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VERB TENSES REVIEW

PRESENT TENSES
The present simple and the present continuous
The present perfect simple
The present perfect continuous
The present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous
PAST TENSES
The past simple and the past continuous
The past simple and the present perfect simple
The past perfect simple
The past perfect simple and the past simple
The past perfect continuous
Time expressions
Used to
Would

PB

FUTURE FORMS
Will
Be going to
The present continuous for future use
The present simple for future use
The future continuous
The future perfect simple

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PRESENT SIMPLE AND THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

TENSE

FORM
Affirmative
I / You / We /
They work

The present
simple

The present
continuous

Question

I / You / We /
They don't
work

Do I / You / We /
They work?

He / She / It works

He / She / It
doesn't work

Does He / She /
It work?

I am ('m)
working

I am not ('m
not) working

Am I working?

He / She / It is
('s) working

He / She / It is
not (isn't)
working

Is he / she / it
working?

You / We / They
are not (aren't)
working

Are you / we /
they working?

You / We / They
are ('re)
working
PB

Negative

USED FOR...

Facts
and
states.
Habits
and
repeated
actions.
Stative verbs.
Actions
in
progress
at
the moment.
Temporary
situations.
Future use, to
talk
about
planned
events
or
arrangements.

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PRESENT SIMPLE AND THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
PRESENT SIMPLE - Revise Spelling Rules for 3 rd person singular -s

Facts and states: I'm very tired right now. / He goes to school in Madrid.

Habits and repeated actions: My mother usually takes me to school. / She hasn't got a boyfriend.

Stative verbs: The most common stative verbs are:

Verbs which express thoughts and opinions: believe, forget, know, remember, think (in the
sense 'believe'), understand.

Verbs which express likes and dislikes: hate, like, love, prefer.

Verbs of the senses: sound, look, smell, taste, seem, hear, appear.

Other: be, have (got), own.

Future use, to talk about timetables or after time expressions like as soon as, before, after...: The
last bus leaves at midnight. / We'll leave as soon as he gets here.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS Revise Spelling Rules for -ing forms

Actions in progress at the moment: I'm waiting for him. / Right now, she isn't studying.

Temporary situations: They're working in London this week. / We aren't revising for our exams at
the moment.

Future use, to talk about planned events or arrangements: We're meeting our parents at the
airport at 2.00 p.m.

PB

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND
THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
TENSE

FORM
Affirmative

Negative

I / You / We / They
have ('ve) worked

I / You / We / They
have not (haven't)
worked

Have I / You / We /
They worked?

He / She / It has
not (hasn't) worked

Has He / She / It
worked?

He / She / It - has
('s) worked
The present perfect
simple

USED FOR...

Question

The present perfect


continuous

I / You / We / They
have ('ve) been
working

I / You / We / They
have not (haven't)
been working

Have I / You / We /
They been
working?

He / She / It has ('s)


been working

He / She / It has not


(hasn't) been
working

Has he / she / it
been working?

PB

Past actions or
states
that
continue in the
present.
Past actions that
have an effect in
the present.
Past experiences
(when we do not
say exactly when
they happened).
Focusing on the
duration of an
action that started
in the past and
continues in the
present.
An action that
stopped recently
and affects the
present.

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND
THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE - Revise Spelling Rules for -ed forms
Past actions or states that continue in the present: We have lived here for years.

Past actions that have an effect in the present: She hasn't applied for a driving license so she can't start
driving lessons.

Past experiences (when we do not say exactly when they happened): Have you ever been to London?

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Revise Spelling Rules for -ing forms


Focusing on the duration of an action that started in the past and continues in the present: I've been
working at the office all day.

An action that stopped recently and affects the present: He's happy because he's just been speaking to
his girlfriend.

THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE vs THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


We use the present perfect simple to emphasize how many times an action has happened or the result of
an action. We use the present perfect continuous to emphasize the duration of an action or the action
itself.
He's asked her out three times. / I've studied all morning, so now I can go out. (the action is finished)
It's been raining since 9 a.m. / I've been doing my homework all morning. (the action isn't finished)
PB

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PAST CONTINUOUS

TENSE

FORM
Affirmative

Negative

USED FOR...

Question

The past simple

I / You / He / She /
It / We / They worked

I / You / He / She /
It / We / They
didn't work

Did I / you / he /
she / it / we / they
work?

The past
continuous

PB

I / He / She / It was
working

I / He / She / It was
not (wasn't)
working

Was I / he / she / it
working?

You / We / They
were working

You / We / They
were not (weren't)
working

Were you / we /
they working?

Completed
actions in
past.
States
past.

in

the
the

Things
that
happened
repeatedly in the
past.
Actions
in
progress at a
specific time in
the past.
Past
actions
which
are
interrupted
by
other actions.

