinforcement. Continue the barrier
a minimum of 10 feet past the inlet.

1113.2 Corner Cone


Place Item 670 Slope Erosion on all bridge approach embankment corner cones, beginning at the edge of
the crushed aggregate or concrete slope protection.

1114 Temporary Sediment and Erosion Control


1114.1 General
Temporary sediment and erosion control is required on all projects that have Earth Disturbing Activities as
outlined in Supplemental Specification 832. A Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is
required as outlined in SS 832. Projects that may have environmental impacts to habitat or species may
also be required to prepare a SWPPP as determined by the District Environmental Coordinator. The
SWPPP requirements are outlined in Supplemental Specification 832.

1114.2 Cost Estimate for Temporary Sediment and Erosion Control


For all projects that require temporary sediment and erosion control furnish a dollar amount to be
encumbered in the final plan package.
Use the temporary sediment and erosion control estimator
located in the Design Reference Resource Center to develop this amount.

1115 Post Construction Storm Water Structural Best Management


Practices
1115.1 General
Post Construction Storm Water Best Management Practices (BMP) are provided for perpetual
management of storm water runoff quality and quantity so that a receiving streams physical, chemical
and biological characteristics are protected and stream functions are maintained.
BMPs are required per the Ohio EPAs NPDES permit(s), which include the Construction General permits
and the Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) permits. Two variants of the MS4 permit are
possible depending on the population size of the entity seeking coverage as follows:

January 2015

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Drainage Design Procedures

Small MS4 Entities that have populations less than 100,000 within urbanized areas.

Individual MS4 Entities that have population in excess of 100,000. Several categories exist under
the individual MS4 permit.

Local entities that administer a small or individual MS4 permit may have more restrictive language
regarding selection and use of BMPs as compared to the Department. Stormwater discharge from ODOT
right-of-way is permitted under the OEPA Small MS4 permit that is obtained by the Department. While
the local entity cannot force the Department to use their standards, it may be possible for the Department
to incorporate the needs of the local entity subject to review and approval of OHE.
BMP, as described in Section 1117, shall meet permit compliance for Ohio EPAs NPDES General
Permits. For ODOT projects, any proposed alternative BMPs that are not found in Section 1117 require
submittal to ODOT Central Office Office of Hydraulic Engineering. A review and approval of the
alternative BMP by ODOT Central Office Office of Hydraulic Engineering and Ohio EPA is required.
Local-Let Local Public Agency projects may use an alternative post-construction BMP criteria with Ohio
EPA approval.
Post-construction BMP remove pollutants from runoff (water quality treatment) and protect streams by
attempting to maintain existing stream conditions or by reducing runoff volumes through structural BMP
(water quantity treatment).
Locate BMPs so that they are protected in accordance with Location and Design Manual, Volume 1.

1115.2 Project Thresholds for Post-Construction BMP


Post-construction BMP are required through Ohio EPAs NPDES Construction General Permit for
construction storm water discharges. The requirements to provide post-construction BMP established in
the NPDES General Permit are based on Project Earth Disturbing Activities. If a NOI is not required
(Section 1112), then post construction BMPs are not needed.
Project Earth Disturbing Activity (EDA) is defined as any activity that exposes bare ground or an erodible
material to storm water and anywhere Item 659 Seeding, Item 660 Sodding is being furnished. An area
where pavement is being removed to the sub-grade is considered earth disturbing activity, except for
isolated repairs.
Requirements based on project EDA for non-routine maintenance projects are listed below:
Table 1115-1
Project Earth Disturbed Area Thresholds

EDA < 1 acre - BMP and NOI not required.


EDA 1 - BMP are required.
Routine Maintenance Projects as defined in
Section 1112.2 do not require postconstruction BMP.

Provide post-construction BMP for all projects exceeding the project EDA thresholds in Table 1115-1.
For projects requiring post-construction BMP, the following items require evaluation:

Need for Water Quantity and Quality Treatment vs. just Water Quality Treatment(Section 1115.3)
What is the Project Type Redevelopment or New Construction (Section 1115.6)
If New Construction, calculate the Treatment Percent (Section 1115.7)
Project-wide or site specific implementation of BMPs to reach the required treatment (Section
1115.7)
Applicable BMP to be implemented (Section 1117)

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January 2015

Drainage Design Procedures


All projects, including Local Public Agency projects (ODOT-let and Local-Let) are required to provide
post-construction BMP as indicated in Table 1115-1. Projects with post-construction BMP require
coordination with LPAs when BMPs are required outside ODOT right-of-way. Inform the LPA of
maintenance responsibilities associated with post-construction BMP.
Non-contiguous portions of projects sold under one contract that do not require an NOI, as described in
Section 1112.1, do not require post-construction BMP.

1115.3 Water Quality and Water Quantity Treatment


Projects exceeding the minimum thresholds in Section 1115.2 must address water quality (pollutant
removal) and potentially water quantity (stream protection/volume control) post-construction BMP.
BMP to address water quantity are not required for projects that meet any of the following criteria:

Sites where one or less acre of new impervious area is created in new permanent right-of-way
area being acquired for the project.
Site is a redevelopment project within an ultra-urban setting(i.e. a downtown area or on a site
where 100 percent of the project area is already impervious surface or the storm water discharge
is directed into an existing storm sewer system). Redevelopment projects include construction
projects on land where impervious surfaces had previously been developed and where the new
land use will not increase the runoff coefficient. See Section 1115.6.
Sites which discharge directly to a large river (>100 square mile drainage area or fourth order or
greater) or to a lake and where the development area is less than 5 percent of the watershed
area upstream of the development site, unless known water quality problems exist in the
receiving waters. If there is a question regarding the stream classification, contact Central Office
- Office of Hydraulic Engineering.

BMP that treat water quality and water quantity include:

Extended Detention
Retention Basin
Bioretention Cell
Infiltration Trench
Infiltration Basin
Constructed Wetlands

BMP that treat only water quality include:

Manufactured Systems
Vegetated Biofilter
Vegetated Filter Strip

Water quantity (stream protection) treatment can also be provided through the use of concrete aprons,
paved depressed approach aprons, depressed inverts, and other grade control structures at stream
crossings. See Section 1105 and 1106 for further information.

1115.4 Water Quality Volume


Water quality volume is directly used to determine sizing for the following BMP:

Extended Detention
Retention Basin
Bioretention Cell
Infiltration Trench
Infiltration Basin
Constructed Wetlands

January 2015

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Drainage Design Procedures


The water quality volume (WQv) is used to define the amount of storm water runoff from any given storm
that should be captured and treated in order to remove a majority of storm water pollutants on an average
annual basis.
The following equation shall be used to calculate the water quality volume:
WQv = (P*A*Cq)/12
where:
WQv = Water Quality Volume (Acre-feet)
P = Precipitation (0.75 inches)
A = Contributing Drainage Area (acres)
Cq = 0.858i3 - 0.78i2 + 0.774i + 0.04
(see figure 1115-1)
i = impervious area divided by the total area
Cq = 0.9 when all drainage area is impervious.

1115.5 Water Quality Flow


Use water quality flow to determine sizing for manufactured systems.
The water quality flow (WQf) is the discharge that is produced by using an intensity of 0.65 in/hr in the
rational equation (section 1101.2.2). Use the entire contributing drainage for the WQf calculation.

1115.6 Project Type - Redevelopment and New Construction


1115.6.1 Redevelopment Projects
With respect to post-construction storm water BMP, redevelopment projects include projects with limited
addition of impervious surface.
Redevelopment projects include:
Projects constrained entirely within right-of-way
Projects that do not add new pavement outside the existing right-of-way
While all areas within existing ODOT right-of-way may not be covered by impervious surfaces, the area
within existing ODOT right-of-way is considered impervious area for the purpose of post-construction
BMP design considerations. Therefore, consider all area within existing right-of-way to be impervious
with a runoff coefficient of 0.90 when performing post-construction BMP calculations.
1115.6.2 New Construction Projects
All projects that do not meet the definition of redevelopment projects in Section 1115.6.1 are considered
new construction projects.
New construction projects allow for the reduction of treatment based on the amount of new impervious
area relative to the existing impervious area of the contributing drainage area (See Section 1115.7).
Consider all area within existing ODOT right-of-way to be impervious for post construction BMP
calculations.

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Drainage Design Procedures


1115.7 Treatment Requirements for Projects
The amount of treatment required for a project to meet the NPDS Permit requirements is based on the
earth disturbance related to the project. Area draining to a post-construction BMP will earn treatment
credits equal to the amount of ODOT right-of-way area treated by the BMP.

The amount of treatment may be reduced based on the amount of new impervious area relative to the
existing impervious area.
This weighted average for new and existing impervious area can be based on the individual drainage
area tributary to each individual BMP or the entire project. However, do not combine the two approaches.
The weighted value is referred to as the Treatment Percentage.
Use a Treatment Percentage (T%) of 20% for redevelopment projects.
Determine the Treatment Percent for New Construction projects using the following equation:
T% = [(Aix * 20)+(Ain * 100)] / (Aix+Ain)
Where,
T% = Treatment percent (Percentage)
Aix = Existing impervious area (acres)
Ain = New impervious area (acres)

Consider all area within existing ODOT right-of-way to be impervious for postconstruction BMP calculations.

Projects utilizing BMPs designed based on WQv or WQf require treatment according to one of the
following:

Provide T% treatment of the WQv or WQf for 100% of the project


Provide 100% treatment of the WQv or WQf for T% of the project earth disturbed area

Projects utilizing Vegetated Biofilters and Vegetated Filter Strips require treatment as follows:

Provide 100% treatment of the contributing drainage area for T% of the project earth disturbed
area in a specified portion of the project. For example, a redevelopment project with 10 acres of
project EDA may provide treatment through the use of a vegetated biofilter with 2 acres of
contributing drainage area. The vegetated biofilter design would be based on the contributing
drainage area to the ditch of 2 acres.

For all scenarios, size the BMP based on the entire contributing drainage area, offsite and on-site, to the
BMP.
When providing treatment based on a percentage of the project earth disturbed area, consider the
following:

Credit for water quality and water quantity treatment is only applied to the portion of the
contributing drainage area within ODOT right-of-way (on-site). Any offsite contributing drainage
area must be included in the BMP calculations for sizing purposes (i.e. width of ditch, etc.).
However, the offsite area will not be included in the reduction of the required amount of project
EDA that requires treatment.

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Drainage Design Procedures


Example: A vegetated biofilter that has offsite contributing drainage area of one acre and on-site
contributing drainage area of two acres (total drainage area of 3 acres) would result in a
treatment credit of two acres. The vegetated biofilter must be sized for the total contributing
drainage area of three acres. Multiple areas of a project may provide treatment to meet the total
area required for compliance with the NPDES Permit. If the total area requiring treatment in this
example was 4 acres, another vegetated biofilter with a minimum of two acres of on-site tributary
area would be needed to meet the treatment requirements.

For projects with multiple distinct stream crossings that do not immediately share a common
confluence downstream, provide post-construction BMP treatment proportional to the amount of
Project EDA tributary to each stream.

The Treatment Percent determined above shall be used to determine treatment in the same manner as
described for redevelopment projects (i.e. Treat the Treatment Percent of WQv for 100% of Project EDA,
etc.).

1116 BMP Selection and Submittals


1116.1 BMP Selection
Selection of BMP shall be based on providing maximum runoff treatment while minimizing impacts to the
remaining project design features, including utilities and right-of-way. In addition, each BMP option
comes with unique maintenance requirements. Contact the Office of Maintenance Administration for
detailed BMP maintenance information.
Approval from Ohio EPA is required to use alternative BMPs not listed in Section 1117. Alternative
methods will be approved or denied on a case-by-case basis if the alternative methods are demonstrated
to sufficiently protect the overall integrity of the receiving streams and the watershed. For curbed
roadways, total contributing drainage areas to sumps or intersections that are less than or equal to 0.25
acres as shown in figure 1116-1 do not require a BMP. Note that these exceptions are unique
circumstances. Provide BMP as necessary for all other project features.
For projects where the drainage sheet flows off the roadway and continues outside existing or proposed
right-of-way, do not channelize flow for the sole purpose of providing a post-construction BMP.
Treatment is not required for areas where sheet flow off the roadway continues to sheet flow outside
ODOT right-of-way. Areas where this occurs should be documented in the post-construction BMP
calculations and identified on the Project Site Plan.
Design criteria for all BMP are available in Section 1117. A flow chart to determine BMP treatment
requirements is provided in Figure 1115-2.

1116.2 BMP Submittals


Consider BMPs early in the design process to allow for right-of-way and utility coordination as well as
evaluation with respect to waterway permitting issues.
For PDP projects characterized as Paths 4 and 5, provide a description of the planned BMPs to be used
for the project in the Preliminary Engineering Phase (PE). Final BMP design is required during Stage 1
plan development as identified in later tasks of the Preliminary Engineering Phase. Further refinement
may be needed within the Environmental Engineering Phase.
For projects categorized as Paths 1-3, it is unlikely a conceptual BMP task will be needed. Include BMPs
in the Environmental Engineering Phase and potentially the Final Engineering Phase of the PDP.
Submit the BMP final design during Stage 1 to ODOT Central Office Office of Hydraulics. Include the
following information:

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Estimated Project Earth Disturbed Area


Treatment Percent Calculation or justification that project is a Redevelopment Project.
BMP selected for use
January 2015

Drainage Design Procedures

Drainage area mapping for post-construction BMPs that show the total contributing drainage
area and the amount of contributing drainage area within ODOT right-of-way.
Plan sheets showing locations of post-construction BMP
Calculations for each BMP (Sec. 1117)
Explanation for any area that is not treated (i.e. environmental commitment, total parcel take,
environmental resource impact, sheet flow runoff, etc.)

