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Commissioning Benefits

Freedom to
Choose. Power to
Integrate.

Andreas Agostin
MTL Instruments
On behalf of
Fieldbus Foundation Marketing Committee

Freedom to Choose. Power to Integrate.

Commissioning Benefits?
Since late 1990s, major end users like Shell, BP and Petronas
are standardizing their installations on Foundation Fieldbus.
First reports in 1997 by Dow Chemical1 indicated 74% reduction
in field wiring, a 93% reduction in required control room space,
and an 80% reduction in field-device commissioning time over
previous installations done with conventional input/output.
Startup took only 15 man-hours instead of 2002.
Too good to be true?
Why do end users report significant reductions in time?
Let us find out.
Sources:
1 Gregory K. McMillan, Douglas M. Considine ,Process/industrial instruments and controls handbook, McGraw Hill, 1999
2 InTech, June 1997, Dow claims first fieldbus installation, International Society of Automation (ISA), 1997

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Contents

About project commissioning


Comparing 4-20mA and Fieldbus infrastructure
Commissioning process
4-20mA
Fieldbus
Comparison
Commissioning in practice
Conclusion

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About Project Commissioning


Project commissioning is the process of assuring that all
systems and components of a building or industrial plant
are designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained
according to the operational requirements of the owner or
final client.
A commissioning process may be applied not only to new
projects but also to existing units and systems subject to
expansion, renovation or revamping.

Source: Wikipedia

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About Project Commissioning

Apply engineering techniques and procedures to check,


inspect and test every operational component of the
project
individual functions, such as instruments and
equipment
complex amalgamations such as modules,
subsystems and systems

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Comparing 4-20mA and Fieldbus Infrastructure

One signal per I/O point


Process value is coded in
4-20mA analog signal
Only little diagnostics
(LB/SC)

Parallel connection
Cable carries power and
digital data
Plenty of information
Data integrity checks

4-20mA

I/O

fieldbus

FF H1

FF
PS

T
T

Diagrams simplified

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Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables

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Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation

Test Report

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Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices

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Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation

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Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O

These two steps may also happen earlier or later in the commissioning process.
The actual work on the I/O is system-dependent. The required steps would be:
Determine which I/O point of the system is connected to which field instrument
Assign/verify the tag (typically using walkie-talkie)
Put it into the control application

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Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)

Thermocouple mV
RTD Ohm

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Analog measurement
can drift and must be
calibrated from time
to time
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Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging

Using HART (or sometimes DIP switches):


4mA shall be 20 C, 20mA shall be 120 C

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Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging
Calibrate the 4-20mA
(current drift)

Analog output can drift


and must be calibrated
from time to time

Measure
the output
current with a
precision tool
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Simulate a
measurement
value using
HART

Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging
Calibrate the 4-20mA
(current drift)
System ranging (DCS)

15

DCS must know what 4mA means


and what 20mA means.
If your instrument is set to:
4mA shall be 20 C, 20mA shall be
120 C, your DCS must be set to
the same range.

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Ranging, 4-20mA
Transmitter
Range
40-200 C

Process
120 C

12 mA

System
Range
0-200 C

Reading
100 C
...alarms and trips
not working

Instrument range and DCS system range must match

Range #2

Range #1

AI
Transmitter
CPU

16

D/A

A/D
4-20 mA

CTRL
CPU

AO
Positioner

D/A
4-20 mA

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A/D

CPU

Commissioning Process 4-20mA


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging
Calibrate the 4-20mA
(current drift)
System ranging (DCS)
System calibration 4-20mA
(current drift)

17

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AI: Simulate a current


and check the
reading on the DCS
AO: Set an output
value on the console
and verify the current

Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Fieldbus uses a bus structure, so a single trunk cable is run into
the field. This reduces the number of required terminations, and
hence reduces installation time and the number of potential
points of failures.

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Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Cable parameter check-out (e.g. capacitance, inductance) may be
omitted. Experience showed that parameters of cables registered
with the Fieldbus Foundation are within the specification and do
not require verification of the physical parameters.

If your installation is known to be (fairly) reliable, you may also forgo


the cable checkout completely. Faults can then be rectified using
fieldbus diagnostics.

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Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Fieldbus uses digital communication and requires dedicated tools to
verify proper installation. These Multimeters for fieldbus are
operated similar to regular multimeters, so that no disadvantage
arises out of being digital (which someone may perceive as
complex).

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Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation

To check that fieldbus devices are installed (wired) correctly, you


can check one-by-one (easy to identify faults) or after all devices
are installed (potentially faster if few mistakes are made).
A good physical installation will ensure proper communication and according to previous experience will avoid 80-95% of problems
that occur in inferior installations.
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Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O

Fieldbus systems offer commissioning wizards, that enable foolproof and fast commissioning of FF instruments.

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Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Foundation Fieldbus devices are
recognized by three mechanisms:
node address for communication
device tag corresponding to the
project P&I diagram
a unique identifier allowing the
system to automatically resolve
any tag or address conflicts

Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O

The system automatically assigns the address to all devices, avoiding human
errors such as address duplication associated with manually managed
protocols, and saving time.
Therefore technicians work based on tag and need not be concerned with
address.
Thanks to the unique identifier, multiple devices can be connected and
commissioned at the same time. It is plug-'n'-play.

