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ARAB ACADEMY FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND

MARITIME TRANSPORT
College of Engineering and Technology
Department of Electrical and Control Engineering

SENSORLESS MPPT TECHNIQUE FOR GRIDCONNECTED PMSG WIND TURBINE


Presented by
AHMED MOHAMED ABDEL MONIEM EL-SEBAII
Egypt

A Thesis Submitted to Electrical and Computer Control Department in
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE
In
Electrical and Control Engineering

Supervised by


Prof. Ahmed Anas El Wogoud Helal


Electrical and Control Department
Arab Academy for Science and
Technology

Dr. Mostafa Saad Hamad


Electrical and Control Department
Arab Academy for Science and
Technology
2013

DECLARATION
I certify that all the material in this thesis that is not my own work has
been identified, and that no material is included for which a degree has
previously been conferred on me.
The contents of this thesis reflect my own personal views, and are not
necessarily endorsed by the University.

(Signature) ............................................................................................

(Date) ............................................................................................

We certify that we have read the present work and that in our opinion it is
fully adequate in scope and quality as a thesis towards the partial fulfillment
of the Master's Degree requirements in
Specialization Electrical and Control Engineering
From
College of Engineering and Technology (AASTMT)
Date 30/12/2014
Supervisor(s):
[

Name: Prof. Ahmed Anas El Wogoud Helal


Position: Professor of electrical power engineering, college of Engineering and
Technology, Arab Academy of Science and Technology
Signature:
Name: Assistant Prof. Mostafa Saad Hamad Hamad .
Position: Assistant Professor of electrical power engineering, college of
Engineering and Technology, Arab Academy of Science and Technology
Signature:

Examiners:
Name: Prof. Ibrahim Fouad El Arabawy
Position: Professor, electrical engineering department, Faculty of Engineering,
Alexandria University
Signature:
Name: Assistant Prof. Mohamed Desouki Mahmoud
Position: Professor, electrical engineering department, Faculty of Engineering,
Port Said University
Signature:

Table of Contents

Page

Dedication ..

Acknowledgements ...

ii

Abstract .

iii

List of Symbols ..

iv

List of Abbreviations ....

vi

List of Tables .

vii

List of Figures ...

viii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION .......

1.1 Historical overview ....

1.2 Wind potentials in Egypt ...

1.3 Wind Energy Conversion Principle...

1.4 Thesis objectives .

10

1.5 Thesis outline ..

10

WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM .....

12

2.1 Introduction ...

12

2.2 Wind Turbine Technology .......

12

2.2.1 Horizontal- and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines ...

13

2.2.1.1 Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine

13

2.2.1.2 Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

15

2.2.2 Fixed Speed versus Variable Speed Turbines ....

15

2.2.2.1 Fixed Speed Wind Turbine system ..

16

2.2.2.2 Variable Speed Wind Turbine System ....

17

2.3 Generators and Topologies for Variable Speed Wind turbines ...

18

2.3.1 Synchronous Generators...

18

2.3.1.1 Wound Field Synchronous Generator

18

2.3.1.2 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator ......

19

2.3.2 Induction Generators ....

23

CHAPTER 2

2.3.2.1 Wound Rotor Induction Generator

23

2.3.2.2 Doubly Fed Induction Generator

24

2.3.2.3 Squirrel Cage Induction generator .

27

2.3.3 Market status .....

29

2.4 Summary ..

30

MPPT FOR WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM ....

31

3.1 Introduction ......

31

3.2 MPPT Control Techniques ..

32

3.2.1 Look-up Table Techniques ..

32

3.2.1.1 Power Signal Feedback (PSF) .

33

3.2.1.2 Optimal Torque (OT) ...

34

3.2.1.3 Modified Optimal Torque (MOT) ...

35

3.2.1.4 Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) ..

36

3.2.1.5 Voltage Signal Feedback ...

38

3.2.2 Hill Climbing Search ....

39

3.2.2.1 Fixed Step Size HCS .

39

3.2.2.2 Variable Step Size HCS ....

40

3.2.2.3 Dual Step Size HCS ...

42

3.2.3 Artificial Intelligence (AI) based Control Techniques ...

43

3.2.3.1 Fuzzy logic MPPT .

43

3.2.3.2 Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

45

3.2.4 Adaptive Techniques ....

46

3.2.4.1 Adaptive TSR Control .....

46

3.2.4.2 Self Tuning Sensorless Adaptive HCS ....

48

3.2.4.3 Sequential Adaptive Lookup Table .

50

3.2.4.4 Adaptive Compensation Control .....

52

3.2.5 Hybrid MPPT Techniques ...

52

3.2.5.1 Search-Remember-Reuse HCS ....

52

3.2.5.2 Limit Cycle Based HCS ....

53

3.2.5.3 Hybrid Optimal Torque .......

55

CHAPTER 3

3.2.6 State Space Feedback Linearization Technique ....

56

3.2.7 Sliding Mode with ESC .

57

3.3 Summary ...

57

CHAPTER 4

SENSORLESS MPPT TECHNIQUE ....

59

4.1 Introduction ...

59

4.2 Algorithm Concept and Features .

59

4.2.1 Rotor Speed Estimation

61

4.2.2 Designed MPPT Technique .

61

4.2.4.1 HCS Technique .

61

4.2.4.2 Fuzzy Logic Technique .

63

4.3 WECS Components ......

67

4.3.1 Wind Turbine

67

4.3.2 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator ...

68

4.3.2 Power Electronics Analysis ..

70

4.3.3 Low pass Filter ..

72

4.3.4 PI Tuning ...

73

4.4 Simulation results .

73

4.5 Comparing results ....

86

4.6 Summary ...

88

CHAPTER 5

Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Work .

89

5.1 Conclusions ..

89

5.2 Suggestions for future work ...

90

References
List of Publications


(
)



)(162 :

 Dedication 
I wish to dedicate my Master-thesis to

Dr. Tarek Mohamed El-Sebaii,


my beloved brother,
who passed away in the 2nd August 2012 at age 26 during the time I
was working on my thesis.

My Little brother was a real hard worker full of motivations and


eagerness to build his life, trying as much hard as he can and not
letting anything to get in his way. May ALLAH bless his soul and
rest in eternal peace.






(


)
(30 - 27 :)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I thank ALLAH for helping me throughout my research and giving me the
strength to finish this work.

I would like to express my deep appreciation and gratitude to my supervisor Dr. Mostafa Saad
Hamad who helped me in every way to finish my work, encouraging and supporting me all the
time of research and writing of this thesis.

A special thank goes to prof. Ahmed Anas, for his support during the thesis work, and his
help in improving the final version of this thesis to be in its best shape. His help is much indeed
appreciated.

Foremost, I also would like to thank my family for their support, and encouragement which
helped me in completing this research. My sincere gratitude to my father Dr. Mohamed El-Sebaii
for his patience, motivation and guidance through all my masters study. Special gratefulness and
thanks to my mother for her support and help.

Sincerely, I would like to thank my dearest friend Eng. Mohamed Diab for his great help and
support all the time. Also a very special thanks should goes to Eng. Mostafa bakkar and Eng.
Abdallah Fahmy for their magnificent help and motivation through the thesis work.

Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the
possibility to complete this thesis.

ii

Abstract
Wind power has become a rapidly growing technology as a kind of renewable energy
resources and plays a more and more important role with the increasing demand on energy
every day. Unlike fossil fuel power sources, With the fact that it emits no air pollution or
greenhouse gas, also its ability to generate high amount of power with no fuel consumption,
wind power is becoming much more reliable and promising to be number one source for clean
energy in the very near future.
Research of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) has gained great interest in the
recent years to improve its behavior and response. One of the most important aspects is the
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) which is important to extract the maximum power at
the different wind speeds increasing the efficiency of the Variable-Speed Wind Turbine
system when the wind speed is below the rated speed. The evolutions of power electronic
devices make it available to control variable wind speeds and much more reliable to design
large and small scale WECS.
Different types of generators are used in variable speed WECS as Wound Field
Synchronous Generator (WFSG), Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Squirrel Cage
Induction Generator (SCIG) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). With
the evolution of power electronics, using the direct driven PMSG had increased as a much
reliable method for power generation. PMSG is characterized by its high efficiency with no
need for additional power supply. Also it overcomes problems of noise, ride through
capability, mechanical failures and maintenance issues that are very common with gearbox
systems.
In this thesis, a MPPT control technique is introduced for a variable speed, grid connected
direct driven PMSG wind turbine. The PMSG is connected to the grid through three-phase
diode rectifier followed by a boost converter controlled with the MPPT technique to maintain
a constant DC bus voltage for different wind velocities and extracting the maximum available
power with the change in wind speed. The grid-side inverter then generates a voltage whose
fundamental component has the grid frequency, and also being able to supply the active
nominal power to the grid. Different power converter topologies and MPPT techniques used
for variable speed wind turbine systems are reviewed. The presented sensorless system,
estimates the rotor speed depending on some known generator parameters and measuring the
input dc voltage and current for the boost converter. The main challenge was to adapt and
modify this MPPT technique to work with high efficiency on large scale wind turbine system.
The system performance is investigated using MATLAB/SIMULINK for a 2MW wind turbine
system.

