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# Basic Tutorial 6

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6.

- 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

Contents
Starting GTS

Preview
Ground Reaction Coefficients

2
3

## Create Analysis Data

Attribute
Create 2D Geometry
Create 2D Element Mesh
Alignment of Element Coordinates

4
4
6
8
10

Analysis
Boundary Condition
Analysis Case
Solve

12
12
14
18
20
22

Displacement
Reaction
Axial Force
Moment

23
23
25
27
28

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6

2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel
In this tutorial, the analysis of two dimensional open-cut tunnel is introduced from modeling
to result display.
The open-cut analysis model is to define the tunnel structure, and its Attribute definition,
ground spring specification, and load combination are very important in this analysis. In this
example, useful load and boundary definition functions such as Line Beam Load, Surface
compression-only elastic link, we model ground spring and perform the boundary nonlinear
analysis.

Starting GTS
Start the program.

1.

Run GTS.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Click

button.

## 10. In the Main Menu, select View > Display Option....

11. In General Tab, change Mesh > Node Display to True.
12. Click
13. Click

button.
button to close the Display Option dialog box.

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

Preview
This tutorial has been simplified for training purpose only, and its detail process may be
different from actual practice. The followings are the basic parameters used in this tutorial.

Tunnel type :

Open-cut Tunnel

Soil height :

3m

## Soil parameters : Unit weight, s = 2.0 tonf/m3

Friction angle, = 30
Coefficient of Soil Pressure, K0 = 1sin = 0.5
Material property: Characteristic strength of concrete, fck = 270 kgf/cm2
Unit Weight, = 2.5 tonf/m3
Modulus of Elasticity, Ec = 2.77x106 tonf/m3
Tunnel shape :

## R2 = 3.0m, A1 = 60, A2 = 60)

The tunnel section and static soil pressure is shown in the following figure. On the tunnel
structure, self-weight, vertical soil pressure, and horizontal soil pressure are applied.
pressure or active
pressure. However, for
excavating tunnel, the
relaxation soil pressure.

3.000

(0,0,5.3325)

P1=3.0 tonf/

P1=3.0 tonf/

m
00
0.4

(-4.040009,0,3)

(4.040009,0,3)
R1=4.665m

60

120

P2=8.3325 tonf/

R2=3.000m
(-4.040009,0,0)

P2=8.3325 tonf/
(0,0,0)

(4.040009,0,0)

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6

Generate the model by assigning Beam Element to the Tunnel Wall and Compression-only
Elastic Link to the Ground Springs.

## Tunnel Wall : Beam Element

Ground Springs:
GTS Basic Tutorial 6 - 2

## Ground Reaction Coefficients

Ground reaction coefficient is determined using Korean Road Traffic Safety Authoritys
design code as follows.

kv 0

1
1
Eo 1140046.667 kgf/cm3
30
30

Bv Av 8001400 1058.3 cm
An open-cut tunnel
required ground spring
only at the bottom.

## E0 28N = 2850 = 1400 kgf/cm2

3
3

Bv 4
1058.3 4
3
3
kv kv 0 46.667
= 3.224 kgf/cm = 3224 tonf/m
30
30

## Create Analysis Data

Attribute
Generate Attributes.

Beam or Truss
Elements is a Line-type
Attribute.

1.

2.

Click

to the right of

## button in the Attribute dialog box.

3.

Select Line.

4.

Make sure that Attribute ID is 1 in the Add/Modify Plane Attribute dialog box.

5.

6.

7.

## Define material and section properties of the Beam Type Attribute.

8.

Make sure that Material ID is 1 in the Add/Modify Structural Material dialog box.

9.

10. Click

## Color button to define the Material with an appropriate color.

11. Enter 2.77e6 in Modulus of Elasticity (E) in Material Parameters.
12. Enter 0.18 in Poissons Ratio () in Material Parameters.
13. Enter 2.5 in Unit Weight () in Material Parameters.
14. Enter 1e-5 in Thermal Coefficient() in Thermal Parameter.
15. Click

button.

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6 3

16. Make sure that Material is set to C270 in the Add/Modify Line Attribute dialog box.
17. In order to create Property, click

## button to the right of Property.

18. Make sure that Property ID is 1 in the Add/Modify Property dialog box.
19. Enter Lining in Name.
20. Click

## Color button to define the Property with an appropriate color.

21. Select Beam in Type.
4

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6 - 4

Sectional Library
provides various types
of sections such as
Solid Rectangle, Solid
Round, and Pipe.

## 23. Select Solid Rectangle to define the section.

24. Enter 0.4 in H.
25. Enter 1 in B.
26. Click

button.

