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SAMPLE OF CONTENTS

PIPE FABRICATION
materials, drawing and fabrication methods
(ENG2068)

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to pipe fabrication

About pipe fabrication.......................................................................................................5


Codes and standards.......................................................................................................6
Approval of piping systems..............................................................................................7
Pipe fabrication abbreviations..........................................................................................8

Chapter 2 Materials

13

Piping systems...............................................................................................................13
Pipe................................................................................................................................16
Pipe fittings.....................................................................................................................18
Flanges...........................................................................................................................29
Gaskets..........................................................................................................................37
Valves.............................................................................................................................40
Bolts...............................................................................................................................54
Brackets and hangers (support).....................................................................................58
Identification of piping.....................................................................................................73

Chapter 3 Drawing

75

Types of drawings..........................................................................................................75
Types of projection.........................................................................................................82
Parallel line.....................................................................................................................92
Piping symbols...............................................................................................................98
Dimensioning and line types........................................................................................107

Chapter 4 Fabrication methods

115

Pipe fabrication.............................................................................................................115
Preparing for fabrication...............................................................................................116
Fabrication process......................................................................................................123
Welding process...........................................................................................................129

Appendix 1 MRC Data Chart

135

Chapter 1 Introduction to pipe


fabrication
About pipe fabrication
Pipelines are used to transport fluids, including vapours, gases, slurries and powders
which flow through pipes at various pressures and temperatures. The transmission of
these materials invariably subjects the pipe to intense stresses and strains and this
demands the highest possible performance from the pipe.
All pipework must be designed and fabricated in a way that ensures the safety of plant
operators, the plant, the public and the environment.

The fabricator is responsible for the quality of the pipework and pipe fabrication must
be carried out in accordance with all relevant standards and specifications. One faulty
weld could lead to damage costing millions of dollars, personal injury and in serious
cases even death. Welded pipe systems demand the highest degree of excellence in
materials and quality of work.
Because high standards are required, the cost of pipework is extremely high. Typical
costs for pipework in a manufacturing plant are shown in Table 1.1.

Field labour costs 47%

Material costs 23%

Design engineering costs 20%

Table 1.1: Fabrication costs

It is essential that pipework is fabricated by suitably trained and competent


tradespersons.

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Chapter 2 Materials
Piping systems
There are three common methods of joining piping, each with its own advantages and
disadvantages.
Butt welded piping systems are used for most process, utility or service piping. Butt
welding is the most practicable way of obtaining strong, leak-proof joints; especially
on larger piping. The pipe and fitting used have, or are prepared with, standard weld
preparation. They require high levels of workmanship in their assembly and welding.

B
Detail B
Scale 1/2
Fig 2.1: Butt welded piping system

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The body
The body is the main structure of the valve which contains or to which is attached
the other parts of the valve. The body must possess sufficient mechanical strength
and sufficient resistance to corrosion, erosion and high temperature to meet service
conditions. The material from which the valve body is made is important in this regard
and common materials in use include carbon steel, low-alloy steel, bronze, brass,
stainless steel and monel.

The disc, seat and port


The disc, seat and port arrangement is the means of controlling the flow of fluids
through the valve. Regardless of shape and arrangement the disc is the moving part
that directly controls the flow. The non-moving part upon which the disc bears is called
the seat, and the port is the maximum internal opening through which the fluids can
pass.

The stem
The stem is used to move the disc. It is usually a screwed rod, although in some cases
fluid under pressure moves the disc. There are two basic stem types.

The rising stem As the valve is operated, the stem rises, lifting the disc with
it. The hand wheel can either rise with the stem, or the stem can rise through the
hand wheel.

Stem
bushing

Stem
bushing

Stem moves
down through
valve bonnet

Stem moves
up through
stem bushing
and handwheel

Gate withdrawn
from line of flow

Gate seated
to block
line of flow

Fully open

Fully closed
Fig 2.41: The rising stem

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Construction of a pipe from plate


The pattern is drawn on, or transferred to, the plate using a centre punch, rolled into the
cylindrical shape and then cut to the pattern.
During rolling (or pressing) operations, the inside of the bend will be compressed, and
the outside of the bend will be stretched around the neutral axis.
The neutral axis is the only part of the plate whose dimension is left unchanged by the
forming operation. For this reason, it is necessary to base all calculations on the neutral
axis when the metal is rolled into a circle.
t

Neutral
axis

ter

iame

This side gets


compressed during
rolling.

nd
Mea

ID = MD + t
This side is stretched
during rolling.

OD = MD + t

Fig 3.17: Diameter of pipe

Sleeve templates
When working with piping, the most practical method of development is to make a
template which is then used to mark out the pipe.