Identify the final locations of post-construction BMP in the Project Site Plan as described in Section 1308
of Location and Design Manual, Volume 3. If applicable, provide cross-references to sheets showing
post-construction BMP details on the Project Site Plan.

1117 BMP Toolbox


1117.1 Manufactured Systems
Manufactured systems consist of underground structures that treat the water quality flow (WQf) by
removing particulate matter through settlement or filtration. Supplemental Specifications 895 and 995
cover the material and performance criteria for these devices. They are placed in an off-line configuration
with manholes to allow for routine maintenance procedures (see figure 1117-2).
Use the following procedure for design of manufactured systems:
A.

Determine the total contributing drainage area.

B.

Calculate the WQf according to Section 1115.5.

C. If appropriate, reduce the WQf according to Section 1115.7.


D. Provide a No. 3 Manhole, With ___ Base ID and ___ Weir where flow is to be diverted to the off-line
manufactured system according to Table 1117-1 and 1117-2 and the calculated WQf.

Type
1
2
3
4

Table 1117-1
Manufactured Systems
No. 3
611 Type B
Manhole
Conduit
WQf
(cfs)
Base ID
Diameter
(inches)
(inches)
1
84
12
2
90
15
3
96
18
6
108
24

Reserve an area (as measured from the centerline of the No. 3 Manhole) according to Table 1117-2:
Table 1117-2
Reserved Area for Manufactured System

January 2015

Type

Width
(ft.)

Length
(ft.)

611 Type B
Total
Conduit
Length (ft.)

Weir
Height
(inches)

1
2
3
4

15
20
25
25

30
32
33
37

20
30
40
40

6
8
9
12

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Drainage Design Procedures


E. Furnish two lengths of 611, Type B Conduit placed perpendicular to the inflowing sewer (see Table
1117-2 for the total length required).
F.

Reserve an area (as measured from the centerline of the No. 3 Manhole) according to Table 1117-2.
If this area is not attainable, contact Central Office Office of Hydraulic Engineering for further
guidance. Ensure the area is void of all utilities and is accessible for routine cleanout and
maintenance.

For manufactured systems located along a roadway with a posted speed limit over 45 mph, locate the
area for the manufactured system outside all paved areas.
For manufactured systems located along a roadway with a posted speed limit of 45 mph and less, it is
preferred to locate the area for the manufactured system outside paved areas. If it is not feasible to
locate the area outside of the paved area, select another BMP or contact Central Office Office of
Hydraulic Engineering for further coordination.
When a manufactured system is connected to a storm sewer with a depth exceeding 10 feet, contact
Central Office Office of Hydraulic Engineering.
Manufactured systems are typically not suited for treatment of flows in large trunk sewers. As indicated in
Table 1117-1, manufactured systems should not typically be provided on sewers that are carrying a water
quality flow greater than 6 cfs. The water quality flow calculation is based on the entire contributing
drainage area to the storm sewer.
Add Item 895, Manufactured Water Quality Structure, Type__ to the plans when using a manufactured
system.

1117.2 Vegetation Based BMP


1117.2.1 Vegetated Filter Strip
A Vegetated Filter Strip is a BMP that filters storm water through vegetation. The Vegetated Filter Strip
consists of the vegetated portion of the graded shoulder and the vegetated foreslope. The Vegetated
Filter Strip must be void of gullies or concentrated flow. The water flow is characterized as overland flow
throughout the grass.
All areas that contribute to a slope that meets the Vegetated Filter Strip criteria in Table 1117-3 receive a
treatment credit that is equal to the area of the roadway contributing to the slope and the area of the
slope.
Table 1117-3
Maximum
Pavement Width
(ft.)
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
46

Slope (H:V)
3:1 and flatter
3:1 and flatter
3:1 and flatter
3:1 and flatter
3:1 and flatter
3:1 and flatter
3:1 and flatter
6:1 and flatter

Filter Strip Width


(ft. minimum)
15
17
18.5
20.5
22
24
25
25

The filter strip width should be measured along the vegetated slope beginning at the vegetation and
ending at the inside edge of the ditch bottom.
Any area associated with concentrated flows that outlet to a vegetated filter strip should not be included in
the treatment credit.
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Ensure underdrain outlets do not discharge to a Vegetated Filter Strip.
Label the station range and location on the Project Site Plan for each Vegetated Filter Strip provided on
the project.
Add 6 of Item 659, Topsoil, to the vegetated portion of the shoulder and foreslope of the Vegetated Filter
Strip.
Add Item 670, Slope Erosion Protection, to the plans when using Vegetated Filter Strip.
1117.2.2 Vegetated Biofilter
If the Vegetated Filter Strips will not provide the required treatment, consider using a Vegetated Biofilter.
A Vegetated Biofilter (VBF) is a BMP that filters storm water through vegetation and potential infiltration.
The vegetated biofilter consists of the vegetated portion of the graded shoulder, vegetated slope, and
vegetated ditch. The purpose of the vegetated biofilter is to allow runoff to spread out and move slowly
through a shallow, flat, and vegetated conveyance. Vegetated biofilters must be void of rills, gullies, or
visible erosion.
When widening existing ditches, consider the following before purchasing new right-of-way:

Provide a steeper ditch foreslope.


Provide a steeper ditch backslope.
Reducing the bench width to a minimum of 4 feet.

Consider soil conditions and safety issues prior to making any of the above changes to the existing
slopes or benches.
Changes to existing ditches may be regulated through waterway permits since ditches may be considered
streams or wetlands. All impacts to existing streams and wetlands should be avoided or minimized to the
maximum extent practicable. To determine if the proposed ditch will impact an existing stream or
wetland, contact the District Environmental Coordinator.
For projects utilizing the vegetated biofilter, provide a ditch width using the Enhanced Bankfull Width
(EBW) or Standard ditch width to provide water quality treatment. Use the following steps to determine
the ditch width:
A. Determine Enhanced Bankfull Width (EBW):
The EBW is the width in a trapezoidal ditch for which the following criteria are met:
The depth of flow for the water quality flow rate (WQf) is less than or equal to 4 inches.
The velocity of flow for the water quality flow rate (WQf) is less than or equal to 1 ft/sec.
Use the water quality flow rate (WQf) per section 1115.5.
Use Mannings Equation to determine the depth and velocity of flow:
Mannings Equation:
=

1.49
2
1
3 2

Q = flow rate (cfs)


n = Mannings Roughness Coefficient (per section 1102.3.3)
A = Cross section area of flow (ft2)
R = Hydraulic Radius (ft) (Area / Wetted Perimeter)
S = Longitudinal Slope of ditch (ft/ft)

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There is not a direct calculation to determine EBW. Use a trial and error method to determine a width
for which the depth and velocity criteria are met for the WQf, assuming open channel flow. The EBW
should be whole numbers only, no half-foot increments. The minimum EBW is 4 feet.
The enhanced bankfull width corresponds to the dimension of the bottom width of the trapezoidal
ditch.
B. Determine Standard Ditch Width:
Determine the size of the trapezoidal ditch that would typically be specified for the project without
accounting for water quality treatment (use typical roadway design practices).
1. If using a Radius Ditch, refer to the b dimension in Figure 307-2E of Location and Design
Manual, Volume 1 to determine the bottom width of the ditch.
2. If using a trapezoidal ditch, use the bottom width dimension. Ignore any rounding lengths
associated with the trapezoidal ditch.
C. Determine the vegetated biofilter ditch width required for water quality treatment as described below:
1. If the EBW is less than or equal to the Standard ditch width, furnish the Standard ditch.
2. If the EBW is greater than the Standard width, furnish the EBW to a maximum bottom width of
ten (10) feet.
The EBW can be calculated at multiple locations along its length. This would allow the width to be
reduced where there is less tributary area (i.e. the upstream area of the ditch). However, use the entire
contributing drainage area to the location in the ditch being evaluated to determine the EBW.
At points where concentrated offsite runoff is accepted, the EBW should be recalculated.
Ensure that rock or other impervious soil layers will not prevent vegetation from being established at the
invert of the flowline. If the velocity is such that rock channel protection, reinforced concrete mats, or
SS836 are required, that section of the ditch cannot be used as a Vegetated Biofilter.
Constriction points in the enhanced bankfull width at drive pipes or other drainage related features are
acceptable. A transition back to the calculated width shall be made immediately following the constriction
point.
Label the station range and location on the Project Site Plan for each Vegetated Biofilter provided on the
project.
Add 6 of Item 659, Topsoil, to the vegetated portion of the shoulder and foreslope of the Vegetated
Biofilter.
Add Item 670, Ditch Erosion Protection, to the plans when using Vegetated Biofilter.

1117.3 Extended Detention


Extended detention is a method that captures storm water during rain events and slowly releases the
captured volume over a period of time. The WQv is used to determine the storage volume of the
detention basin. The WQv is discharged over a 48 hour time frame. Increase the WQv by 20% when
sizing the BMP to allow for sedimentation to occur. Detention can be either above or below ground.
Detention basins that are above ground should be used when feasible. However, when project site
parameters dictate, an underground system may be considered.
Due to the safety considerations and potential impacts to the drainage system, the use of extended
detention BMPs requires approval from the Office of Hydraulic Engineering. Provide submittals according
to Section 1116.
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1117.3.1 Detention Basin
A detention basin is a dry pond that detains storm water for quality and quantity.
Use the following procedure for design of the detention basin:
A. Calculate the WQv per Section 1115.4.
B. Calculate the Design Check Peak Discharge per Section 1117.3.3.
C. Increase the calculated WQv by 20% to determine the required size of the detention basin.
D. Provide a forebay (settling pool located at the inlet to the basin) that is 10% of the total storage
volume (located according to Figure 1117-5), if feasible. The forebay volume is part of the required
volume, and is not an additional volume requirement.
E. Provide a micropool (settling pool located at the outlet of the basin), if feasible. The micropool
volume is part of the required volume, and is not an additional volume requirement.
F. Allow for 1 foot of freeboard measured from the top of embankment to the elevation needed to
accommodate the storage volume.
G. Size the water quality basin (outlet structure) for proper discharge of the WQv and the weir for proper
discharge of events up to the design check discharge according to Section 1117.3.1.1. Ensure that
the water surface elevations created by the basin are considered in the design of the upstream
drainage system.
H. Provide anti-seep collars for the outlet pipe according to Section 1117.3.1.2.
The following criteria apply when designing a detention basin:
A. Use side slopes of 4:1 (max)
B. Consider vehicle access to the basin for periodic maintenance.
C. Do not locate on uncompacted fill or steep slopes (2:1 or more) or where infiltrating ground water
could adversely impact slope stability.
D.

Vegetate the sides of the basin with Item 670 Slope Erosion Protection.

E. Embankment work to create the impoundment will be constructed and paid for as Item 203
Embankment, Using Natural Soils, 703.16.A.
F. Furnish gravel pack protection at the outlet structure (see SCD WQ1.1).
G. Place channel protection (RCP or Tied Concrete Block Mat) at the entrance of the basin to minimize
erosion and sediment resuspension.
H. Furnish a Water Quality Basin, Detention per section 1117.3.1.1
1117.3.1.1 Water Quality Basin and Weir
Furnish an outlet structure that fully drains the WQv in 48 hours or more. No more than 50% of the WQv
should be released from the detention basin in less than one-third the drain time.
The outlet structure consists of a catch basin with a perforated riser pipe on the inlet side and a conduit
on the outlet side. The perforated riser pipe is used for flow control to achieve the required discharge
time. A gravel envelope surrounds the perforated riser pipe along the inlet side of the catch basin to
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prevent blockage of the orifice holes in the pipe. The catch basin and riser pipe are paid for as Item 611,
Water Quality Basin, Detention. Details of a perforated riser pipe outlet structure can be found on
standard drawing WQ1.1.
The equation for a single orifice is:
Q

A. C . 64.4H

where:
A = Area of orifice (ft2)
H = Head on orifice as measured to the centerline of the orifice (ft)
C = Orifice coefficient

C
0.66
0.80

Table 1117-4
Orifice Coefficient Guidance
Description
Use for thin materials where the
thickness is equal to or less than the
orifice diameter.
Use when the material is thicker than
the orifice diameter.

From CALTRANS, Storm Water Quality Handbooks,


Project Planning and Design Guide, September 2002.

