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Furama Riverfront, Singapore, July 10-13, 2012

MPC of a Three Phase Separator

Mendes P. R. C. Normey-Rico J. E. Plucenio A.

Carvalho R. L.

opolis, Brasil, (e-mail:

paulorcm@hotmail.com, jnormeyrico@gmail.com,

rodrigoleao.carvalho@gmail.com, plucenio@das.ufsc.br).

Abstract: This paper presents a nonlinear predictive controller with a feed-forward action

applied to a three-phase separator used in the petroleum industry. Two tools are used in order

to include the feed-forward action in the NMPC, a disturbance estimator and a disturbance

predictor. Moreover, a supervisory control changes the objective function characteristics of the

NMPC depending on the type of disturbances acting on the process. The separator advanced

controller, which is capable to maintain all process variables in pre-defined zones, uses a practical

nonlinear model predictive controller (PNMPC) developed in the Department of Automation

and Systems (Federal University of Santa Catarina). The performance of the proposed strategy

is compared to a traditional PI Zone controller used in industry and to a different NMPC

based on a Hammerstein model. All the case study simulations are developed with a complete

phenomenological nonlinear model of the separator. The obtained comparative results show that

the proposed strategy gives the best results, allowing good oscillation attenuation under slug

perturbations.

Keywords: Three Phase Separators, Predictive Controllers, Zone control, Process Control

1. INTRODUCTION

Most of the oil wells produce fluid consisting of a mixture

of gas, oil and water, Triggia et al. (2001). In a conventional

system of oil separation there is usually a group of gravity

separators connected in series starting with a three-phase

separator. The three-phase separator is basically designed

to separate the multiphase fluid and also to damp the

load oscillation that comes from well. A proper control

scheme of this process allow to maximize oil production

and to minimize the quantity of residual oil in water,

therefore, improving energy production and minimizing

ambient impact.

Horizontal gravity separators, as the one considered in

this work, are normally used in oil industry at the first

stage of the fluid treatment with two principal objectives:

separation of the different phases and absorbing load fluctuations. According to Nunes (1994) oil wells and risers

may produce with different flow regimes. In certain conditions a regime known as slug flow is established which

is characterized by a flow-rate alternating between high

and low values. This flowing regime is detrimental to the

three phase separation process because of the pressure and

flow variation into the separator. Thus separator control

should be designed to allow good efficiency of separation

and still manage to filter out disturbances caused by slug

flow, sending a more stable flow for downstream processes.

Several control strategies have been used to control this

process. For example, Filgueiras (2005) presents a separation vessel controller that has three SISO PI compensators,

one on each fluid phase. This classical control scheme, although quite common in industry, is not able to adequately

IFAC, 2012. All rights reserved.

101

the classical system against oscillatory disturbances, a PI

based zone control strategy is presented in Nunes (2004).

In this strategy the water level is controlled allowing

slow variations in a pre-defined zone using two different

PI tuning settings. This strategy is being used in Petrobras Platforms with satisfactory results. Advanced control

strategies based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) have

also been studied, using linear algorithms as in Nunes

(2001) and Silveira (2006) or applying non-linear MPC

(NMPC) strategies as in Mendes et al. (2011). The advantages of MPC strategies are the flexibility in the definition

of the objective function and the possibility of considering

process constraints (Camacho and Bordons (2007)).

The study presented in Mendes et al. (2011) compares

different MPC strategies to analyze the effect on disturbance attenuation, considering hard and soft constraints

(Hovland (2004); Prasath and Jrgensen (2009)) and also

zone control (Maciejowski (2002)) in order to maintain

the controlled variables within specified limits or zones.

For the implementation, a Hammerstein-based nonlinear

predictive control was used, based on the ideas of the practical NMPC (PNMPC) algorithm proposed in Plucenio

et al. (2007) and Plucenio (2010) which allows solving the

nonlinear problem with a simple QP algorithm, therefore

allowing for a better compromise between performance and

computational cost than a linear MPC.