27. Click

28. Click

## button Add/Modify Line Attribute dialog box.

29. Make sure that Lining has been generated as Attribute in the Attribute dialog box.
30. Click

button.

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

Create 2D Geometry
We will generate the Tunnel shape for analysis, using the Tunnel Section in GTS.

## GTS provides various

tunnel section in a
template dialog box.

1.

Select Geometry > Curve > Create on WP > Tunnel (Wire) in the Main Menu.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

## Check off Make Wire option.

7.

Click

8.

Select

button.
Zoom All in the View Point toolbar.

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6

9.

Make sure that 4 tunnel curves are added as Tunnel Section in Geometry > Curve in
the Pre-Works Tree.

## Create 2D Element Mesh

Using Auto-Mesh Edge function, create 2D Beam elements on previously created 2D Curve
Geometry.
We will first create the Beam Elements of the tunnel side walls.

1.

2.

In

## Edge A and C, as shown in the figure GTS Basic Tutorial 6-10.

Refer to Online Manual
for other seeding
method.

3.

4.

5.

6.

## Delete Auto-Mesh (Edge)in Mesh Set and enter Wall.

7.

Click

8.

Click

Preview button to confirm that the number of divisions in the Edges have
been correctly generated.
button.

C
D

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6 10

Similarly, we will create Beam Elements for the tunnel crown and bottom slab.

9.

In

## Edge B, as shown in the figure GTS Basic Tutorial 6-10.

10. Select Number of Divisions in the Seeding Method.
11. Enter 20 in Number of Divisions.
In order to increase
numerical accuracy, it is
recommend to keep
each neighboring
elements within 15
degrees.

## 12. Select 1:Lining in Attribute ID.

13. Delete Wall in Mesh Set and enter Crown
14. Click

Preview button to confirm that the number of divisions in the Edge have

## been correctly generated.

15. Click
16. In

button.
button, select the edge defining the tunnel bottom

## slab, Edge D, as shown in the figure GTS Basic Tutorial 6-10.

17. Select Number of Divisions in the Seeding Method.
8

## 18. Enter 16 in Number of Divisions.

19. Select 1:Lining in Attribute ID.
20. Delete Crown in Mesh Set and enter Slab
21. Click

Preview button to confirm that the number of divisions in the Edge have
been correctly generated.

22. Click

button.

23. To confirm that the Mesh Elements have been correctly generated, select Properties >
Property > Line in the Pre-Works Tree, and invoke the Context Menu by right-clicking
the mouse.
Defined section
property is shown in
three dimensional.

## 24. Select Show All.

25. Select Properties > Property > Line in the Pre-Works Tree once again, and invoke the
Context Menu by right-clicking the mouse.
26. Select Hide All.

## Alignment of Element Coordinates

Member force of beam elements is outputted based on the element local axis. Since the
element local axis is given by its generating sequence and direction, it may not aligned
uniformly. Lets check the element local axis of generated elements.
1.

Select Wall, Crown, and Slab in Mesh > Mesh Set in the Works Tree and invoke
the Context Menu by right-clicking the mouse. All the Mesh Sets can be selected
together by using the Shift key

## In View > Display

Option, user can
specify its size and
color.

2.

## Select Display > Element CSys in the Context Menu.

3.

Select the Wall, Crown, and Slab Mesh Sets, similar to Step 1, and invoke the
Context Menu by right-clicking the mouse.

4.

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6 12

As shown in the above figure, some elements (EL. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) are not aligned
together. Modify those elements.
5.

Select Model > Element > Change Parameter in the Main Menu.

6.

Check on Orientation.

7.

8.

In

in Work Window.
9.

10. Click
11. Select

button.

## Isometric in the View Point toolbar to confirm the alignment of the

element coordinates.

10

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6 13

12. Repeat Steps 1~3 to hide all the Element IDs and the Element Coordinate System.
13. Select

11

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

Analysis
Boundary Condition
Surface Spring is applied to the analysis model as its boundary condition. By entering the
ground reaction coefficient on selected nodes, it computes the distance between selected
nodes and applies the spring coefficient automatically. Since the bottom support of tunnel
cannot take any tensile force, the ground spring is modeled with Compression-only
elements. In addition a boundary condition at the crown to restrain any movement along
the X-axis.

Since it is 2D model,
unit length, 1m, is
entered

1.

Select Model > Element > Create Surface Spring in the Main Menu.

2.

3.

4.

Click

## button and drag the mouse in the Work Window and

select the 16 Elements defining the bottom slab of the tunnel, as shown in the figure
GTS Basic Tutorial 6 - 14.

## Elastic Link is used to

consider nonlinear
boundary elements
such as Compressiononly or Tension-only.

does not affect on
analysis result.