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PAST CONTINUOUS
PAST SIMPLE - Revise Spelling Rules for -ed forms
Completed actions in the past: I applied for a job yesterday. / Did you see Martha?

States in the past: She was very ill last week. / They lived next door.

Things that happened repeatedly in the past: We went there every summer. / It rained every day of our
holiday.

PAST CONTINUOUS Revise Spelling Rules for -ing forms


Actions in progress at a specific time in the past: At nine o'clock, we were still waiting for you.

Past actions which are interrupted by other actions: When he arrived, she was leaving.

THE PAST SIMPLE & THE PAST CONTINUOUS


We often combine the past simple and the past continuous in the same sentence using when and while.
We can vary the order of the tenses within a sentence.
I was doing my homework when the phone rang. = When the phone rang, I was doing my homework.
The phone rang while I was doing my homework. = While I was doing my homework, the phone rang.

PB

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PAST SIMPLE AND THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
THE PAST SIMPLE & THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
We use the past simple to specify the exact time when something happened, or to talk about
a finished past action or situation.
I asked her out last week.
He bought her some flowers.
We use the present perfect simple if we are not specifying the time when something
happened, or to talk about something which started in the past and continues in the present.
She's seen him before.
They've known us for years.

PB

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND THE PAST PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
TENSE

FORM
Affirmative

Negative

USED FOR...

Question

The past perfect


simple

I / You / He / She / It /
We / They had
worked

I / You / He / She / It /
We / They had not
(hadn't) worked

Had I / you / he / she /


it / we / they
worked?

The past perfect


continuous

PB

I / He / She / It / You /
We / They had ('d)
been working

I / He / She / It / You /
We / They had not
(hadn't) been
working

Had I / He / She / It /
You / We / They been
working?

An
action
that
happened
before
another action in
the past.
To
talk
about
actions or situations
which
happened
before a specific
moment in the past.
With the expression
it was the first /
second / third time.
To emphasize the
duration
of
an
action that started
in the past and
finished before the
present time.
To
talk
about
actions or situations
in the past that had
an effect on another
action or situation in

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND THE PAST PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
PAST PERFECT SIMPLE - Revise Spelling Rules for -ed forms
An action that happened before another action in the past: The party had started before we
arrived.
To talk about actions or situations which happened before a specific moment in the past: By
the end of the evening, he'd written three essays!

With the expression it was the first / second / third time: It was the first time I'd ridden a bike.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Revise Spelling Rules for -ing forms


To emphasize the duration of an action that started in the past and finished before the
present time: We'd been revising for hours. (=But we are not doing any revision now)

To talk about actions or situations in the past that had an effect on another action or
situation in the past: She failed the exam because she had not been paying attention in class.
(=She did not pay attention in class, therefore she failed the exam)

PB

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND THE PAST PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND THE PAST SIMPLE
We use the past simple to talk about a completed action:
We got married on 11th July.
We use the past perfect simple to talk about actions or situations in the past which
happened before other actions or situations in the past. We use the past simple to talk about
the most recent of the actions or situations:
We went round to his house but he'd already left.
(=He left first, then we went round to the house)

PB

VERB TENSES REVIEW


TIME EXPRESSIONS
We can use different time expressions with different past tenses. Here are some examples:
Tense

Time expressions

Past simple

Ago, in 2008, last Tuesday, then, when, yesterday

Present perfect / past perfect

Already, ever, for, just, since, still, yet

They met years ago.


We've been here since midday.
We can use time expressions to link two different tenses in one sentence. Here are some
examples:
Tense

Time expressions

Past simple, past continuous

When, while

Past simple, past perfect

After, as soon as, as, before, by the time, until, when,


while

He saw her while he was walking home.


She ran out of the classroom as soon as the lesson had finished.

PB

VERB TENSES REVIEW


TIME EXPRESSIONS

PB

TIME EXPRESSION

USE
OFTEN USED...

When
While
As

To refer to an action that happened at the same time as another:


While I was walking home, I met Simon.
I dropped the box as I was lifting it into the car.
I was having a shower when Tim phoned.

As soon as

To mean 'immediately or soon after':


I opened the letter as soon as it arrived.
We went out as soon as we had finished eating.

Before
After

To show which action happened first:


After they had prepared all the food, they started decorating the room.
She had never won a medal before she went to the Olympics.

Still

To emphasize that a situation has not changed. In the present perfect, still is only used
in negative sentences:
It's Mike's birthday tomorrow and I still haven't bought a present for him.
It was eight o'clock and he still hadn't phoned.

Yet

To ask whether an action has been completed:


Has Paul phoned yet?
Is Tom here yet?

