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KERTAS DUA

Kertas dua mengandungi 3 bahagian iaitu A, B dan C. Bahagian A adalah soalan struktur dan bahagian B dan
QUESTION NO.
9
10

ELEMENT/CONSTRUCT

MARKS

KNOWLEDGE ( pengetahuan)
CONCEPTUALISE (mengkonsepsi)
UNDERSTANDING (kefahaman)
PROBLEM SOLVING (penyelesaian masalah
qualitative)

1
5
4
10

A. SO
AL
A
N

BAHAGIAN B.(Choose only one No.9 or No.10 = 20 Marks)

Konstruk yang diuji dalam bahagian B adalah seperti di bawah:

1. KNOWLEDGE ( 1 Mark)
1. Menyatakan definasi dengan ayat penuh
2. Menulis formula dengan simbol dan menyatakan maksud setiap simbol.
Contoh Soalan
i) What is meant by spring constant?
Contoh Jawapan:
Force perunit of extension of the spring//
k = F/x, where k=spring constant, F = force, x = extension of the spring
LATIHAN [KNOWLEDGE]
1. What is meant by elasticity?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kekenyalan?
[1 mark]
Contoh Jawapan:
Elasticity is the property of a substance which enables it to return to original shape @ size @ length
after an applied external force ( compressive force or stretching force) is removed.
2. What is meant by electromagnet?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan elektromagnet?
[1 mark]
Contoh Jawapan:
Electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced by an electric current // temporary magnet
made by winding a coil round a soft iron core and magnetic field produce when current flow
3. What is meant by refraction?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan pembiasan?
[1 mark]
A phenomenon when light travel in different medium with different densities change in speed and
direction // the bending of light when travelling through different medium

4. What is meant by thermal equilibrium?

Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan keseimbangan terma?
[1 mark]
Thermal equilibrium states that the net rate of heat flow from one medium to another medium and vice
versa is zero// temperature for both medium is the same.
5. State one factor that affect the pressure in liquid.
Nyatakan satu faktor yang mempengaruhi tekanan dalam cecair.
Density/depth/acceleration due to gravity

[1 mark]

2. MENKONSEPSI ( 5 Marks)
1. Membuat & menyatakan pemerhatian Kemahiran Memerhati & Berfikir secara Kritis.
2. Membuat perbandingan iaitu menyatakan persamaan atau perbezaan
3. Menyatakan hubungan daripada persamaan/perbezaan atau menyatakan prinsip/hukum Fizik
yang terlibat.
4. Markahnya 5, justeru perlu beri isi sekurang-kurangnya 5 isi.
5. Jawapan ditulis dalam bentuk point form
Contoh Soalan

DIAGRAM 9.1

DIAGRAM 9.2

(a) Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show two springs M and N. Both springs are of the same material and
same wire thickness but have different spring constant.
Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the mass loaded by the spring, the diameter of the
spring and the extension of the spring.Relate the diameter of the spring and the extension of the spring
with the spring constant.
[5 marks]
Contoh Jawapan:
- mass in diagram 9.1 is equal to the mass in diagram 9.2
- diameter of the spring in diagram 9.1 is smaller compare to the diagram 9.2
- extension of the spring in diagram 9.1 is shorter compare to the diagram 9.2
- the bigger the diameter of the spring the longer the extension of the spring
- the bigger the diameter of the spring the lower the value of spring constant
- the higher the value of spring constant the shorter the extension of the spring

LATIHAN [CONCEPTUALISE]
1.

Diagram 10.1

Diagram 10.2

(i) Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 compare the current flow, the amount of iron
filing and the magnetic field strength of the two electrodes. Relate the current flow and amount
of iron filing attracted by the electromagnet and the magnetic field strength.
Menggunakan Rajah 10.1 dan Rajah 10.2 bandingkan pengaliran arus, kuantiti serbuk besi dan
kekuatan medan magnet kedua-dua elektrod. Hubungkait pengaliran arus dengan kuantiti serbuk
besi yang tertarik kepada elektromagnet dan kekuatan medan magnet.
[ 5 marks ]
Contoh Jawapan:
- Current flow in diagram 10.2 is more than 10.1 // vice versa.
- The amount of iron filing attracted by iron core in Diagram 10.2 is more than 10.1 // vv.
- The magnetic strength in diagram 10.2 is more than 10.1 // vice versa.
- Amount of iron filing attracted increase when current increase
- The magnetic field strength increase when current increase
2.

n = 1.2

Diagram 9.1

n = 1.8

Diagram 9.2

Based on Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the refractive index, the refracted angle and the density
between medium A and medium B.
Relate the refractive index with the refracted angle and the refractive index with the ratio of sin of
incident angle, i to the sin of the refracted angle, r to deduce a physics law that is involved.
Berdasarkan Rajah 9.1 dan Rajah 9.2, bandingkan indeks biasan, sudut biasan dan ketumpatan medium
A dan medium B. Hubungkaitkan indeks biasan dengan sudut biasan dan indeks biasan dengan nisbah
sinus sudut tuju,i kepada sinus sudut biasan,r bagi menghasilkan hukum fizik yang terlibat.
[5 marks]
- The refractive index of A < the refractive index of B

The refracted angle of medium A > refracted angle of medium B

The density of medium A < density of medium B
The greater the refractive index the smaller the angle of refraction
The greater the refractive index the greater the ratio of sin i to sin r

3. UNDERSTANDING ( 4 Marks) (concept explanation)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Kenalpasti konsep
Terangkan perkara sebelum sesuatu konsep berlaku
Terangkan konsep dan kaitannya
Terangkan perkara selepas konsep
Markahnya 4, justeru perlu beri sekurang-kurangnya 4 isi
Jawapan ditulis dalam bentuk point form

Contoh Soalan
The springs in Diagram 9.1 and 9.2 will return to its original length when the load is removed.
Explain how the forces between molecules cause the elasticity.
[ 4 marks]
Contoh Jawapan:
- the forces between molecule are attractive and repulsive force
- when the spring is stretched attractive force between molecule acts
- when the spring is compress the repulsive force between molecule acts
- when the forces is released, the spring return to its original position due to the force
LATIHAN [UNDERSTANDING]
1.

Explain why a softball player moves his hand backwards while catching a fast moving ball.
Terangkan kenapa pemain softball mengerakkan tangan kebelakang sewaktu menangkap bola softball
yang bergerak laju.
[ 4 marks ]
-

2.

A soft ball has a high velocity.

A soft ball has a high momentum.
The soft ball player move his hand backward to increase time impact.
The higher the time impact will reduce impulsive force.
So we will not feel hurt.

Explain how the generator works to produce alternating current.

Terangkan bagaimana penjana berfungsi untuk menghasilkan arus ulang alik.
-

the strong wind above the roof is moving very fast.

While the air in the house is at rest.
According Bernoulli's principle the higher the velocity the lower the pressure.
So, the pressure above the roof is smaller than pressure inside the house.
A force is generated by the difference in pressure which is strong enough to lift the roof

3. Explain why the roof of a house being lifted by strong winds.

Terangkan mengapa bumbung sebuah rumah terangkat oleh angin yang kencang(ribut).
-

[ 4 marks ]

When the coil rotates the coil cut across the magnetic field lines

[ 4 marks ]

Induced current flow in the coil.

The current maximum when the coil cut the magnetic field at right angle // current decreased
(become zero) when the coil move in parallel with magnetic field lines
The direction of current flow determine by using Flemings right hand rule
After 90o the direction of current in the external circuit reversed/

4. PROBLEM SOLVING (qualitative) 10 Marks

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Mengenalpasti Masalah
Menganalisis Masalah Kemahiran M/analisis
Mencari kaedah penyelesaian masalah
Kalau 10 markah, perlu nyatakan 5 aspek dan penerangannya. Penerangan atau alasan yang
dibuat mestilah berkaitan dengan konsep fizik.
7. Jika soalan memerlukan lukisan, pastikan lukisan dilabelkan atau ditulis apa perkara yang
berlaku.
Aspect

Explanation

Contoh Soalan
spring in suspension
system

(c)

DIAGRAM 9.3
Diagram 9.3 shows a spring of the suspension system in an ordinary motorcycle.
(i) State two functions of the spring in the suspension system ?
[2 marks]
(ii) Using the suitable physics concepts, you are required to give some
suggestions on designing a racing motorcycle of 500cc. Explain your suggestions based on
the following aspects ;
-

density of motorcycle parts

engine power
spring in suspension system
size of tyre
[ 8 marks]

Contoh Jawapan
(i)
to absob the shock
to make the rider feel more comfotable
to reduce vibration

(ii)

Aspect
Low density of motorcycle part
High engine power

Explanation
Lighter
-To produce high ecceleration
-High resultant force
-The spring more stiffer
-Less vibration
-increase stability
- reduce pressure

Wide tyre

LATIHAN [ PROBLEM SOLVING (Qualitative)]

1.

You are required to give some suggestions to design a hang glider for recreation. Using an appropriate
physics concept on motion, forces and the properties of materials, explain your suggestions based on the following
aspects :
Anda dikehendaki member cadangan untuk mereka bentuk glider untuk tujuan rekreasi. Menggunakan konsep
fizik yang sesuai, cadang dan terangkan pengubahsuaian atau cara yang boleh dilakukan untuk meningkatkan
keberkesanannya berdasarkan kepada aspek-aspek berikut :

Size of the sail.

Saiz layer digunakan.
Supporting cable.
Kabel penyokong.
Material use for the sail.
Bahan yang digunakan untuk layer.
Assembly and transportation.
Pemasangan dan pengangkutan.
Materials use for structure like masterframe and safely bar.
Bahan untuk struktur seperti rangka utama den 'safety bar,

Contoh Jawapan
ASPECT
Bigger size of sail
wire
Low density
Waterproof

EXPLANATION
Produce bigger different in pressure
Easy to cut air resistance
not easily break
increase strength and rigidity
Lighter
Least upward lift is needed
Not absorb

[10 marks]

water
Glider can easily assemble and folded
up for transportation.
Lighter
Least upward lift is needed

Hinged structure
Structure from rigid
aluminum tube.

2.A car needs an efficient hydraulic brake system for safety purposes. Suggest and explain how to build a
hydraulic brake system which can function effectively, based on the following aspect:
Sebuah kereta memerlukan sistem brek hidrolik yang cekap bagi memastikan keselamatan di tahap yang
tinggi. Cadangkan dan jelaskan bagaimana untuk membina sistem hidrolik yang dapat berfungsi dengan
cekap berdasarkan aspect berikut:
-The type and characteristic of the brake fluid
Jenis dan sifat bendalir brek
-The size of the master piston and slave piston
Saiz omboh utama dan saiz omboh kedua
-The material used for the fluid transmision pipe
Bahan yang digunakan untuk paip penghantaran cecair
(10 marks)
Aspect
Use oil
High boiling point/low density
Small Master piston
Big slave piston
Aluminium/steel for tansmision pipe

Explanation
Incompressible/no air buble
Does not evaporate easily/lighter
To produce high pressure
To produce a big force on the disc
Strong/does not rust easily

3.An earth-monitoring satellite falls into the earths atmosphere at a high velocity and reaches a high
temperature. This is caused by the earths gravitational force and air resistance.
Using the appropriate physics concepts, suggest and explain suitable designs or ways to protect the satellite
and its equipment:
Satelit pengawasan bumi telah jatuh ke dalam atmosfera bumi dengan halaju yang tinggi dan mencapai suhu
yang sangat tinggi. Perkara ini adalah disebabkan oleh tarikan daya graviti dan rintangan angin.
Menggunakan konsep fizik yang sesuai, cadang dan terangkan pengubahsuaian atau care yang boleh dilakukan untuk
meningkatkan keberkesanannya berdasarkan kepada aspek-aspek berikut :
(i)
from extreme heat ;
(ii)
from breaking up on landing
[ 10 marks]
DESIGN

EXPLANATION

Aerodynamic shape

Heat shield / material that is hard to burn To protect the capsule

High melting point //ceramic

Do not melt

impulsive force

density

-Reduce the inertia //

-reduce the momentum //
-reduce impuls

To reduce speed

QUESTION NO.