5.

6.

Click on

7.

8.

Click

9.

button.

## 10. Enter 3224 in Modulus of Subgrade Reaction.

11. Enter 1 in Length of Elastic Link.
Enter the number of
spring coefficient to
calculate. If 1 is
entered, it inputs a
single value for all
nodes although the
distances are varied.

## 12. Check on Comp.-only option.

13. Enter 100 in Max. Number of Attribute.
14. Click

button.

## 15. Select Model > Boundary > Supports.

16. Select one node at the top of the crown.
17. Restrain Ux and Apply. See Figure below.

12

button.

13

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

weight, horizontal soil pressure, and vertical soil pressure. We will first input the self weight.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Click

button.

## The horizontal pressure diagram and

values are shown in the figure GTS Basic Tutorial 6 1. The Line Beam Load function is
used to input the trapezoidal horizontal soil pressure.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

In

10. In

2

11. Click

button.

12. In

## shown in the figure, GTS Basic Tutorial 6 - 16.

13. Make sure that Force and Distributed options are checked on.
14. Select Global X in Direction.
15. Make sure that Yes option is checked on in Projection.
14

## 16. Make sure that Fraction option is checked on in Value.

17. Enter 0, 8.3325, 1, and 3 in x1, w1, x2, and w2, respectively.
18. Click

Preview button to confirm that the horizontal soil pressure has been
correctly generated.

19. Click

button.

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6 17

Similarly, we will apply the horizontal soil pressure on the right side of the tunnel walls.

20. In

21. In

22. Click

button.

23. In

## shown in the figure, GTS Basic Tutorial 6 - 16.

w1 is the load value at
the first node, and w2
is the load value at the
second node. Length
between two nodes is
applied using linear
interpolation.

24. Enter 0, -8.3325, 1, and -3 in x1, w1, x2, and w2, respectively.
25. Click

Preview button to confirm that the horizontal soil pressure has been
correctly generated.

26. Click

button.

15

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

We will input the vertical soil pressure using Line Beam Load.
It changes its value by height.
Soil cover height = 3m
Depth to the far end = 6.8325 m
Unit weight = 2.0 tonf/m3
Applying Load = 13.665 tonf/ m3 to 6.0 tonf/ m3.

1 ; Node 5

3 ; Node 14

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6 18

28. Enter Vertical Soil Pressure in Load Set.
29. Select Selected Element option in Element Selection.
30. In

31. In

32. Click

button.

33. In

## shown in the figure, GTS Basic Tutorial 6 - 18.

34. Make sure that Force and Distributed options are checked on.
35. Select Global Y in Direction.
36. Make sure that Yes option is checked on in Projection.
37. Make sure that Fraction option is checked on in Value.
38. Enter 0, -13.665, 1, and -6 in x1, w1, x2, and w2, respectively.
39. Click

Preview button to confirm that the vertical soil pressure has been correctly

generated.
40. Click

16

button.

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6 19

Similarly, we will apply the vertical soil pressure on the right side of the tunnel walls.

41. In

42. In

43. Click

button.

44. In

## shown in the figure, GTS Basic Tutorial 6 - 18.

45. Enter 0, -13.665, 1, and -6 in x1, w1, x2, and w2, respectively.
46. Click

Preview button to confirm that the vertical soil pressure has been correctly

generated.
47. Click

button.

17

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

Linear static load combination cannot yield correct result in a model which is solved for the
boundary nonlinear analysis using elastic Links with compression-only function. Therefore,
each load set must be combined before analysis to obtain correct combination result. Create
The following combinations will be used to design sections.

LCB 1 : 1.54 Self Weight + 1.8 Horizontal Soil Pressure + 1.4 Vertical Soil Pressure
LCB 2 : 1.54 Self Weight + 0.9 Horizontal Soil Pressure + 1.4 Vertical Soil Pressure

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

## Enter 1.4 in Factor in Combined Load Set.

9.

Click

button.

10. Confirm that Load Set [ LCB 1 ] is generated in Load in the Pre-Works Tree.

18

## We will create the second load combination.

12. Enter LCB 2 in Name.
14. Enter 1.54 in Factor in Combined Load Set.
15. Select Horizontal Soil Pressure in Load Set in Combined Load Set.
16. Enter 0.9 in Factor in Combined Load Set.
17. Select Vertical Soil Pressure in Load Set in Combined Load Set.
18. Enter 1.4 in Factor in Combined Load Set.
19. Click

button.

20. Confirm that Load Set [ LCB 2 ] is generated in Load in the Pre-Works Tree.
21. Select Load Set [ LCB 1 ] and Load Set [ LCB 2 ] in Load in the Pre-Works Tree,
by right-clicking the mouse.
22. Select Hide All.