iii

LIST OF SYMBOLS
Symbols

Nomenclatures

Units

Ek
m
vw

A
d
Pw
Pm
Popt
Cp

opt

Pmax
Tm
G
Pgen
Po
topt
step

Vt
E
Ic

Ipeak
VLL
Vdc
VdcLink
Vg
IL
m
(error)
(error)
F(error)
F(error)
F(Duty)
F
i
ZCOG
Km
Rs

kinetic energy
mass of air
wind speed
air (wind) density
rotor swept area (Area swept by the turbine)
radius of the swept area
captured power of the wind
mechanical power
optimum power
power coefficient
tip speed ratio (TSR)
optimum tip speed ratio (TSR)
pitch angle
turbine angular speed
maximum points on the power curves
turbine mechanical torque
speed-up gear ratio
generator power
output electrical power
optimum torque
step size of turbine angular speed
angular Speed step size error
generator terminal voltage
induced emf
control winding current
efficiency
AC current amplitude command
PMSG Line voltage
diode rectifier DC rated voltage
boost DC output volt
grid voltage
inductance current
estimated rotor speed
fuzzy set for the first input reference (error)
fuzzy set for the second input reference (error)
membership function for first input fuzzy set
membership function for second input fuzzy set
membership function for output fuzzy set
fuzzy sets
firing level for the fuzzy rules
Center-of-Gravity defuzzification
peak line to neutral back emf constant
stator winding resistance

J
kg
m/s
m2
m
Kg/m3
W
W
W

iv

Rad/sec
W
N.m
W
W
N.m
Rad/sec
V
A
A
V
V
V
V
A
Rad/sec

Ls
Li
p
Vds, Vqs
ids, iqs
Ld, Lq
e
eq
fl
B
J
D
ma
Cf
Q
Kp
Kc
Pu

stator Leakage Inductance


In-Line inductance
number of poles
stator voltages in the d-q axis
stator currents in the d-q axis
d-q axis inductances
electrical rotating speed
q-axis counter electric potential
permanent flux linkage
friction coefficient
total moment of inertia
boost duty ratio
modulation index
shunt filter capacitor
quality factor
proportional gain
critical gain
oscillation period of the controller output

mH
mH

mH

V.S
Kg.m2

LIST OF ABBREVATIONS
Abbreviations

Nomenclatures

NREA

New & Renewable Energy Authority

TSR

tip speed ratio

MPPT

Maximum power point tracking

PWM

pulse width modulation

WECS

Wind energy conversion system

GSC

grid-side converter

HCS

Hill Climbing Search

SG

Synchronous generator

PMSG

Permanent magnet synchronous generator

IG

Induction generator

WRIG

Wound rotor induction generator

DFIG

Doubly fed induction generator

SCIG

Squirrel-cage induction generator

HAWT

Horizontal-axis wind turbines

VAWT

Vertical-axis wind turbines

WPS

Wind power system

AC

Alternating current

PSF

Power signal feedback

OT

Optimal torque

MOT

Modified Optimal torque

VSF

Volt signal feedback

P&O

Perturb and observe

AI

Artificial intelligence

ANN

Artificial neural network

WPGS

Wind power generation system

THD

Total harmonic distortion

ESC

Extremum Seeking Control

PLL

Phase Locked Loop


vi

LIST OF TABLES

Table NO.

Title

Page

2.1

Comparison between different types of generators in WECS

28

2.2

Market status for large scale wind turbine systems

29

4.1

Ratings of the case study components

60

4.2

Fuzzy logic rules

65

4.3

Wind turbine parameters

68

4.4

PMSG parameters

70

4.5

Ziegler-Nichols' Ultimate Gain Tuning rules

74

4.6

Comparing results with other techniques

87

vii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure no.

Title

1.1

(a) Global annual installed capacity (b) Global cumulative


installed capacity of wind power generation .....

1.2

Page
2

Egypt Wind Atlas, show colors yellow, red and purple areas with
high speeds (ranging from 7 to 10.5 m/s)...

1.3

Areas for future projects of wind farms in Egypt ...

1.4

Power available from wind ....

1.5

Cp versus tip-speed ratio .....

1.6

The power characteristic of a typical wind .....

1.7

Typical power curves for different wind speed showing different


areas of operation ..

1.8

Block diagram of a PMSG wind turbine .....

10

2.1

Classification of wind energy conversion system ................

12

2.2

Horizontal axis and vertical axis wind turbine ..

13

2.3

Fixed speed squirrel cage induction generator ...

16

2.4

Variable speed field winding synchronous generator ............

18

2.5

PMSG with a diode rectifier and boost converter ......

19

2.6

PMSG with PWM converter .........

20

2.7

PMSG with Matrix converter ........

21

2.8

PMSG with Z-source inverter ........

22

2.9

Partly-variable speed WRIG with dynamic rotor resistance ..

24

2.10

DFIG with back to back PWM converter ...

24

2.11

Variable speed Doubly Fed full-controller induction generator

26

2.12

DFIG with matrix converter ....

26

2.13

Variable speed squirrel cage induction generators ....

27

3.1

Block diagram to show basic idea of MPPT control .....

31

viii

3.2

Classification of MPPT techniques ........

32

3.3

MPPT control system with PSF technique ................................

33

3.4

Sensorless PSF control system .......

34

3.5

GRBFN-based wind speed estimation ...

34

3.6

Torque versus turbine speed characteristics ...

35

3.7

Idealized net torque versus tip-speed ratio .....

36

3.8

TSR control system ...

37

3.9

TSR technique ANN based wind estimator ....

37

3.10

Generated DC power versus DC voltage of the WECS

38

3.11

MPPT control system based on DC-voltage measurements .

38

3.12

Principle of HCS MPPT .....

39

3.13

A Current-Voltage based HCS MPPT ...

40

3.14

(a) Variable step size MPPT and (b) losing the MPPT under wind
change .....

41

3.15

Control flowchart for variable speed HCS algorithm ...

42

3.16

Dual step size HCS algorithm ..

43

3.17

MPPT system with fuzzy based control .....

44

3.18

Fuzzy logic control criteria .....

44

3.29

MPPT with ANN based wind velocity estimation ...

45

3.20

Online ANN training with back propagation ..

45

3.21

(a) ANN based MPPT controller and (b) internal structure ...

46

3.22

(a) Adaptive TSR basic principle, (b) memory function .....

47

3.23

Principle of the Adaptive HCS ....

48

3.24

Sequential adaptive lookup table MPPT technique ......

50

3.25

Principle of Adaptive compensation control technique

52

3.26

Structure of the intelligent MPPT algorithm ..

53

3.27

WECS system with limit cycle based HCS MPPT algorithm ...

54

3.28

Hybrid OT MPPT technique ...

56

ix

3.29

Feedback linearized system .....

57

3.30

Sliding mode ESC-MPPT control algorithm ..

57

4.1

Block diagram of the proposed system ..

60

4.2

Flow chart of conventional HCS technique ......

62

4.3

Block diagram of conventional HCS technique ...

62

4.4

Block diagram of proposed Fuzzy technique ....

63

4.5

Fuzzy control criteria .....

64

4.6

Fuzzy logic system .....

64

4.7

Membership functions of input variables (a) Error P /m (b)


Change of Error ..

65

4.8

Membership function of output variable; Duty .

65

4.9

Matlab model for the wind turbine ...

67

4.10

d-q and - axis of a typical PMSG ..

68

4.11

Equivalent circuit of the PMSG in the synchronous frame (a) qaxis equivalent circuit (b) d-axis equivalent circuit ...

69

4.12

Block diagram of a three-phase PLL .....

72

4.13

Low pass LC broadband filter .....

72

4.14

Simulation results for wind turbine characteristics optimal power


curve ..

74

4.15

Turbine Cp versus tip-speed ratio .....

74

4.16

Turbine Cp versus wind speed vw .........

75

4.17

Simulation results: (a) wind speed, vw, (b) wind turbine output
torque, Tm .........

75

4.18

Torque spectrum analysis ......

76

4.19

Simulation results: (a) measured and estimated rotor speed,


and m (b) rotor speed error percentage ........

4.20

76

Simulation results: (a) boost output voltage Vdc Link , (b) boost
output power Pdc .......

77

4.21

Simulation results: (a) reference and estimated speed for HCS


technique (ref and m) (b) speed error ......

4.22

Zoom in of reference and estimated speed for HCS technique


(ref and m) at wind speeds (a) 14m/s (b) 9m/s (c) 12m/s ....

4.23

Simulation results: (a) reference and boost DC voltage (Vdc

80

Simulation results: (a) q-axis grid current with reference current


(Iq and Iq ref) (b) PI output q-axis voltage .....

4.26

79

Simulation results: (a) d-axis grid current with reference current


(Id and Id ref) (b) PI output d-axis voltage .....

4.25

78

ref

and Vdc Link ) (b) DC voltage error .........


4.24

78

80

Simulation results: (a) grid three phase voltage, vg (b) grid three
phase current, ig (c) grid output active power Po (d) grid output
reactive power Qo ......

81

Simulation results: (a) grid voltage (vg) and current (ig) for one
phase (b) zoom in grid voltage (vg) and current (ig) at 14m/s ...

82

4.28

Grid current frequency spectrum ...

82

4.29

Simulation results: (a) wind speed, vw (b) grid output active

4.27

power Po (d) grid output reactive power Qo ......


4.30

85

Simulation results: (a) grid output power for sensorless system


compared to reference power (b) percentage of error in the output
grid power in case of sensorless system ....

4.31

84

Simulation results: (a) grid output power for sensored system


compared to reference power (b) percentage of error in the output
grid power in case of sensored system ...

84

4.32

WECS system with 1MW Load addition ...

85

4.33

Active power at the three stages for 1MW load ....

85

4.34

Reactive power at the three stages for 10KVAR load ......

86

ix

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing energy resources in
the world. Wind power generation does not produce any greenhouse gas, and has little
negative environmental impact. Over the past two decades, a variety of wind energy
technologies have been developed, including vertical- and horizontal axis turbines, fixedand variable-speed wind energy systems, pitch and stall controls, power converter
technologies, and grid integration strategies. Many large wind power generation facilities
have been developed worldwide in on-land and offshore wind farms [1].
Accordingly, the size of wind turbines has increased from a few kilowatts to a few
megawatts each. This thesis provides a comprehensive summary of various technologies
developed for wind energy systems as well as technical challenges and trends.