ELEMENT
KNOWLEDGE
UNDERSTANDING
APPLICATION
DECISION MAKING

11
12

MARKS
1
4
5
10

BAHAGIAN C. (Choose only one No.11 or No.12) (20 Marks)

Konstruk yang diuji dalam bahagian C adalah seperti di bawah:

1. KNOWLEDGE (1 Mark)
Sama seperti dalam Section B
2. UNDERSTANDING (4 Marks)
Sama seperti dalam Section B
3. APPLICATION (quantitaive)
-

Menulis maklumat dlm btk simbol + unit S.I

Membuat gantian dlm. rumus
Jawapan akhir + unit betul

Contoh Soalan
Sebuah kuali elektrik mempunyai spesifikasi
240 V, 1000 W. Hitungkan masa yang digunakan oleh kuali
itu untuk memanaskan 1000 cm3 minyak masak dari suhu 30 oC sehingga minyak itu mencapai suhu 120 oC.
Anggapkan semua tenaga elektrik digunakan untuk menaikkan suhu minyak sahaja dan tiada haba hilang ke
persekitaran.
o 1
[Muatan haba tentu minyak ialah 2000 J kg1
C , ketumpatan minyak masak ialah 800 kg m-3]
[5 markah]
Contoh Jawapan
1 Menukar unit bagi V dengan betul
1000 x 10-6 m3
2 Menghitung jisim, m, dengan betul
= 800 x 1000 x10-6
= 8 x 10-1 kg
3 Menyatakan hubungan haba yang dibekalkan oleh pemanas dengan haba
yang diterima oleh minyak
Haba dibekal oleh pemanas = Haba diterima oleh minyak / pt = mc
4 Gantian dalam rumus yang betul
1000(t) = (8 x10-1)x 2000 x 90
5 Jawapan dengan unit yang betul
t = 144 s

LATIHAN [APPLICATION (quantitaive)]

1. Diagram 12.3 shows a manometer with arms of different
cross section. Liquid Y of density 1200 kg m-3 is poured into
the manometer. The level of liquid Y is found to be the same
at both arms of the manometer.
Rajah 12.3 menunjukkan sebuah manometer dengan lengan
yang berbeza keratan rentasnya. Cecair Y dengan ketumpatan
1 200 kgm-3 diisi ke dalam manometer. Paras cecair Y
didapati sama pada kedua-dua lengan manometer.
DIAGRAM 12.3

DIAGRAM 12.4

i. Explain why the level of liquid Y in both arms of the manometer are equal.
[2 marks]
ii.

Diagram 12.4 shows the condition of liquids when another immiscible liquid, X, is poured into
the right arm of the manometer. Calculate the density of liquid X.
Rajah 12.4 menunjukkan keadaan cecair apabila sejenis cecair yang tak bercampur, X, dituang ke
dalam lengan kanan manometer tersebut. Hitung ketumpatan cecair X.
[3 marks]
Contoh Jawapan
-Atmospheric pressure at both side is equal
-Pressure does not depends on size of arm
Patm + h1y g = P atm + h2 x g
( 10 x 10 -2 ) ( 1 200 ) ( 10 ) = ( 16 x10 -2 ) ( x ) ( 10 )
x = 750 kgm-3
2.

(i)
(ii)

Diagram belows a circuit containing a transformer ammeter and two bulbs. The reading of the ammeter is
0.5 A and the two bulb lights up with normal brightness.
Gambarajah di bawah menunjukkan litar yang mengandungi transformer, ammeter dan 2 mentol. Bacaan
ammeter adalah 0.5 A dan dua mentol tersebut menyala dengan kecerahan yang normal.
What is the output voltage of the transformer?
Apakah voltage aoutput transformer?
Calculate the efficiency of the transformer.
Kira kecekapan transformer tersebut?

(i) 12V
(ii)

Eff

[5m]

Input Power
Output Power =

24 x 2 = 48 W
Input Power

VI
=240 x
2 = 120 W
= 48
X 100
120
=
40 %

4. DECISION MAKING (10 Marks)

1. Mengenalpasti ciri-ciri yang diberikan.
2. Menerangkan sifat setiap ciri yang dipilih dan sebab dipilih.
3. Menentukan bahan yang paling sesuai berdasarkan ciri yang dinyatakan menggunakan kaedah
ranking ..
4. Memberi sebab mengapa bahan itu dipilih.
Contoh Soalan
Diagram 11.2 shows an ice cream container used by an ice cream seller using his motorcycle.

Diagram 11.2
Table 11.3 shows the specification of four types of ice cream containers P, Q, R and S, that can be
used by an ice cream seller to carry ice cream.
Box
P
Q
R
S
Kotak
Specific heat capacity of ice cream
High
High
Low
Low
box
Size of ice cream box
Large
Small
Small
Large
Material of outer box
Colour of outer box

Copper

PVC plastic

PVC plastic

Aluminium

Dark
Bright
Bright
Dark
Table 11.3
You are required to determine the most suitable ice cream container to carry ice cream. Study the
specification of the four types of ice cream container based on the following aspects:
- Specific heat capacity of ice cream box
- Size of ice cream box
- Material of outer box
- Colour of outer box
Explain the suitability of the aspects
Contoh Jawapan

Aspect
Low specific heat capacity of ice
cream box
Smaller size of ice cream box
Plastic PVC
Bright colour of outer box
R is chosen

Reason
Easy get cold // becomes cool quickly
Easier to carry // easy too become cool
Poor conductor of heat
Does not absorb heat from surrounding quickly
because Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box,
Smaller size of ice cream box, Plastic PVC, Bright
colour of outer box

LATIHAN [DECISION MAKING]

1.Table 12 shows the specifications of four water storage tanks, P, Q, R and S, that can be used to
store water in a housing estate.
Jadual 12 menunjukkan speksifikasi empat tangki penyimpan air, P, Q, R dan S, yang digunakan
untuk menyimpan air untuk sebuah rumah dalam suatu kawasan perumahan.
Water storage tank
Tangki penyimpan air
Material used
Bahan yang
digunakan
Density
Ketumpatan

metal
logam

concrete
konkrit

concrete
konkrit

metal
logam

low
rendah

high
tinggi

low
rendah

low
rendah

low
rendah

high
tinggi

high
tinggi

low
rendah

Shape
Bentuk

Height from the

ground

TABLE 12
You are required to determine the most suitable water storage tank. Study the specifications of all the
four water storage tanks based on the following aspects :
Anda diminta untuk mengenal pasti tangki penyimpan air yang paling sesuai. Kaji spesifikasi keempatempat tangki penyimpan air itu berdasarkan aspek :
- The material used. Bahan yang digunakan
- The density of the tank. Ketumpatan tangki
- The shape of the tank. Bentuk tangki
- The height of the tank from the ground. Ketinggian tangki daripada bumi
Explain the suitability of the aspects.
Terangkan kesesuaian aspek-aspek tersebut.
characteristics
marks]

low density
thicker wall at the bottom //
Diagram
height from ground is high
R is chosen

reason
Stronger / Not easy to break
// metal can rust easily
lighter / the structure that hold the tank
able to withstand the weight of tank
able to withstand the higher pressure at the
bottom
to produce a greater difference in pressure
thicker wall at the bottom, height from
ground is high

[10

2. As a researcher you are assign to investigate the properties of the metal in the table to be used as the
material to make a quality frying pan.
Sebagai seorang penyelidik anda ditugaskan untuk menyelidik sifat bahan yang digunakan untuk
membina kuali yang berkualiti.

Specific heat
Melting
capacity /muatan
Density/ketumpatan
point /takat lebur
haba tentu
kg m-3
o
C
J kg1 oC1

Metal/Baha
n

Rate of
pengaratan

450

1540

7873

High

880

660

2698

High

510

1620

7800

Do not Rust

398

961

10500

Medium

377

978

8400

Do not rust

For every metal properties in the table above, explain the suitability of the properties tobe used as a material to
make a frying pan. Hence determine the most suitable metal to make the frying pan. Give the justification for
Bagi setiap sifat bahan di atas jelaskan kesesuaian bahan yang akan digunakan untuk membina kuali.
Seterusnya memilih bahan yang paling sesuai. Berikan justifikasi di atas pilihan tersebut.
[10 marks]
characteristics

reason

decreases slowly

Big fan

Choose R

High specific heat capacity, High boiling

point , Big fan, large number of fin blades

3. You are asked to investigate the features of cooling material and the design of a car engine radiator
as in Diagram 11.2 Anda dikehendaki menyiasat ciri-ciri bahan dan rekabentuk radiator enjin
kereta yang akan digunakan.

Explain the suitability of each features in Diagram 11.2 and then determine the most suitable car engine
Jelaskan kesesuaian ciri-ciri yang dipilih dan kemudian memilih radiator kereta yang paling sesuai.
Berikan alasan di atas setiap pilihan anda tersebut.
[10 marks]

Properties

Explanation

Easily to be hot

Low density

lighter

S is chosen

Because of low specific heat capaity, high melting point,

low density and low rate of rusty.

SOALAN STRUKTUR.
5/6
7
8

- MENGKONSEPSI
- MODIFICATION
- MAKING DECISION

CARA MENJAWAB SAMA SEPERTI SOALAN ESEI - CUMA LEBIH PENDEK DAN MUDAH
Contoh Soalan Menkonsepsi - Terengganu 2010
Diagram 5.1 shows a water jet spurts out from a hole in a tall vessel at a distance , d1.
Diagram 5.2 shows an oil jet spurts out from a hole at the same depth in a tall vessel at a distance , d2.
Rajah 5.1 menunjukkan suatu pancutan air keluar dari satu lubang pada satu bekas tinggi sejauh di.
kedalaman yang sama sejauh d2.

(a)

What is the meaning of density? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan ketumpatan?

............................................................................................................................................................................... [1 mark]
(b) Observe Diagram 5.1 and Digaram 5.2. Perhatikan Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2.
Compare: Bandingkan:
(i) Density of water and oil. Ketumpatan air dan minyak.
............................................................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
(ii) The distance d1 and d2. Jarak d1, dan d2.
(iii)

............................................................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
The pressure produced by the water jet and the oil jet.
Tekanan yang dihasilkan oleh pancutan air dan pancutan minyak itu.
............................................................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
(c) Based on your answer in (b), state the relationship between the density and the pressure of liquid.
Berdasarkan jawapan anda di (b), nyatakan hubungan antara ketumpatan dan tekanan cecair.

............................................................................................................................................................................. [1 mark]
(d) Diagram 5.3 shows the location of a house water tank.
Explain why the water tank should be located on top of the roof.
Terangkan mengapa tangki air diletakkan di atas burn bung rumah.
.
.
[3marks]

Contoh Soalan Modification - SBP 2010

Diagram 7 shows a fixed coil is placed in between an iron rod and a bar magnet.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan satu gegelung yang tetap diletakkan di antara sebatang rod besi dan sebuah magnet bar.

When the switch is closed, both of the iron rod and the bar magnet are attracted towards the coil.
Apabila suis dihidupkan, kedua-dua rod besi dan magnet bar tertarik kepada gegelung.

(a)
(b)

State the polarity at X. Nyatakan kutub di X.

..[1 mark]
Suggest two modifications that can be done in Diagram 7 in order to increase the force of attraction
between the coil and the iron rod. Cadangkan dua pengubahsuaian yang boleh dilakukan dalam Rajah
7 bagi menambahkan daya tarikan antara gegelung dan rod besi.
.