Fig 3.18: Sleeve template

Calculations for the template can be based on the outside diameter of the pipe.

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Single- and double-line comparison


When orthographic projection is used, pipelines may be drawn as either single-line or
double-line drawings. Double-line representation shows the two edges of the pipework
and is usually used for pipes over 350.
Double-line drawings show a more graphic representation of the pipework; however,
these are more difficult and more expensive to produce.

Fig 3.30: Double-line pipe

Single-line orthographic drawings represent the pipe by its centre-line only, which is
drawn as a continuous heavy line (usually the darkest line on the drawing). The size of
the pipe is shown by drawing a representation of the pipe end to scale, either at the end
of the line or some other convenient place.

Pipesize
drawn to scale

Fig 3.31: Single-line pipe

On single-line diagrams, all fittings except reducing fittings are drawn single-lined.
Single-line drawings are generally used for pipework under 350.
Single-line drawings with their use of stylised symbols are easier and quicker,
and therefore cheaper to produce. Single-line drawings are easy to read, and this
advantage, coupled with their lower cost, makes them the preferred type.

Fig 3.32: Comparison of double-line drawing and single-line drawing

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Cutting the pipe


The process by which pipe is cut is determined by its ferrous or non-ferrous nature.
There are several types of cutting machines available, both hand and mechanical.
Tools such as pipe cutters, joint profile machines, oxy and plasma cutting tools are all
appropriate for cutting pipe.

To ensure accuracy of cut, a scribed line should be centre punched every 10 mm.

Dividing the pipe surface into four equal parts


The pipe fabricator is often required to divide the pipe surface into four equal parts this
will aid in the assembly process.
The four equal parts now become centre-lines from which to take measurements, and
in which to locate fittings.
The fabricator is required to follow these four steps to achieve this.
1. Wrap a strip of paper around the pipe.
2. Double the paper as shown in Figure 4.9 and double it again. This will divide the
paper into four parts. The distance between an end and a crease, and between
each crease, is equal to a quarter of the circumference.
3. Place the paper around the pipe.
4. Mark the pipe with engineers chalk at each crease and where the two ends meet.

Fig 4.9: Dividing pipe surface into four equal parts

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Welding process
Several considerations need to be looked at when pipes are being welded together.
These include the grade of material, the welding process and the thickness of the
material. These factors determine the consumables, type of welding machine and the
design of weld preparation according to standards.

Preparing for welding


Contaminants such as grease, oil, scale or rust will have harmful effects on the quality
of the weld. All traces of the oxide produced by oxygen/fuel cutting must be removed by
filing, grinding or wire brushing.
The pipe fabricator/welder must also make sure that any other contaminants are
removed before starting to weld. This can usually be accomplished by vigorous
application of a wire brush. Stainless steels and other exotic alloys must be degreased
with a suitable solvent immediately before welding. After cleaning, the piping should be
handled with clean hands or clean gloves to ensure that the base metal and filler metal
remain clean.

Butt joints
In butt joint preparation, two important factors emerge:

the shape of the groove, which relates to wall thickness

the pipe roundness, which affects accuracy. (If the pipe is out of round, the weld
joint may be misaligned.)

A small root face is recommended for good root penetration. Where a feathered edge is
used, there is a tendency to melt away unevenly during welding. This makes it difficult
to control the weld pool and can result in weld defects such as uneven penetration.
A U joint is preferred for heavy wall pipe.
Butt welds are usually single-Vee preparations with the dimensions shown, unless the
piping system is of a large enough diameter that access is permitted.
30 + 7
0

1.5 - 3 mm

1.5 mm

Fig 4.13: Single-Vee butt

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PIPE FABRICATION
materials, drawing and fabrication methods
Description
This resource covers content relating to units from the MEM training package in relation to the
pipe fabrication context. It supports the units MEM09003B and MEM09211A, and partially
supports MEM09217A, MEM05010C, MEM04011D, and MEM04045B.
Topics include:
safety, plant and equipment
codes and standards
abbreviations and symbols
materials, systems and fittings
drawing and dimensioning
fabrication methods and processes.
The book includes many technical drawings to support learning.
EditioN
Edition 1, 2013
Training Package
METALS AND ENGINEERING
Course / QualificatioN
MEM40412 Certificate IV in Engineering (Drafting)
MEM50212 Diploma of Engineering Technical
MEM40105 Certificate IV in Engineering
MEM50105 Diploma of Engineering Advanced Trade
Units of competency
This resource supports the unit:
MEM09211A Producre drawings or models for industrial piping
It also partially supports:
MEM09217A Prepare plans for pipe and duct fabrication
MEM05011D Assemble fabricated components

ENG2068
PIPE FABRICATION
ISBN 978-1-74205-902-0

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