1.1 Historical Overview


Wind energy was used for thousands of years to mill grain, pump water and sailing.
With the development of electric power, wind power found new applications in lighting
buildings remote from centrally-generated power. The first electricity-generating wind
turbine was a battery charging machine installed in July 1887 by Scottish academic James
Blyth to light his holiday home in Scotland. Some months later, American inventor Charles
Brush built the first automatically operated wind turbine for electricity production in
Cleveland, Ohio of about 12 kW dc. However, it was only since the 1980s that the
technology has become sufficiently mature to produce electricity efficiently and reliably
from the wind [2]. Over the last two decades, a variety of wind energy systems have been
developed. Throughout the 20th century parallel paths developed small distributed wind
plants suitable for farms or residences, and larger utility-scale wind generators that could
be connected to electricity grids for remote use of power [3].
Wind energy is relatively clean and sustainable. It is one of the most promising and
fastest growing energy resources in the world. Figure 1.1 (a) shows the annual installed
1

capacity of wind power worldwide while Figure 1.1 (b) shows the total installed capacity
of wind power worldwide. The total cumulative capacity of global wind power has
increased from 6,100 MW in 1996 to 282,587 MW by 2012. The rate of installed power
increase every year than the year before, where the 44,799 MW of new capacity in 2012
was the highest rate ever installed in a single year. The wind industry achieved an average
growth of around 20 to 25% from 2001 to 2009. This impressive growth has been
encouraged by the continuous cost reduction in wind turbines, the governments motivating
programs for wind power production, and the public demand for cleaner energy source [4].

(a)

(b)
Figure 1.1: (a) Global annual installed capacity (b) global cumulative installed capacity of
wind power generation [5].
Today wind powered generators operate at every size between tiny plants for battery
charging at isolated residences, up to multi-megawatt wind farms that provide electricity to
national electrical networks [3][4].

1.2 Wind Energy potentials in Egypt


New & Renewable Energy Authority (NREA), An Egyptian organization established
in 1986 to develop and introduce renewable energy technologies to Egypt on a commercial
scale planning and implementing renewable energy programs in coordination with other
concerned national and international institutions [6].
Currently, the strategy targets to satisfy 20% of the electric energy demand from
renewable energy resources, by the year 2020, including about 12% from wind power, 8%
from others RE sources ( hydro power , solar energy , ....... ).
Egypt Wind Atlas was issued in December 2005 in co-operation with RISO
laboratories of Denmark, and Egyptian Meteorological Authority (EMA). It aims to
indicate the areas with high wind speed which is qualified for wind energy projects. The
Atlas concluded that, there are many promising areas with high wind speeds in the Gulf of
Suez; some areas are located on both sides of the Nile River, and some areas in Sinai.
Figure 1.2 illustrates the Egypt wind Atlas including the promising wind area [7].

Figure 1.2: Egypt Wind Atlas, shows colors yellow, red and purple areas with high speeds
(ranging from 7 to 10.5 m/s) [7].
It is worthy to mention that the Gulf of Suez region is found to be in the pathway of
the migrating birds from east and west Europe to the warm regions in the east and middle
Africa in autumn season and during their journey back home in the spring. The Birds
3

Migration study is considered among the key-elements required for environmental impact
assessment and needed to evaluate the feasibility of wind farm projects whether in
Zafarana or the Gulf of El-Zayt areas.
NREA plans to implement wind projects with total capacities of 2370 MW through
the next 10 years as shown in Figure 1.3. About 1370 MW of the total capacity will be
implemented by Private sector based on a Build, Own, and Operate (BOO) basis.

Figure 1.3: Areas for future projects of wind farms in Egypt [6].

1.3 Wind Energy Conversion Principle


The wind turbine basic principle is to convert the linear motion of the wind into
rotational energy. This rotational energy is used to drive an electrical generator, allowing
the kinetic energy of the wind to be converted to electric power. The kinetic energy
available from wind can be described in (1.1)

1
1
EK = m.vw2 = . A.d .vw2
2
2
The captured power of the wind (Pw) for a wind turbine is given by (1.2)

(1.1)

Pw =

1 m.vw 1 . A.d .vw2 1


=
= . A.vw3
2 t
2
t
2

(1.2)

Where = air (wind) density, A = rotor swept area (Area swept by the turbine), d = radius
of the swept area, D = thickness of the parcel (D = vw * t), m = mass of air = air density *
volume = *A*d, and vw = wind speed (distance/time).
Figure 1.4 shown below illustrates the wind turbine basic principle.

Figure 1.4: Power available from wind [8].

The mechanical power (Pm) generated by the wind turbine from captured power of the
wind depends on the power coefficient (Cp) of the wind turbine. The physical meaning of
the Cp curve is the ratio of the actual power delivered by the turbine and the theoretical
power available in the wind. A turbines efficiency, and thus power coefficient curve, is
what differentiates one turbine from another. This is shown in (1.3)

Pm = Pw .CP ( , ) =

1
. A.vw3 .CP ( , )
2

(1.3)

Where Cp (, ) = power coefficient function, = the tip speed ratio (TSR), and =pitch
angle.
The power coefficient function, Cp (, ), is dependent on two factors. The first factor is the
tip speed ratio (TSR) , and second one is the pitch angle . This function is normally
5

provided (in the form of a curve) by the wind turbine manufacturer since it characterizes
the efficiency of its wind turbines. If this curve is not provided, then it can be obtained by
performing field tests. The power coefficient can be evaluated by (1.4)

CP ( , ) =

Actual Turbine Power


P
P
= m = m3
Theoretical wind Power Pw 2 A.vw

(1.4)

The tip speed ratio (TSR), , refers to the ratio of the turbine angular speed () over the
wind speed. The mathematical representation of the tip speed ratio is given by (1.5)

d
vw

(1.5)

The pitch angle, , on the other hand, refers to the angle at which the turbine blades are
aligned with respect to its longitudinal axis. A typical Cp curve with a fixed pitch angle is
illustrated by Figure 1.5

Figure 1.5: Cp versus tip-speed ratio .


Since the air density and rotor swept area in (1.2) can be considered constant, the power
curves for each wind speed are only influenced by the Cp curve. Thus, it can be seen in
Figure 1.6 that the shape of the power characteristic is similar to the Cp curve in Figure 1.5.
Also from Figure 1.6, it should be noted that the point at which maximum power occurs for
each wind speed is different and distinct [3].

Figure 1.6: The power characteristic of a typical wind turbine.


The turbine mechanical torque is as follows

Tm = Pm

d
G. .vw

(1.6)

Where d = turbine radius, and G = Speed-up gear ratio.


Equation 1.6 shows that the mechanical torque produced by the turbine is a function of the
mechanical power, tip speed ratio, gear ratio, turbine radius, and wind speed. By
substituting Equations (1.3) and (1.5), the equations describing the power and tip speed
ratio respectively, into (1.6) we get:

Tm =

1
d
. A.CP ( , )
2
G.vw

(1.7)

After simplification (1.7) becomes:

Tm =

. A.CP ( , )vw Pm
=
2G
G

(1.8)

From (1.8) it can be seen that the mechanical torque available from the wind turbine is the
same as the classical physical equation of torque (tm) and power (Pm).

Where Pm = tm * angular velocity (). Like the power characteristic, it should also be noted
that the shape of the torque curve is characterized by the power coefficient (Cp). As a
result, the peak torque will also correspond to a particular rotor speed.
The relationship between power and wind speed is important to determine the
required control type, optimization, or limitation. The power curve is a plot that specifies
how much power you can extract from the incoming wind. Figure 1.7 contains an ideal
wind turbine power curve.

Figure 1.7: Typical power curves for different wind speed showing different areas of
operation.

Figure 1.7 shows that the power curve is split into three distinct regions. Region I
consists of low wind speeds and is below the rated turbine power, while in Region II the
turbine run at its maximum efficiency to extract all the available power. In other words, the
turbine controls with optimization in mind. On the other hand, Region III consists of high
wind speeds and is at the rated turbine power. The turbine control in this region is
mechanically based to limit the output power either by stalling the turbine rotor or
controlling the turbine blade angle with is called as pitch control. Finally, Region II is a
transition region mainly concerned with keeping rotor torque and noise low [9]. It is
considered the main region for operating the turbine with MPPT. Staying in this range
ensures that the available energy is above the minimum threshold and structural health is
maintained. The rated power, a point provided by the manufacturer, takes both energy and
cost into consideration. Also, the rated wind speed is chosen because speeds above this
8

point are rare. Typically, you can assume that a turbine design that extracts the bulk of
energy above the rated wind speed is not cost-effective [9].
With fixed speed wind turbines maximum power efficiency can be achieved only at a
given wind speed and will degrade at any other operating points [10]. With the evolution of
power electronics it becomes much more reliable every day to extract maximum power
available at different wind speeds increasing the use of variable speed wind turbines. In
variable speed wind turbine system, the turbine is not directly connected to the utility grid.
Instead, a power electronic interface is placed between the generator and the grid to
provide decoupling and control of the system. Controlling these power electronics to
extract the maximum available power is called MPPT. The main purpose of MPPT is to
control the rotor speed as each wind speed has a corresponding optimal rotor speed for
maximum power.
With the evolution of power electronics, using the direct driven PMSG had increased
as a much reliable method for power generation. PMSG overcomes problems of noise, ride
through capability, mechanical failures and maintenance issues that are very common with
gearbox systems [11]. Various AC/DC converter topologies are used with PMSG, the most
common among them is the back-to-back PWM power converter and the uncontrolled
diode rectifier with boost converter, also the matrix converter or the z-source inverter can
be used. The back-to-back PWM is characterized with its low harmonics but is suffers
from high switching losses and very complex control. On the other hand the diode rectifier
with boost converter is characterized by its simple design and control in most cases but
suffers from large harmonics and poor power factor [12].
This Thesis focus on the extraction of maximum power from a variable speed WECS
with a direct driven PMSG connected to the grid. The generator is connected to a threephase diode rectifier followed by a boost converter. The converters duty cycle is
controlled with a speed sensorless MPPT technique to maintain a constant DC bus voltage
and varying the current for different wind velocities extracting the maximum available
power with the change in wind speed [13]. The control depends upon sensorless rotor
speed estimator through measuring the input dc voltage and current for the boost converter.
The grid-side converter (GSC) then generates a PWM voltage whose fundamental
component has the grid frequency, and also being able to supply the active nominal power
to the grid. The system block diagram is shown in Figure 1.8.
9

iL

Lo

Cdc
Vdc

CdcLink

VdcLink

iL

V dc ref

vs

is

Figure 1.8: Block diagram of PMSG wind turbine.