(c)

.[2 marks]
(i) What will happen to the iron rod and the bar magnet when the connections to the terminals
of the battery are reversed?
Apakah akan berlaku kepada rod besi dan magnet bar jika sambungan kepada terminal bateri
diterbalikkan.
.
[2 marks]
.
[2 marks]

(d) The battery is then replaced by a low alternating current power supply. The switch is then closed.
Bateri kemudian ditukar dengan bekalan arus ulang-alik yang berkuasa rendah. Suis dihidupkan.
(i)

Describe the motion of the iron rod. Jelaskan pergerakan rod besi.

..[1 mark]
(ii)
Describe the motion of the bar magnet. Jelaskan pergerakan magnet bar.

(e)

..[1 mark]
Using your answers in 7(c) and 7(d),state one application of iron rod with the coil in
everyday life. Dengan menggunakan jawapan anda dalam 7(c) dan 7(d), nyatakan satu
aplikasi rod besi bersama gegelung dalam kehidupan harian.
..[1 mark]

Contoh Soalan Making Dicision - Selangor 2009

8. Diagram 8.1 and 8.2 show a filament bulb and an energy saver bulb. These two bulbs gives the same
amount of light intensity.
Rajah 8.1 dan 8.2 menunjukkan mentol berfilamen dan mentol jimat tenaga. Kedua-dua mentol ini
menghasilkan keamatan cahaya yang sama

Filament bulb 240 V. 75W

240 V, 20 W
Mentol berfilamen 240V 75 W
Diagram 8.1
Rajah 8.1

Filament bulb 240 V. 20W

240 V, 20 W
Mentol berfilamen 240V 20 W
240V 20 W
Diagram 8.2
Rajah 8.2

(a) The filament bulb uses 75 W of power. What is meant by electrical power?
Mentol berfilamen menggunakan kuasa sebanyak 75 W. Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kuasa elektrik ?
....[1 mark]
(b) State the energy transformation that occurs in both bulbs.
Nyatakan perubahan tenaga yang berlaku dalam kedua-dua mentol.
.[2 marks]
Filament bulb
Energy saver bulb
Mentol berfilamen
Mentol jimat tenaga
Energy consumed per second
75 J
20 J
Tenaga digunakan per saat
Useful work per second
11.25 J
10 J
Tenaga berguna per saat
(i) The filament bulb consumes 75 J of energy in one second but it only delivers 11.25 J of useful
energy per second. Name the wasted energy released by the bulb?
Mentol berfilamen menggunakan tenaga 75 J dalam satu saat tetapi cuma mengeluarkan
11.25 J tenaga berguna setiap saat. Namakan tenaga yang dibazirkan oleh mentol itu.
..[1 mark]
(ii) Calculate the efficiency of the filament bulb and the energy saver bulb from Table 8. Hitung
kecekapan mentol berfilamen dan mentol jimat tenaga dari Jadual 8.

(4 marks)
(iii) Which bulb is more economical to be used? Give a reason for your answer.
Mentol yang manakah lebih jimat untuk digunakan? Berikan satu alasan untuk jawapan anda.
.
[2 marks]
(d) Name one electrical appliance used at home and state one way to make it more efficient.
Namakan satu alat elektrik yang digunakan di rumah dan nyatakan satu cara untuk
meningkatkan kecekapannya.
...
[2 marks]

(iii)

SOALAN STRUKTUR
(a)(i)
(a)(ii)

Soalan Menkonsepsi 1
Mass per volume
Density of water > oil

(b)(ii)

d1 > d2

(b)(iii)

(d)

Energy saver bulb

High efficiency // less wasted energy
Refrigerator or any other appliances
Choose frost-free refrigerator // not allow frost
freezer // close the door tightly

(c)

The higher the density the higher the pressure//As the density increases the
pressure increases

(d)

The deeper the water the higher the pressure

The pressure in the tank > in the house (in the tap)
The difference pressure produce force to flow the

7 (a)
(b)
(c) (i)
(ii)
(d) (i)
(ii)
(e)
8 (a)
(b)
(c)(i)
(ii)

BAB

Soalan Modification 1
North pole 1
1. Increase the number of turns of coil
2. Increase magnitude of current / reduce resistance in the rheostat
1. Soft iron rod is attracted to the coils
2. Bar magnet pushed away
1. X becomes South pole and still attract the iron rod
2. Y becomes North pole / same pole as the bar magnet / force of repulsion
Iron rod is still attracted to the coil 1
Bar magnet will oscillate/ vibrate 1
Relay switch // electric bell etc 1
Soalan Making Dicision 1
The power of device is the rate of which it transfers energy
Electrical energy to light energy and heat energy
Heat energy
Filament bulb :
- 11.25 x 100 %
75
= 15 %
Energy saver bulb :
- 10 x 100 %
20
=50 %
LAMPIRAN 1
KNOWLEDGE/DEFINATION

ITEM
Derived quantity (Kuantiti
terbitan)
Error (Ralat)

Hypothesis (Hipotesis)

Inference (Inferens)
Physical quantity (Kuantiti
fizik)

1
1
1
1

Prefix (Imbuhan)
Random error (Ralat
rawak)
Scalar quantity (Kuantiti
skalar)

DEFINATION
A physical quantity derived from combinations of base quantities through
multiplication or division or both multiplication and division.
The difference between the measured value and the actual value.
A statement of an expected outcome that usually states the relationship between
two or more variables intended to be given a direct experimental test.
An initial interpretation or explanation concerning the observation.
A quantity that can be measured.
A word, letter or value used to simplify the description of the magnitude of a
physical quantity that either very big or very small.
Error due to mistakes made when making measurement either through incorrect
positioning of the eye or the instrument when making measurement.
A physical quantity that has magnitude only.

Scientific
notation/Standard form
(Bentuk piawai)

A way to write a numerical magnitude in the form A x 10", where 1 A < 10 and n is
an integer.

Sensitivity (Kepekaan)

be measured.

sistematik)

An error which may be due to the error in the calibration of an instrument.

Variable (Pembolehubah)

A physical quantity that can be varied in an experiment. There are three types of
variables; manipulated variable, responding variable and fixed variable.

Vector quantity (Kuantiti

vektor)
Zero error (Ralat sifar)

Accuracy (Kejituan)

Base quantity (Kuantiti

asas)

Consistency (Kepersisan)

Displacement (Sesaran)

Distance (Jarak)

Efficiency (Kecekapan)
Elastic potential energy
(Tenaga keupayaan
kenyal)

2
2

Elasticity (Kekenyalan)

Energy (Tenaga)

Free fall (Jatuh bebas)

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2

Gravitational acceleration
(Pecutan graviti)
Gravitational field (Medan
graviti)
Gravitational field
strength (Kekuatan
medan graviti)
Gravitational potential
energy (Tenaga
keupayaan graviti)
Hooke's law (Hukum
Hooke)
Impulse (Impuls)
Impulsive force (Daya
impuls)
Inertia (Inersia)
Kinetic energy (Tenaga
kinetik)
Mass (Jisim)
Momentum (Momentum)
Non-renewable energy
resource (Sumber tenaga
yang tidak boleh
diperbaharui)
Renewable energy
resource (Sumber tenaga
boleh diperbaharui)
Resultant force (Daya

Speed (Laju)

Velocity (Halaju)

Weight (Berat)

Work (Kerja)

Acceleration (Pecutan)

A physical quantity that has magnitude and direction.

Error due to non-zero reading when the actual reading should be zero
Accuracy of a measurement is how close the measurement made is to the actual
value.
A physical quantity that cannot be defined in terms of other quantities.
Consistency of an instrument is the ability of the instrument to measure a quantity
with little or no deviation among measurements.
The length of the straight line connecting the two locations, in a specified
direction.
The total length of the path travelled from one location to another.
The percentage of the input energy that is transformed into useful energy.
The energy stored in an object when it is extended or compressed by a force.
A property of matter that enables an object to return to its original size and shape
when the force that was acting on it is removed.
The capacity of a system to enable it to do work.
The motion when an object is acted upon by a gravitational force in the
gravitational field.
The acceleration of an object due to the pull of the gravitational force.
A region in which an object experiences a force due to the gravitational attraction
towards the centre of the Earth.
The gravitational force acting on a mass of 1 kg placed at a point in the
gravitational field.
The energy of an object due to its higher position in the gravitational field.
The extension of a spring is directly proportional to the applied force provided the
elastic limit is not exceeded.
The quantity of impulsive force multiplied by time.
The rate of change of momentum.
The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain at rest or, if
moving, to continue its uniform motion in a straight line.
The energy of an object due to its motion.
The amount of matter in an object.
The momentum of an object is defined as the product of its mass and its velocity.
An energy resource that cannot be replaced once it has been used.

An energy resource that is continually replaced and will not run out.
A single force that represents the combined effect of two or more forces by taking
into account both the magnitude and the direction of the forces.
The distance travelled per unit time. It is also defined as the rate of change of
distance.
The speed in specified direction. The rate of change of displacement.
The force of gravity acting on an object.
The product of an applied force and displacement of an object in the direction of
the applied force.
The rate of change of velocity.

Pascal's principle (Prinsip

Pascal)

Pressure (Tekanan)

3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

Archimedes' principle
(Prinsip Archimedes)
Atmospheric pressure
(Tekanan atmosfera)
Bernoulli's principle
(Prinsip Bernoulli)
Buoyant force (Daya
apungan)
Heat capacity (Muatan
haba)
Latent heat (Haba
pendam)
Melting point (Takat lebur)
Pressure law (Hukum
tekanan)
Specific heat capacity
(Muatan haba tentu)
Specific latent heat of
fusion (Haba pendam
tentu pelakuran)
Specific latent heat of
vaporisation (Haba
pendam tentu
pengewapan)
Temperature (Suhu)
Thermal equilibrium
(Keseimbangan terma)
Thermometer
(Termometer)

Pressure applied to an enclosed liquid is transmitted uniformly to every part of the

liquid and to the walls of the container of the liquid.
The magnitude of the force acting perpendicular to a surface per unit area of the
surface.
For a body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, the upward buoyant force acting
on the body is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the surface of the Earth as well as all
objects on the Earth.
Where the speed of a fluid is high, the pressure is low, and where the speed is
low, the pressure is high.
An upward force, resulting from an object being wholly or partially immersed in a
fluid.
The amount of heat that must be supplied to a body to increase its temperature by
1C.
The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change
of phase.
The temperature at which a substance changes its state from a solid to a liquid.
For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is directly proportional to its
absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant.
The amount of heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature by 1C for
a mass of 1 kg of the substance.
The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from the solid to
liquid phase without a change in temperature.
The amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from the liquid to
gaseous phase without a change in temperature.
The measure of the degree of hotness of an object.
A condition where two objects in thermal contact have no net transfer of heat
energy between each other.
An instrument that measures temperature or the degree of hotness.

Interference of waves
(Interferens gelombang)
Longitudinal wave
(Gelombang membujur)

The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gaseous state,

where the change occurs throughout the liquid.
For a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to its
volume when the temperature is kept constant.
For a fixed mass of gas, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to its
absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant.
The distance between the centre of a lens to its focal point.
A common point on a principle axis at which beams of light parallel to the axis
converge after passing through a convex lens or appear to diverge from it after
passing through a concave lens.
The result of the combination of two separate sets of waves with the same
frequency.
A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction parallel to
the direction in which the wave moves.

Period (Tempoh)

Real depth (Dalam nyata)

The distance of the real object, 0 from the surface of the water or medium.

Real image (Imej nyata)

Refraction of light
(Pembiasan cahaya)

An image that can be displayed on a screen.

The bending of a light ray at the boundary as it travels from one medium to
another.
An oscillating system is said to be at resonance when it is driven at its natural
frequency by a periodic force. Maximum energy transfer to the system occurs and
it oscillates at large amplitude.
The condition where the angle of incidence, i is increased further so that it is
greater than the critical angle, c. The light is no longer refracted but is internally
reflected.
A wave in which the particles of the medium oscillate in the direction
perpendicular to the direction in which the wave moves.
An image that can be seen by the observer but not be displayed on a screen.