Furnish a weir to allow the design check discharge to bypass the structure without damage to the
detention basin or embankment of the basin. The design check discharge shall be determined per
1117.3.3. Ensure that the weir is protected from erosion.
A hydrograph curve for the outlet will be required to calculate the discharge time of the WQv and the
design check discharge (see 1117.3.3). The discharge time should correspond to the minimum drain
time of 48 hours with no more than 50% of the WQv being released from the detention basin in less than
one-third the drain time.
Generally, it is easier to model the outlet structure and discharge time using software such as Pond Pak
or HydroCad to develop the hydrograph.
1117.3.1.2 Anti-Seep Collar Design
Furnish anti-seep collars on conduits through earth fills where water is being detained. The following
criteria apply to anti-seep collars:
A. Furnish a minimum of 2 collars per outlet conduit. Increase the seepage length along the conduit by a
minimum of 15%. This percentage is based on the length of the pipe in the saturation zone.
B. Anti-seep collars should be placed equally within the saturation zone. Place one collar at the end of
the saturation zone. In cases where the spacing limit will not allow this, place at least one collar
within the saturation zone.
C. Maximum collar spacing should be 14 times the minimum projection above the pipe, but not more
than 25 feet. The minimum collar spacing should be 5 times the minimum projection, but not less
than 10 feet.
D. Extend the collar dimensions a minimum of 2 feet in all directions around the outside of the conduit,
measured perpendicular to the conduit. Center the anti-seep collars around the conduit.
E. The top of collar shall not be less than 6 inches below, measured normal to, the finished groundline.
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F. All anti-seep collars and their connections shall be watertight.
G. Minimum thickness shall be 6 inches.
H. Payment for the collar shall be Item 602 Concrete Masonry (see standard construction drawing WQ1.2).
The design procedure for anti-seep collars is as follows:
1. Determine the length of the conduit within the saturated zone. The assumed normal saturation
zone can be determined by projecting a line through the embankment, with a 4:1 (H:V) slope,
from the point where the normal water elevation (10-year) meets the upstream slope to a point
where it intersects the invert of the conduit. This line, referred to as the phreatic line, represents
the upper surface of the zone of saturation within the embankment (See Figure 1117-11). The
10-year storm pool elevation is the phreatic line starting elevation.
Ls = Y(Z+4)[1+S/(0.25-S)]
where:
Ls = Length of the conduit in the saturated zone (feet)
Y = Depth of the water at the spillway crest, 10-year frequency stormwater surface elevation (feet)
Z = Slope of the upstream face of the embankment (Z feet horizontal to 1 foot vertical)
S = Slope of the conduit (feet per foot)
2. Determine the required seepage length increase.
Ls = 0.15Ls
3. Choose a collar height and width that is at least 4 feet larger than the outside diameter of the
conduit (minimum projection of 2 feet from all sides of the conduit). Give collar sizes in one foot
increments.
P=WD
where:
P = Projection of collar (feet)
W = Height or width of collar (feet)
D = Inside diameter of conduit
4. Determine the total number of collars required. The collar size can be increased to reduce the
number of collars. Alternatively, the collar size can be decreased by providing more collars. In
any case, increase the seepage length by a minimum of 15%.
No. of collars required = Ls/P
1117.3.2 Underground Detention
Underground detention areas are made up of a series of conduits. They range from an oversized storm
sewer to a series of conduits that are specifically used for storm water detention. Underground detention
is only to be used for stream protection (water quantity treatment). Underground detention cannot be
used for pollutant removal (water quality treatment) without approval from Ohio EPA. The following criteria
apply when designing underground detention:

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A. Ensure the Hydraulic Grade Line design of the storm sewer will pass through the structure and meet
the requirements of 1104.4.2.
B. Locate access to the conduits for periodic maintenance so that traffic impacts are minimized.
C. If practical, provide pretreatment of the storm water with vegetation.
D. Payment for the conduit shall be: Item 611 ____ Conduit, Type____, for underground detention.
1117.3.3 Design Check Discharge
A design check discharge with the frequency of a 10-year event shall be used. Use the entire drainage
area that contributes to the BMP to calculate the design check discharge.

1117.4 Retention Basin


A retention basin is a wet pond that has a minimum water surface elevation between storms that is
defined as the permanent pool. Above the permanent pool is a detention pool that provides storage for
75% of the WQv and drains in 24 hours or more. The detention volume above the permanent pool is
called the Extended Detention Volume (EDv). The full storage water depth is typically between 3-6 feet
and the volume is less than 15 Ac-ft. The permanent pool is sized to provide storage for 75% of the
WQv. A retention basin may be considered for large tributaries, but it may require a large amount of
space.
Use the following procedure for design of the retention basin:
A.

Calculate the WQv per Section 1115.4.

B.

Calculate the Design Check Peak Discharge per Section 1117.3.3.

C. If feasible, provide a forebay (settling pool located at the inlet to the basin) that is 7-10% of the total
storage volume. The forebay volume is part of the required volume and is not an additional volume
requirement.
D. Allow for 1 foot of freeboard measured from the top of embankment to the elevation needed to
accommodate the storage volume.
E. Size the water quality basin for proper discharge of the WQv and the weir for proper discharge of
events up to the design check discharge according to Section 1117.4.1. Ensure that the water
surface elevations created by the basin are considered in the design of the upstream drainage
system.
F. Provide anti-seep collars for the outlet pipe according to Section 1117.3.1.2.
The following criteria apply when designing a retention basin:
A. Place channel protection (RCP or Tied Concrete Block Mat) at the entrance of the basin to minimize
erosion and sediment resuspension.
B. Use side slopes of 4:1 (max).
C. Use a length to width ratio of at least 3:1 to prevent short-circuiting.
D. Furnish a trash rack at the outlet structure.
E. The underlying soils should be compacted to prevent infiltration of the permanent pool or an
impervious liner should be used.
F. Consider vehicle access to the basin for periodic maintenance.
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G. Retention basin must be greater than 10,000 feet from a municipal airport runway.
H. Vegetate the sides of the basin with Item 670 Slope Erosion Protection.
I.

Embankment work to create the impoundment will be constructed and paid for as Item 203
Embankment, Using Natural Soils, 703.16.A.

J.

Furnish a Water Quality Basin, Retention per 1117.4.1.

1117.4.1 Water Quality Basin and Weir


A retention basin outlet structure is designed similar to the outlet structure for a detention basin. The
difference is that the EDv (75% of the WQv) should be discharged out of the basin in 24 hours or more.
No more than 50% of the EDv should be released from the detention basin in less than one-third the drain
time. The outlet structures are of a similar type, except the openings will be set at a high enough elevation
to maintain at least 75% of the WQv in the permanent pool (see standard construction drawing WQ-1.1).
The catch basin and riser pipe is paid for as Item 611, Water Quality Basin, Retention.

1117.5 Bioretention Cell


Bioretention Cells consist of depressed low-lying areas that treat storm water through evapotranspiration
and filtering through a planting soil. As the storm water passes through the soil it is filtered. An underlying
perforated storm sewer or underdrain captures the treated storm water and carries it to an outlet.
Extensive vegetation assists in the filtration of the storm water prior to filtering through the soil.
Vegetation should consist of shrubs or grasses that are native to the area.
The existing soil must be removed and replaced when constructing a bioretention cell. The bioretention
planting soil (plan note WQ101) should consist of a mixture of sand, topsoil, and compost.
A bioretention cell is sized to store the WQv prior to filtration. The storage volume consists of the storage
area above the planting soil and void space within the planting soil. Total filtration should occur in a
target drain time of 24 hours.
Use the following procedure for the design of a bioretention cell, or design it using the Bioretention Design
found in ODNRs Rainwater and Land Development Manual:

A. Calculate the WQv per Section 1115.4.


B.

Determine the minimum surface area of the bioretention invert using the following equation:

WQv. D
3600 . K . T. ( h D)

where:
WQv = Water quality volume (Acre-feet)
T = Drain time of the cell, 40 hours
K = permeability of the planting soil (Use 3.3 x 10^-5 ft/sec)
A = Top surface area of the trench (Ac)
D = Depth of the planting soil (ft) (4.0 feet minimum)

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h = Maximum depth of water above the cells top layer for storage (use 1 foot).
C.

Ensure that a maximum depth of 1 foot measured from the riser pipe or catch basin outlet to the
mulching layer surface is provided for storage.

D.

Determine if the minimum surface area provides adequate volume to store the WQv. If adequate
volume does not exist, increase the footprint as needed.

The following criteria apply when designing a bioretention BMP:


A. Do not place where snow may be stored.
B. Furnish 10 feet or less width between 4 inch underdrain laterals.
C. Ensure that any overflow weir is protected from erosion.
D. Furnish pretreatment of the storm water via vegetation.
E. Ensure the water table or bedrock is below the invert of the bioretention area.
F. Use side slopes of 4:1 (max).
G. Use a minimum depth of 4 feet of planting soil. Provide at least 4 inches of depth deeper than the
largest root ball.
H. Furnish an organic or mulching layer at the top of the planting soil.
I.

Furnish a bioretention cell as Item 203-Special - Bioretention Cell.

1117.6 Infiltration
Infiltration techniques treat storm water through the interaction of a filtering substrate that consists of soil,
sand, or gravel. This technique discharges the treated storm water into the ground water rather than into
surface waters. Typically, infiltration practices are only suitable when Hydrologic Soil Group (HSG) Type
A soils or, in some cases, HSG Type B soils exist.
Infiltration methods require an extensive investigation of the existing soils and geology to ensure success.
The investigation should begin with a preliminary soil evaluation of the project site early in the design
process (PDP Preliminary Engineering Phase). In-situ testing is not anticipated during the preliminary
evaluation process.
Use available soil and geology data found in the Soil and Water Conservation maps, United States
Geological Survey (USGS), adjacent projects, or estimations from a geotechnical engineer.
National Resources Conservation Services Web Soil Survey website may also provide soil and geology
information.
Material property tables for infiltration, permeability, and porosity have been provided for the preliminary
evaluation (Tables 1117-4 & 1117-5).
If the preliminary evaluation yields favorable results, perform a more detailed evaluation. The detailed
evaluation will require a geotechnical investigation of the underlying soils and geology. Soil borings
should be performed to a maximum depth of 20 feet (or refusal) with samples taken every 5 feet for
laboratory testing. The number and location of soil borings should correspond with the approximate size
(as determined in the preliminary evaluation) of the infiltration BMP and should be recommended by the
geotechnical engineer.

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If the detailed evaluation yields favorable results, the ground water depth must be verified. The
geotechnical engineer shall provide the seasonal high ground water depth. In some cases, observation
wells may be installed and static water levels may be observed over a dry and wet season for verification.
The infiltration and permeability rate of the soil shall be tested in the detailed soil evaluation at the
discretion of the geotechnical engineer. In some cases, insitu testing at the proposed location of the
infiltration BMP may be required.
The following criteria apply to infiltration methods and must be met to be considered a feasible alternative:
A. Design using the WQv as per Section 1115.
B. Do not place infiltration BMP where snow may be stored.
C. The appropriate soil type must be present:
1.

Infiltration (the rate at which water enters into the soil from the surface) must be greater than 0.50
in/hr and no greater than 2.4 in/hr.

2.

Soils must have less than 30% clay or 40% of clay and silt combined.

D. The invert of the structure must be at least 4 feet above the seasonal high water table and any
impervious layer.
E. Infiltration techniques are not suitable on fill soil, compacted soil, or steep slopes (greater than 4:1).
Consideration should be given to the long term impacts upon hillside stability if applicable.
F. Pretreatment shall be provided to remove large debris, trash and suspended sediment to extend the
service life. An example of pretreatment includes providing vegetated ditches prior to flow entering
the infiltration facility.
1117.6.1 Infiltration Trench
An infiltration trench is an excavated trench that has been lined with a geotextile fabric and backfilled with
aggregate. The storm water is filtered through the aggregate and is stored within the pore volume of the
backfill material. It is allowed to percolate through the sides and bottom of the trench. The drawdown
time of the WQv is 24 hours or more.
Use the following procedure for the design of an Infiltration trench:
A. Based on the geotechnical data, determine if the permeability (rate of water movement in the soil) of
the surrounding soil is capable of supporting an infiltration trench.
B. Calculate the WQv per Section 1115.4.
C. Assume a width and depth for the infiltration trench. Long and deep infiltration trenches are most
efficient (3 feet bottom width and 3-6 feet deep).
The geometric shape of the trench is a trapezoid with sides at a 1:1 (H:V) slope due to
constructability. The top width is calculated as:
Top Width = Bottom Width + (2 * Depth)

D. Determine the length of the trench based on the bottom width and depth using the following equation:

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where:
WQv = Water quality volume (see section 1115) (Acre-feet)
T = Drain time through the sides of the trench, 24 hours
K = permeability of the surrounding soil (ft/sec) (table 1117-4)
D = Trench depth (ft)
b = Bottom width of the trench (ft)

Table 1117-4
Permeability of Soil (K)
Soil Type
Rate (K)
(ft/sec)
Gravel
3.3x10-3 to 3.3x10-1
Sand
3.3x10-5 to 3.3x10-2
Silt
3.3x10-9 to 3.3x10-5
Clay (saturated)
< 3.3x10-9
Till
3.3x10-10 to 3.3x10-6
From Urban Runoff Quality Management WEF Manual of
Practice No. 23, 1998, published jointly by the WEF and
ASCE, chapter five

The following criteria apply when designing an infiltration trench:


A. Furnish a 6 inch layer of Item 601 Infiltration Basin Aggregate on the top of the trench.
B. Pretreatment using vegetation shall be provided to ensure longevity of the infiltration trench.
C. An observation well shall be provided to facilitate ground water level inspection.
D. Locate the infiltration trench at least 1,000 feet from any municipal water supply well and at least 100
feet from any private well, septic tank, or field tile drains.
E. Ensure the bottom of the trench is below the frost line (2.5 feet)
F. Furnish an infiltration trench as Item 203-Special Infiltration Trench.
1117.6.2 Infiltration Basin
An infiltration basin is an open surface pond that uses infiltration into the ground as the release
mechanism. It is designed to store the WQv.
Depending on the soil permeability, it may be used to treat from 5 to 50 acres. Lower permeable soils
may require an underdrain system as an additional outlet. The drawdown time of the WQv should be
between 24-48 hours.
Use the following procedure for the design of an infiltration basin:
A.