1.4 Thesis objective


This thesis proposes a fuzzy based MPPT technique and comparing it with
conventional Hill Climbing Search (HCS) technique which is considered one of the
simplest MPPT techniques. Both techniques do not require any mechanical sensors and the
system knowledge is not needed where the system has high reliability and low complexity
and cost. On the other hand HCS suffers from oscillation around the optimum point is also
inevitable which affects the overall efficiency of the system, while fuzzy suffers from some
complexity and need to be trained offline [14].
The designed techniques are adapted to work with large scale wind turbine system.
Also passive low-pass filter was added at the generator side to minimize the harmonics.
The system performance is investigated using a MATLAB/ SIMULINK model for 2
MW, 690v PMSG based wind turbine.

1.5 Thesis outline


To achieve the aforementioned objectives, the thesis is organized as
follows:
Chapter one: gives a brief historical and mathematical overview on wind
energy conversion system. In addition, the main objective of the present thesis is
emphasized. Finally, an overview of the thesis content is presented. .

10

Chapter two: discusses wind turbine technologies including its different


fundamental structures. In addition, an overview for different types of generators and
power converter topologies is presented.
Chapter three: gives a brief survey for most common types of MPPT
techniques to extract maximum power from wind turbine.
Chapter four: discusses the presented system, and the designed control
techniques.
Furthermore,

Two

different

simulation

MPPT

results

are

techniques
presented

are
to

designed
investigate

and
the

discussed.
systems

performance. Finally, a discussion for those results with other techniques is


presented.
Finally, chapter Five: presents the main conclusions of the present thesis
and the author's suggestions for future research work.

11

CHAPTER TWO
WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM

2.1 Introduction
Any wind energy conversion system (WECS) is composed basically of three parts;
wind turbine, electrical power generator, and electronic power processing system. The
wind turbine and the electrical power generator compose the wind generator. The
classification for the whole wind energy conversion system is shown in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1: Classification of wind energy conversion system.

2.2 Wind Turbine Technology


Wind turbine is one of the most important elements in the wind power generation
system. It comes with different designs and characteristics [3].

12

2.2.1 Horizontal- and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines


According to the orientation of the spin axis, wind turbines can be divided into
horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) and vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT) as shown
in Figure 2.2

Figure 2.2: Horizontal axis and vertical axis wind turbine.

2.2.1.1 Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine


Horizontal-axis turbine shown in Figure 2.2 is primarily composed of a tower and a
nacelle mounted on top of tower. The generator and gearbox are normally located in the
nacelle.
Advantages:

It has high wind energy conversion efficiency.

The capability of self-starting, and access to stronger winds due to its elevation from the
tower.
[

13

Disadvantages:

High installation cost.

The need of a strong tower to support the nacelle and rotor blade, and longer cables to
connect the top of the tower to the ground.
To avoid damage to the wind turbine at very high wind speeds, power control for the

turbine is required. There are a number of different ways to control aerodynamic forces on
the turbine rotor, including pitch and stall controlled turbines [1].

a. Passive Stalled Controlled Wind Turbines


It is the simplest control method, where the blades of the turbine are designed such
that when the wind speed exceeds a predefined level, the rotor will start to lose power to
avoid damage to the turbine [3]. The passive stall control is robust and cost-effective. The
power control is smooth due to the slow aerodynamic power regulation. However, the
main disadvantage of passive stall control is the reduction of the system efficiency at low
wind speeds [15].

b. Pitched Controlled Wind Turbines


Pitch control is normally used for large wind turbines, where the blades can be turned
out or into the wind when the power output becomes too high or too low. This method is
effective in controlling the output power of the turbine [15]. The blades can be pitched
(turned into the wind) at low wind speeds to increase the system efficiency, and can be
turned into a deeper stall at very high wind speeds to avoid damage to the turbine. The
method can also keep the power output close to the rated output power of the generator
when the wind speed is in a certain range. The major disadvantages of pitch control include
the extra complexity due to the pitch mechanism and the higher power fluctuations at high
wind speeds [1].

c. Active Stall Controlled Wind Turbines


Active stall controlled wind turbine is essentially the combination of the two methods
mentioned above. It operates very similar to the pitch controlled turbine at low wind
speeds. However, once the machine has reached its rated power, active stall turbines will
14

turn its blades in the opposite direction from what a pitch controlled machine would [1].
By doing this, the blades induces stall on its rotor blades and consequently waste the
excess energy in the wind to prevent the generator from being overloaded. This method
features effective power control, low output power fluctuations, and ease of performing
emergency stops [3].

2.2.1.2 Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine


A vertical axis turbines spin axis is perpendicular to the ground as shown in Figure
2.2. The wind turbine is vertically mounted, and its generator and gearbox is located at its
base [2].

Advantages:

It has reduced installation cost, compared to horizontal-axis turbines.

Maintenance is easier, because of the ground level gear box and generator installation.

Its operation is independent of wind direction.

The blades and its attachments in vertical axis turbines are also lower in cost and more
rugged during operation [3].

Disadvantages (drawbacks):

It has low wind energy conversion efficiency. Its efficiency is around half of the
efficiency of horizontal axis wind turbines.

There are limited options for speed regulation in high winds. Vertical axis turbines also
have high torque fluctuations with each revolution, and are not self-starting [3].

2.2.2 Fixed Speed versus Variable Speed Turbines


The wind turbines can be classified into fixed and variable-speed wind turbines. The
rotor speed of a fixed-speed wind turbine is fixed to a particular speed. The other type is
the variable-speed wind turbines where the rotor is allowed to rotate freely. The variablespeed wind turbines use power maximization techniques and algorithms to extract as much
power as possible from the wind [1] [3].
15

2.2.2.1 Fixed Speed Wind Turbine system


The fixed speed wind turbine rotates at a fixed speed, which is independent of the
wind speed. The maximum conversion efficiency can be achieved only at a given wind
speed and will degrade at any other operating points [16]. Its widely used and developed
in Denmark. Normally, this type uses induction (or asynchronous) generators because of its
inherent insensitivity to changes in torque. The rotational speed of an induction machine
varies with the force applied to it, but in practice, the difference between its speed at peak
power and at idle mode (at synchronous speed) is very small. The fixed speed wind
systems have the generator stator directly coupled to the grid through soft-starter and
capacitor bank, as shown in Figure 2.3. Capacitor banks are used to reduce the reactive
power absorbed by the grid while the soft starter could be placed to smooth the starting
high inrush currents during the grid connection. Due to the mechanical characteristics of
the induction generator and its insensitivity to changes in torque, the rotor speed is fixed at
a particular speed dictated by the grid frequency, regardless of the wind speed. The
typically most used generator with this type is the Squirrel-cage induction generator
(SCIG) [10].

Figure 2.3: Fixed speed Squirrel cage Induction generator.

In this type the rotor of the wind turbine is coupled to the generator shaft with a fixed
ratio gearbox. Since the turbine rotates at a fixed speed, maximum wind energy conversion
efficiency can be only achieved at one particular wind speed. This is because for each wind
speed, there is a particular rotor speed that will produce the TSR that gives the maximum
C P value [17].

16

Advantages:

The main advantage of fixed speed system is that it is mechanically simple, robust and
stable with high efficiency and lower cost over variable speed system because there is
no need for power electronics or complicated control techniques.

Disadvantages:

Due to variation of wind speeds, the fixed speed turbine generates highly fluctuated
output power to the grid, causing disturbances to the power systems.

This type of turbines requires a sturdy mechanical design to absorb high mechanical
stresses.

2.2.2.2 Variable Speed Wind Turbine System


In variable speed wind turbine system, the turbine is not directly connected to the
utility grid. Instead, a power electronic interface is placed between the generator and the
grid to provide decoupling and control of the system. Thus, the turbine is allowed to rotate
at any speed over a wide range of wind speeds [1]. As discussed earlier, each wind speed
has a corresponding optimal rotor speed for maximum power. Using control techniques
available for variable speed systems; they are capable of achieving maximum aerodynamic
efficiency. By using control algorithms and/or mechanical control schemes (i.e. pitch
controlled, etc.), the turbine can be programmed to extract maximum power from any wind
speed by adjusting its operating point to achieve the TSR (tip speed ratio which is the ratio
of the blade tip speed to the wind speed) for maximum power capture.

Advantages:

The main advantage of this system includes increased wind energy capture, improved
power quality and reduced mechanical stress.

Disadvantages:

The disadvantage includes the additional manufacturing cost and power loss for using
power converters and the complexity of the control algorithms [3].

17

2.3 Generators and Topologies for Variable Speed Wind turbines


In this section the main configurations of generators and converters used for grid
connected variable speed WPS will be presented. Some generator topologies are equipped
with gear box while other doesnt. In fact, the gearbox allows the matching of the
generator speed to that of the turbine. The use of gearbox is dependent on the kind of
electrical generator used in WECS. However, disadvantages using a gearbox are reductions
in the efficiency and, in some cases, reliability of the system [18].

2.3.1 Synchronous Generators


The stator of the synchronous generators holds the set of three-phase windings that
supply the external load. The rotor, on the other hand, is the source of the machine
magnetic field. The magnetic field is either supplied by a direct current (DC) flowing in a
wound field or a permanent magnet.