Charles' law (Hukum

Charles)
Focal length (Jarak fokus)

Focal point (Titik folcus)

5
5
5

5
5

Resonance (Resonans)

Total internal reflection

(Pantulan dalam penuh)

5
5
5
5
5
5

Transverse wave
(Gelombang melintang)
Virtual image (Imej maya)
Angle of incidence (Sudut
tuju)
Angle of reflection (Sudut
pantulan)
Apparent depth (Dalam
ketara)
Concave lens (Kanta

The angle between the incident ray and the normal.

The angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
The distance of the virtual image, I from the surface of the water.
A lens that is thinnest at its centre. It causes parallel rays of light to diverge after

5
5
6

cekung)
Convex lens (Kanta
cembung)
Critical angle (Sudut
genting)
Diffraction of waves
(Belauan gelombang)

Electromagnetic
spectrum (Spektrum
elektromagnet)

Frequency (Frekuensi)

Node (Nod)

Principle of superposition
(Prinsip superposisi)

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8

Reflection of waves
(Pantualan gelombang)
Refraction of waves
(Pembiasan gelombang)
Wave (Gelombang)
Wavefront (Muka
gelombang)
Wavelength (Panjang
gelombang)
Amplitude (Amplitud)
Angle of refraction (Sudut
pembiasan)
Antinode (Antinod)
Coherent waves
(Gelombang koheren)
Damping (Pelembapan)
Electric current (Arus
elektrik)
Electric field (Medan
elektrik)
Electric power (Kuasa
elektrik)
Electrical energy (Tenaga
elektrik)
Electromotive force
(Daya gerak elektrik)
Internal resistance
(Rintangan dalam)
National Grid Network
(Rangkaian Grid Nasional)
Parallel circuit (Litar selari)
Potential difference (Beza
keupayaan)
Power (Kuasa)
Resistance (Rintangan)
Reverse biased (Pincang
songsang)
Series circuit (Litar sesiri)
Alternating current (Arus
ulangalik)
Electromagnet
(Elektromagnet)
Electromagnetic
induction (Aruhan
electromagnet)

passing through this lens.

A lens that is thickest at its centre. It causes parallel rays of light to converge after
passing through this lens.
The angle of incidence in the denser medium when the angle of refraction in the
less dense medium is equal to 90.
A phenomenon that refers to the spreading out of waves when they move through
a gap or round an obstacle.
A group of waves with similar natures. The members of the electromagnetic
spectrum arranged in increasing frequencies (decreasing wavelengths) are radio
waves, microwaves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays and gamma
rays.
The frequency of an oscillation is the number of complete oscillations made in one
second.
A point where a destructive interference occurs.
Principle of superposition states that at any time, the combined wave form of two
or more interfering waves is given by the sum of displacement of the individual
wave at each point of the medium.
Reflection of waves occurs when all or part of the waves are deflected after they
encounter an obstacle or reflector.
Refraction of waves occurs when there is change of direction of the propagation
of waves travelling from a medium to another medium due to a change of speed.
A travelling disturbance from a vibrating or oscillating source and carries energy
along with it in the direction of its propagation.
An imaginary line that joins all identical points on a wave.
The horizontal distance between two successive equivalent points on a wave.
The amplitude of an oscillation is the maximum displacement from the mean
position.
The angle between the refracted ray and the normal.
A point where a constructive interference occurs.
Waves having the same wavefront in which the coherent sources of waves
maintain a constant phase difference.
Damping in an oscillating system occurs when the system loses energy to the
surrounding, usually in the form of heat energy.
The rate of charge flow in a circuit.
A region in which an electric charge experiences an electric force.
The rate of electrical energy dissipated or transferred.
The energy carried by electrical charges which can be transformed to other forms
of energy by the operation of an electrical device or appliance.
The work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a complete circuit.
The resistance against the moving charge due to the electrolyte in the cell.
A network system of cables which connects all the power stations and substations
in the country to the consumers in a closed network to transmit electricity.
A circuit where all the electrical components are connected side by side and their
corresponding ends are joined together to a cell to form separate and parallel
paths for a current to flow.
The work done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to another.
The rate at which work is done.
The ratio of a potential difference to a current flowing through a conductor.
A state when a diode does not allow current to flow
A circuit where all the electrical components are connected one end after the
other to a cell to form a single pathway for a current to flow.
A current which flows to and fro in two opposite directions in a circuit. It changes
its direction periodically.
A magnet made by winding a coil of insulated wire round a soft iron core, so that a
magnetic field is produced when a current is passed through the coil.
The setting up of an electromotive force in a conductor due to a change in
magnetic flux caused by the relative motion of the conductor and a magnetic field.
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f, is directly proportional to the rate of change
of the magnetic flux or the rate of cutting of the magnetic flux.

Magnetic force (Daya

magnet)
Transformer (Transformer)

The direction of the induced current is such that the change producing it will be
opposed.
A force produced as a result of the combination of the magnetic field due to a
current and another magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet.
A device which steps up or steps down alternating current voltages.

Diode (Diod)

Direct current (Arus terus)

Doping (Pengedopan)

A current which flows steadily in one direction only in a circuit.

A process of adding a certain amount of specific impurities called dopants to
semiconductors to increase their conductivity.
The current that flows through the emitter terminal of a transistor. It is equal to the
sum of the base current and the collector current.

8
8

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

Emitter current (Arus

pengeluar)
Forward biased (Pincang
Full-wave rectification
(Rektfikasi gelombang
penuh)
Half-wave rectification
(Rektifikasi gelombang
separuh)
Logic gate (Get logik)
Maltese Cross tube (Tiub
palang Maltese)
Rectification (Rekfifikasi)
Semiconductor
(Semikonduktor)
Thermionic emission
(Pancaran termionik)

Transistor (Transistor)

Base current (Arus tapak)

Capacitor (Kapasitor)

pengumpul)

10
10

Gamma decay (Reputan

gama)
Gamma rays (Sinar gama)

10

genetik)

10

Half-life (Setengah hayat)

10

Isotopes (Isotop)

10
10
10
10
10
10

Nuclear energy (Tenaga

nuklear)
Nuclear fission
(Pembelahan nukleus)
Nuclear fusion (Pelakuran
nukleus)
Nucleon (Nukleon)
Nucleon number (Nombor
nukleon)
Nucleus (Nukleus)

A state when a diode allows current to flow.

A process where both halves of every cycle of an alternating current is made to
flow in the same direction.
A process where only one half of every cycle of an alternating current is
made to flow in one direction only.
Switching circuit that is applied in computers and other electronic devices.
A special cathode ray tube with a Maltese Cross in it which is used to investigate
the properties of cathode rays.
A process to convert an alternating current into a direct current by using a diode
or diodes.
A material which can conduct electricity better than insulator, but not as well as
conductor.
The emission of electrons from the surface of a heated metal.
An electronic device which has three terminals labelled as base, collector and
emitter.
The current that flows through the base terminal of a transistor.
A device used for storing charges and to smooth out output current in a rectifier
circuit.
The current that flows through the collector terminal of a transistor. It will only flow
when a suitable base current flows through the circuit.
A radioactive decay which emits a gamma ray photon.
Electromagnetic waves with very high frequency and short wavelength.
The effect of radiation that appears in the future generations of the exposed
person as a result of radiation damage to reproductive cells.
The time taken for the number of undecayed nuclei to be reduced to half of its
original number.
Atoms of an element which have the same proton number but different nucleon
numbers.
Energy released by a nuclear reaction as a result of a mass defect.
The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei.
The combining of two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus.
A subatomic particle found in the nucleus.
The total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
A very small core of an atom which contains most of the mass and all of the
positive charge of the atom.

10

Proton number (Nombor

proton)
Somatic effect (Kesan
somatik)
Alpha decay (Reputan alfa)

10

10

10
10
10
10

The total number of protons in a nucleus.

The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable nucleus accompanied by the
emission of energetic particles or photons.
Unstable isotopes which decay and give out radioactive emissions.
The effect of radiation that appears in a person exposed to radiation.
A radioactive decay which emits an alpha particle.

10

10

Cathode rays (Sinar katod)

Cathode ray oscilloscope
(Osiloskop sinar katod)
Chain reaction (Tindak
balas berantai)

10
10

An instrument that converts electronic and electrical signals to a visual display.

A self-sustaining reaction in which the products of a reaction can initiate another
similar reaction.

CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

Physical
quantities
Base quantities
Scalar quantity
Vector quantity
Systematic errors
Random errors

Zero error
Parallax error

QUANTITIES that are measurable

PHYSICAL QUANTITIES that cannot be defined in terms of
other physical quantities but has its own definition
QUANTITY which has only magnitude or size
(time, temperature, mass, volume, distance, density, power)
QUANTITY which has both magnitude or size and direction
(force, velocity, displacement, acceleration, momentum)
CUMULATIVE ERRORS that can be corrected, if the errors are
known.
(zero error, incorrect calibration of measuring instrument)
ERRORS that arise from unknown and unpredictable variations
in condition, and will produce a different error every time.
Random errors are caused by factors that are beyond the
control of observers.
(human limitations, lack of sensitivity, natural errors, wrong
technique)
ERROR that arises when the measuring instrument does not
start from exactly zero
ERROR in reading an instrument because the observers eyes
and the pointer are not in a line perpendicular to the plane of
scale

Speed
Velocity
Acceleration
Inertia
Momentum
Impulsive force
Forces in
equilibrium
Resultant force
Work
Power
Elasticity

RATE OF CHANGE of distance

RATE OF CHANGE of displacement
RATE OF CHANGE of velocity
PROPERTY of matter that causes it to resist any change in its
motion or state of rest
PRODUCT of mass and velocity
RATE OF CHANGE in momentum
An object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when forces act
upon an object and it remains stationary or moves at a
constant velocity
SINGLE FORCE which combines two or more forces which act on
an object
Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the
direction of the force
RATE at which work is done or energy is changed and
transferred
PROPERTY of an object that enables it to return to its original
shape after an applied force is removed

Hookes Law
Principle of
conservation of
energy

Principle of
conservation of
momentum
Newtons first
law of motion
Newtons
second law of
motion
Newtons third
law of motion

Hookes law states that the force, F applied to a spring is

directly proportional to the springs extension or compression,
x, provided the elastic limit is not exceeded.
Principle of conservation of energy states that total energy in
an isolated system is neither increased nor decreased by any
transformation. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but it
can be transformed from one kind to another, and the total
amount stays the same
The principle of conservation of momentum states that, in any
collision or interaction between two or more objects in an
isolated system, the total momentum of the system will remain
constant; that is, the total initial momentum will equal the total
final momentum.
Newtons first law of motion states that a body will either
remain at rest or continue with constant velocity unless it is
acted on by an external unbalanced force.
Newtons second law of motion states that the acceleration a
body experiences is directly proportional to the net force acting
on it, and inversely proportional to its mass. F =ma
Newtons third law of motion states that to every action there is
an equal but opposite reaction.

Pressure
Buoyant force
Pascals
Principle

FORCE acting normally on a unit surface area

NET FORCE acting upwards due to the difference between the
forces acting on the upper surface and the lower surface
Pascals principle states that a pressure applied to a confined
fluid is transmitted uniformly in all directions throughout the
fluid.(

Archimedes
principle
Bernoullis
principle

= )

Archimedes principle states that the buoyant force on a body

immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
by that object
(buoyant force = weight of water displaced)
Bernoullis principle states that the pressure of a moving fluid
decreases as the speed of the fluid increases, and the converse
is also true.