Calculate the WQv per Section 1115.4.

B.

Determine the invert area of the infiltration basin using the following equation:

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A=(WQv * S.F. * 12)/(k * t)
where:
A = area of invert of the basin (Acres)
WQv = Water Quality Volume (see section 1115) (Acre-feet)
S.F. = Safety Factor of 1.5
k = Infiltration Rate (in/hr) (table 1117-5)
t = Drawdown time of 48 hours
Table 1117-5
HSG
Classification
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
Infiltration Rate (k)

NRCS Soil Type (from soil maps)


Sand
Loamy Sand
Sandy Loam
Loam
Silt Loam
Sandy Clay Loam
Clay Loam & Silty Clay Loam
Clays

Rate (k) (in/hr)


8.0
2.0
1.0
0.5
0.25
0.15
< 0.09
< 0.05

From Urban Runoff Quality Management WEF Manual of Practice No. 23, 1998, published jointly by the WEF
and ASCE, chapter five

C.

Use a length to width ratio of 3:1.

D.

Determine the required depth of the infiltration basin using following equation:
D = WQv/A

where:
A = area of invert of the basin (Acres)
WQv = Water Quality Volume (Ac-ft)
D = Required depth of the basin (ft)
E. Allow for 1 foot (min) freeboard above the WQv.
F. Calculate the Design Check Peak Discharge per Section 1117.3.3.
G. Furnish bypass or overflow for the design check discharge.

The following criteria apply when designing an infiltration basin:


A. Use an energy dissipater at the inlet.

B. Vegetate the sides of the basin with Item 670 Slope Erosion Protection.
C. Furnish a 6 inch layer of Item 601 Infiltration Basin Aggregate on the bottom of the basin.

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D. Use side slopes of 4:1 (max).
E. Consider vehicle access to the basin for periodic maintenance.
F. Locate basin at least 1,000 feet from any municipal water supply well and at least 100 feet from any
private well, septic tank, or drain field.
G. Furnish 10 feet or less width between 4 inch underdrain laterals (if used in the design).
H. Do not locate the basin where infiltrating ground water may adversely impact slope stability.
I.

Ensure the invert of any underdrain in the basin is below the frost line (2.5 feet).

J.

Embankment work to create the impoundment will be constructed and paid for as Item 203
Embankment, Using Natural Soils, 703.16.A.

1117.7 Constructed Wetlands


Constructed Wetlands treat storm water through bio-retention. They are depressed, heavily planted
areas that are designed to maintain a dry weather flow depth ranging between 0.5 to 2 feet. The surface
area required for a wetland is usually quite large due to the limited allowable depth. The area is usually
on the magnitude of 1% of the entire drainage area. They are designed in a similar manner as a retention
basin. The wetland is sized to provide storage for the WQv for a time frame of at least 24 hours (above
the permanent pool) while providing a bypass or overflow for larger design check discharge (see section
1117.3.3). The water depth should be maintained by an outlet structure capable of providing the required
water depth with the provision of a one foot freeboard. The following criteria apply when designing a
Constructed Wetland:
A. Do not place on a steep or unstable slope or at a location, which could induce short-term or long-term
instability.
B. Constructed Wetlands must be greater than 10,000 feet from a municipal airport runway.
C. Base flow must be present to maintain the constant water depth (such as ground water).
D. Furnish a forebay that is 7% of the total required volume at a depth between 3-6 feet to settle out
sediments.
E. Furnish side slopes of 4:1 (max).
F. Consider access for maintenance to the forebay and the outlet structure.
G. Vegetate the sides and bottom with grass
H. Furnish an impervious liner. Use a compacted clay bottom or a geotextile fabric to prevent infiltration
of the storm water.
I.

Furnish a length to width ratio of 3:1 (min) to prevent short-circuiting.

1118 Bridge Hydraulics


1118.1 General
Bridge structural design requirements are found in the Bridge Design Manual while hydraulic design
criteria are governed by this manual. When submitting hydraulic design calculations, flood hazard
evaluations, hydrology and hydraulic reports, and scour evaluations submit to the Office of Hydraulic
Engineering.

11-54

January 2015

Drainage Design Procedures


1118.2 Hydrology and Hydraulics (H&H) Report
The H&H report is required as part of the Structure Type Study.
A. A small scale area plan showing: approximate location of all stream cross sections used for the
hydraulic analysis; an accurate waterway alignment at least 500 feet each way from the structure;
and the alignment of the proposed and present highways, taken from actual surveys.

B. Provide a profile along the centerline of highway so that the overflow section may be computed. This
profile should extend along the approach fill to an elevation well above high water. If there are
bridges or large culverts located within 1000 feet upstream or downstream from the proposed bridge,
show stream cross sections including the structure and roadway profiles of the overflow sections of
the structures. These may be used as a guide in establishing the waterway requirements of the
proposed structure.
1118.2.1 Analysis
The H&H analysis is performed using the design year as discussed in section 1004.2 of this manual along
with the 100 year and 500 year frequencies. A step backwater calculation is computed for each
frequency. A one-dimensional step backwater software (example: HEC-RAS) is acceptable. In some
cases a two-dimensional step backwater method may be necessary at the direction of the Department.
Include the following items in the H&H analysis:
A. Hydrology calculations or origin of discharge frequencies used in the analysis. Include the drainage
area in square miles.
B. Electronic input and output data. If using the HEC-RAS computer program, refer to the HEC-RAS
Help Applications Guide for the Multiple Plans file structure.
C. Plan view of stream with cross sections identified. Include enough cross sections to properly model
the existing and proposed stream as required.
D. Color photographs of the upstream channel, downstream channel, and the bridge opening location.
E. Computations for existing and proposed conditions.
1118.2.2 Narrative
The Narrative is a written discussion the hydraulic adequacy for both the design year and 100 year
frequency discharges. The narrative includes the rationale used to determine the proposed structure size
and it is supported by an analysis of design alternatives.
Include the following in the narrative:
A. Capital costs and risk as part of the discussion. Risk is defined as the consequences attributable to
a flood plain encroachment.
B. A statement as to whether or not the structure is located in a flood insurance study. Identify the Flood
Insurance map showing the project location, with any designated floodway information or elevations.
C. High water data from local residents and observed high water marks including their locations.
D. Approximate Flood Peak Discharge Frequency of roadway overtopping.
E. A Flood Hazard Evaluation (see 1005.2)

January 2015

11-55

Drainage Design Procedures


F. Description of the bridge deck drainage. Indicate how the surface water will be collected and
discharged. Include any scupper catch basin locations.

11-56

January 2015

1100 Drainage Design Procedures List of Figures


Figure

Subject

1101-1

Overland Flow Chart

General Notes for Figures 1101-2 and 1101-3


1101-2

Rainfall Intensity-Frequency-Duration Curves

1101-3

Rainfall Intensity Zone Map

1102-1

Capacity of Grate Catch Basin in a Sump

1102-2

Channel Features

1103-1

Nomograph for Flow in Triangular Channels

1103-2

Capacity of Curb Opening Inlets on Continuous Grade

1103-3

Capacity of Standard Catch Basin Grates in Pavement Sags - Flow Through Grate
Opening

1103-4

Capacity of Inlets and Standard Catch Basins in Pavement Sags - Flow


Through Curb Opening

1104-1

Type F, Broken Back Detail

1105-1

Classification of Flow in Culverts

1105-2

Corrugated Metal Pipe Sizes and "n" Values for Type A Conduits

1105-3

Example Bankfull Discharge Culvert Design

1106-1

End Treatment Grading Detail

1106-2

Box Culvert Outlet Detail

1106-3

Box Culvert Inlet Detail

1107-1

Rock Channel Protection at Culvert Storm Sewer Outlets

1112-1

Notice of Intent (NOI) Acreage Calculation Form

1115-1

Water Quality Cq

1115-2

Post-Construction BMP Treatment

1116-1

Exempt Outfalls

1117-1

Figure Deleted January 2014

1117-2

Manufactured System Detail

1117-3

Vegetated Biofilter Detail

1117-4

Figure Deleted January 2015

1117-5

Conceptual Layout for Detention Basin for Water Quality

January 2015

1100 Drainage Design Procedures List of Figures


1117-6

Extended Detention Basin Example

1117-7

Retention Basin Example

1117-8

Bioretention Cell Example

1117-9

Infiltration Trench Example

1117-10

Infiltration Basin Example

1117-11

Anti-Seep Collars

January 2015

General Notes Figures 1101-2 through 1101-3


The Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves are based upon precipitation data obtained from the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14. The precipitation data was collected between 4/1863
to12/2000.
Rainfall depth varies across the State with more rainfall depth present in the Southwest portion of the state and
gradually decreasing towards the Northeast. IDF curves were developed for 4 regions across the State to simplify
hydraulic design. The regions were determined by normalizing contours created from NOAA precipitation GIS data
from the 10 year, 60 minute duration.
Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 12 Appendix A offers a methodology for
converting I-D-F data points to an equation of the general form:
i= a/(t+b)^c
Where: i = rainfall intensity (inches/hour)
t = time of concentration (minutes)
a = constant
b = constant
c = constant
Figure 1101-2 can be expressed using the above general equation utilizing the constants shown below.

Intensity Zone (Figure 1101-3)

Frequency
(Years)

Constant "a"

Constant "b"

Constant "c"

46.184

9.000

0.859

56.985

10.250

0.851

10

64.167

11.000

0.842

25

66.528

11.000

0.811

50

65.702

10.750

0.782

100

64.489

10.500

0.754

47.987

9.000

0.859

60.684

10.500

0.858

10

73.126

12.000

0.863

25

75.841

12.000

0.833

50

65.621

10.000

0.781

100

85.047

13.250

0.806

56.299

10.000

0.876

67.933

11.000

0.869

10

84.550

13.000

0.882

25

95.736

14.000

0.871

50

96.783

14.000

0.850

100

80.436

11.500

0.794

57.448

10.000

0.876

67.933

11.000

0.869

10

79.192

12.000

0.864

25

87.886

12.750

0.849

50

95.169

13.500

0.839

100

91.982

13.000

0.810

For any projects that have begun using the previous Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF)
curves, continue with their use through the completion of the project. The current Rainfall
Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves should be used at the start for all new projects.

Revised July 2014

1101-2

Rainfall Intensity-Frequency-Duration Curves

Reference Section
1101.2.4

AREAA

Year
2

5
10

25

INTENSITY(IN/HOUR)

INTENSITY(IN/HOUR)

AREAB

Year
2

5
10

25

50
2

50
2

100

100

0
10

15

30

60

120

180

10

DURATIONINMINUTES
8

30

60

120

180

DURATIONINMINUTES
8

AREAC

Year
2
5

10
25

INTENSITY(IN/HOUR)

5
INTENSITY(IN/HOUR)

15

AREAD

Year

2
5

10
25

50

50
2

100

100

0
10

15

30

60

120

DURATIONINMINUTES

180

10

15

30

60

120

DURATIONINMINUTES

RefertoGeneralNotesFigures11012through11013

180

Revised July 2014

Rainfall Intensity-Frequency-Duration Curves

1101-3
Reference Section
1101.2.4

RefertoGeneralNotesFigures11012through11013

January 2008

1112-1
NOTICE OF INTENT (NOI) ACREAGE CALCULATION FORM

Reference Section
1112

Area (acres)

Project Earth Disturbing Activities


If the project is a Routine Maintenance Project, an NOI is not required. (See Section
1112)

Contractor Earth Disturbing Activities


Field Office:
Enter 0.125 for Type A; 0.25 for Type B; or 1.00 for Type C
Batch Plant: Yes = 2.0; No = 0
Off-Project Waste / Borrow Pit:
Add 1.0 acre per 15,000 CY of waste or borrow
Miscellaneous Other Off-Project Areas:
Off-Project staging areas, stock yards, etc.
Contractor Earth Disturbing Activities
Total Earth Disturbing Activities (add Project EDA and Contractor EDA)
NOI Earth Disturbing Activities (see below to determine value)

Subtotal
TOTAL
TOTAL

Project Earth Disturbing Activities - Enter the area of permanent earth disturbing activities directly related to project
activities. Earth disturbing activity is defined as any activity that exposes bare ground or an erodible material to
storm water and anywhere Item 659 Seeding, SS 870 Seeding, Item 660 Sodding, or SS 870 Sodding is being
furnished.
Contractor Earth Disturbing Activities:
Field Office - These sizes were determined with regard to size of the trailer, parking, and some stock area for
equipment and materials.
Batch Plant - It is assumed that a typical batch plant would occupy 2 acres of ground. The designer should
investigate the location of the project relative to existing plants, facilities, etc. to estimate whether a batch plant
might be used by the Contractor. This is not needed for existing plants, it is only for plants set up for the specific
project.
Off-Project Waste / Borrow - The specified estimation is based on approximately 10 feet of depth or fill over 1
acre. The designer may choose a different value based on knowledge of the project area, bedrock elevations,
previous projects, etc. Consideration should be given for grindings, as well. (10ft. x 43560 s.f. / 27 = 16,133 c.y. ~
15,000 c.y.)
NOI Earth Disturbing Activities - This is the combined Project and Contractor Earth Disturbed Area. Based on
project conditions and activities, some flexibility in the area calculation should be provided to avoid the possibility of
the estimated work being less than the actual work. This scenario would require submittal of an NOI for projects
originally calculated to be less than one acre during construction.
For projects with an estimated NOI EDA less than one acre: No NOI is required. For projects with an estimated
NOI EDA of one or more acre, but less than 4.9 acres, use 4.9 acres. For projects with an estimated NOI EDA
greater than 4.9 acres, use the sum of the Project and Contractor Earth Disturbed Areas.
A Routine Maintenance Project consists of activities that do not change the line, grade, or hydraulic capacity of the
existing condition and has less than 5 acres of earth disturbing activities (see section 1112.2).