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Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
For instruments with analog sensors such as RTDs or
thermocouples, the measurement circuit may drift and may require
calibration. For other types like time-of-flight (e.g. radar level
sensor), they are considered digital and do not require calibration.

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Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging
Transmission is digital. A conversion from one unit to another takes place in
the instrument function block:
Example: A temperature may transmit its reading in C, F, or Kelvin. It may
also scale a certain measurement range into a % value.
There is no conversion required by the DCS, as the readings are all
transmitted with the engineering unit included.
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Ranging, 4-20mA
Transmitter
Range
40-200 C

Process
120 C

12 mA

System
Range
0-200 C

Reading
100 C
...alarms and trips
not working

Results:
Range mismatch
Range exceeded (more than100%, less than 0%)
Range #2

Range #1

AI
Transmitter
CPU

26

D/A

A/D
4-20 mA

CTRL
CPU

AO
Positioner

D/A
4-20 mA

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A/D

CPU

Ranging, Fieldbus
Process
120 C

Transmitter
120 C
Range
-200 to 850 C

Reading
120 C

System
(No range)

Results:
Range mismatch impossible
Making full use of physical measurement range of transmitter
CTRL
Transmitter
CPU

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FF

Digital

BUS

CPU

FF

Digital

Positioner
Digital

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FF

CPU

Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging
Calibrate the comms signal?

Digital signaling/communication is standardized and does not require any


kind of adjustment.

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Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging
Calibrate the comms signal
System ranging (DCS)
Not required and not reasonable, as the transmitter provides readings
inclusive engineering unit.

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Commissioning Process Fieldbus


Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging
Calibrate the comms signal
System ranging (DCS)
System calibration comms
signal
Digital signaling/communication is standardized and does not require any
kind of adjustment.
30

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Commissioning Process Comparison


4-20mA
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging
Calibrate the 4-20mA
(current drift)
System ranging (DCS)
System calibration 4-20mA
(current drift)

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Fieldbus
Install the cables
Verify the cable installation
Install the devices
Verify device installation
Install the DCS
Assigning the I/O
Calibrate the sensor
(sensor drift)
Ranging
Calibrate the comms signal
System ranging (DCS)
System calibration comms
signal

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Commissioning in Practice
80 95% of problems are installation related
What are these problems?
How to avoid them?
How to find them if they occur? (Troubleshooting)

32

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Bad wiring technique

Welding, variable frequency drives (VFD), Motors,


machinery:
Increase of HF noise
Increasing number of retransmissions
Can be a combination of both
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Case study: faults in operation


Cable jacket stripped back
too far can cause
instrument malfunction:
Water ingress
Wires shorted to
housing
Corrosion
Tearing wires
(increasing
resistance)
Increasing number of
retransmissions
Signal amplitude rises
Increase of FF noise
Can be a combination of
above

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Wires coming out of ferrules:


Trunk:
Spur:
Devices drop off (may or may not return)
Device drops off (may or may not return) Signal amplitude sometimes ok,
Increasing number of retransmissions
sometimes high
Increasing number of retransmissions
35
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Bend radius too tight, Upward facing gland risks water ingress

Two cables into one gland


prevents sealing of gland
36

36

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Corroded terminals:
Increasing number of retransmissions
Increase of FF noise
Can be a combination of both
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37

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Commissioning 4-20mA

38

Always on the critical path (may bring signal down)


Manual, step-by-step procedure
Labor intensive
Test Report

Requires

Screw driver

Check sheet

Pencil
Multimeter
Scope
Check one device at a time

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Portable Commissioning tools for fieldbus


Portable tools for commissioning, monitoring, and
troubleshooting. Different products on the market to suit
different needs.
Can connect to any spur or trunk
Menu guided user interface
Can store & upload data
No paper needed
No manual recording
Check many devices at same time

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Portable Commissioning tools


Instrument Management Software
(including fieldbus diagnostics)

Host control system

Fieldbus power
supply system

wiring components

Controller I/O

Fieldbus
Hand-held
Diagnostic Module

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Fieldbus Diagnostic Modules

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Integrated single tool for commissioning, monitoring, and


troubleshooting. Operated in the control room, usually
mounted on fieldbus power supply carrier.

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Benefits of Fieldbus in Commissioning

Faster installation and checkout due to reduced wiring


and bus structure
Faster device troubleshooting due to dedicated portable
fieldbus multimeter
Faster device commissioning due to dedicated fieldbus
diagnostic modules
Avoids ranging problems
Avoids double-addressing and addressing in general
Reduces number of tools required for testing
Eliminates troublesome calibration procedures
All this and more leads to
significant faster project commissioning.

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www.fieldbus.org
www.fieldbus.org.sg

Freedom to
Choose. Power to
Integrate.

Freedom to Choose. Power to Integrate.