CHAPTER 4 HEAT
Thermal
equilibrium
Heat capacity
Specific heat
capacity
Latent heat
Specific latent
heat of fusion
Specific latent
heat of
vapourisation

A STATE when heat transfer between the two objects are equal
and the net rate of heat transfer between the two objects are
zero
HEAT ENERGY required to raise its temperature by 1C or 1 K
HEAT ENERGY required to produce 1C or 1 K rise in
temperature in a mass of 1 kg.
HEAT ABSORBED OR RELEASED when a substance changes its
state without a change in temperature is called the latent heat
of the substance
HEAT ENERGY required to change 1 kg of a substance from solid
state to liquid state, without a change in temperature
HEAT ENERGY required to change 1 kg of a substance from
liquid state to gaseous state, without a change in temperature

Boyles Law

Pressure Law

Charles Law

Boyles Law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is

inversely proportional to its volume provided the temperature
of the gas is kept constant
(PV = k)
The pressure law states that the pressure of a fixed mass of gas
is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (in Kelvin),
provided the volume of the gas is kept constant
(P/T = k)
Charles law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is
directly proportional to its absolute temperature (in Kelvin),
provided the pressure of the gas is kept constant(V/T = k)

CHAPTER 5 LIGHT
Refraction
Apparent depth,
d
Real depth, D
Total internal
reflection
Critical angle
Power of lens
Laws of
Reflection
Law of
Refraction
Snells Law

PHENOMENON where the direction of light is changed when it

crosses the boundary between two materials of different optical
densities as a result of a change in the velocity of light.
DISTANCE of the image from the surface of water (or the
boundary between the two mediums involved)
DISTANCE of the object from the surface of the water (or the
boundary
between the two mediums involved)
TOTAL REFLECTION of a beam of light at the boundary of two
mediums, when the angle of incidence in the optically denser
medium exceeds a specific critical angle
GREATEST ANGLE OF INCIDENCE in the optically denser
medium for which the angle of refraction, r = 90
MEASURE OF ITS ABILITY to converge or diverge an incident
beam of light
~the angle of incidence, i, is equal to the angle of reflection, r
(i = r)
-~the incident ray, normal and reflected ray will all lie in the
same plane
- The incident ray and the refracted ray are on the opposite
sides of the
normal at the point of incidence, all three lie in the same plane
- Obey snells law
The value of

is a constant.

CHAPTER 1 WAVES
Transverse Wave

Longitudinal Wave
Amplitude
Period
Frequency

WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is

perpendicular to the
direction of propagation of the wave
(water waves, light waves, electromagnetic waves)
WAVE in which the vibration of particles in the medium is
parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave
(sound waves, ultrasound)
MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT form its equilibrium position
TIME TAKEN to complete an oscillation, from one extreme point
to the other and back to the same position
NUMBER OF COMPLETE OSCILLATIONS made by a vibrating
system in one second

Wavelength
Damping
Resonance

Natural frequency
Reflection of wave
Refraction of
wave
Diffraction of
waves
Interference of
waves
Constructive
interference
Destructive
interference
Antinode
Node
Electromagnetic
waves
Monochromatic
light
Principle of
superposition

DISTANCE between successive points of the same phase in a

wave
DECREASE in the amplitude of an oscillating system is called
damping.
Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a
frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external
force. The resonating system oscillates at its maximum
amplitude.
FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY of which an object vibrates. It is the
frequency of a system which oscillates freely without external
force
Reflection of wave occurs when a wave strike an obstacle
Refraction of wave occurs when a wave travel from one
medium to another
PHENOMENON in which waves spread out as they passed
through an aperture or round a small circle
SUPERPOSITION of two waves originating from two coherent
sources
Constructive interference occurs when the both crests or both
troughs of both waves coincide to produce a wave with crests
and troughs of maximum amplitude
Destructive interference occurs when the crest of one wave
coincides with the trough of the other wave, thus cancelling
each other with the result that the resultant amplitude is zero.
POINT where constructive interference occurs.
POINT where destructive interference occurs.
PROPAGATING WAVES in space with electric and magnetic
components. Thesecomponents oscillate at right angles to each
other and to the direction of propagation of wave
LIGHT with only one wavelength and colour

Principle of superposition states that at any instant, the wave

displacement of the combined motion of any number of
interacting waves at a point is the sum of the displacements of
all the components waves at that point.

CHAPTER 2 ELECTRICITY
Charge, Q
Current, I
Potential
difference, V
Electric field
Resistance, R
Superconductor
Electromotive
force (e.m.f.)
Power rating
Ohms Law

WORK DONE to move a unit of voltage in a circuit

RATE of flow of charge
WORK DONE in moving one coulomb of charge from one point
to another in an electric field
A FIELD in which electric charge experiences an electric force
MEASURE of the ability of the conductor to resist the flow of an
electric current through it
CONDUCTOR in which its resistance will suddenly become zero
when it is cooled below a certain temperature called the critical
temperature
TOTAL ENERGY supplied by a cell to move a unit of electrical
charge from one terminal to the other through the cell and the
external circuit
RATE at which it consumes electrical energy.
Ohms law states that the electric current, I flowing through a
conductor is directlyproportional to the potential difference
across the ends of conductor, if temperature and other physical

conditions remain constant.

CHAPTER 3 ELECTROMAGNETISM
Magnetic field
Electromagnetic
induction
Root mean square
current/ voltage

Lenzs Law

REGION in which a magnetic material experiences a force as

the result of a magnet or a current-carrying conductor
MAGNETIC FIELD with the field lines pointing towards or away
from the centre of a circle.
PRODUCTION of an electric current by a changing magnetic
field (conductor cuts across amagnetic flux OR a change of
magnetic flux linkage with a coil)
VALUE of a steady current/ voltage, which would produce the
same heating effect in a given resistor.
The magnitude of the induced electromotive force (e.m.f.) is
directly proportional to therate of change of magnetic flux
linkage with the solenoid or the rate at which a conductor cuts
through the magnetic flux.
Lenzs law states that an induced electric current always flows
in such a direction so as to oppose the change (or motion)
producing it.

CHAPTER 4 ELECTRONIC
Thermoionic
emission
Cathode ray
Cathode ray
oscilloscope
Conductor
Semiconductor
Logic gates
doping
Rectification

EMISSION of electrons from hot metal surface

Fast moving ELECTRONS travel in a straight line in vacuum
measuring and testing INSTRUMENT used in study of electricity
and electronics
MATERIAL which allows current to flow thorugh them
MATERIAL whose resistance is between good conductor and
insulator
ELECTRONIC SWITCHES with one or more inputs and one
output.
Process of adding a small amount of impurities into
semiconductor
CONVERSION of a.c. to d.c. by diode

Atom
Nuclide
Proton number
Nucleon number
Isotopes
Half life
Nuclear fission

An atom consists of a nucleus which is made up of protons and

neutrons, with electrons orbiting the nucleus.
TYPE of nucleus with particular proton number and nucleon
number
NUMBER of protons in the nucleus of an atom
NUMBER of protons and neutrons in an atom
ATOMS of an element which have the same proton number but
different nucleon number(similar chemical properties but differs
in physical properties)
SPONTANEOUS DISINTEGRATION of unstable nucleus into a
more stable nucleus with the emission of energetic particles or
protons
PROCESS where an unstable nucleus becomes a more stable
ISOTOPE that has unstable nucleus that tends to undergo
TIME TAKEN for the activity of atoms to fall to half its original
value
PROCESS involving the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two

Nuclear fusion
Einsteins
Principle of MassEnergy
Conservation

nuclei of roughly equal mass and shooting out several neutrons

at the same time.
PROCESS involving the fusion of two or more small and light
nuclei come together to form a heavier nucleus.
The change of energy is linked to the change of mass by the
equation E = mc2

When the bus was moving, the passenger

were also moving at the same speed as the
bus.
When the bus stopped, the passengers
continued moving. Hence, they were thrown
foward.
The people in the car tried to remain in their
state of rest when the car started moving.
Hence, they were thrown back.
In both situations, the passengers were
resisting a change in their state of motion and
also known as Inertia.
The concept of inertia also known as
Newtons First Law of Motion, which states
that an object will remain at rest or continue
with a constant speed in a straight line unless
an external forces acting on it

LAMPIRAN 2
SOALAN UNDERSTANDING
TINGKATAN 4
CHAPTER 1
4.

Explain the differences between accuracy

and consistency of a measuring instrument by
using suitable examples.
Accuracy is the ability of the instrument to
give readings close to the actual value.
The value determined is accurate if it is near
to the actual value
The consistency of a measuring instrument is
the ability of instrument to record consistent
readings for each measurement with little
The measurement is consistent if the values
determined are close to each other.

7.

CHAPTER 2
5.

6.

A supertanker at a state of motions and have a

maximum velocity.
A supertanker has a larger mass.
A larger mass have a lot/larger inertia.
When the engine stop, the supertanker will
continue it state of motions.
So it take a longer distance/time to stop due to
its has a larger inertia.

To accelerate 2 objects with the same

acceleration, the heavier object needs a bigger
force. Explain the statement.
Higher mass, higher inertia
To accelerate an object, need to overcome the
inertia first.
Therefore, more force is needed for heavier
object.
Can you explain why the passenger
thrown forward when the bus suddenly stop and
the head of the passenger were thrown back
when the car started moving.

Can you explain why a maximum speed of

supertanker might need to stop its engine over a
distance of about 3 km before it can come to
stop.

8.

Explain why a softball player moves his

hand backwards while catching a fast moving
ball. Other situation: bend our knee after jump?
A soft ball has a high velocity.
A soft ball has a high momentum.
The soft ball player move his hand backward
to increase time impact.

The higher the time impact will reduce

impulsive force.
So we will not feel hurt.
9.

12.

Using the principle of conservation of

momentum, explain the working principle of
the rocket.
Fuel burns in the combustion chamber
Hot gases expelled at high speed
backwards
A large backwards momentum is produced
The rocket gains forwards momentum of
equal magnitude

13.

Why the boy with mass 40kg slides down

the flume when the angle of inclination is 30 o
and remains stationary when the angle of
inclination is 17.5o.(the frictional force is
120N)

Diagram (a) shows two identical spherical

plasticine balls before being released from the
same height. Diagram (b) shows the state of
the

plasticine balls when they hit the wood and the

sponge. It was observed that the plasticine
stopped more quickly when it hit the wood.

Explain the changes in energy that occur from

the moment the plasticine ball is released until
reaches the position in Diagram (b)

10.

Before released, the plasticine has

Gravitational Potential energy .
When falling , Gravitational Potential
energy changes to Kinetic energy
When the plasticine hits the surface of
wood , the Kinetic energy changes to
Heat energy / / Sound energy
The energy / work done is use to changes
the shape of sponge

14.

There are two types of force; attraction and

repulsive force between the particles of the
solid.
When the solid is stretched, the molecules
displaced away from each other
Attractive forces are acting to oppose the
stretching
When the solid is compressed, the molecules
displaced closer to each other
Repulsive forces are acting to oppose the
compression
11.
Terangkan bagaimana anda boleh menentukan
ketumpatan bagi penyumbat gabus.

Explain why the boat moves away from

the jetty as a boy jumps out of the boat onto
the river bank.

Explain how the forces between the

molecules caused the elasticity when the spring is
compressed and stretched.

Boy slide down when component of

weight parallel to the slope is higher than
frictional force
Resultant force acting to produced
acceleration
Boy remain stationary when component of
weight parallel to the slope is equal to
frictional force
Resultant force is equal to zero make the
boy in force equilibrium

When the boy jumps onto the river bank,

his momentum is forward.
Using the Principle of conservation of
momentum
the total momentum before and after
jumping is equal
The boat moves backward to balance the
forward momentum

15.

Explain why the need of steel structure

and the separate compartments to build in

timbang jisim gabus

ikat gabus dengan pemberat dan masukan
dalam silinder penyukat

16.

The inertia of lorry and load is very big

when it is moving
The separate compartments make the load
divided into smaller mass, thus reducing
the inertia of each unit.
The momentum of lorry and load is very
big when it is moving and produce a
bigger impulsive force.
The steel structure will prevent the loads
from smashing into the drivers
compartment during emergency braking.