Although the Hammerstein zone-PNMPC presented the

best results in a hard slug flow disturbance scenario, some

improvements in the control algorithm can be performed

and are proposed in this work. The first modification consists in the use of a simplified phenomenological model of

Furama Riverfront, Singapore, July 10-13, 2012

Win

Sg

Gin

Lin

Win

Zone

SUPERVISORY

PNMPC

Wout_sp

Lout_sp

Gout_sp

PI

sw

sl

sg

Lin

Gin

SEPARATOR

Vwflcs

Lweir

hT

Vlfwcs

Vwflcl

hW

hl

DETECTOR

Sw

Wout h

w

Lout h

l

Gout p

Disturbance

rejection

Win_est

Lin_est

Gin_est

ht

DISTURBANCE

ESTIMATOR

Sl

Wout

Lout

the process to compute the predictions instead of the Hammerstein model, simplifying the model construction. The

second one includes a feed-forward action in the PNMPC

strategy based on an estimation of the flow disturbances.

For this purpose a disturbance estimator and a disturbance

predictor are developed. The third and final improvement

consist of the use of two different control objectives in the

PNMPC and a supervisory strategy based on a slug flow

disturbance detector. Although model predictive control

including disturbance estimator feedforward action have

been used in other cases as greenhouse production process (Pawlowski et al. (2011)) and olive oil Mill process

(Bordons and Cueli (2004)), it has not been applied in

separation processes of oil industry.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In section 2

a brief process description is given. Section 3 is devoted

to present the complete controller structure, including the

supervisory system, the NMPC strategy, the predictor

model and the disturbance estimator-predictor. Simulation

case studies are analyzed in section 4, where the proposed

strategy is compared to two other controllers. The paper

ends with the conclusions.

2. THREE-PHASE SEPARATOR PROCESS AND

CONTROL OBJECTIVES

As pointed out three-phase separators are designed to

separate the multiphase fluid and also to damp the load

oscillation that comes from well. There are a lot of separator types; each one having different shape and internal devices. The horizontal separator scheme presented in Fig. 1

represents one of the more common units used in industry.

As can be seen in the figure, the input flow of water, oil

and gas (Win , Lin , Gin ) comes into the separator and the

liquid phase goes to the separation chamber, where a set of

parallel plates are installed in order to help in the water-oil

separation. The oil passes to the second chamber (the oil

chamber) and a valve (Sl ) is used to extract it form the

vessel. At the same time, valves Sg and Sw are respectively

used to control the extraction of gas and water. Several

factors affect the separator efficiency and also the fluid

behavior inside the tank (Nunes (1994); Filgueiras (2005)).

The process and model considered here does not take into

account thermal effects, emulsifiers and foam in the oil and

only the effect of parallel plates are considered. Therefore,

the control of the separation is done using Sl , Sg and Sw

102

of oil phase (hl ), the vessel pressure (p) and the level

of water phase at separation chamber (hw ). In normal

operation, when the input flow varies slowly and has small

oscillations, the desired separation of the three phases is

obtained maintaining the three controlled variables at the

operating point. However, when high amplitude input flow

oscillations affect the process, the vessel control has to be

used to avoid the transmission of these flow oscillations to

the output, mainly in the water flow Wout , which strongly

affects the efficiency of the downstream processes.

3. PROPOSED CONTROL STRATEGY

Figure 2 shows the proposed control scheme based on

the PNMPC and disturbance estimator-predictor strategy

used to obtain a flexible and efficient control strategy of the

separator. As can be seen in the figure the controller has

three levels. In the local level, three slave PID controllers

are used to manipulate the three valves and maintain

the output flows of water, oil and gas at the set-point

values defined by the master PNMPC. The PNMPC, that

operates at the second level, minimizes a defined objective

function and uses both, feedback and feedforward actions.

For the feedforward action, estimated values of the disturbances computed by the disturbance-estimator block are

used. Finally, the objective function to be passed for the

PNMPC is computed at the third level, which decides if

the controller should work with a narrow or large zone in

the control specifications. This supervisor level uses a slug

flow disturbance detector to define the operation mode.

The different parts of the proposed strategy are detailed

in the following sub-sections.