January 2008

1115-1
WATER QUALITY Cq

REFERENCE SECTION
1115

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

Cq 0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Impervious ratio

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

JULY 201
1

1
1
1
7-2
MANUFACTURED SYSTEM DETAIL

REFERENCE SECTION
1
1
1
7

RESERVED AREA FOR


OFFLINE MANUFACTURED SYSTEM

RESERVED WIDTH PER 1117

SIZED PER 1
1
1
7.2

DIVERSION WEIR

INFLOW TRUNK SEWER

MANHOLE NO. 3
W/BASE DIAMETER
PER SECTION 1
1
1
7.
SOME SYSTEMS REQUIRE
TWO SMALLER MANHOLES
RATHER THAN ONE LARGE
MANHOLE.

OUTFLOW TRUNK SEWER

8"
OUTFLOW TRUNK
SEWER CAN BE
LOCATED UP TO
A 45 DEGREE ANGLE.

PLAN VIEW
NOT TO SCALE

Appendix A Reproducible Forms


Form

Subject

LD-33

County Engineer Approval Form

LD-34

Storm Sewer Computation Sheet

LD-35

Ohio Drainage Design Criteria Form

LD-40

Gutter Spread and Inlet Capacity Computation Sheet

LD-41

Ditch Computation Sheet

LD-42

Culvert Computation Sheet

LD-50

No-Rise Certification

LD-51

Floodplain Letter of Compliance Template

January 2015

Appendix A Reproducible Forms

January 2015

Ohio Department of Transportation


County Engineer

Form LD-33
Revised July 2011

Approval Form
Date Submitted to District:
Date Submitted to County Engineer:
County - Route - Section:
PID:

Station

Size & Type

Culvert Invert Elevation


Inlet

Outlet

Existing Channel Elevation


Inlet

Outlet

Skew

I have reviewed and hereby approve the drainage proposed for the highway designated hereon in accordance with the
provisions of the Ohio Revised Code, Section 6131.631.

County

County Engineer's Signature

Date

Comments:

LD-33.xls

Form LD-35
Revised January 2015

PROJECT INFORMATION:
COUNTY

ROUTE

SECTION

PID

PIPE POLICY:
The Pipe Policy of _____________________ will be used for this project.
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________

(Attach a copy of the written pipe policy or furnish a link to the policy. In lieu of a written
policy, documentation of locally funded construction practices may be provided)
POST CONSTRUCTION BMP POLICY:
The Post Construction BMP Policy of _____________________ will be used for this project.
If a policy other than ODOTs is being used, the following BMPs are permitted:
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________

DRAINAGE WATERSHED(S):
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________

PROJECT SPECIFIC INFORMATION AFFECTING DRAINAGE:


____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________

No-Rise Certification

Form LD-50
Revised January 2015

This is to certify that I am a qualified licensed professional engineer in the State of Ohio. It is to
further certify that the attached analysis supports the fact that the proposed Roadway project:
_____________________________________________ in the floodway will not increase the
(Name of Project)

Base Flood Elevation (100-year flood), floodway elevation, or floodway widths on


______________________________________ at published sections in the Flood Insurance
(Name of Stream)

Study for ______________________________________, dated ____________________


(Name of Community)

and will not increase the Base Flood Elevations (100-year flood), floodway elevations, or
floodway widths at unpublished cross-sections in the vicinity of the proposed roadway project.

Engineers Name:___________________________________________
Signature:________________________________________ Date:_______________________
Phone Number:___________________

E-MAIL:__________________________________

Agency/Firm: _____________________________________________________________
Address:_____________________________________________________________________
City:____________________________

State:____________ Zip Code:_______________

ENGINEERS SEAL:

Company Letter Head or ODOT Letter Head

Date

Name of Floodplain Coordinator


Title
County or Municipality Name
Address Line 1
Address Line 2

Re: County-Route-Section (PID)


Letter of Compliance

Dear Name of Floodplain Coordinator:


Enclosed please find the floodplain analysis for ODOT project County-Route-Section (PID).
The subject roadway project encroaches upon Special Flood Hazard Area Zone A or AE within
your community at the location identified in the attached report. The hydraulic calculations and
No-Rise Certification Form (if Zone AE) provide the necessary documentation of compliance
to all federal, state, and local floodplain standards as required. We will be proceeding forward
on this project if no concerns are brought to our attention.
If you need additional information please contact contact information as needed.
Respectfully,

Name of Registered Engineer, P.E.


Title

Form LD-51
Revised January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


The Sample plan notes included in this Appendix are the most frequently used. Each note is accompanied by a
Designer Note in an attempt to give some guidance as to when the note should be used and how to estimate
quantities for some of the items where the methods for quantity calculations are not obvious.
The following note categories are included:

Category
Drainage Notes
Erosion Control Notes
Water Quality Notes

January 2015

Letter Prefix
D
E
W

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


DRAINAGE (D), EROSION CONTROL (E), & WATER QUALITY (W)
NUMBER

NAME

D101

Item 611 - Catch Basin Grate

D102

Note Deleted (January 2002)

D103

Item Special - Fill and Plug Existing Conduit

D104

Crossings and Connections to Existing Pipes and Utilities

D105

Pipe Connections to Corrugated Metal Structures

D106

Item 611 - Tunnel Liner Plate Structure

D107

Farm Drains

D108

Item 605 - Aggregate Drains

D109

Spring Drains

D110

Unrecorded Untreated Stormwater Drainage

D111

Unrecorded Treated Stormwater Drainage

D112

Item 611 - Conduit Bored or Jacked

D113

Item 611 - Conduit Under Railroad

D114

Review of Drainage Facilities

D115

Unrecorded Stormwater Drainage

D116

Unrecorded Active Sanitary Sewer Connections

D117

Manholes, Catch Basins and Inlets Removed or Abandoned

D118

Item 511 Wingwalls or Headwalls for 611 Items

D119

Item Special - Miscellaneous Metal

D120

Item 611 Slotted Drain

D121

Item Special - Pipe Cleanout

D122

Note Deleted (April 2009)

D123

Existing Underdrains

D124

Temporary Drainage Items

E101

Seeding and Mulching

E102

Sodding

W99

Post Construction Storm Water Treatment

W100

Deleted

W101

Bioretention Cell(s)

W102

Infiltration Trench (or Basin)

W103

Manufactured Water Quality Structure

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


D101

ITEM 611 - CATCH BASIN GRATE


EXISTING CATCH BASINS SHALL BE MODIFIED BY REPLACING THE EXISTING GRATES WITH
BICYCLE SAFE GRATES. QUANTITIES AND LOCATIONS ARE SHOWN IN THE PLANS AND
SHALL BE PAID FOR AT THE CONTRACT PRICE FOR ITEM 611, EACH, CATCH BASIN GRATE,
TYPE
.
Designer Note: The above note should be used on projects where existing catch basin grates are not
bicycle safe. The size and type of grate to be supplied must be indicated. There may be more than
one type and size on a project.
If specific locations are not shown in the plan, or additional grates are to be included on a contingency
basis, the following should either replace the second sentence in the note or be added to the note:
THE FOLLOWING ESTIMATED QUANTITIES HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE GENERAL
SUMMARY FOR USE AS DIRECTED BY THE ENGINEER FOR REPLACEMENT OF EXISTING
CATCH BASIN GRATES WITH BICYCLE SAFE GRATES:
611, CATCH BASIN GRATE, TYPE

D103

EACH

ITEM SPECIAL - FILL AND PLUG EXISTING CONDUIT


THIS ITEM SHALL CONSIST OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF BULKHEADS IN AN EXISTING ____ IN
DIAMETER CONDUIT AND FILLING THE AREA THUS SEALED OFF WITH ITEM 613, SAND OR
OTHER MATERIAL APPROVED BY THE ENGINEER.
BULKHEADS SHALL BE LOCATED AT THE LIMITS OF THE AREA TO BE FILLED AS INDICATED
ON THE PLANS. THE BULKHEADS SHALL CONSIST OF BRICK OR CONCRETE MASONRY WITH
A MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 12 INCHES.
THE FILL MATERIAL SHALL BE PUMPED INTO PLACE, OR PLACED BY OTHER MEANS
APPROVED BY THE ENGINEER, SO THAT, AFTER SETTLEMENT, AT LEAST 90 PERCENT OF
THE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF THE CONDUIT, FOR ITS ENTIRE LENGTH, SHALL BE FILLED.
THE LENGTH OF FILLED AND PLUGGED CONDUIT TO BE PAID FOR SHALL BE THE ACTUAL
NUMBER OF FEET (MEASURED ALONG THE CENTERLINE OF EACH CONDUIT FROM OUTER
FACE TO OUTER FACE OF BULKHEADS) FILLED AND PLUGGED AS DESCRIBED ABOVE.
IN LIEU OF FILLING AND PLUGGING THE EXISTING CONDUIT, THE PIPE MAY BE CRUSHED
AND BACKFILLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS OF 203, OR IT MAY BE REMOVED.
THE LENGTH, MEASURED AS PROVIDED ABOVE, SHALL BE PAID FOR AT THE CONTRACT
PRICE PER FOOT FOR, ITEM SPECIAL, FILL AND PLUG EXISTING CONDUIT.
Designer Note: The above note should be used when it is desired to abandon an existing conduit by
filling and plugging rather than more conventional methods. If the conduit is in shallow fill, the designer
may delete the crush and backfill option specified in the fourth paragraph. Add pay item 202E70000
202, Special Fill and plug existing conduit, ___ft to the plans.

D104

CROSSINGS AND CONNECTIONS TO EXISTING PIPES AND UTILITIES


WHERE PLANS PROVIDE FOR A PROPOSED CONDUIT TO BE CONNECTED TO, OR CROSS
OVER OR UNDER AN EXISTING SEWER OR UNDERGROUND UTILITY, THE CONTRACTOR
SHALL LOCATE THE EXISTING PIPES OR UTILITIES BOTH AS TO LINE AND GRADE BEFORE
STARTING TO LAY THE PROPOSED CONDUIT.
January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes

IF IT IS DETERMINED THAT THE ELEVATION OF THE EXISTING CONDUIT, OR EXISTING


APPURTENANCE TO BE CONNECTED, DIFFERS FROM THE PLAN ELEVATION OR RESULTS IN
A CHANGE IN THE PLAN CONDUIT SLOPE, THE ENGINEER SHALL BE NOTIFIED BEFORE
STARTING CONSTRUCTION OF ANY PORTION OF THE PROPOSED CONDUIT WHICH WILL BE
AFFECTED BY THE VARIANCE IN THE EXISTING ELEVATIONS.
IF IT IS DETERMINED THAT THE PROPOSED CONDUIT WILL INTERSECT AN EXISTING SEWER
OR UNDERGROUND UTILITY IF CONSTRUCTED AS SHOWN ON THE PLAN, THE ENGINEER
SHALL BE NOTIFIED BEFORE STARTING CONSTRUCTION OF ANY PORTION OF THE
PROPOSED CONDUIT WHICH WOULD BE AFFECTED BY THE INTERFERENCE WITH AN
EXISTING FACILITY.
PAYMENT FOR ALL THE OPERATIONS DESCRIBED ABOVE SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE
CONTRACT PRICE FOR THE PERTINENT 611 CONDUIT ITEM.
Designer Note: The above note is to be used when the designer is unsure of the exact location of a
conduit that will require an extension or where the potential for interference between proposed and
existing conduits exists.

D105

PIPE CONNECTIONS TO CORRUGATED METAL STRUCTURES


CONNECTIONS OF PROPOSED LONGITUDINAL DRAINAGE TO CORRUGATED METAL
STRUCTURES SHALL BE MADE BY MEANS OF A SHOP FABRICATED OR FIELD WELDED STUB
ON THE STRUCTURE. THE STUB SHALL MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF 707 AND HAVE A
MINIMUM LENGTH OF 2 FEET AND A MINIMUM WALL THICKNESS OF 0.064 INCHES.
THE LOCATION AND ELEVATION OF THE STUB ARE TO BE CONSIDERED APPROXIMATE AND
MAY BE ADJUSTED BY THE ENGINEER TO AVOID CUTTING THROUGH JOINTS IN THE
STRUCTURE.
THE FIELD WELDED JOINT, IF USED, SHALL BE THOROUGHLY CLEANED AND REGALVANIZED
OR OTHERWISE SUITABLY REPAIRED. WELDING SHALL MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF
513.21.
A MASONRY COLLAR, AS PER STANDARD DRAWING DM-1.1, WILL BE REQUIRED TO
CONNECT THE LONGITUDINAL DRAINAGE TO THE STUB, WHEN PIPE OTHER THAN
CORRUGATED METAL IS PROVIDED FOR THE LONGITUDINAL DRAINAGE.
PAYMENT FOR CUTTING INTO THE STRUCTURE AND PROVIDING THE CONNECTION
DESCRIBED, SHALL BE INCLUDED
IN THE CONTRACT PRICE FOR ITEM 611 OR 522.
Designer Note: Use the above note on all projects where connections are proposed to existing
corrugated metal conduits.