Why we feel easier to pull the wheel

barrow compared to push the wheel barrow?

20.
The object on the wheel barrow has a
weight
When we push the wheel barrow there is a
force acting on the ground in the same
direction as the weight.
So the total force acting on the ground is
the weight and the force produced when
we push the wheel barrow.
When we pull the wheel barrow the force
produced is in opposite direction with the
weight.
So the total force acting on the floor is a
weight less the force produced when we
pull the wheel barrow

21.

Explain why the wooden block move

upwards and then float on the water surface
when it release from the above of the water
surface.

18.

19.

22.

Buoyant force increase when the volume

of water displace increase.
Buoyant force higher than weight of block.
Boyant force pushed the wooden block
upward.
The wooden block then float because the
buoyant force is equal to the weight of the
wooden block
The concept involve is archimedes
principle

Exlplain how the brake system operates when

the car needs to slow down.
When the brake is pressed ,a force is
applied to the piston and pressure is
exerted.
Pressure is transmitted uniformly
throughout the brake fluid.
Force is exerted on the piston of the brake
Brake pads will press against the brake
discs.
The toothpaste flows out of its tube while
squeezing at the bottom end
Explain how the toothpaste flows out and name a
physics principle related to it.
Force is applied to the toothpaste (tube)
Will produced a pressure
The toothpaste carry the pressure
and apply the pressure of the equal
magnitude to the whole tube

Valve release air from ballast tank.

Sea water flooded ballast tank
The weight of water displaced is smaller.
Buoyant force < Weight of the submarine

up in the air.

CHAPTER 3
17.

Explain how a submarine is able to

submerge into deep sea water

The balloon acted by two forces: Upthrust

and the weight of the balloon
The density of helium gas is less than the
density of surrounding air
Upthrust equals to the weight of the air
displaced by the ballloon
Upthrust is higher than the weight of the
balloon
Diagram shows a copper block and a
bowl
shape
copper
sheet of
same
mass.

Explain why the copper block sink in water but

the bowl shape copper sheet floats on water
two forces act on the copper block and
bowl are uptrust and weight
Uptrust small because small volume // vise
versa
The average density of cooper sheet is
smaller than density of water. Cooper
sheet will float.
Block sink because weight > uptrust
Sheet float because weight = uptrust
23.

Diagram shows a cross-sectional of a wing

of a moving aeroplane. The wing of the
aeroplane experiences a lift force. Explain why
the lift force acts on the wing of the aeroplane.

Higher velocity on the upper surface and

lower velocity on the lower surface
Thus produced lower pressure on the
upper surface and higher pressure on the
lower surface
Lift force = difference in pressure x area of
surface

24.

Explain the principle of Insect Piston

Spray
When the piston is pushed, air is forced
out through the jet of gas at a high speed.
According to Bernoullis Principle , the
pressure of the moving air decreases as the
speed of the air increases .
The higher atmospheric pressure in the
insect poison container will push
the insect poison liquid up through the
narrow metallic tube.

25.

Explain how the vacuum cleaner is able to

remove dust from the floor
the fan blow air out of the vent
produce a partial vacuum area in the
vacuum cleaner
difference in pressure occurs/atmospheric
pressure is higher than the pressure inside
the vacuum cleander
forced is exerted in/pushed in the dirt.

26.

Bunsen burner burning with yellow flame .

Explain how a blue flame can be produced.
High velocity of gas produce low pressure
at the jet
Higher atmospheric pressure pushes the air
inside and mix with the gas
Complete mixture of combustion will
produce blue flame
Enlarge the orifice to allow more air

27.

The roof of a house being lifted by strong

winds. Explain why.
the strong wind above the roof is moving very
fast
While the air in the house is at rest
according to bernaoulli principle the higher the
velocity, the lower the pressure
pressure inside the house is higher than the
outside.
a force is generated by the difference in
pressure which is strong enough to lift the roof.

28.

Water has high specific heat capacity
When water in tube passes through the
engine it can absorb large amount of heat
energy
Once water reach the radiator, the heat of
the water absorbed by the fin blade of the
The same time the fan in the radiator push the
heat out of the car.
30.

31. According to the principle of thermal

equilibrium and the working principle of a
thermometer, explain how a doctor can check
his patient temperature during medical
treatment.
Thermometer is placed in the mouth of
patient,
Heat is transferred from patients body to
the thermometer.
Thermal equilibrium between the
thermometer and patients body is reached
when the net rate of heat transfer is zero.
The thermometer and the patients body
are at the same temperature. The
thermometer
reading shows the temperature of the
patients body.
32.

Water is used as a cooling agent in a

radiator. Explain how water is used as a

Explain the changes which occur in the

liquid naphthalene when it is cooled until it
changes from the liquid to the solid state.

Explain why the hovercraft moves

with constant velocity in terms of the force
acting on it
The forward force = friction // forward thrust
= drag
The resultant force is zero
The hovercraft is in force in equilibrium

CHAPTER 4
29.

Terangkan bagaimana proses sejatan

mengakibatkan suhu cecair berkurang.
Di dalam air terdapat molekul yang
Dipermukaan air molekul-molekul
berhalaju tinggi memperolehi tenaga
kinetik tinggi
Ikatan antara molekul diatasi dan terbebas
ke udara
Air kehilangan molekul berhalaju tinggi
jadi TK air rendah, suhu berkurang

33.

As liquid naphthalene cools, it loses

energy to surroundings
Its temperature begins to fall until it
reaches freezing point 800C
At its freezing point, naphthalene begins to
solidify.
Although it is losing its energy to
surroundings, its temperature remains
constant because the average kinetic
energy remains constant

Why the ice cube stick to the wet finger.

Not to dry Finger?

34.

35.

36.

37.

Ice cube melt will absorb the heat

The heat is known as latent heat of fusion
When our finger wet it has a small amount
of heat and it will absorb by the ice cube.
The heat release from water cause it to be
frozen.
So the ice cube and finger will stick
together due to the frozen of water
Further more finger have a rough surface
and it helps the ice stick to our finger

Apabila beberapa titik ether terkena tangan

seorang pelajar, tangannya merasa sejuk.
Terangkan bagaimana ini berlaku.
suhu tangan lebih tinggi dari suhu eter
menyebabkan haba mengalir dari tangan
ke eter
eter meruap//membawa haba pendam
pengewapan
menyebabkan suhu tangan turun dan terasa
sejuk
Your body sweats when you are feeling
hot.How does sweating helps to cool down
When we do the activity using the
movement of our body a sweat will
poduce.
Acctually water evaporates from the skin
when we sweat.
In the process of evaporation the change of
phase of matter from liquid to steam occur.
The heat is needed to change this phase is
call the latent heat of vapourisation.
So we feel cool when evaporation occur
due to the release of heat in our body.
Factor influence the process: air velocity,
temperature and humidity.
We cannot use a cooling system of a
refrigerator to cool the hot room. Explain
why?
Cooling system of a refrigerator is smaller
Less cool air from refrigerator flow out
compare to the hot air flow in
Position of refrigerator is on the floor
The cool air does not flow upward
Why we put the fishes in the ice cube
rather than cold water?
Ice melts need heat known as latent heat of
fusion
Heat is absorb from the fish.
Fish will release it heat until the
temperature equal to 0

Cold water not experience a change of

phase
So just the process of thermal equilibrium
happen when they in thermal contact.
The lower temperature not to be 0 degree.

38.

Cuaca yang paling sejuk dialami pada

penghujung musim sejuk, iaitu apabila salji
salji perlukan haba untuk melebur
haba tersebut adalah haba pendam tentu
lebih banyak haba diserap dari
persekitaran

39.

Using kinetic theory of gasses, explain

how the pressure increase when the
temperature increase in the pressure cooker.
Molecules moving freely in random
motion
When temperature increase, kinetic
energy//velocity increase
Molecules strike the walls of pressure
cooker more frequently
The rate of change of momentum increase
Force exerted on the walls increase,
pressure (P = F/A) increase

40.

In the morning feel hot at the sea .Explain

why this phenomenon happens?
During the day,the land and the sea receive
the same amount of heat from the sun
Water has a higher specific capacity than
the land
The land is heated to a higher temperature
than the sea
The density of the air above the sea is
higher than the density of the air above the
land
The air above the land flows up and the air
above the sea flows towards the land
CHAPTER 5

41.

Tousrist at a beach observing the sunset.

Explain why the tourist can still able to see the
sun even though it has already set.

Refraction of light ray occurs

Light travels from less dense to a denser
medium
The light will bend towards the normal
In the observer eyes, the sun is still not
setting as they can still see the image from
refraction

42.

While driving a car on a hot day, you may

see a mirage on the road. Explain how mirage
occurred.

43.

The layers of air nearer the road warmer.

The density of air decrease nearer to the
The light travel from denser to less dense
area.
The light refract away from the normal
When the angle of incidence exceed the
critical angle, total internal reflection
occurs

46.

Diagram shows a ray of light directed

perpendicularly at a side of the semi circular
glass block. The ray passes through the glass
block to a point O before leaving the glass
block. The angle of incidence in the glass
block is 30 .

It is known that the sky is red during

sunset and the formation of rainbow on the
sky always appeared after raining. Explain
these phenomena.

47.

44.

The parallel rays of the sun will pass

through the a convex lens
After entering the lens, the light rays is
focused at the principal focus of the lens
At the principal focus, the light ray is
focused on one small area
Heat energy causes an increase in
temperature, the paper starts to burn

Explain how you would estimate the focal

length of a convex lens in your school
laboratory .

Air near the ground colder tha above air

Air layer the ground more denser
Sound travel slower in cold air/wavelength
decrease in cold air
Sound bend toward the observer/sound
bend away to normal
TINGKATAN 5
CHAPTER 6

48.

Explain why a piece of paper burns when

placed under a convex lens aimed towards hot
sun rays.

45.

Increase the angle of incidence,i, then

angle of refraction,r will also increase
Keep on increasing the angle of incidence
until angle of refraction is 90
The angle of incidence is called critical
angle
Increase the angle of of incidence more
than the critical angle, the ray will be
reflected.

Light consisting of seven colours.

Red has the longest wave length and the
last to refracted during sunset.
A droplet of water trap in the atmosphere
after raining acts a lens.
Light travel through this water droplet and
undergo the process of refraction ,total
internal reflection and dispersion of light
occurred.

The sound wave from the train(etc) can be

heard loudly and clearly at night. Why?

diagram above?

The convex lens is aimed/focused to a

distant object (infinity)
The screen is adjusted until a sharp image
is formed on the screen
The distance between the screen and the
lens is measuredl
Focal length = distance between the screen
and the lens

Terangkan bagaimana kedalaman laut

boleh diukur.
kedalaman laut boleh diukur menggunakan
peralatan OSK dan hidrofon
hidrofon boleh mengesan gelombang
ultrasonik dalam air yang dipancarkan
OSK boleh menyukat masa pantulan
gelombang selepas dipancarkan dan
Kedalaman boleh dihitung menggunakan
rumus v = (2d/t)

49.

Can you explain why the wave front of sea

water will follow the shape of the shore when
it approaches the shore?
The depth of the water decreasing as it
travel towards the shore.

The velocity and wavelength is decreasing

due to the wave travel from the depth to
the shallow area.
The wave will bend and change their
direction(refraction occurs).
So, wave front of sea water will follow the
shape of the shore.
50.

51.

Explain why strong double-glazed glass is

used as walls of the observation tower in an
airport.
All particles in a material/matter/glass
vibrate at its natural frequency
The airplane engine produces noise which
cause the air to vibrate
Due to resonance, the glass vibrate at a
higher/maximum amplitude
Need strong glasses to withstand the effect
of resonance which vibrate with high
amplitude
so that it does not brek easily

53.

The singer sing with a certain frequency

and produce sound energy
The energy is transferred to the glass
Resonance occures when the forced
frequency made by the singer is the same
as the natural frequency of the glass
The glass will vibrate with maximum
amplitude
Increase in energy transferred may cause
the glass to break

55.