3.1 Supervisory Control

Depending on the well or riser flowing regime, the fluid flow

entering the separator may be steady or oscillatory. For a

steady fluid inflow the best control option is to require

the process variables to be maintained into a narrow band

around a fixed set-point. For an oscillatory fluid inflow an

overall better control result is to allow for a bigger oscillation of the controlled variables around the operating point,

in such a way that the vessel acts as a filter for the disturbances. The disturbance detector is an important tool for

the implementation of the control strategy. Therefore, the

oscillation range where the controller variables are allowed

to vary, go from a maximum value to a minimum value

depending on the amplitude of the inflow oscillations. This

Furama Riverfront, Singapore, July 10-13, 2012

the fluid inflow regime.

A simple method to detect an oscillatory fluid inflow

disturbance consist of the analysis of a set of data in a

moving time window (Kim et al. (2008)). In this window a

number of Nw sampled data are used to compute the signal

variance. If this variance is smaller than a pre-defined value

(in this case 0, 01 was used) the fluid inflow is considered

steady and the level range is set to the minimum value. On

the contrary, when the variance is greater than the predefined value, a oscillatory fluid inflow is assumed and the

level range is set to the maximal value. The maximum and

minimum values of the zone are then computed adding and

subtracting the value of the range to the nominal set-point

(in this case 0.5meters). For the separator used in this

work a 250 sampled data window is used with a sampling

time of 10 seconds.

3.2 PNMPC Control Strategy

The basic algorithm of the PNMPC proposed in Plucenio

et al. (2007) uses the ideas of the linear GPC. Linear

predictive controllers use the representation of the predictions vector Y along the horizon N , as a function of

the incremental control action vector u. This allows to

transform the objective function in a quadratic function

of u and to solve the optimization problem with simple

quadratic programming (QP) algorithms. Although conceptually this idea is still valid for nonlinear models the

obtained optimization problem is not QP type and demands much more computation time. However, for systems

represented by nonlinear models, where the superposition

principle cannot be applied, an approximation of Y can be

obtained which allows solving the nonlinear problem with

a QP algorithm (Plucenio (2010)). This technique differs

from other proposed solutions for NMPC mainly because

the linearized models are independent of the system equilibrium points.

In PNMPC it is assumed that the prediction vector Y can

be written according to (1), where GP N M P C matrix is the

Jacobian of Y and F is the free response.

= F + GP N M P C u

Y

(1)

This representation is exact for systems represented by linear models and a good approximation for those represented

by non-linear models, provided that the states are continuous and differentiable in relation to the inputs. In PNMPC,

vector F and matrix GP N M P C are obtained numerically.

For that, an algorithm can be executed to calculate the

vector with N predictions when given the values of past

inputs and outputs and the vector with Nu increments

of the future input u. Moreover, for the treatment of

modeling error a prediction correction mechanism is used,

which consists to add a correction factor to each prediction

(see Plucenio (2010) for the details).

As pointed out, when the process is affected by slug flow

disturbances the main objective of the control system is

to attenuate the effect of these disturbances in the water

output flow. In this case the exact value of the water

level (the controlled variable) is not important, provided

it remains within specified limits or zones. This means

that the outputs will only be treated as controlled variables

when these prediction values are outside the limits defined

103

zone control to PNMPC, and to also allow the possibility

of controlling the process variables at a desired set-point,

the objective function is expressed as follows:

J=

N

X

y (t + j|t) y b (t + j|t)
2 +

R

(2)

j=1

Nu

X

ku (t + j 1)kQ

j=1

(Sotomayor et al. (2009)): the variable y b is the set point

of the system output. The prediction at time t + j of each

output i (

yi (t + j|t)) is computed and:

If yi,min yi (t + j) yi,max , the output yi should

be ignored in J (released or removed from the control

calculations) at the moment. Therefore, the parameter of R matrix corresponding to this output should

be set to zero.

If yi (t + j) > yi,max , the output yi should be brought

to its upper limit. Therefore, we do, yib (t+j) = yi,max .

The parameter of R matrix corresponding to this

output is a controller tuning parameter.