D106

ITEM 611 - TUNNEL LINER PLATE STRUCTURE


IN LIEU OF THE PROVISIONS OF 611.02, MATERIAL FURNISHED FOR THE LINER PLATE
STRUCTURE SHALL BE AS MANUFACTURED BY: AMERICAN COMMERCIAL, INC.;
COMMERCIAL INTERTECH, CORP.; CONTECH CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS, INC.; OR AN
APPROVED EQUAL. BASE METAL COMPOSITION, DEPTH AND SPAN OF THE CORRUGATIONS,
AND SIZE AND SPACING OF BOLTS AND BOLT HOLES SHALL BE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE
DETAILS OF THE MANUFACTURER. INSTALLATION OF THE STRUCTURE SHALL BE IN

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDATIONS. THE PLATE THICKNESS
AND SECTION MODULUS OF THE MATERIAL FURNISHED SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN THAT
INDICATED ON THE STRUCTURE DETAILS.
GALVANIZING, IF SPECIFIED, SHALL BE IN ACCORDANCE WITH 707.03 AND SHALL BE DONE
AFTER CORRUGATING, FORMING, AND PUNCHING THE PLATES AND BOLT HOLES.
GRANULAR BEDDING WILL NOT BE REQUIRED. THE COMPLETED STRUCTURE SHALL
CONFORM TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF 707. BITUMINOUS COATING, IF SPECIFIED, SHALL
MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF 707.05.
Designer Note: If the space between the tunnel excavation and the tunnel liner plate is to be filled with
grout, the composition of the grout and spacing of the grout couplings should be shown.

D107

FARM DRAINS
ALL FARM DRAINS, WHICH ARE ENCOUNTERED DURING CONSTRUCTION, SHALL BE
PROVIDED WITH UNOBSTRUCTED OUTLETS. EXISTING COLLECTORS WHICH ARE LOCATED
BELOW THE ROADWAY DITCH ELEVATIONS, AND WHICH CROSS THE ROADWAY, SHALL BE
REPLACED WITHIN THE (RIGHT OF WAY)( CONSTRUCTION) LIMITS BY ITEM 611 CONDUIT,
TYPE B, ONE COMMERCIAL SIZE LARGER THAN THE EXISTING CONDUIT.
EXISTING COLLECTORS AND ISOLATED FARM DRAINS, WHICH ARE ENCOUNTERED ABOVE
THE ELEVATION OF ROADWAY DITCHES, SHALL BE OUTLETTED INTO THE ROADWAY DITCH
BY 611 TYPE F CONDUIT. THE OPTIMUM OUTLET ELEVATION SHALL BE ONE FOOT ABOVE
THE FLOWLINE ELEVATION OF THE DITCH. LATERAL FIELD TILES WHICH CROSS THE
ROADWAY SHALL BE INTERCEPTED BY 611, TYPE E CONDUIT, AND CARRIED IN A
LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION TO AN ADEQUATE OUTLET OR ROADWAY CROSSING.
THE LOCATION, TYPE, SIZE AND GRADE OF REPLACEMENTS SHALL BE DETERMINED BY THE
ENGINEER AND PAYMENT SHALL BE MADE ON FINAL MEASUREMENTS.
EROSION CONTROL PADS AND ANIMAL GUARDS SHALL BE PROVIDED AT THE OUTLET END
OF ALL FARM DRAINS AS PER STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DRAWING DM-1.1, EXCEPT WHEN
THEY OUTLET INTO A DRAINAGE STRUCTURE. PAYMENT FOR THE EROSION CONTROL
PADS AND ANIMAL GUARDS AND ANY NECESSARY BENDS OR BRANCHES SHALL BE
INCLUDED FOR PAYMENT IN THE PERTINENT CONDUIT ITEMS.
THE FOLLOWING ESTIMATED QUANTITIES HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE GENERAL
SUMMARY FOR THE WORK NOTED ABOVE:

611
611

CONDUIT, TYPE B
CONDUIT, TYPE E

________ FT
________ FT

611
CONDUIT, TYPE F
________ FT
601 ROCK CHANNEL PROTECTION TYPE C WITH FILTER
________ CU. YD
Designer Note: The above note is to be used where excavation may conflict with existing farm drains.
Use of a lateral field interceptor tile located on a temporary easement outside the limited access right of
way may be appropriate on limited access facilities.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


D108

ITEM 605 - AGGREGATE DRAINS


AGGREGATE DRAINS SHALL BE PLACED AT 50 FOOT INTERVALS ON EACH SIDE OF NORMAL
CROWNED SECTIONS, STAGGERED SO THAT EACH DRAIN IS 25 FEET FROM THE ADJACENT
DRAIN ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE, AND AT 25 FOOT INTERVALS ON THE LOW SIDE ONLY OF
SUPERELEVATED SECTIONS. AN AGGREGATE DRAIN SHALL BE PLACED AT THE LOW POINT
OF EACH SAG VERTICAL CURVE.
Designer Note: This note should be used on long projects with aggregate drains. On short projects,
such as bridge replacements, the station and side for aggregate drain placement should be specified in
the plans.

D109

SPRING DRAINS
THE FOLLOWING ESTIMATED QUANTITIES HAVE BEEN CARRIED TO THE GENERAL
SUMMARY FOR USE AS DIRECTED BY THE ENGINEER FOR DRAINING ANY SPRINGS SHOWN
IN THE PLAN OR ENCOUNTERED DURING CONSTRUCTION. THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF
PIPES MAY BE USED: 707.33, 707.41, 707.42 or 707.45 PERFORATED PER 707.31.
SPRING DRAINS SHALL BE CONSTRUCTED AS SHOWN ON STANDARD CONSTRUCTION
DRAWING DM-1.1 AND PAID FOR AT THE CONTRACT PRICE FOR:
605, 6" UNCLASSIFIED PIPE UNDERDRAINS FOR SPRINGS ________ FT.
605, AGGREGATE DRAINS FOR SPRINGS ________ FT.
611, PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE OUTLET ________ EACH
Designer Note: This note should be used only where springs are present in the project area and/or the
project area is known to have spring activity. In addition to quantities required to drain springs located
by field work, estimated contingency quantities should be included for draining springs encountered
during construction.

D110

UNRECORDED UNTREATED NON-STORMWATER DRAINAGE


FURNISH NO CONTINUANCE FOR ANY UNRECORDED UNTREATED NON-STORMWATER
DRAINAGE SUCH AS UNTREATED SEPTIC, UNTREATED WASTEWATER, UNTREATED
CURTAIN/GRADIENT DRAINS, AND UNTREATED FOUNDATION FLOOR DRAINS DISTURBED BY
THE WORK. PLUG ANY UNRECORDED UNTREATED NON-STORMWATER DRAINAGE WITH
CONCRETE AT THE RIGHT OF WAY LINE. PAYMENT FOR PLUGGING SHALL BE
INCLUDED IN THE CONTRACT PRICE FOR THE PERTINENT 202 OR 203 ITEM.
Designer Note: This note is to be used only if there is a possibility that during construction there may be
a need for additional plugging of untreated non-stormwater drainage. The Designer shall make a
complete investigation for the presence of untreated non-stormwater drainage. List quantities required
for all untreated non-stormwater drainage at the specific locations on the Plan & Profile sheets. All
located untreated non-stormwater drainage is required to be plugged with concrete at the right-of-way
line.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


D111

UNRECORDED TREATED NON-STORMWATER DRAINAGE


FURNISH A CONTINUANCE FOR ALL UNRECORDED TREATED NON-STORMWATER
DRAINAGE, SUCH AS TREATED SEPTIC, TREATED WASTEWATER, TREATED
CURTAIN/GRADIENT DRAINS, AND TREATED FOUNDATION FLOOR DRAINS DISTURBED BY
THE WORK. FURNISH EITHER AN OPEN CONTINUANCE OR AN UNOBSTRUCTED
CONTINUANCE BY CONNECTING A CONDUIT THROUGH THE CURB OR INTO A DRAINAGE
STRUCTURE. THE LOCATION, TYPE, SIZE AND GRADE OF THE NEEDED CONDUIT TO
REPLACE OR EXTEND AN EXISTING DRAIN WILL BE DETERMINED BY THE ENGINEER. ALL
SUCH CONTINUANCE REQUIRES A RIGHT OF WAY USE PERMIT. A CONTINUANCE MAY ALSO
REQUIRE A NPDES PERMIT FROM THE OHIO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.
REPORT ALL CONTINUANCE TO THE LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT.
WHERE MAKING A CONNECTION INTO A HIGHWAY DRAINAGE CONDUIT, AN INSPECTION
WELL SHALL BE PROVIDED IN ACCORDANCE WITH STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DRAWING
DM-3.1.
THE FOLLOWING ESTIMATED QUANTITIES HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE GENERAL
SUMMARY FOR USE AS DIRECTED BY THE ENGINEER IN MAKING THE ABOVE CONTINUANCE:
611, ______ CONDUIT, TYPE C

________ FT.

611, INSPECTION WELL

________ EACH

Designer Note: This note is to be used only if there is a possibility that during construction there may be
a need for additional continuance of treated non-stormwater drainage. The Designer shall make a
complete investigation for the presence of treated non-stormwater drainage. List quantities required for
all treated non-stormwater drainage at the specific locations on the Plan & Profile sheets. All located
treated non-stormwater drainage is required to have a right of way use permit. If any such located
treated non-stormwater drainage do not have a right of way use permit then notice of such is required
to be sent to the appropriate parities. All treated non-stormwater drainage may also require a NPDES
permit from the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. Report all continuance to the local health
department.

D112

ITEM 611 - CONDUIT BORED OR JACKED


WHERE IT IS SPECIFIED THAT A CONDUIT BE INSTALLED BY THE METHOD OF BORING OR
JACKING, NO TRENCH EXCAVATION SHALL BE CLOSER THAN _____ FEET TO THE (EDGE OF
PAVEMENT) (NEAREST RAIL). PROVIDE A STEEL CASING PIPE CONFORMING TO 748.06
HAVING JOINTS WITH A CIRCUMFERENCIAL FULLY PENETRATING B-U4B WELD THAT IS
PERFORMED BY AN ODOT APPROVED FIELD WELDER. THE INSTALLED CASING PIPE IS THE
STORM WATER CONVEYANCE CARRIER UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED IN THE PLANS.
HYDROSTATIC TESTING IS NOT REQUIRED FOR THE CASING PIPE.
Designer Note: The pay item in the General Summary shall read, 611 Conduit Bored or Jacked, ,
Type
,
Ft. Where a conduit is installed by this method under a railroad, the designer
should coordinate with the Rail Company to determine the allowable distance from the nearest rail and
add note D113 to the plans.
Specify a concrete masonry collar between the casing pipe and adjacent conduit material if the casing
pipe is used as the final carrier pipe.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


D113

ITEM 611 CONDUIT UNDER RAILROAD


THE STATE SHALL PAY TO THE RAIL COMPANY ALL COSTS FOR WATCHMEN OR FLAGGERS
DEEMED NECESSARY BY THE RAIL COMPANY, OR OCCASIONED BY THE OPERATIONS OF
THE CONTRACTOR, OR ANY SUB-CONTRACTOR, IN CARRYING FORWARD THE INSTALLATION
OF PIPE OR CONDUIT UNDER THE RAILROAD PER THE PLAN. THE COSTS FOR WATCHMEN
OR FLAGGERS REQUIRED BY AN ALTERNATE METHOD OF INSTALLATION SHALL BE PAID TO
THE RAIL COMPANY BY THE CONTRACTOR. THE COSTS FOR WATCHMEN OR FLAGGERS
OCCASIONED BY THE NEGLIGENCE OF THE CONTRACTOR, OR ANY SUB-CONTRACTOR, IN
CONNECTION WITH THE INSTALLATION OF THE PIPE OR CONDUIT SHALL BE PAID BY THE
CONTRACTOR.
TRACK SUPPORTS REQUIRED BY THE RAIL COMPANY IN CONNECTION WITH THE
INSTALLATION OF THE PIPE OR CONDUIT PER THE PLAN SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE
COMPANY FORCE ACCOUNT WORK AND PAID BY THE STATE. THE COST OF ANY TRACK
SUPPORTS REQUIRED BY AN ALTERNATE METHOD OF INSTALLATION OF THE PIPE OR
CONDUIT SHALL BE SHALL BE PAID TO THE RAIL COMPANY BY THE CONTRACTOR.
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL SECURE APPROVAL OF HIS OPERATIONS FROM THE STATE AND
THE RAIL COMPANY. THE RAIL COMPANY WILL PERFORM AN ENGINEERING REVIEW OF
METHODS OF OPERATIONS AND ENGINEERING SUPERVISION OF CONSTRUCITON WITHOUT
COST TO THE CONTRACTOR.
PRIOR TO BIDDING, THE CONTRACTOR SHALL COORDINATE WITH THE RAIL COMPANY TO
AGREE UPON THE REQUIREMENTS OF WATCHMEN AND FLAGGERS TO PROTECT RAILROAD
TRAFFIC DURING THE CONTRACTORS OPERATIONS. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL EXECUTE A
BOND IN FAVOR OF BOTH THE STATE AND THE COMPANY AS REQUIRED BY SECTION
5525.16 OF THE REVISED CODE OF OHIO.
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL CO-OPERATE WITH THE RAILROAD OFFICIALS CONCERNING
WORK ADJACENT TO RAILROAD TRACKS, IN ORDER TO AVOID DELAY TO, OR
INTERFERENCE WITH RAILROAD TRAFFIC, AND SHALL NOTIFY THE COMPANY ______ HOURS
IN ADVANCE OF CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS.
Designer Note: Provide this note when placing pipe culverts, sewers, or water lines under railroads.
Through coordination with the railroad complete the ____hours that the railroad would like to be notified
by.