19

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

Analysis Case
We will generate an Analysis Case for performing analysis.
1.

2.

Click

button.

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6 22

may cause convergence
problem in the boundary
nonlinear analysis, we
will activate combined

20

3.

4.

5.

## Select Linear Static in Analysis Type.

6.

Select Element > Wall, Crown, Slab, and Surface Spring in the Set Tree in

7.

## Add or Modify Initial Model.

Drag-and drop the selected Mesh Sets into Activated.

8.

Select Load > LCB 1 & LCB 2 and Boundary > Ground Spring in the Set Tree
in Add or Modify Initial Model.

9.

Drag-and drop the selected Load Sets and Boundary Set into Activated.

11. Click

button.

12. Click

21

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

Solve
We will perform analysis.

1.

2.

Click

## in the Solver Manager dialog box

All the messages during the analysis will be shown in the Output Window. Especially, one
needs to be very cautious about warning messages, because these messages indicate that the
analysis results may not be correct. The model is automatically saved before the analysis.
The result is saved as binary file(*.TA*) in the same folder as the model. The detail analysis
information is also saved in a text file(*.OUT).

22

## Post Processing, Result Display and Control

Most of the Post-Processing work in GTS can be accomplished by using the various
toolbars, for instance the Post Data Toolbar as shown below. The Property Window can be
used for selecting and defining the corresponding items required for detailed PostProcessing.

Data Filter

Output Set

Mesh Shape

Contour Data

Plot Type

Deformation Data

## - Post Data Toolbar -

Displacement
Check the Displacements for each load combination.

1.

## Select the Post-Works tab in the Works Tree.

2.

Double-click ST : Basic Tutorial 6 > LCB 1 > Displacement > DY(V) in the Works
Tree.

## Sensitive option enables

to display modified
output result data
immediately after Output
data control on the
screen.

3.

## Select Post Data tab in the Tabbed Toolbar.

4.

Make sure that LCB 1 is selected in the Output Set in the Post Data toolbar.

5.

Click

6.

Click

7.

## Select Deformed + Undeformed.

8.

Make sure that DY(V) is selected in the Deformation Data in the Post Data toolbar.

9.

## 10. Select Deformation in the Property Window.

11. Make sure that Real Displacement is defined as False. In case of selecting True
this option generates a display output that shows the actual variation of displacement
values.
12. Click

## button in the Property Window.

13. Check the displacements for load combination LCB 2 by selecting LCB 2
Output Set in lieu of LCB 1. Click
display the displacement DY(V) for LCB 2.

in

button to

23

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

TS Basic Tutorial 6 25

24

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6

Reaction
We will display the Reactions for each load combination.

1.

Double-click ST : Basic Tutorial 6 > LCB 1 > Reaction > FY in the Works Tree.

2.

## Select Post Data tab in the Tabbed Toolbar.

3.

Make sure that LCB 1 is selected in the Output Set in the Post Data toolbar.

4.

Click

5.

Select Undeformed.

6.

7.

## Output Set in lieu of LCB 1. Click

display the reaction FY for LCB 2.

in

button to

25

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

Check the Forces in the Elastic Links for each load combination, by generating the results
in a Table format.

8.

Select Result > Result Tables > Elastic Link Force in the Main Menu.

9.

11. Click

button.

26

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6

Axial Force
Check the Axial Force for each load combination.

1.

Double-click ST : Basic Tutorial 6 > LCB 1 > 1D Element Forces > LO-Beam Fx
in the Works Tree.

2.

3.

4.

## Post Data toolbar.

Make sure that LO-Beam Fx is selected in the Contour Data.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Click

9.

## Output Set in the

button.

10. Check the axial forces for load combination LCB 2 by selecting LCB 2 in
button to
Output Set in lieu of LCB 1. Click
display the axial force LO-Beam Fx for LCB 2.

27

## 2 Dimensional Analysis of Open-cut Tunnel

Moment
Check the Bending Moments for each load combination.

1.

Double-click ST : Basic Tutorial 6 > LCB 1 > 1D Element Forces > LO-Beam My
in the Works Tree.

2.

3.

4.

## Post Data toolbar.

Make sure that LO-Beam My is selected in the Contour Data.

5.

## Display the bending moment diagram.

6.

Check the bending moments for load combination LCB 2 by selecting LCB 2 in
button to
Output Set in lieu of LCB 1. Click
display the bending moment LO-Beam My for LCB 2.

28

## GTS Basic Tutorial 6

Check the Forces in the link elements for each load combination, by generating the results
in a Table format.

12. Select from 1D Element Forces Link Fx and call the context menu by right clicking on