If yi (t + j) < yi,min , the output yi should be brought

to its lower limit. Therefore, we do, yib (t + j) = yi,min

and the parameter of R matrix corresponding to this

output is the same as in the previous case.

In the separator, the set-point of the pressure uses always

a zero width band. For the water and oil levels the same

narrow band of 0.0m is used around the normal operation

point in the case of steady disturbances and a band of 0.2m

is considered for the case of oscillatory ones (yi,max = 0.7m

and yi,min = 0.3m).

3.3 Nonlinear Prediction Model and Disturbance Estimator

To compute the output predictions a simple phenomenological model is used in the PNMPC which considers only

a mass balance of the different fluids, therefore disconsidering the unknown characteristics of the fluid inflow.

Therefore, this simple model is described by equations (3),

(4), (5) and (6).

dht

Win + Lin Lweir Wout

p

=

(3)

dt

2 Ccs ht (D ht )

Lweir Lout

dhl

p

=

dt

2 Ccl hl (D hl )

Win Wout

dhw

p

=

dt

2 Ccs hw (D hw )

(4)

(5)

dp

(Gin + Win + Lin Gout Wout Lout ) p

=

. (6)

dt

Vt Vcl Vcs

As can be seen, this model needs the values of the disturbances Gin , Win , Lin that are not measurable. Therefore,

to compute the output predictions, an estimated value of

these variables is needed. Thus, using equations (3), (4),

(5) and (6) it is possible to compute the estimated values

as follows:

i

h

p

cin = Ccs 2 (D hw ) hw dhw + Wout

(7)

W

dt

Furama Riverfront, Singapore, July 10-13, 2012

i

b weir + Ccs 2 (D ht ) ht dht

=L

dt

i dh

h

p

w

Ccs 2 (D hw ) hw

dt

hw

0.6

0.4

0.2

time (seconds)

(9)

7

4

x 10

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

time (seconds)

7

4

x 10

13

12.5

dp c

Vt Vcs Vcl

b in

Win L

(10)

p

dt

+Wout + Lout + Gout

In the controller implementation, discrete equivalent equations are used, where the derivatives are computed using

Euler approximation.

b in =

G

1

0.8

b in

L

(8)

hl

h

i

p

b weir = Ccl 2 (D hl ) hl dhl + Lout

L

dt

With the previous estimator equations it is possible to

consider a feedforward action in the controller. As the

estimator gives the value of the disturbances at time t, only

a simple feedforward action can be implemented. However,

if the future values of the disturbances were available,

the predictive control law could take advantages of this

information in the computation of the future sequence of

control actions. Note that the prediction equation is now

computed using the vector of future values of the control

actions u and disturbances q:

= f (u, q)

Y

(11)

and the linearized relation between the future values of

the inputs and the prediction vector is computed using

the same procedure explained before.

Clearly, the future values of the disturbances q are not

available but an estimated vector

q can be computed

using past information given by the estimator. Several approaches can be used to obtain the prediction of the future

disturbance vector. Temporal series are used in Pawlowski

et al. (2010) and Reikard (2009), autocorrelated models

are considered in Bordons and Cueli (2004) while Paoli

et al. (2009) presents and algorithm based on artificial

neural nets. In this work a simple linear autoregressive

model shown in equation (12) is proposed which uses na

past values of the estimated disturbances.

(12)

qi (k) = a1 qi (k 1)... anai qi (k na)

The predictor parameters are obtained off-line, for each

one of the three input flows, using a least square method

with a sampling time of 10 seconds and considering a

set of feeding flows obtained through a simulation in the

software Olga (Scandpower (2003)). na was selected using

the period of the disturbance slug flow (na = 250).

4. RESULTS

This section presents several simulation results obtained

using the proposed control strategy and a complete simulation phenomenological model of a separator developed

by Filgueiras (2005). Feeding flows used in control tests

were obtained through a simulation in the software Olga

(Scandpower (2003)).