D114

REVIEW OF DRAINAGE FACILITIES


BEFORE ANY WORK IS STARTED ON THE PROJECT AND AGAIN BEFORE FINAL ACCEPTANCE
BY THE STATE, REPRESENTATIVES OF THE STATE AND THE CONTRACTOR, ALONG WITH
LOCAL REPRESENTATIVES, SHALL MAKE AN INSPECTION OF ALL EXISTING SEWERS WHICH
ARE TO REMAIN IN SERVICE AND WHICH MAY BE AFFECTED BY THE WORK. THE CONDITION
OF THE EXISTING CONDUITS AND THEIR APPURTENANCE SHALL BE DETERMINED FROM
FIELD OBSERVATIONS. RECORDS OF THE INSPECTION SHALL BE KEPT IN WRITING BY THE
STATE.
ALL NEW CONDUITS, INLETS, CATCH BASINS, AND MANHOLES CONSTRUCTED AS A PART OF
THE PROJECT SHALL BE FREE OF ALL FOREIGN MATTER AND IN A CLEAN CONDITION
BEFORE THE PROJECT WILL BE ACCEPTED BY THE STATE.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


ALL EXISTING SEWERS INSPECTED INITIALLY BY THE ABOVE MENTIONED PARTIES SHALL
BE MAINTAINED AND LEFT IN A CONDITION REASONABLY COMPARABLE TO THAT
DETERMINED BY THE ORIGINAL INSPECTION. ANY CHANGE IN THE CONDITION RESULTING
FROM THE CONTRACTORS OPERATIONS SHALL BE CORRECTED BY THE CONTRACTOR TO
THE SATISFACTION OF THE ENGINEER.
PAYMENT FOR ALL OPERATIONS DESCRIBED ABOVE SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE
CONTRACT PRICE FOR THE PERTINENT 611 CONDUIT ITEMS.
Designer Note: This note is to be used on projects where existing drainage facilities are to remain in
service.

D115

UNRECORDED STORM WATER DRAINAGE


FURNISH A CONTINUANCE FOR ALL UNRECORDED STORM WATER DRAINAGE, SUCH AS
ROOF DRAINS, FOOTER DRAINS, OR YARD DRAINS, DISTURBED BY THE WORK. FURNISH
EITHER AN OPEN CONTINUANCE OR AN UNOBSTRUCTED CONTINUANCE BY CONNECTING
A CONDUIT THROUGH THE CURB OR INTO A DRAINAGE STRUCTURE. THE LOCATION,
TYPE, SIZE AND GRADE OF THE NEEDED CONDUIT TO REPLACE OR EXTEND AN EXISTING
DRAIN WILL BE DETERMINED BY THE ENGINEER. ALL SUCH CONTINUANCE REQUIRES A
RIGHT OF WAY USE PERMIT.
THE FOLLOWING CONDUIT TYPES MAY BE USED: 707.33, 707.41 NON-PERFORATED, 707.42,
707.43, 707.45, 707.46, 707.47, 707.51, 707.52 SDR35.
THE FOLLOWING ESTIMATED QUANTITIES HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE GENERAL
SUMMARY FOR USE AS DIRECTED BY THE ENGINEER FOR THE WORK NOTED ABOVE:
611, ______ CONDUIT, TYPE B, FOR DRAINAGE CONNECTION
________ FT.
611, ______ CONDUIT, TYPE C, FOR DRAINAGE CONNECTION
________ FT.
611, ______ CONDUIT, TYPE E, FOR DRAINAGE CONNECTION
________ FT.
611, ______ CONDUIT, TYPE F, FOR DRAINAGE CONNECTION
________ FT.
Designer Note: This note is to be used only if there is a possibility that during construction there may be
a need for additional continuance of storm water drainage from residential or commercial property. The
designer shall make a complete investigation for the presence of existing storm water drainage from
residential and commercial property. List quantities required for all located storm water drainage from
residential and commercial property at the specific locations on the Plan & Profile sheets. All located
storm water drainage from residential or commercial property is required to have a right of way use
permit. If any such located storm water drainage from residential or commercial property do not have a
right of way use permit then notice of such is required to be sent to the appropriate parities.
Designer Note: This note is to be used only if there is a possibility that during construction there may be
a need for additional residential and commercial connections. The designer shall make a complete
investigation for the presence of existing residential and commercial drainage connections and
quantities should be listed at the specific locations on the Plan & Profile sheets.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes

D116

UNRECORDED ACTIVE SANITARY SEWER CONNECTIONS


FURNISH A CONTINUANCE FOR ALL UNRECORDED ACTIVE SANITARY SEWER
CONNECTIONS SUCH AS SANITARY, WASTEWATER, CURTAIN/GRADIENT DRAINS, AND
FOUNDATION FLOOR DRAINS DISTURBED BY THE WORK. FURNISH AN UNOBSTRUCTED
CONTINUANCE OF THE UNRECORDED ACTIVE SANITARY SEWER CONNECTIONS TO THE
SATISFACTION OF THE ENGINEER. ALL SUCH CONTINUANCE REQUIRES A RIGHT OF WAY
USE PERMIT. ALL SANITARY AND SANITARY WASTEWATER CONTINUANCE MAY ALSO
REQUIRE A NPDES PERMIT FROM THE OHIO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.
REPORT ALL CONTINUANCE TO THE LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT.
THE FOLLOWING CONDUIT TYPES MAY BE USED: 707.42, 707.43, 707.44, 707.45, 707.46,
707.47, 707.51, 707.52 SDR35, 706.01, 706.02, OR 706.08 WITH JOINTS AS PER 706.11 OR
706.12.
THE FOLLOWING ESTIMATED QUANTITIES HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE GENERAL
SUMMARY FOR USE AS DIRECTED BY THE ENGINEER FOR THE WORK NOTED ABOVE:
611, ______ CONDUIT, TYPE B, FOR SANITARY ______ FT.
611, ______ CONDUIT, TYPE C, FOR SANITARY ______ FT.

Designer Note: This note is to be used only if there is a possibility that during construction there may
be a need for additional continuance of active sanitary sewer connections. The Designer shall make a
complete investigation for the presence of active sanitary sewer connections. List quantities required
for all active sanitary sewer connections at the specific locations on the Plan & Profile sheets. All
located active sanitary sewer connections is required to have a right of way use permit. If any such
located active sanitary sewer connections do not have a right of way use permit then notice of such is
required to be sent to the appropriate parities. All sanitary and sanitary wastewater active sanitary
sewer connections may also require a NPDES permit from the Ohio Environmental Protection
Agency.
Report all continuance to the local health department.

D117

MANHOLES, CATCH BASINS AND INLETS REMOVED OR ABANDONED


ALL CASTINGS SHALL BE CAREFULLY REMOVED AND STORED WITHIN THE RIGHT OF WAY
FOR SALVAGE BY (STATE) (CITY) (VILLAGE) (COUNTY) FORCES.
PAYMENT FOR ALL OF THE ABOVE SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE CONTRACT PRICE FOR THE
PERTINENT 202 ITEM.
Designer Note: This note shall only be used where it has been determined that the owner desires to
retain the existing castings.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes

D118

ITEM 511 WINGWALLS OR HEADWALLS FOR 611 ITEMS


FOR ITEMS 706.05, 706.051, 706.052 AND 706.053 WITH A CAST-IN-PLACE WINGWALL OR
HEADWALL A PRECAST ALTERNATIVE MAY BE FURNISHED PER 602.03. THE PRECAST
ALTERNATIVE WILL MEET THE CAST-IN-PLACE STRUCTURAL DESIGN LOADINGS, DESIGN
HEIGHT, AND DESIGN LENGTH DIMENSIONS.
FULL COMPENSATION FOR THE PRECAST WINGWALL OR HEADWALL IS THE NUMBER OF
CUBIC YARDS OF ITEM 511 AND POUNDS OF ITEM 509 FOR THE CORRESPONDING CAST-INPLACE STRUCTURE.
Design Note: Include this note on all plans that have item 611, three-sided flat top, arch top, arches or
box culverts that have an item 511 cast-in-place wingwall or headwall.

D119

ITEM SPECIAL- MISCELLANEOUS METAL


EXISTING CASTINGS MAY PROVE TO BE UNSUITABLE FOR REUSE, AS DETERMINED BY THE
ENGINEER. IT SHALL BE THE CONTRACTORS RESPONSIBILITY TO PROVIDE THE CASTINGS
OF THE REQUIRED TYPE, SIZE AND STRENGTH (HEAVY OR LIGHT DUTY) FOR THE
PARTICULAR STRUCTURE IN QUESTION. ALL MATERIAL SHALL MEET ITEM 611 OF THE
SPECIFICATIONS AND SHALL HAVE THE PRIOR APPROVAL OF THE ENGINEER.
THE FOLLOWING ESTIMATED QUANTITY HAS BEEN CARRIED TO THE GENERAL SUMMARY
FOR USE AS DIRECTED BY THE ENGINEER.
SPECIAL, MISCELLANEOUS METAL
_____ POUNDS
THE CONTRACTOR IS CAUTIONED TO USE EXTREME CARE IN THE REMOVAL, STORAGE AND
REPLACEMENT OF ALL EXISTING CASTINGS. CASTINGS DAMAGED BY THE NEGLIGENCE OF
THE CONTRACTOR, AS DETERMINED BY THE ENGINEER, SHALL BE REPLACED WITH THE
PROPER NEW CASTINGS AT THE EXPENSE OF THE CONTRACTOR.
Designer Note: Use this note if existing castings are to be reused and which may be unsuitable.

D120

ITEM 611 - ( ), SLOTTED DRAIN, TYPE ( )


THIS ITEM SHALL CONSIST OF ____ INCH DIAMETER SLOTTED DRAIN ALUMINUM COATED
STEEL CONDUIT 707.01 WITH 6 INCH TRAPEZOIDAL GALVANIZED SOLID BAR GRATE AS
APPROVED BY THE ENGINEER. ALL COSTS FOR LABOR AND MATERIALS, INCLUDING TYPE 2
BEDDING, AND BACKFILLING AS DETAILED ON STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DRAWING DM-1.3
SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE PRICE BID PER FOOT FOR ITEM 611 - ____ SLOTTED
DRAIN,TYPE ____ .
Designer Note: This plan note should be used in conjunction with Standard Construction Drawing DM1.3. Outlet slotted drain pipe into a catch basin.

D121

ITEM SPECIAL - PIPE CLEANOUT


THIS WORK SHALL CONSIST OF REMOVING SEDIMENT AND DEBRIS FROM THE EXISTING
DRAINAGE CONDUITS SPECIFIED IN THE PLANS. ALL MATERIAL REMOVED SHALL BE
DISPOSED OF AS PER 105.16 AND 105.17. ALL SEWERS SHALL BE CLEANED OUT TO THE
SATISFACTION OF THE ENGINEER.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes

CLEANOUT OF THE PIPE SHALL BE PAID FOR AT THE UNIT PRICE BID FOR ITEM SPECIAL PIPE CLEANOUT. THIS PRICE SHALL INCLUDE THE COST FOR MATERIAL, EQUIPMENT,
LABOR, AND ALL INCIDENTALS REQUIRED TO COMPLETE THE CLEANOUT.
THE FOLLOWING ESTIMATED QUANTITIES HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE GENERAL
SUMMARY FOR THE ABOVE NOTED WORK:
SPECIAL, PIPE CLEANOUT, 24 AND UNDER
SPECIAL, PIPE CLEANOUT, 27 TO 48
SPECIAL, PIPE CLEANOUT, OVER 48

________ FT.
________ FT.
________ FT.

Designer Note: This item may not be eligible for federal participation.

D123

EXISTING SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE


PROVIDE UNOBSTRUCTED OUTLETS FOR ALL EXISTING UNDERDRAINS OR AGGREGATE
DRAINS ENCOUNTERED DURING CONSTRUCTION.
PROVIDE AN OUTLET PER STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DRAWING DM-1.1 FOR ALL
UNDERDRAINS THAT OUTLET TO A SLOPE.
UNDERDRAINS THAT CAN BE CONNECTED TO THE NEW OR EXISTING UNDERDRAINS AT THE
END OF THE PROJECT LIMITS AS WELL AS ALL NECESSARY BENDS OR BRANCHES
REQUIRED FOR CONNECTION ARE INCLUDED IN THE BASIS OF PAYMENT FOR
UNCLASSIFIED PIPE UNDERDRAINS.
THE FOLLOWING ESTIMATED QUANTITIES HAVE BEEN INCLUDED IN THE GENERAL
SUMMARY FOR THE WORK NOTED ABOVE:
601, TIED CONCRETE BLOCK MAT, TYPE 1
605, AGGREGATE DRAINS
611__________ CONDUIT, TYPE F
611, PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE OUTLET
605__________ UNCLASSIFIED PIPE UNDERDRAINS

__________SQ. YD.
__________FT.
__________FT.
__________EACH
__________FT.

Designer Note: The note is to be used on projects if there are existing underdrains or aggregate drains
within the project limits that are to remain. The designer shall make a complete investigation for the
presence of existing underdrain outlet locations or potential conflict areas within the project limits and
show them on the plan view sheets.