2.3.1.1 Wound Field Synchronous Generator (WFSG)

Figure 2.4: Variable speed Field Winding Synchronous generator [19].

Figure 2.4 shows a typical wind turbine with a wound field synchronous generator
(WFSG) and it is connected to the grid through power electronic converters. The stator is
connected to network power converters. The stator of the turbine is connected to the utility
grid through two back-to-back pulse width modulated (PWM) converters. The main task of
the stator side converters is to control the electromagnetic torque of the turbine. By
adjusting the electromagnetic torque, the turbine can be forced to extract maximum power,
while the supply side converter regulates the real and reactive power delivered by the WPS
18

to the utility. On the other hand, the rectifier connecting the rotor and the utility converts
the alternating current (AC) from the utility grid into a direct current into the rotor
windings. DC current flows through the rotor windings and supplies the generator with the
necessary magnetic field for operation [20].

Advantages:

The WFSG has high machine efficiency, because it employs the whole stator current for
the electromagnetic torque production [21].

Power electronics converter allow direct control over the power factor (controlling and
minimizing the stator current) [22].

The pole pitch of this of this generator can be smaller than that of induction machine.
This could be a very important characteristic in order to obtain low speed multi-pole
machines, eliminating the gearbox [23].

Disadvantages:

The existence of a winding circuit in the rotor may be a drawback as compared with
permanent magnet synchronous generator as the size of the WFSG can be rather large.

In order to regulate the active and reactive power, the power electronic converter must
be sized typically 1.2 times the rated power.

2.3.1.2 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG)


a. PMSG with Uncontrolled Rectifier and Boost converter

Figure 2.5: PMSG with a diode rectifier and boost converter.


19

In Figure 2.5, the stator windings are connected to the utility grid through a diode
rectifier, boost converter, and a PWM inverter. The diode rectifier rectifies the variable
frequency and magnitude output AC voltages from the turbine. The boost converter
controls the electromagnetic torque of the generator. To boost the wind energy conversion
efficiency of the system, the boost converter is coupled with a maximum power point
tracking algorithm. At the grid side, the power inverter regulates the varying DC link
voltage and controls the output power factor [20].

Advantages:

The maximum power control algorithm for this system is much easier and simple design
than other systems.

No Need for gear box.

Disadvantages:

Power converter must be designed with full scale range.

The use of diode rectifier increases the current amplitude and distortion of the PMSG.
As a result this configuration is preferred for small scale WECS.

b. PMSG with back to back PWM converter

Figure 2.6: PMSG with PWM converter.

The block diagram in Figure 2.6 shows the stator windings of the PMSG wind
turbine connected to the grid through two back-to-back PWM power converters. The PWM
rectifier is placed between the generator and the DC link, while the PWM inverter is
20

connected to the network. Maximum power point tracking algorithms are usually
implemented in the utility side converter, but can generally implemented in either
converters [20]. The PWM modulation used in this configuration reduces the current
harmonic component in the input and output of the system. By using PWM converters,
there is also reduced torque pulsation on the generator and the output power quality is
improved [3].
[[

Advantages:

No need for power converter for field rotor.

This configuration reduces the current harmonics in the input and output of the system
and the output power quality is improved.

Disadvantages:

Power converter must be designed with full scale range.

The high cost of the permanent magnet and the demagnetization of the permanent
magnet material.

The performance is dependent on the good knowledge of the generator parameter that
varies with temperature and frequency.

c. PMSG with Matrix converter

Figure 2.7: PMSG with matrix converter [24].


[

The matrix converter does not use the DC link capacitor and provides a direct and
simple AC/AC conversion. Thus, it is a good candidate for WECS applications. The matrix
21

converter can control the magnitude, frequency and phase angle of the output voltage as
well as the input power factor. The matrix converter is an array of semiconductors which
interfaces between two multi-phase systems with different frequencies. Figure 2.7 shows a
PMSG based WECS with three-phase-to-three-phase matrix converter which is basically
composed of 9 bi-directional switches [25].
[

Advantages:

The matrix converter provides almost sinusoidal waveforms in the input and output
sides. The absence of a DC link capacitor means that the matrix converter has a compact
design and less weight [26].

At low switching frequencies, the efficiency of matrix converter-based WECSs is higher


than that of conventional WECSs, and the matrix converter has faster dynamic response

The matrix converter is highly controllable and allows independent control of the output
voltage magnitude and frequency and the input power factor.

Disadvantages:

Matrix converter suffers from some problems such as low voltage gain (cannot exceed
the AC input voltage), complicated control, bi-directional switches and lack of ridethrough capability [25].

d. PMSG with Z-Source inverter

Figure 2.8: PMSG with z-source inverter [27].


The Z-source matrix converters have been reported recently as a competitive alternative to
existing inverter topologies with many inherent advantages traditional inverters. A block
diagram for Z- source inverter topology is shown in Figure 2.8. Z-source inverter allows
22

the system to work with a low DC input voltage to generate higher AC output voltage by
using only single stage converter. In order to employ the voltage boost ability with single
stage converter, both switches in the same inverter phase leg must turn "ON" in same time
(shoot-through state) [27].
Advantages:

The main advantage of Z-source inverter is the system able to work with a low DC input
voltage to generate higher AC output voltage (voltage boost capability) by using only
single stage converter.

With this topology, reliability of the system is greatly improved (because the short
circuit across any phase leg of inverter is allowed) and converter output power distortion
is reduced (since there is no need to phase leg dead time).

Comparing with traditional inverters, the Z-source inverter is higher performance,


higher efficient and lower cost due to the use of fewer active components and control
circuit.

Disadvantages:

The power losses of the semiconductors of the Z-source inverter are significantly high
[28].

More passive elements are required.

Input current ripple is high. Input current is not smooth.

Complex control algorithm [29].

2.3.2 Induction Generators


Induction generators are widely used in wind turbines. There are two main kinds of
induction generators used in wind turbines that are: doubly fed and squirrel cage.

2.3.2.1 Wound Rotor Induction Generator (WRIG)


This type is an evolution of the fixed-speed SCIG-based WECS. This type of wind
turbine is referred as Partly-variable. The rotor windings are connected with external
variable resistance. The generator in this system is equipped with electronic controller to
adjust this variable resistance. Also a blade pitching system is used to maintain optimal
23

rotational speed of the wind wheel [30]. A block diagram for WRIG is shown in Figure
2.9.

Figure 2.9: Partly-variable speed WRIG with dynamic rotor resistance.


[

Adjusting the total rotor resistance controls generator slip and rotational speed. The
ability to operate over a wide speed (slip) range means that the wind turbine rotates at an
optimal speed which extracts more energy from the wind (at partial load). Also the ability
to control the rotor resistance leads to an increase in the dynamic slip range making it
possible to smooth the power transferred to the grid which is the main goal of this
system. This control of rotor resistance is mostly applied to reduce flicker emission from
the wind turbines to the grid as the mechanical power variations are converted to the
kinetic energy of the rotor and absorbed by the external rotor resistance of the converter
[31].

2.3.2.2 Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)


a. DFIG with back to back PWM converter

Figure 2.10: DFIG with back to back PWM converter.


24

The wind power system shown in Figure 2.10 consists of a doubly fed induction
generator (DFIG); the stator is directly connected to the utility grid to provide the
necessary magnetization for the machines operation. The rotor on the other hand, is
connected to the grid through two back-to-back PWM power converters [3].
The rotor side converter regulates the electromagnetic torque and supplies part of the
reactive power to maintain the magnetization of the machine. On the other hand, the supply
side converter regulates the voltage across the DC link for power transmission to the grid
[32], [33].

Advantages:

The main advantage of the DFIG is that only a part of the power production is fed
through the power electronic converter reducing the power converter size to 30% of the
wind power [34].

Low cost and reduced losses with the better efficiency, easy in realization of power
factor correction schemes, and the ability to control both the active and reactive power
delivered to the grid [35].

Disadvantages:

The main disadvantage of DFIG is that it is very sensitive to grid disturbance or fault,
particularly for the voltage dip.

Another main disadvantage of this generator is the use of slip rings and brushes to
connect rotor winding to back to back system. Since slip rings must be replaced
periodically, and so the use of DFIGs translates to more frequent maintenance issues.

Complex control for the back to back PWM converter and ride through capability.

b. DFIG with fully controlled converter


The WPS shown in Figure 2.11 presents a doubly fed full-controlled induction
generator, with a dc-transmission link. This type of WPS allows controlling the voltages
and frequencies of the rotor and stator, consequently this system provide a higher
flexibility on the control system than the conventional doubly-fed induction generator

25

shown in Figure 2.10. In addition, this WPS has been considered for offshore sites, which
are connecting to land gateway by submarine cables [36].

Figure 2.11: Variable speed Doubly Fed full-controller Induction Generator.

There are some others methods for interfacing DFIG to the grid. Among them, are
the matrix converter as shown in Figure 2.12 and the cyclo-converter, however they have
some disadvantages over the one presented in Figure 2.10, those are: poor line power
factor, high harmonic distortion in line and machine current for a cyclo-converter and for a
matrix converter, despite the elimination of the dc capacitor, this converter is more
complex and its technology is less mature [20].

Figure 2.12: DFIG with matrix converter.

26

2.3.2.3 Squirrel Cage Induction generator (SCIG)

Figure 2.13: Variable speed Squirrel Cage Induction Generators.


[

Figure 2.13 shows a WECS with squirrel cage induction generator. The stator of the
generator is connected to the grid through two back-to-back PWM converters. The stator
side converter regulates the electromagnetic torque and supplies the necessary reactive
power to magnetize the machine. The grid side converter on the other hand controls the
power quality generated power to the grid. It accomplishes this task by regulating the real
and reactive power delivered to the grid while regulating the (direct current) DC link
voltage [3] [20].
Advantages:

The squirrel cage induction machine is characterized with its very rugged, brushless,
reliability, and cost effective.