To illustrate the advantages of the proposed solution, some

104

12

11.5

time (seconds)

7

4

x 10

simulations are also presented using the normal control

structure used in industry, a PI Zone controller. Moreover,

using some performance indices we compare the obtained

results with those presented in Mendes et al. (2011) where

a PNMPC algorithm is used based on a Hammerstein

model but without considering the disturbance estimatorpredictor and the supervisory control. As explained, three

local flow rate PI controllers are used in the low level of

the proposed control structure.

The sampling period used to simulate the process and the

local controllers was 1 second. The PI Zone, the Hammerstein PNMPC and the second level of the proposed

PNMPC were simulated with a sampling period of 10

seconds. The simulation test has a duration of 38, 88 hours;

in the first half of the time the separator was controlled

with the PI Zone controller, and from the time 19, 44 hours

to the end, the proposed control strategy was used. To

obtain a soft switch between the two control strategies,

from 13, 88 and 25, 00 hours, a steady inflow was applied

instead of the slug flow disturbance. Also at time 16, 66

and 22, 22 hours a step on the input flow rate has been

applied.

The PI Zone Controller uses two different tuning of the

proportional Kc and integral Ti actions. When the process

variable is inside the defined zone, a slow control action

is applied (big value of Ti and small value of Kc ). On the

contrary, when the variable goes outside the zone a more

aggressive tuning is used (big value of Kc and small value

of Ti ).

As mentioned, in the first part of the test the PI Zone controller was used. The controller tuning parameters inside

and out of the zone are presented in Table 1. Only the oil

and water levels were controlled by zones, the pressure was

controlled with a fixed set point and an aggressive tuning

to keep it constant.

Table 1. Zone PI - tuning parameters

Variables

hw

hl

p

Inside Zone

Kc

Ti

0, 001

125

0, 01

125

0, 03

50

Out of Zone

Kc

Ti

0, 1

50

0, 02

50

0, 03

50

with their respective zones and set points. Figure 4 shows

the input and output flow rates.

The proposed controller is then used in the second part of

the test using the tuning parameters presented in table 2.

Zone control was applied only to the level of water and oil,

and a fixed set point was used for pressure. The zone values

Win e Wout

Furama Riverfront, Singapore, July 10-13, 2012

tests the input and output gas flow rate are the same,

because the control objective was to maintain a constant

pressure inside the separator. On the other hand, for the

oil and water flow rates different results were obtained with

each controller.

0.014

0.0135

0.013

0.0125

Win

Wout

0.012

0.0115

0

time (seconds)

7

4

x 10

Lin e Lout

0.022

0.02

0.018

0.016

Lin

Lout

0.014

0.012

0

time (seconds)

7

4

x 10

Controller

Gin e Gout

0.14

0.13

Flow Rate

Oscillation (%)

Variance

Win

Lin

Gin

Wout

Lout

Gout

Wout

Lout

Gout

Wout

Lout

Gout

20, 45

14, 97

26, 29

6, 06

63, 69

26, 29

3, 03

27, 97

26, 29

3, 03

29, 17

26, 29

2, 3366 108

1, 5443 106

1, 5589 104

3, 0692 109

2, 4813 106

1, 3945 104

1, 7054 108

1, 5958 106

0, 0019

0.12

0.11

Gin

Gout

0.1

0.09

time (seconds)

7

4

x 10

Control

PI Zone

Proposed

hw

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

time (seconds)

Zone PNMPC

1.4

5

x 10

Hammerstein

hl

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

time (seconds)

1.4

5

x 10

12.04

12.02

Controller

12

Flow Rate

Variance

Wout

Lout

Gout

Wout

Lout

Gout

6, 6002 108

1, 7689 107

2, 4220 105

2, 1663 108

2, 3255 108

2, 4138 105

11.98

11.96

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

time (seconds)

1.4

5

x 10

PI Zone

Win e Wout

Zone PNMPC

0.014

0.0135

0.013

0.0125

0.012

Win

Wout

0.0115

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

time (seconds)

1.4

5

x 10

Lin e Lout

0.022

0.02

0.018

0.016

0.014

0.012

Lin

Lout

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.3

time (seconds)

1.4

5

x 10

Gin e Gout

0.14

0.13

0.12

0.11

0.1

0.09

Gin

Gout

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

time (seconds)

1.3

1.4

5

x 10

Controller

are the same as the ones used in the PI Zone Controller

case.