Just

To talk about an action that happened very recently:


I'm not hungry, because I've just had lunch.
She was excited because she had just bought some new clothes.

Already

To emphasize that an action has happened:


He is only 18, but he has already won Wimbledon.
I was going to clean the kitchen, but Sara had already done it.
Can she drive already?

VERB TENSES REVIEW


USED TO & WOULD
TENSE

FORM
Affirmative

Negative

USED FOR...

Question

Used to

I / You / He / She / It /
We / They used to
work

I / You / He / She / It /
We / They didn't
use to work.

Did I / you / he /
she / it / we / they
use to work?

Would + infinitive

PB

I / He / She / It / You /
We / They would
work

I / He / She / It / You /
We / They
wouldn't work

Would I / He / She /
It / You / We / They
work?

We used to go to the same school. (=but now we don't)


I didn't use to get on with my brother. (=but now I do)
I went out with him for two years. NOT I used to go out with him for two years.
When we were young, we would spend every summer in Seville.
I used to hate school. / I hated school. / BUT NOT I would hate school.

Repeated actions
in the past.
Past states which
are not true now.
We do not use for
or since with used
to. Instead, we
use
the
past
simple.
To
refer
to
repeated actions
in the past, but not
past
states.
Instead, we need
to use the past
simple or used to.

VERB TENSES REVIEW


FUTURE FORMS
TENSE

FORM
Affirmative

Negative

USED FOR...

Question

Will

I / You / He / She /
It / We / They
will ('ll) work

I / You / He / She /
It / We / They
will not (won't)
work.

Will I / you / he /
she / it / we / they
work?

I am ('m) going to
work.

I am not ('m not)


going to work.

Am I going to
work?

He / She / It is ('s)
going to work.

He / She / It is not
(isn't) going to
work.

Is he / she / it
going to work?

Be going to
You / We / They
are ('re) going to
work.
PB

You / We / They
are not (aren't)
going work.

Are you / we / they


going to work?

General
predictions
about the future.
Decisions that
you make as
you
are
speaking.

Plans
intentions.

and

Predictions
about the future
based
on
evidence
we
have now.

VERB TENSES REVIEW


WILL & BE GOING TO
WILL
Opinions or general predictions about the future: I think he will be there. / We won't pass our exams.

Decisions that you make as you are speaking: 'I'm hot.' 'I'll open a window.' / I'm bored. I think I'll go out.

BE GOING TO
Plans and intentions: He's going to meet his girlfriend tonight. / What are you going to wear to the party?

Predictions about the future based on evidence we have now: Those clouds look dark. It's going to rain. / I
forgot to buy her a birthday present! She isn't going to be very happy with me.

THE PRESENT SIMPLE AND THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR FUTURE USE
We use the present simple to talk about future events which have known timetables and about future events
after time expressions like as soon as, before...: The film starts at 8.00 p.m. / You need to practise more before
you take your driving test. We can also use the present perfect simple after those time expressions: I'll call
him as soon as I've found his phone number. OR I'll call him as soon as I find his phone number.

We use the present continuous to talk about short term plans or arrangements. We often mention a specific
time or place and the plans are usually short-term: He's starting school next week. / We're meeting our
parents at the airport at 2.00 p.m.

PB

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS AND THE FUTURE
PERFECT SIMPLE
TENSE

FORM
Affirmative

Negative

USED FOR...

Question

The future
continuous

I / You / He / She / It /
We / They will ('ll)
be working

I / You / He / She / It /
We / They will not
(won't) be working

Will I / you / he /
she / it / we / they be
working?

The future perfect


simple

PB

I / You / He / She / It /
We / They will ('ll)
have worked

I / You / He / She / It /
We / They will not
(won't) have
worked

Will I / you / he /
she / it / we / they
have worked?

Actions or events
that will be in
progress in the
future.
Events which will
fill
a
specific
period ot time in
the future.
Events which have
already
been
planned.
Actions or events
that
will
be
complete by a
certain time in the
future.
We usually use by
to explain when
the
specific
moment in the
future will be.

VERB TENSES REVIEW


THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS AND THE FUTURE
PERFECT SIMPLE
THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS
Events which will be in progress at a certain time: I won't be able to watch the match
tonight. I'll be doing my homework then.

Events which will fill a specific period of time in the future: We won't be studying all
evening.

Events which have already been planned: This time next week, I'll be moving into my new
flat.

THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE


We use the future perfect to talk about something that will be completed by a specific
moment in the future.

We usually use by to explain when the specific moment in the future will be:
By lunchtime, I will have written an essay.
I won't have read the whole book by tonight.
Will you have finished all your exams by next week?

PB