Disadvantages:

The stator side converter with SCIG must be oversized by 30-50% of machines rated
power in order to be able to satisfy the machines magnetizing requirement. Therefore,
although the SCIG itself is cost effective, the necessary power converters for its control
are relatively more bulky and expensive.

Complex system control whose performance is dependent on the good knowledge of the
generator parameter that varies with temperature and frequency.

27

A summarized comparison between the main types of generators is found in the next table
[37] [38].
Table 2.1 Comparison between different types of generators in WECS.
Type

Induction

Advantages

Disadvantages

Simple and low cost.

Simple and minimized


maintenance cost.

Generator

No control on real and reactive


power

Less optimum power extraction


capability

(SCIG-Fixed
Speed)

Poor power factor

High mechanical stress on


turbine mechanical components

Synchronous

Full speed range

Small converter for field

Possible to avoid gearbox.

Full scale power converter.

Complete control of active

Limited fault ride through

Generator

and reactive power.

capability.

Additional cost of power


electronics

Permanent

Full speed range

Full scale power converter

Possible to avoid gearbox.

Multi-pole generator (big and

Complete control of active

Magnet

heavy)

and reactive power

Permanent magnets needed.

Limited fault ride through

Synchronous

Brushless (low maintenance)

Generator

No power converter for field.

High energy efficiency.

capability.

Additional cost of power


electronics

28

Doubly-Fed

Induction

Limited speed range -30% to

Need slip rings

30% around synchronous

Need gearbox.

speed

Limited fault ride-through

Inexpensive small capacity


PWM Inverter

Generator

capability.

Complete control of active

Regular maintenance of slip ring


and gearbox

and reactive power.

Squirrel cage
Induction

Smooth grid connection

Full speed range

Full scale power converter

No brushes on the generator

Need gearbox.

Complete control of active

Generator

and reactive power

Proven technology

2.3.3 Market status


A survey for a large scale wind turbine manufactures is discussed in this section
showing the generators used and ratings for large scale systems adopted by each
manufacture [39]. The most common is the 2MW wind turbine system and it is
manufactured by almost all manufactures. The largest wind turbine system in the market is
about 8MW and is manufactured by Vestas while the largest direct driven PMSG wind
turbine system is about 6MW and is manufactured by Siemens and is used mainly for
offshore systems. Table 2.2 gives a small view on market status [40] [49].

Table 2.2 Market status for large scale wind turbine systems
Generator Type
Induction Generator
(Fixed Speed)
Induction Generator
(Variable Speed)

Power rating

company

55 kW to 5 MW

ABB

55 kW to 5 MW

ABB

2.3/3.6 MW

Siemens

1MW

Mitsubishi
29

DFIG

Direct Driven WFSG


PMSG (with gear box)

Direct Driven PMSG

1 MW to 5 MW

ABB

1.5 MW to 2.85MW

GE

2 MW to 3.3 MW / 8 MW

Vestas

2MW

Gamesa

2.3/2.4 MW

Mitsubishi

2/2.3/3/7.5 MW

Enercon

1.65 MW

El Sewedy Electric

1 - 7 MW

ABB

4.5/5 MW

Gamesa

up to 6 MW

ABB

4MW

GE

2.3/3/6 MW

Siemens

1.5 MW/ 2.5 MW

Gold wind

2 MW

JSW

2.4 Summary
In this chapter, the fundamentals of wind energy conversion system (WECS)
including classification and basic structure are presented. A survey is introduced on the
different wind turbine technologies. Also a survey for different types of generators and
power converter topologies are discussed for both fixed and variable speed wind turbines.

30

CHAPTER THREE
MPPT FOR WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM

3.1 Introduction
To increase the efficiency of variable-speed wind turbines, maximum power need to
be extracted at different wind velocities. As discussed earlier in chapter one, for every wind
speed there is only one rotor speed which leads to extract the maximum power available
[50].
Variable-speed wind turbines are able to operate at an optimal rotation speed as a
function of the wind speed. The power electronic converter may control the turbine rotation
speed to get the maximum possible power by means of a MPPT algorithm. In this way, it is
also possible to avoid exceeding the nominal power if the wind speed increases [51]. At the
same time, the dc-link capacitor voltage is kept as constant as possible, achieving a
decoupling between the turbine-side converter and the grid-side converter. The gridconnected converter will work as an inverter, generating a PWM voltage whose
fundamental component has the grid frequency, and also being able to supply the active
nominal power to the grid. The basic of MPPT is simply described in Figure 3.1 [34].

Figure 3.1: Block diagram to show basic idea of MPPT control.

31

The operating strategy of MPPT in wind power systems is to match the generator
loading with the wind turbine characteristics. Consequently, the rotor operates
continuously at speeds as close as possible to the maximum power points (MPPs). In the
last few years researches regarding new MPPT techniques had rapidly increased to achieve
better and faster techniques. This chapter is trying to offer a complete and up-to-date
review of the main ideas for most of the available MPPT techniques.
MPPT control could be classified either sensor or sensorless based [52]. The sensor
based technique either use wind speed sensor or rotor speed sensor or both [53]. In this
chapter MPPT is classified into seven main categories according to the technique algorithm
as shown in Figure 3.2.
[

3.2 MPPT Control Techniques


The MPPT techniques are classified as shown in Figure 3.2. The techniques may be
with wind speed sensor, rotor speed sensor or sensorless [54].

Figure 3.2: Classification of MPPT techniques.

3.2.1 Look-up Table Techniques


Look up table MPPT techniques require either a pre-programmed 2D lookup table
with stored values of optimal generator speed and the corresponding maximum power or
32

maximum torque at various wind speeds; or a cubic mapping function to provide reference
signal for optimal turbine power or torque at the operating generator speed [55].

3.2.1.1 Power Signal Feedback (PSF)


A block diagram of a PSF based WG control system is shown in Figure 3.3. The
characteristics of the optimal power versus the rotating speed is stored in a microcontroller
memory. The turbine speed is measured then the optimal output power is obtained from the
lock up table and compared to the actual output power. A controller is acting on the
resulting error in order to control the power converter, consequently controls the output
power delivered to the load or the grid [56].

Figure 3.3: MPPT control system with PSF technique.


Disadvantages
The main disadvantage of this method is that it is based on the knowledge of the WG

optimal power characteristics, which is usually not available with a high degree of
accuracy and also changes with the rotor aging.

Sensorless Power Signal Feedback:


For a PMSG wind turbine, the rotor speed is calculated from the measured generator

output voltage, while the optimal output current is calculated using an approximation of the
current versus the rotational-speed optimal characteristic [57]. The error resulting from the
comparison of the calculated and the actual current is used to control the power converter,
as illustrated in Figure 3.4. Hence it provides a power reference for the controller
33

corresponding to MPP without measuring the turbine shaft speed [18]. However the
knowledge of the optimal power characteristic is usually not available with a high degree
of accuracy and changes with the rotor aging.

Figure 3.4: Sensorless PSF control system.

A sensorless PSF can be achieved by estimating the wind speed and avoid using the
anemometer, as illustrated in Figure 3.5. In [58], a Gaussian radial basis function network
(GRBFN) is used to provide a nonlinear input-output mapping for the WT aerodynamic
characteristics. The wind speed is estimated from the measured generator electrical power
while the generator power losses and its dynamics are considered.

Figure 3.5: GRBFN-based wind speed estimation.

3.2.1.2 Optimal Torque (OT)


The OT technique utilizes the quadratic optimal torque curve as illustrated by Figure
3.6 [13]. The command signal for controlling the generator torque to maximize the output
2
power is given by Topt = Kopt
[59] [60].

34

Figure 3.6: Torque versus turbine speed characteristics.

3.2.1.3 Modified Optimal Torque (MOT)


The MOT technique is presented in [61]-[63]. It copes with the WT system of large
inertia which prohibits the system to instantly follow the torque command under changing
wind. An idealized net torque versus the Tip-Speed Ratio (TSR), , is shown in Figure 3.7.
The net torque is positive at low values of , and the control torque is reduced. Conversely,
when the net torque is negative, the torque is increased and fast response is achieved. The
net torque is a nearly linear function of near the operating point. By detecting rotor
acceleration, consequently the net torque, a measure of instantaneous can be determined.
In steady state operation, where the wind is constant, the generator acceleration is zero, the
MOT law reduces back to the conventional law and the system is driven to the actual
maxima.
According to the Newtonian equation of a one-mass system: Tm T = J, the MOT
control generates a larger acceleration/ deceleration enabling fast tracking performance. A
net torque term responsible for the acceleration or deceleration of the generators speed is
incorporated to the conventional OT command
T = K2 G(Tm K2 )

(3.1)

Where Tm is the mechanical torque captured by the wind turbine, T is the net torque and G
is a positive definite gain to adjust the contribution of the net torque Tm K2 during the
transient.
35

Figure 3.7: Idealized net torque versus tip-speed ratio.


Advantages:

The rapid tracking of the wind speed and enabling the wind turbine to follow the
command signal rather rapidly.

Disadvantages:

The drawback of this modification is that it is required to have a measure of the


turbines mechanical torque which is either calculated via Newtonian equation of a onemass system or estimated via torque observer as in [20]. In both cases we require to
know the system parameters such as the turbine inertia J, which may change over time
due to aging.

3.2.1.4 Tip Speed Ratio (TSR)


This technique depends on wind speed measurement and requires a pre-known value
of the optimal TSR to convert the measured wind velocity into the corresponding reference
for optimal generator speed [56], [64]. The measured and calculated rotor speed are
compared while the resulting error is used to control a power converter, as shown in Figure
3.8.

36

Figure 3.8: TSR control system.


Disadvantages:

Apart from the accuracy reduction due to the approximation of the WG characteristics,
an accurate anemometer is required for the implementation, which increases the system
cost.

Extra processing of wind-speed measurement must be incorporated in the control system


for a reliable computation of the available wind energy, which increases the control
system complexity.