Descibe the movement of two similiar

ships that are located at A and B. Explain?

The ship at A will move up and down

Because constructive inteference happens
at point A
The ship will remain calm at location B
Because destructive inteference happens at
point B
CHAPTER 7

56.

Two pin plug has no earth wire while

three pin plug has earth wire
Using 2 pin plug, if there is leakage of
current it will also flow through the metal
body while using 3 pin plug if there is
leakage of current it will flow to the
ground
The person who touches the metal body
will experiences electric shock while
using 3 pin plug, the current will be
earthed
Using 2 pin is not safe to the consumer
while using 3 pin plug is more safer to the
consumer

What happen to the candle flame when it

place between 2 metal plate supply with Extra
High Tension (EHT).

52.

A parallel circuit can run several devices

using the full voltage of the supply.
If one device fails, the others will
continue running normally
If the device shorts, the other devices will
damage.
A failure of one component does not lead to
the failure of the other components.
More components may be added in
parallel without the need for more voltage.
Each electrical appliance in the circuit
has it own switch

54. Explain why a three pin plug is more suitable

compared with a two pin plug.

How can when the oprah singer sing can

make the glass break.

Explain the advantages of parallel circuit in

a house wiring system.

Heat from candle produced ion
Positive charge will attracted to negative
plate while negative charge will atracted to
positive plate
Candle flame spread wider to negative
plate because positive charge is more
haviear than negative charge

Pembakar roti T bertanda 240 V, 650 W

dan pembakar roti U bertanda 240 V, 840 W.
Tentukan pembakar roti yang manakah
mempunyai elemen pemanas dengan
rintangan yang lebih kecil.
pembakar roti U
kedua-dua pembakar roti mempunyai
voltan kerja yang sama

kuasa elemen pemanas = V2/R //kuasa

dengan rintangan
pembakar roti dengan kuasa yang lebih
tinggi mempunyai elemen pemanas
dengan rintangan yang lebih kecil
57.

61.

Explain why the bulb connected to two dry

cells lights up brighter than one bulb
connected to one dry cell.

The two dry cells are connected in parallel

The effective e.m.f. remains the same
The effective internal resistance of the two
cells is smaller
A larger current will flow through the bulb
to make it brighter
58.

Sebuah bateri yang terdiri daripada dua

buah sel kering berlabel 1.5 V disambungkan
kepada sebuah mentol 2.5V 0.3 A. Didapati
bahawa mentol itu menyala dengan kecerahan
normal apabila suis dihidupkan. Terangkan
mengapa mentol itu menyala dengan
kecerahan normal walaupun d.g.e bateri lebih
bateri mempunyai rintangan dalam
sebahagian daripada d.g.e bateri hilang di
dalam bateri/sebahagian digunakan untuk
mengatasi rintangan dalam
voltan//beza keupayaan yang dibekalkan
kepada mentol hampir sama dengan voltan
kerja mentol

62.

The acceleration of a magnet that drops

vertically into a solenoid is much smaller than
the gravitational acceleration. Explain the
statement.
Magnetic flux change in the solenoid
Induced current generates in the solenoid
Direction of induced current always flows
in the direction to generate magnetic pole
to oppose the pole of the falling magnet.
Therefore, acceleration is lower

60.

Explain how the electromagnet crane can

be used to lift scrap metal.
Current flow through the solenoid,
magnetic field is produced
Soft iron core will be magnetized
The scrap metal attracted to the iron core
No current flow soft iron demagnetized or
metal scrap fall down

The electrical supply is continuous,

although there is faulty in one of the
power station
The electrical energy from other station is
directed to the the affected areas
The electrical energy from other area is
directed to the areas that need more energy
The overall cost of production of
electricity can be reduced

Diagram shows the pattern of magnetic

field formed when current flows in a coil.
Explain why the magnetic field strength is
greater at the center compared to the edge.
The direction of the magnetic field on the
left coil is anti clockwise
The direction of the magnetic field on the
right coil is clockwise

CHAPTER 8
59.

Most of our electric energy comes from

hydroelectric power stations and thermal
power station. These power station are
connected by cables to transmit electricity to
users in industries, offices, schools and
houses. This system is called the national grid
network.
Explain briefly the importance of the national
grid network system in distributing electric
energy to the users.

As the result the magnetic fields in the

middle of the coil are in the same
direction, ie upward.
So the magnetic field will be stronger in
the middle.
63.

Using the concept of the magnetic effect

of an electric current, explain with the aid of
diagrams how forces are produced on a wire
in the coil of direct current electric motor?
magnetic field / diagram
The current in the wire produces a
magnetic field / diagram

64.

66.

Explain how the generator works to

produce direct current.

65.

When 3 kV power supply are connected

Cathode rays/electron acceleratel in a
straight line.
Cathode rays carry kinetic energy and
converts to light energy when they hit the
screen .

The two magnetic fields interact/combine

to form a resultant / catapult field /
diagram
The motor will rotate due to the
differences of force produce//turning effect
from this two forces

rotate the coil in clock wise direction

the coil cut across the magnetic field
current is induced in the coil
the commutator change the direction in
the coil so that the direction of current in
external circuit always the same.

Explain the working principle of a

transformer.
When a.c. voltage is supplied to primary
coil, (alternating current will flow) and
the soft iron core is magnetized.
The magnet produced varies in magnitude
and direction.
This causes a changing magnetic flux pass
through the secondary coil.
An induced e.m.f. across the secondary
coil is produced
Explain the working principle of an
electric bell.
When the bell is pressed, a current flows in
the coils of the electromagnet, causing the
electromagnet to be magnetized.
The magnetized electromagnet attracts the
soft-iron armature, causing the hammer to
strike the gong.
The movement of the armature breaks the
circuit and causes the electromagnet to
lose it magnetism.
The light spring pulls the armature back,
remaking the contact and completing the
circuit again.
The cycle is repeated so long as the bell
push is pressed and continuous ringing
occurs.

68.

CHAPTER 10
69.

measure the thickness of paper in a paper
industry Explain how Strontium-90 is used
to measure the thickness piece of paper?
Put the radioactive source opposite the
detector
Detector is connected to the thickness
indicator
Detector detect the reading of the changes
in counts
Thickness is measured with the thickness
indicator
If the reading of the detector is less than
the specified value, the thickness of the
paper
is too tick/ vice versa

70.

Nuclear fission produces a chain reaction.

Describe how the chain reaction occurs in a
nuclear fission of an atom of Uranium- 235.
Neutron bombarded a uranium nucleus
and produced three neutral neutron
The new neutron bombarded a new
uranium nucleus
For every reaction, the neutrons produced
will generate a chain reaction
Diagram of chain reaction

71.

Runut alfa yang diperhatikan di dalam

kebuk awan resapan adalah lurus dan tebal.
dan mengapakah runut itu tebal dan lurus.

CHAPTER 9
67.

Explain how the green shadow produced

in the CRO screen?
6V heater supply produced electron on it
surface

Explain why the bulb light up at night

At night resistance LDR increases
VBE increases (higher than 0.7 V for
Si)
Ib increases and switch on transistor
Ic, increases and lights up bulb

Zarah mengionkan molekul-molekul

udara
Wap lampau tepu memeluwap pada ionion yang terbentuk
Runut tebal disebabkan kuasa pengionan
menghasilkan banyak ion.
Runut lurus kerana zarah alfa mempunyai
jisim yang lebih tinggi
72.

Explain how radioisotopes can be used to detect

the location of the leakage
Radioisotope is injected into the pipe
The water in the pipe flow with the
G-M tube as detector is used to find the
leakage across the pipe
Reading on detector increases when near a
leakage

LAMPIRAN 3
SKEMA CHARACTERISTIC ATAU PROPERTIES
BAGI SOALAN MODIFICATION DAN MAKING DICISION
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Chapter 1/2/3 (FORCES AND MOTION/PRESSURE)

ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MODIFI
REASON/EXPLANATION
CATION
More sensitif/more accurate/suitable to measure a
The small reading of scale 0.01 cm
small length
Front and rear crumple zones
to increase time of impact //to reduce impulsive force.
will inflate during collision/to prevent driver and
Air bags
passenger colliding with steering wheel and
dashboard.
to lengthen the time of impact so as to reduce
Dashboard - made of soft material
impulsive force.
Seat belt
to prevent passengers thrown foward due to it inertia
to prevent head thrown back due to it inertia
To withstand greater pressure at the bottom as the
Thicker wall at the base
pressure increases with depth
The wall is constructed using stronger
To avoid the wall from breaking / To increase the
materials / Using reinforce concrete
strength of the wall / To avoid leaking
To avoid flooding / To channel away the overflow
Equipped with the water overflow system
water
The mass must be high
so that the vehicles becomes more stable
the types of engine is diesel
so the cost is low
the diameter of the tyre must be bigger
so the pressure is low // more stable
Streamline / larus
reduce the resistance of water/ kurangkan rintangan air
Low Density /ketumpatan rendah
higher buoyant force/ daya apungan tinggi
Specific heat capacity high / muatan haba
absorbs heat slowly/serap haba dengan perlahan
tentu tinggi
High strength / Kekuatan tinggi
Difficult to damage / sukar rosak
Glass does not corrode with acid
Small diameter of capillary tube
To increase the sensitivity of the hydrometer
Makes the hydrometer stays upright/lower center of
gravity
Big diameter of bottom bulb
To obtaine a bigger upthrust/stability
Aerodynamics / cone shape at top
Reducing of air friction
Small mass
Higher rate of acceleration/easy to carry
Less than half of the bottle filled with
Enough space for increasing air pressure/ Big buoyant
water(water roket)
force
3 or 4 wings
The stability of the rocket
Angle of projection = 45 degree
Increase the flight distance
Low density of an object
So that it is lighter/accelerate faster
Higher density
Bigger inertia/stability
High engine power
To produce high acceleration// high resultant force
So that the spring is stiffer // motorcycle bounce less //
High spring constant // stiffer spring
less vibration
Wide tyre // smooth tyre
To increase stability // to reduce friction
use a spring with a bigger diameter
so that k is bigger
the spring is made from steel
the type of material influences k produces a bigger
a larger k(spring constant)
elastic PE. elastic P E changes to K E
spring is greatly compressed
so that elastic Potential Energy is bigger
slope of inclined plane is 45 degrees
so that distance is maximum
The melting point should be high
To be able to withstand high

36
37
38
39

The material must be very strong

Shaped with a curved surface at the top and
a flat surface at the bottom(aerodynamic)
Run with higher speed
Bend pole greater // jump when the pole is
maximum bend

40

41

42

43

44
45

thicker wall at the bottom

height from ground is high(dam)

46

47
48
49

High volume of air space in the ship

Spring arrange in parallel
Spring with thicker wire

50

51
52
53
54
55
56
57

Rope with small diameter(parachute)

Long stem(for hydrometer)
Stem with smaller diameter
Low rate of rusting
Semicircular curve shaped(for slope)
Smooth surface
Synthetic material

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To be able to withstand very strong force

To achieve an upward lifting force when moving at
high speed
To increase kinetic energy
Increase elastic potential energy
So that the pole can return to it original shape // So
that it will not break // light
Reduce air resistance
increase time of collision // reduce impulsive
force//increase landing time
Stronger / Not easy to break
// metal can rust easily
able to withstand the higher pressure at the bottom
to produce a greater difference in pressure
So that ship can float//prevent from overturn // ship
more stable // ship not sink deeper
Produce air buoyant force// ship can float
The spring sistem is stiffer/less extension/less elastic
The spring is stiffer/wire not easily break
Increase the stiffness of the spring//can with stand
higher force
Accupy less space/less mass
Cover a wider range of densities
Sink more and increase the sensitivity
To ensure tha material last longer
Exchange between KE and GPE easily
Easily to move/reduce frictional force
Light weight/air-proof material

Chapter 4 (HEAT)
ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MODIFI
REASON/EXPLANATION
CATION
the lid of the pan designed to lower the
the boiling point of water decreased
air pressure inside the pan
the lid of the pan made of substance which
heat will not absorbed by the the lid,so heat will not
has weak conductivity of heat
lost to surrounding
Made from material with low specific heat
Temperature in the pot can be increased quickly when
capacity
heated. This saves fuel / cooking gas.
Made from a low density material
Pot is light and more portable
Made from material that is not easily
Pot is more durable and will not contaminate the food
corroded or oxidized
with dangerous material
The handle of the pot is made from material The handle becomes hot slower and can be held
with high specific heat capacity
without scorching the hand
The pot is designed to have vertical
This makes the pot versatile because different food
compartments which can be added or
can be cooked at the same time
removed
Does not melt easily if there is an increase in
High melting point
temperature.
Pressure will be transmited uniformly in all directions/
Liquid that difficult to compress.
flows easily
High degree of hardness
Can withstand great force / does not break easily
Increase surface area // release heat quickly // engine
Large numbers of fin blade cools quickly

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14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
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27
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Big size of fan

High boiling point
High specific heat capacity
Increase the length/area of cooling coil
A storage tank must be place at a higher
level
Pipe embedded in plate must be long
The pipe inside the plate must be made of
metal
transparent glass
the thermometric liquid chosen is mercury
the capillary tube is made narrow and thin
the shape of the thermometer is round
the thermometer is placed in melting ice
the thermometer is placed in steam
Low specific heat capacity of ice cream box
Smaller size of ice cream box
Plastic PVC
Bright colour of outer box
Use insulator behind the absorber panel
Use an absorber panel which is painted
black.