Table 2. Parameters of Proposed Zone PNMPC

Parameter

N

Nu

R

Q

a

Value

[20; 20; 20]

[5; 5; 5]

[20; 3; 20]

[10000; 1000; 1]

[0; 0; 0]

with their respective zones and set points. Figure 6 shows

the input and output flow rates.

Table 3 shows the maximum flow rate oscillation for each

one of the inputs and outputs of the three-phase separator

for each control test. This table contains the informations

about the controllers presented in this paper and the best

controller described in Mendes et al. (2011), named as

Zone PNMPC Hammerstein. As expected, in the three

105

flow rate is obtained by the Proposed controller and the

Zone PNMPC Hammerstein with a factor of 6, 75 against

3, 37 of the PI Zone controller. Although the two predictive

controllers obtain almost the same damping, the proposed

controller gives a small value of the water output flow

variance. In figure 6 it can be noted that from the instant

22, 51 h the water output flow remains constant until

the end of the test, therefore giving 10, 82 hours of no

oscillatory flow.

Table 4 shows the flow rate variance for each one of

the outputs of the three-phase separator for each control

test. This table contains the informations about the part

of the test when no oscillatory disturbances are acting

on the process. The indices on the table show that the

proposed controller gives better results than the PI Zone,

moreover, it maintains the output flow rates more constant

and stabilizes the process variables with smaller settling

time, as can be observed in figures 4 and 6.

Note that there is an amplification of the oscillations in

the oil output flow rate for all the controllers. As the

water control level allows oscillations of hw to attenuate

the output flow variations, an increase in the oscillation

flow rate in the weir is induced, which causes a major

disturbance to the oil level. This disturbance added to the

input flow disturbance causes higher oscillations on the oil

output flow rate than the ones produces only due to the

input flow.

As pointed out in Filgueiras (2005) and Silveira (2006)

among others, the most important control objective is the

damping in water output flow rate, as this water feeds

the input of the hydrocyclones and its oscillations directly

influences their behavior. If the flow disturbances are

Furama Riverfront, Singapore, July 10-13, 2012

be deteriorated. On the other hand, as normally the threephase separator is the first stage of the oil processing plant,

the oil output flow oscillations are not so fundamental.

According to Nunes et al. (2010) it is usual to use a

two phase oil/gas separator in series with the oil output

of three-phase separator, therefore this last equipment is

responsible for damping load oscillation and for providing

a constant flow to the electrostatic treater that is in series.

5. CONCLUSION

In this work a three level control strategy based on a zone

nonlinear predictive controller is proposed to control the

operation of a three-phase separator. A comparative study

of the proposed system with other control strategies is presented to show its advantages. The goals of the proposed

scheme are: (i) the use of a simple phenomenological model

to compute the predictions; (ii) to include a feed-forward

action in the controller based on a disturbance estimatorpredictor; (iii) to consider a flexible objective function

which enables the change of the zone width of the predictive strategy according the feed characteristics, obtained

using a disturbance detector. According to the obtained

simulation results one can conclude that the use of the

proposed strategy allow for better disturbance damping

than other controllers and also gives better performance

when operating in steady conditions. As for the implementation only a simple model of the separator and a QP

algorithm are needed, the use of the proposed controller

in real practice can be considered promissory. Future work

includes studies with controlled variables corrupted by

noise, tests in a real separator unit and the coupling of a

hydrocyclone model with the separator in order to analyze

the effect of this control strategy in the hydrocyclone

separation efficiency.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors thank Petrobras for providing financial support to the research project in which they are inserted.

Julio E. Normey-Rico also thanks CNPq and Agencia Nacional de Petr

oleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustveis (ANP)

for the financial support received from Programa de Recursos Humanos PRH-34 ANP/MCT.

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Camacho, E. and Bordons, C. (2007). Model Predictive

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Filgueiras, N.G.T. (2005). Modelagem, An

alise e Controle

de um Processo de Separaca

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agua. Dissertacao de

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