Sensorless Tip Speed Ratio:


The conventional TSR technique is modified to estimate the wind speed and avoid

using the anemometer. In [65], the wind speed is estimated using a neural network
algorithm, in addition to the knowledge of optimal TSR, the optimal rotor speed command
is calculated and applied to the speed control loop of the wind turbine control system, as
illustrated in Figure 3.9. The ANN inputs are the rotor speed and mechanical power.

Figure 3.9: TSR technique ANN based wind estimator.

37

3.2.1.5 Voltage Signal Feedback (VSF)


For every wind speed, there is a value of the DC voltage Vdc that achieves the MPP
curve as shown in Figure 3.10 [66].

Figure 3.10: Generated DC power versus DC voltage of the WECS.

The turbine output power is determined from the rectifier DC voltage and the output
frequency as shown in Figure 3.11. The derivative of the stator frequency makes the
system high sensitive. The look up table contains the maximum power curve. The input to
the look up table is the calculated power by the controller and the output is the reference
DC voltage. This technique does not utilize speed sensors and tracks the maximum power
irrespective of the wind speed profile.

Figure 3.11: MPPT control system based on DC-voltage measurements.

38

Advantages:

This MPPT strategy succeeded in tracking the maximum available power from the wind
turbine irrespective of the wind speed profile.

No need for speed sensors.

The disadvantages of the lookup table techniques are:

The generator speed changes slower than the wind change which affects the reference
instantaneous values.

The stored optimal curve on the basis of nominal air density may not result in optimal
MPPT in all seasons.

Drift of parameters due to aging.

3.2.2 Hill Climbing Search (HCS)


The HCS, also known as perturb and observe (P&O), is the simplest MPPT technique
as it requires measurement of the power only [67]. It is based on perturbing the turbine
shaft speed in small steps () and observing the resulting changes in turbine mechanical
power increase or decrease [55], [56]. This is illustrated in Figure 3.12 [68], [69]. Three
types of HCS techniques have been presented; fixed, variable, and dual step size.

Figure 3.12: Principle of HCS MPPT.

3.2.2.1 Fixed Step Size HCS


Continuous discrete samples of the output power is obtained at fixed step size ()
and if the results are the increase in power then the same perturbation (+) is applied for

39

the next control instance, otherwise the sign of the perturbation is reversed (-) in order
to track in the direction of increasing power [11]. The power can be calculated by
measuring the DC current and voltage as indicated in Figure 3.13 [70].

Figure 3.13: A Current-Voltage based HCS MPPT.


Advantages:

HCS or P&O is the simplest MPPT algorithm that does not require any prior knowledge
of the system or any additional sensor except the measurement of the power which is
subjected to maximization. Therefore HCS can be applied to any renewable energy
conversion system that exhibits a unique power maximum [67].

Disadvantages:

A tradeoff between the control efficiency and the tracking speeds should be considered,
where larger perturbation step size increases the speed of convergence but causes
oscillation around MPP affecting the efficiency of the system, while on other hand; a
smaller step size boosts the efficiency but the controller then becomes slower [71].

The HCS control might lose its tracking under changing winds conditions and traveling
downhill instead of the uphill climb [72].

3.2.2.2 Variable Step Size HCS


This HCS technique utilizes a scaled measure of the power slope with respect to the
perturbed generator speed P/ as illustrated in Figure 3.14 (a) [73]. Power slope P/

40

is calculated digitally by sampling the torque current and the generator speed at
consecutive time intervals (n-1) and (n). And because of the mechanical time constant of
the generator, the variation of the speed reference should not be too large to avoid speed
control vibration. The lower limit of speed step is used to avoid the overflow of digital
power slope calculation P/.
However, the change in slope P/ will not give a correct measure of the distance
from the MPP as the operating point moves from a power curve to another for different
wind velocities. As illustrated in Figure 3.14 (b), the transition from point 1 to 2 due to the
increase in wind speed results in a large P/ whereas the transition from point 3 to 4
due to the decrease in wind gives a small P/. The resultant large or small step size
causes a high deviation from the MPP and become misleading for the next perturbation
decision. Hence the variable step size algorithm fails to track the maxima under changing
wind and it is restricted for a constant or slow changing winds [74] [76].

Figure 3.14: (a) variable step size MPPT and (b) losing the MPPT under wind change [71].

Sensorless Variable Step Size HCS:


Sensorless Variable Step Size HCS is achieved where, in PMSG systems, the

generator armature current is related with the torque and induced EMF and so, the rotor
speed varies with the terminal voltage of generator (Vt) [77].
Increasing the generator terminal voltage (Vt) will decrease the difference between
induced emf (E) and Vt. Thus, the armature current decreases which causes a decrease in
the braking torque. So the rotor speed increases until both electromagnetic and mechanical
toques are balanced. The reverse action takes place with the decrease in Vt. The control
41

flow chart for MPPT is shown in Figure 3.15 [77]. PO method produces oscillations in
power at the peak points which can be effectively damped by gradual decrease in step size
at the vicinity of peak power points. A magnitude of step change in Vt introduces a change
in power output. If this change is within the band of 2% of power at that instant, then a
decrease in voltage step magnitude has been incorporated in the algorithm.
Vat(k),Vbt(k),Ia,g(k),Ib,g(k)
Vf
P(k)=3/2[Vd(k)Id(k)+Vq(k)Iq(k)]
yes
yes

no
no

Vf(k)>Vf(k-1)

Sign= 1

yes

Sign= -1

yes

Vf(k)>Vf(k-1)

Sign= -1

no
Sign= 1

P(k)-P(k-1)0.02P(k)
no

Vf (k+1)= Vf (k)/2

Vfref(k+1)= Vf (k)-sign*Vf (k+1)


Present Vfref(k+1)

Figure 3.15: Control flowchart for variable speed HCS algorithm.


Where Vabc,t represent three phase voltages at terminals of the generator; Iabc,g, is the
generator phase currents; Vabc,f represents the filter capacitor voltages; Vd,q are d-axis and qaxis voltages; while K is the current step

3.2.2.3 Dual Step Size HCS


In this technique, a larger perturbation step; max is used when the operating point is
away from optimal power and therefore a faster convergence to the MPP is achieved while
a small perturbation step; min is used at the end of convergence in order to have the
minimum possible oscillations about MPP [78]. This algorithm flowchart is shown in
Figure 3.16. Any change in the wind velocity vw shifts the MPP and therefore max has to
42

be used again to maintain a swift tracking under varying wind conditions. Unlike the PSF
control, this algorithm requires non expensive sensor to detect the wind velocity change
with no need to accurate detection for the magnitude.

Figure 3.16: Dual step size HCS Algorithm.

3.2.3 Artificial Intelligence (AI) based Control Techniques


The AI based methods are increasingly used in renewable energy systems, due to the
flexible nature of the control offered by such techniques [79]. The AI techniques are highly
successful in non-linear systems due to the fact that once properly trained, they can
interpolate and extrapolate the random data with high accuracy [80]. The Neural network is
a powerful technique for mapping input-output non-linear function but it works as a black
box. On the other hand fuzzy logic has the capability of transforming input into numerical
values through fuzzy rules and membership functions. However, the shortcoming of fuzzy
computation is obtaining correct fuzzy rules and membership functions which heavily rely
on the prior knowledge of the system.

3.2.3.1 Fuzzy Logic MPPT


Fuzzy logic MPPT technique is considered as an extension for the HCS technique. It
is governed by a set of rules which choose different control actions according to the state
of the system at that instant while in HCS the control decision is taken based on only one
if-else statement. Like HCS, fuzzy control does not require to know system parameters or
equations. But it may require rotational speed sensors. Moreover it needs to define an

43

optimal set of rules and corresponding control actions; calculating lots of boundaries and
gains which differs from one system to another so the fuzzy controller has to be build
dedicated to each system [81] [82]. A block diagram of a wind based fuzzy controller is
shown in Figure 3.17 [83].

Figure 3.17: MPPT system with fuzzy based control.

For a particular wind speed, the rotational speed and output power should be measured by
considering time interval t and then varying the rate of change value of D (d) by using
fuzzy logic.
D = D + d

(3.2)

Fuzzy Logic rules control the generator restoring torque by considering d/dt and dPe/d
as illustrated in Figure 3.18.

Figure 3.18: Fuzzy logic Control criteria.

Advantages:

Fuzzy control does not require knowing system parameters or equations.

44

Disadvantages:

Fuzzy controller is not generic and it is built dedicated to each system depending on the
operator experiences.

3.2.3.2 Artificial Neural Network (ANN)


ANN based control is considered quite effective and robust but it needs to be
sufficiently trained for all kinds of operating conditions [84]. This requires long offline
training process. A wind velocity sensor or generator speed sensor is required for training.
A simple construction for Neural Network based MPPT controller is shown in Figure 3.19.

Figure 3.19: MPPT with ANN based wind velocity estimation.

The ANN online training technique in [85] uses Jordan recurrent multilayer ANN
with one hidden layer. The weights of the networks are continuously modified by back
propagation during the WECS operation with online training as illustrated in Figure 3.20.

Figure 3.20: Online ANN training with back propagation.


45

Sensorless ANN:
Two ANN based principles have been presented to achieve sensorless MPPT [84].

The first principle is ANN based wind velocity estimator and the second is ANN based
optimal power (torque) curve to compensate the potential drift of wind turbine power
coefficient. ANN first estimates the wind speed, vw, and then it generates optimum rotor
speed profile based on the derived wind speed. The PI controller then controls the actual
rotor speed to the desired value by varying the switching ratio of the PWM inverter.
Therefore, the load line of PMSG matches the MPP curve [86]. An ANN based system and
its training scheme to estimate wind velocity is shown in Figure 3.21.

Figure 3.21: (a) ANN based MPPT controller and (b) internal structure.