Can suck more air // more air can be blow to the

engine /Can cool down a larger area
Not easily to vaporize // the volume of liquid reduce
slowly // takes a longer time to boil
Takes a longer time to become hot // the rise in
temperature is slow
increase the resistance/Can transfer the heat faster to
the surrounding
To give higher pressure
will enlarge surface area will absorbs heat faster
Metal is a good heat conductor,so it will transmit heat
to water easily/resistance hih
so that it is not easily broken
because it easily expands uniformly
so that it is more sensitive
so that it has a magnifying effect
to obtain the lower point
to obtain the upper point
Easy get cold // becomes cool quickly
Easier to carry // easy too become cool
Poor conductor of heat
Does not absorb heat from surrounding quickly
To prevent the loss of heat energy
A black surface is a good absorber of radiation so it
will absorb heat faster

Chapter 5 (LIGHT)
ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MODIFI
REASON/EXPLANATION
CATION
Allow more light to involve in total internal
Small critical angle.
reflection
strong material
not easily broken.
flexible material.
Can easily change the shape.
fine diameter
can enter small holes.
High refractive index
Total internal reflection can occur easily
Large number of signal/higher intensity of light can
Optical fibre in a bundle
propagate
Material with weak rigidity
The optical fibre can be bent easily
Material with great strength
The optical fibre can last longer/not easily spoil
A plane mirror mounted on an adjustable
Reflects light to the vertical screen, corrects lateral
arm
and vertical inversion
Use a converging mirror instead of plane
mirror
Place the filament at the centre of curvature
of the converging mirror // use high
powered lens
Use heat filter
Electric fan operates during and after the
lamp is switched on
Shorter // smaller size of binocular
Use prism to make the total internal

Focus the light directly to the lens // increase the

intensity of light.
Light goes directly from the lamp and reflect back on
the same path // increase the intensity of light
towards the transparency // to get brighter image
To absorb excess heat to the transparency
Cooling system to stabilize the temperature (heat
energy produced by filament bulb)
easy to carry
Produce upright image

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20
21
22
23
24
25
26

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refleclection occur
Higher density
Ojective lens with larger diameter
Eyepiece with higher power
Shorter focal length
Convex lense
u a bit bigger than f
periscope
2 plane mirror/prism
Casing to hold the mirror
Convex mirror
Optcal fibre with higher densities/ refrative
index inner compare than outer

Higher refractive indeks

More light passes through the lens
Shorter focal length
Higher power/increase the magnification
Can produce real image
Produce maximum magnification
Cheaper than cctv
Can reflect light from object
Easier to handle periscope
Wider field view
To ensure total internal reflection occur

Chapter 6 (WAVE)
ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/M
REASON/EXPLANATION
ODIFICATION
Waves are calmer due to divergence of energy/ Convergence
of waves at the cape/The bay is shallower .
Build near bay
The speed of waves decreases./The amplitude of waves at the
bay is small.
Reduce direct impact of the waves on the shore. To reflect the
Build retaining walls
waves from the shore./Protect the area from large waves
/avoid erosion
Waves passing through the gap will be diffracted in the
Concrete barrier structure with a gap
childrens area/the smaller amplitude of the diffracted waves
in between
causes the sea to be calmer there energy of waves decreases.
Build high retaining wall
To ensure the water not overflow.
Thick area at the base of the wall
To withstand high pressure at the base
Long wavelength
Easy to diffract
Short Slit
Diffraction more obvious
Ultrasonic wave
Can transfer more energy
Chapter 7/8 (ELECTRIC & ELECTROMAGNET)
ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MO
REASON/EXPLANATION
DIFICATION
Allow each electric appliances to be switched on and off
The electric appliances are connected
independently/Higher voltage
in parallel
One appliaces damage the another can still function
Fit fuse at the live wire in the fuse
To stop the flow of current by melting when a high voltage
box/Use miniature circuit breakers
of electric current flows through the circuit // switches itself
(mcbs)
off very quickly if the current exceeds
Earth wire connected to earth, so that when a fault occurs
Earth connection to the metal case of
and a current flows through the live wire and the earth wire,
electrical appliances
the fuse in the live wire will blow and cut off the supply.
Use low power lamps / install
To reduce the energy use/do not waste the electrical energy
fluorescent lamp
Regularly cleaning and removing dust
To make sure the appliaces function effectively
from the air filters of air conditioners
Low power lamp
Safe cost//electric bill
The room looks brighter//high output power//less power
High efficiency
wastage
Long life span
No need to replace often

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Low price/cost
Smaller surface area
High melting point
Long (coiled) metal
Low rate of oxidation
Low resistance
Low resistivity
Low rate of thermal expansion
use thin diaphragm
Use strong material

19

20

Thicker diameter of wire of coil

Using more powerful magnet to
increase the strength of the magnetic
field

21
22

23
25

Use stronger magnet

Use more number of turn for the coil/
Increase the speed of rotation
Diameter should be large

26

The rate of expansion should be low

27
28
29
30

Use capacitor
Using concave surface soft iron
Using a laminated iron core
Thick copper wire
Using soft iron for the core

24

31
32

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Winding the secondary and primary

coils on top each other.

Save money/cost
the resistance is higher
not easy to melt
to increase the resistance
Does not oxidize easily / can be used for a longer period
Current will increase / more heat will be produced
To reduce heat loss in the cables
The cables will not expand under hot weather
Easy to vibrate
Not easy to break
Increase the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage // The
magnitude of the induced current or is also increased
reduce the resistance of the coil
Increase the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage //The
magnitude of the induced current or induced electromotive
force is also increased
To reverse contact with brushes so that the current flow in
same direction in external circuit
To increase the magnetic field strength
Increase the rate of change of magnetic field/increase the
induced current
to reduce the resistance of the cables
So there is less expansion and less sagging in the cables
during hot days
To smoothen the current produced/to store electric charge
Produce radial magnetic field to ensure smooten rotatation
Reduce Eddy current in iron core
reduce the resistance of the coil
Reduce the hysterisis loss.
Easy to magnetize and demagnitize
Reduce Leakage of Magnetic Flux

ASPECT/CHARACTERISTIC/MO
REASON/EXPLANATION
DIFICATION
The half-life should be a few days
This allows for the location to be detected and thereafter the
long
The source should emit particles
This enables the radiation to be detected above the
ground/high penetrating power
The detector should be able to detect High ionising particles like and particles are absorbed by
particles (low ionising particles)
the ground
Has a long half-life
Can be used for a long time hence save cost
Can penetrate box and liquid and is less
Emits beta
dangerous than gamma
Solid form
Easy to handle and contain.
Low ionising power
Does not change the state and taste of juice
Higher ionising power
Easy for the medium to conduct electricity

No.

CONCEPTS

MAGNITUDE

MEANING

Acceleration

Density

Force constant

Low / small
High / big
Low / small
High / large
Small
Large / big
Low / small

High / large

Low / small
5

High / large

Slow increase of velocity

Fast increase of velocity
Lighter / less compact
Heavier / more compact
Spring is soft / easy to stretch
Spring is stiff / difficult to stretch
Easily heated up , short time to heat up
Need less heat to raise temperature
More difficult to heat up, takes more time to heat
up
Need more heat to raise temperature, use more fuel
Need less heat to melt / vaporise
Time to melt / vaporise is shorter
Need more heat to melt / vaporise

Low

Time to melt / vaporise is longer

Melts at low temperature / Freezes at low
temperature.

High

Starts melting earlier / Starts freezing later

Melts at higher temperature / Freezes at higher
temperature.

Melting point /
Freezing point

Starts melting latter / Starts freezing earlier

Starts boiling at lower temperature
Low
7

Slower to begin condensation

Starts boiling at higher temperature

Boiling point
High

Refractive index

Critical angle

Low / small
High / large
Small
Large / big
Low

10

Power (of a lens)

High
Short
Large / long

11

Focal length

12

Frequency (of
electromagnet wave)

High

13

Wavelength (for
electromagnet wave)

Long / large

14

Frequency (sound)

High

Starts boiling latter

Faster to begin condensation
Substance that refracts light less
Substance that refracts light more
Easier for total internal reflection to occur
Difficult for total internal reflection to occur
Large / long focal length
Refract light less
Short focal length
Refract light more
Higher power
Lower power
Short wavelength
High penetration power
Low frequency
Low penetration power
High pitch

Short wavelength

Low / small
15

Resistivity
High / large

16
17
18

e.m.f. of cell
Power (of electrical
device)
Voltage (working voltage
of electrical device)

Large / big
High / large
High

19

Big

20

Range (of a voltmeter)

Big
Short

21

Half-life
Long

Low
22

Rigidity
High

23

Strength

24

Surface tension

25

Rate of rusting

Low
High
Low
High
Low
High

Having lower resistance compared to wires of the
same thickness and length.
Having higher resistance compared to wires of the
same thickness and length.
Supply a larger current through the same resistance.
Uses more energy per second
Needs a smaller current to produce a fixed amount
of power.
Can measure large current
Usually has a lower sensitivity
Can measure higher voltage
Usually has a lower sensitivity
Decays faster
Reactivity decreases faster
Decays slowly
Reactivity decreases slowly
Changes shape easily when acted upon by external
force
Does not change shape easily when acted upon by
external force
Breaks easily / breaks under small external force
Difficult to break / Needs a large force to break
Wet a surface (glass) easily
Does not wet a surface easily
Does not rust easily / quickly
Rust easily / quickly

KEY WORDS IN THE QUESTIONS

No.
1.

Key word
Estimate

Expected response
Give a quantitative value based on calculation or reasoning.

2.

What

3.

How

4.

Compare

5.

is the value

6.

Differentiate

7.

When

8.

Construct

9.

Discuss

10.

Prove

11.

Suggest

12.

Find

13.

Calculate

14.

Describe

15.

Tabulate

16

Explain

17.

Classify

18.

Identify

19.

Sketch

20.

21.

Draw

Make figure such as chart/diagram/graph /shape using instruments

according to scale and in detail

22.

Why

Give reasons

23.

Name

Give name/terminology for something such as

component/process/instrument

24.

State

25.

Predict

27.

List

28.

Arrange

30.

Define

31.

Determine

32.

Illustrate

clear an idea.