D124

TEMPORARY DRAINAGE ITEMS


TEMPORARY DRAINAGE ITEMS LABELED ON THE MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC PLAN ARE
ITEMIZED ON THE MOT PLANS. PAYMENT FOR THE TEMPORARY DRAINAGE ITEMS ARE
ITEMIZED AND CARRIED TO THE GENERAL SUMMARY.
Designer Note: Provide this note when temporary drainage items are required in accordance to section
1010 of the L&D. Furnish drainage items for each phase of the maintenance of traffic operations.
Removal items may be required between individual phases. Utilize drainage structures furnished for
final drainage design where feasible.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


E101

SEEDING AND MULCHING


THE FOLLOWING QUANTITIES ARE PROVIDED TO PROMOTE GROWTH AND CARE OF
PERMANENT SEEDED AREAS:
659, SOIL ANALYSIS TEST
659, TOPSOIL
659, SEEDING AND MULCHING
659, REPAIR SEEDING AND MULCHING
659, INTER-SEEDING
659, COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER
659, LIME
659, WATER
659, MOWING

____ EACH
____ CU. YD.
____ SQ. YD.
____ SQ. YD.
____ SQ. YD.
____ TON
____ ACRES
____ M. GAL.
____ M. SQ. FT.

SEEDING AND MULCHING SHALL BE APPLIED TO ALL AREAS OF EXPOSED SOIL BETWEEN
THE RIGHT-OF-WAY LINES, AND WITHIN THE CONSTRUCTION LIMITS FOR AREAS OUTSIDE
THE RIGHT-OF-WAY LINES COVERED BY WORK AGREEMENT OR SLOPE EASEMENT.
QUANTITY CALCULATIONS FOR SEEDING AND MULCHING ARE BASED ON THESE LIMITS.
Designer Note: The above quantities should be used on all projects that require grading work. The
following is a basic guideline for estimating quantities for the above items. These quantities may be
omitted from the note if they are itemized elsewhere in the plan. Calculations for all items should be
shown in the plans.
659, Soil Analysis Test (Each)
Soil Analysis Tests are used to field adjust the rate of Lime based on soil conditions.
A. Soil Analysis Test is not specified.
1.

The standard rate for Lime will be used without adjustment.

B. Soil Analysis Test is specified. If specified, minimum of two tests.


1.

If no Topsoil to be placed - One test per 10 Acres (one test per 48400 Sq. Yd.) of permanent
seeded area and sodded area.

2.

If placing Topsoil - One test per 10000 Cu. Yds. of Topsoil.

659, Topsoil (Cu. Yd.)


111 Cu. Yds. per 1000 Sq. Yd. of permanent seeded area. Topsoil is optional. However, it is
recommended, especially for projects involving A4 silty materials, granular embankment or granular
materials due to severe erosion problems.
659, Seeding and Mulching (Sq. Yd.)
This quantity is usually calculated by the end width method using the cross sections. On short projects,
seeding quantities may be determined by other methods. For example, the area for seeding may be
estimated by calculating an area per Plan & Profile sheet determined by multiplying an average width
(based on construction limits or right-of -way lines) by the distance on each sheet, and then deducting
for paved surface areas. A deduction should be taken for 660 and 670 items.
659, Repair Seeding and Mulching (Sq. Yd.)
5 % of the permanent seeding and mulching area.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes

659, Inter-seeding (Sq. Yd.)


5% of the permanent seeding and mulching area.
659, Commercial Fertilizer (Ton)
30 pounds per 1000 Sq. Ft. ( one Ton per 7410 Sq. Yd.) of permanent seeded area.
This rate includes 20 pounds per 1000 Sq. Ft. for the first application and 10 pounds per 1000 Sq. Ft.
for the second application. If Inter-seeding is provided, use an additional 20 pounds per 1000 Sq. Ft. of
commercial fertilizer for the Inter-seeding area.
659 Lime (Acre)
Apply over permanent seeded area.
659, Water (M. Gal.)
Two applications each at 300 Gallons per 1000 Sq. Ft. (0.0027 M Gallons per Sq. Yd.) of permanent
seeded area. The above rate is for a single application. If Inter-seeding is provided, use an additional
300 Gallons per 1000 Sq. Ft. of water for the Inter-seeded area.
659, Mowing (M. Sq. Ft.)
25 % of the permanent seeded area for projects expected to last more than one construction season.

E102

SODDING
THE FOLLOWING QUANTITIES ARE PROVIDED TO PROMOTE GROWTH AND CARE OF
PERMANENT SODDED AREAS.
659, SOIL ANALYSIS TEST
659, TOPSOIL
659, COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER
659, LIME
659, WATER
660, SODDING, UNSTAKED, STAKED, REINFORCED

____ EACH
____ CU. YD.
____ TON
____ ACRE
____ M. GAL.
____ SQ. YD.

Designer Note: The above quantities should be used on all projects that have pay item(s) for
permanent sodding. The following is a basic guideline for estimating quantities for the above items.
These quantities may be omitted from the note if they are itemized elsewhere in the plan. Calculations
for all items should be shown in the plans.
659, Soil Analysis Test (Each)
Soil Analysis Tests are used to field adjust the rate of Lime based on soil conditions.
C. Soil Analysis Test is not specified.
1.

The standard rate for Lime will be used without adjustment.

D. Soil Analysis Test is specified. If specified, minimum of two tests.


1.

January 2015

If no Topsoil to be placed - One test per 10 Acres (one test per 48400 Sq. Yd.) of permanent
sodded area.

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes

2.

If placing Topsoil - One test per 10000 Cu. Yds. of Topsoil.

659, Topsoil (Cu. Yd.)


111 Cu. Yds. per 1000 Sq. Yd. of permanent sodded area. Topsoil is optional. However, it is
recommended, especially for projects involving A4 silty materials, granular embankment or granular
materials due to severe erosion problems.
659, Commercial Fertilizer (Ton)
30 pounds per 1000 Sq. Ft. (one Ton per 7410 Sq. Yd.) of permanent sodded area. This rate includes
20 pounds per 1000 Sq. Ft. for the first application and 10 pounds per 1000 Sq. Ft. for the second
application.
659, Lime (Acre)
Apply over permanent sodded area.
659, Water (M. Gal.)
1 application every 7 days for an additional 2 months beyond the requirements of 660.09. The rate
shall be 300 gallons per 1000 Sq. Ft. (0.0027 M. Gallons per Sq. Yd.) of permanent sodded area.
660, Sodding (Sq. Yd.)
This is the actual number of Sq. Yds. of permanent sodded area.

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


W99

POST CONSTRUCTION STORM WATER TREATMENT


THIS PLAN UTILIZES STRUCTURAL BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMPS) FOR POST
CONSTRUCTION STORM WATER TREATMENT.
Designer Note: This plan note shall be used on all projects that have post construction storm water
management BMPs. The note shall be followed by the below notes if applicable.

W101

BIORETENTION CELL(S)
CONSTRUCT THE BIORETENTION CELL(S) AFTER ALL CONTRIBUTING DRAINAGE AREAS ARE
STABILIZED AS SHOWN ON THE CONTRACT PLANS AND TO THE SATISFACTION OF THE
ENGINEER. DO NOT USE THE COMPLETED BIORETENTION CELL(S) AS TEMPORARY
SEDIMENT CONTROL FACILITIES DURING CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT OPERATE HEAVY
EQUIPMENT WITHIN THE PERIMETER OF A BIORETENTION FACILITY DURING EXCAVATION,
UNDERDRAIN PLACEMENT, BACKFILLING, PLANTING, OR MULCHING OF THE FACILITY. USE
ALL SUITABLE EXCAVATED MATERIAL IN THE WORK. ALTERNATIVELY, LEGALLY USE,
RECYCLE, OR DISPOSE OF ALL EXCAVATED MATERIALS ACCORDING TO 105.16 AND 105.17.
EXCAVATE THE BIORETENTION CELL(S) TO THE DIMENSIONS, SIDE SLOPES, AND
ELEVATIONS SHOWN ON THE CONTRACT PLANS. MINIMIZE THE COMPACTION OF THE
BOTTOM OF THE BIORETENTION FACILITY BY THE METHOD OF EXCAVATION. EMBANKMENT
WILL BE MEASURED AND PAID AS ITEM 203, EMBANKMENT, USING NATURAL SOIL, 703.16.A.
THE BIORETENTION SOIL SHALL BE A UNIFORM MIX THAT IS FREE OF STONES, STUMPS,
ROOTS, OR ANY OTHER OBJECT THAT IS LARGER THAN TWO INCHES. THE SOIL MAY
CONSIST OF EXISTING SOIL, FURNISHED SOIL, OR A COMBINATION OF BOTH PROVIDED
THAT IT MEETS THE FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS:
PH RANGE:

5.2-7.0

COMPOSITION BY VOLUME
4 PARTS SAND CMS FINE AGGREGATE AS PER 703
2 PARTS COMPOST CMS 659.06
2 PARTS TOPSOIL CMS 659.05

THOROUGHLY MIX THE BIORETENTION SOIL PRIOR TO PLACEMENT. TEST AND ADJUST THE
PH AS PER CMS 659.02.B. ALL SAND USED SHALL MEET CMS 203.02.H, NATURAL GRANULAR
MATERIALS.
PLACE THE SOIL IN 12 INCH LIFTS AND CONSOLIDATE BY WATERING UNTIL SATURATED.
CONSTRUCT THE UNDERDRAIN SYSTEM AS PER CMS 605. PLACE THE GRANULAR BACKFILL
MATERIAL TO THE INVERT OF THE BIORETENTION SOIL. ENSURE A MINIMUM OF 2 INCHES
OF GRANULAR COVER OVER THE UNDERDRAIN PRIOR TO PLACEMENT OF THE
BIORETENTION SOIL.
PLACE OBSERVATION WELLS AND CLEANOUTS WHERE SHOWN IN THE PLANS. CONNECT
THE WELLS/CLEANOUTS TO THE PERFORATED UNDERDRAIN WITH THE APPROPRIATE
MANUFACTURED CONNECTIONS. THE WELLS/CLEANOUTS SHALL EXTEND 6 INCHES ABOVE
THE TOP ELEVATION OF THE BIORETENTION FACILITY MULCH. CAP THE WELLS/CLEANOUTS

January 2015

Appendix B Sample Plan Notes


WITH A THREADED SCREW CAP. CAP THE ENDS OF UNDERDRAIN PIPES NOT TERMINATING
IN AN OBSERVATION WELL/CLEANOUT OR CONNECTED TO OTHER CONDUITS.
PLACE TREES, SHRUBS, AND OTHER PLANT MATERIALS SPECIFIED FOR BIORETENTION
FACILITIES AS SPECIFIED IN THE PLANS. PLANT MATERIALS WILL BE MEASURED AND PAID
FOR PER CMS ITEM 661. APPLY NO PESTICIDES, HERBICIDES, AND FERTILIZERS DURING
PLANTING, ESTABLISHMENT, OR MAINTENANCE UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES.
BIORETENTION CELLS WILL BE PAID FOR AS ITEM SPECIAL, BIORETENTION CELL AT THE
CONTRACT BID LUMP SUM PRICE. THE PAYMENT WILL BE FULL COMPENSATION FOR ALL
APPLICABLE INCIDENTALS NECESSARY TO SATISFACTORILY COMPLETE THE WORK.
Designer Note: This plan note shall be used on all projects that have bioretention cell(s) identified in the
plan. Embankment work to create the impoundment will be constructed and paid for as Item 203
Embankment, using natural soils, 703.16.A.

W102

INFILTRATION TRENCH (OR BASIN)


THIS PLAN UTILIZES INFILTRATION FOR POST CONSTRUCTION STORM WATER TREATMENT.
CONSTRUCT THE COMPLETED INFILTRATION TRENCH(ES) (AND OR BASIN(S)) AFTER ALL
CONTRIBUTING DRAINAGE AREAS ARE STABILIZED AS SHOWN IN THE CONTRACT PLANS
AND TO THE SATISFACTION OF THE ENGINEER. DO NOT USE INFILTRATION DEVICES AS
TEMPORARY SEDIMENT CONTROL FACILITIES DURING CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT OPERATE
HEAVY EQUIPMENT WITHIN THE PERIMETER OF AN INFILTRATION DEVICE DURING
EXCAVATION OR BACKFILLING OF THE FACILITY.
Designer Note: This plan note shall be used on all projects that have infiltration trenches and or basins
identified in the plan. Embankment work to create the impoundment will be constructed and paid for as
Item 203 Embankment, using natural soils, 703.16.A.

W103

MANUFACTURED WATER QUALITY STRUCTURE


THIS PLAN UTILIZES MANUFACTURED WATER QUALITY STRUCTURES FOR WATER QUALITY
TREATMENT. AREAS HAVE BEEN SHOWN IN THE PLANS FOR PLACEMENT OF AN OFF-LINE
SYSTEM. PAYMENT FOR THESE DEVICES SHALL BE MADE AT THE CONTRACT UNIT PRICE
FOR ITEM 895, MANUFACTURED WATER QUALITY STRUCTURE, TYPE ____.
Designer Note: This plan note shall be used on all projects that have manufactured water quality
structures identified in the plan. If more than one manufactured water quality structure is provided in the
plans, a table shall be provided to indicate the location and type of each structure used. Supplemental
specification 895 outlines the different types of structures (1-4). Manufactured systems may not be
used without approval of the Hydraulics Section through a feasibility study. Contact the
Hydraulics Section for an area dimension that shall be shown in the plan.

January 2015