3.2.4 Adaptive Techniques


The Adaptive MPPT algorithms depend on adaptation with different changes in
system parameters specially wind speed variations. This allows accurate tracking for
optimal operating point which speeds up over time.

3.2.4.1 Adaptive TSR Control


Adaptive TSR algorithm combines the use of the turbine fundamental TSR equation
in conjunction with HCS methodology [87]. It allows the generator to track the turbine
optimal operation points under fluctuating wind conditions and the tracking process speeds
up over time. Adaptive TSR does not require the knowledge of the turbine mechanical
characteristics such as its power coefficient curve, power characteristic or torque
characteristic. An initial approximate optimal TSR is used in order to keep the system
46

independent from the physical characteristics of the wind turbine, and thus keeping it
easily modifiable to other turbines. The use of the TSR allows the system immediately
jump to an operating point relatively close to the MPP. Moreover the self-tuning provides
the algorithm immunity towards the non-unique optimal curves of output electrical power
[88].
This algorithm initiates the TSR control with an approximated optimal TSR value
then switches to HCS to search for the real optimal point. When true peak is reached, then
a memory table of the optimum generator speed with the corresponding wind velocity is
updated and the TSR is corrected. For a wind speed change, the rotor speed reference is
either directly applied if a recorded data at current wind speed is present in the memory or
it is calculated through the stored TSR. The algorithm uses a memory to be able to adapt
with its given turbine. The memory provides two major functions. The first is that it stores
the operating points as determined by the algorithm, while the second function is updating
the approximate TSR to a value closer to the actual TSR as illustrated in Figure 3.22.

Figure 3.22: (a) Adaptive TSR principles, (b) memory function.


Advantages:

Fast and accurate tracking without any pre-programmed system characteristics.

The online tuning for optimal TSR value as the algorithm proceeds gives the algorithm
immunity towards the non-unique optima curves of output electrical power.

Disadvantages:

This algorithm suffers from the same issues of TSR control as it requires an accurate
anemometer for measuring wind speed.
47

3.2.4.2 Self Tuning Sensorless Adaptive HCS


Self-tuning adaptive step size HCS algorithm is an upgraded HCS equipped with a
robust peak detection capability. The generator speed is estimated by considering the
dependence of the frequency of the phase current on the generator speed and rotor poles
[68].
For a known optimal curve, once a peak is detected then the optimal curve constant
kopt can be extracted through the measured output electrical power, Po, and estimated
generator speed. The constant kopt is used as an accurate reference for both the size and the
direction of the next perturbation. When the wind changes, the system switches to the
proposed adaptive HCS. Adaptive HCS decides its next perturbation size and direction by
measuring the distance vector of current operating point from the optimal curve defined by
kopt.3. The basic principle of Adaptive HCS technique is illustrated in Figure 2.23.
The distance vector ( - *) provides the right estimate of the next step size required
to drive this distance to zero in addition to the correct sense of perturbation direction
despite the wind change.

Figure 2.23: Principle of the Adaptive HCS [68].


Due to the non-constant efficiency of the system, therefore kopt for Po is not unique
and differ with wind change. This leads to adopting self-tuning strategy for the new
intelligent adaptive MPPT algorithm by returning back to normal HCS once the transience
is over. This algorithm is divided into three modes of operation. Mode 0 searches for an
optimum kopt via normal HCS. Mode 1 retains the maxima unless there is a wind change.
48

Mode 2 implements the adaptive perturbation under wind change provided that kopt is
known. The known kopt is close to the maxima and ensures fast tracking. Longer time to
find a kopt is required at large inertia WECS and at fast rate of wind change [70].
The wind speed vw is calculated using a sensorless scheme, where a perturbation of
constant magnitude, the change in rotor speed should be bounded by a limit in case of
no wind change. For no wind change:

||(k) | |(k

1 )||

(3.3)

Where (k) = (k) - (k-1); (k-1) = (k-1) - (k-2)


Thus should be set low enough to detect any change in the wind profile. Two further
checks are augmented to (3.3) to make this method more robust:

sign ( d ) = sign ( )

(3.4)

P(k) < 0 & & P(k 1 ) < 0


A wind change will be signaled either if (3.3) is not true or if anyone of the two checks in
(3.4) gets true. But the drawback here is that the limit employed to detect the wind
change requires a test run for its tuning.

Advantages:

This algorithm possesses all the virtues of HCS, i.e. mechanical sensorless and
absolutely generic.

It can effectively cope with the rapidly changing wind as well as the inconsistent
efficiency of the system.

Disadvantages:

Large inertia of WECS and fast rate of change of wind may cause longer time to find
kopt.

The limit employed to detect the wind change requires a test run for its tuning.

49

3.2.4.3 Sequential Adaptive Lookup Table


In the sequential adaptive lookup table technique, the total output power Po is
calculated by measuring the stator voltage and current for the MPPT control loop [89].
MPPT consists of sequential lookup tables starting with typical relations for control
winding current Ic versus Po and versus efficiency (Ic versus Po) and (Ic versus ) that are
mapped by neural network, where the parameters are trained experimentally. The curve of
Cp versus is provided by the manufacturer. The wind speed can be estimated by the
measured output power and the estimated maximum efficiency max. Then, by using
equation = R/v, the angular velocity (or rotor speed ) can be calculated. For a given
mechanical input power, this can be used to regulate the power flow in the stator windings
and power converter. The maximum efficiency and output power can be gained as a
function of both speed and control current as illustrated in Figure 3.24.

Figure 3.24: Sequential adaptive lookup table MPPT technique [89].

Wind Speed Estimator:


The wind speed is estimated via an iterative algorithm, it determines the optimal

rotational speed opt to track the desired tip-speed ratio for the MPPT. Following the
measured power, the optimum control winding current Iopt is commanded based upon
information of IC - Po curve. The maximum efficiency of the generator max is estimated at
a particular control current optimized operating point utilizing a mapped versus IC_opt
characteristic of the generator. The generator output power Po is calculated from the
estimated maximum efficiency max and measured output power Pm as shown in (3.5).

50

Pm =

Po
max

(3.5)

Based upon information of Pm and the measured angular velocity, the wind speed is
estimated.

3.2.4.4 Adaptive Compensation Control


This MPPT controller with an adaptive compensation control is used mainly for
microscale WPGS. Due to the adaptive compensation control effort, the dynamic response
has been improved and more wind energy can be extracted during wind velocity variations
which help to overcome the problems appearing in the optimal torque or power techniques.
Although these techniques can be calculated easily, however, due to the inertia of the
mechanical system, it is not possible to achieve instantaneous tracking as the wind velocity
is changing rapidly especially at low wind speeds. Also this technique is free of any
mechanical sensor which minimizes the cost and makes it more reliable. For achieving
higher efficiency and lower THD, a single-stage ac-to-dc converter has been proposed to
replace the traditional two-stage converter and incorporate the MPPT control. To further
improve the efficiency of the converter, a quasi-synchronous rectification (QSR) algorithm
is proposed to control the active switches for reducing the conduction loss of the body
diodes. As a result, the extracted energy in fact is significantly less than the maximum
energy available [90].
This technique is composed of four blocks as shown in Figure 3.25. Block A is the
rotor speed estimator (RSE), block B is the wind power torque estimator (WPTE), block C
is the torque command calculator (NTCC) for MPPT, and block D is the generator current
controller (GCC). Where (PD) is the two-phase detector and a (QSG) is quadrature signal
generator.

51

Figure 3.25: Principle of Adaptive compensation control technique [90].

3.2.5 Hybrid MPPT Techniques


Modified and hybrid versions of HCS and PSF methods are presented to overcome
the drawbacks of classical lookup table techniques.
3.2.5.1 Search-Remember-Reuse HCS
Search-remember- reuse MPPT technique is based on turning HCS into a lookup
table based technique by online training of a memory table [69]. The algorithm is divided
into two process; advanced HCS and direct current demand control. It starts with an empty
intelligent memory with a relatively poor initial performance. During the execution,
training mode will use the data supplied by HCS to gradually train the intelligent memory
to record the training experience. The algorithm will reuse the recorded data in application
mode for fast execution. The algorithm is repeated until an accurate memory of system
characteristics is established. Therefore, after the algorithm is adequately trained, its power
extraction performance is optimized on time. The algorithm can record the optimum
system operating conditions, and then it is controlled to find the MPP rapidly and
effectively.

52

The memory is maintained and supplied with maximum power, rectified generator
voltage Vdc, and current control value. This memory is trained every time by comparing the
current output power Po with the recorded maximum power at the nearest value of

Vdc in

the memory table and updated if the present power peak is larger than the previously
recorded one. The updated memory table then serves as a direct reference for the current
command. This is all done through three modes as illustrated in Figure 3.26. Moreover,
this technique carries out MPPT for the turbine mechanical power Pm instead of the output
electrical power Po claiming that this can cope with the large inertia of WECS.
The main drawback of this technique is that it does not have a proper peak detection
of MPP as the memory look-up table records the (Po - Vdc) values at highest occurring wind
velocity. Another problem is that this technique assumes a constant optimal characteristic
of the system which can become inaccurate.

Figure 3.26: Structure of the intelligent MPPT algorithm.

3.2.5.2 Limit Cycle Based HCS


The limit cycle based HCS technique is performed via an integrator ramping up or
down the current command signal of the load side inverter according to the error in the dc
link voltage regulated by the generator side chopper [65]. The current command ramps up
till the maximum power is achieved and if it is increased further, then the DC link voltage
cannot be kept at constant because the power equilibrium cannot be maintained. Therefore
53

the DC link voltage begins to decrease and if it goes below a certain limit, then the
integrator gain is shifted to negative value ramping down the current command. In this way
the MPPT exhibits nonlinear oscillations about MPP called limit cycle. This technique is
used mainly for a small sized wind turbine PMSG system with a diode bridge rectifier. The
block diagram is shown in Figure 3.27. The output DC power is controlled by additional
boost chopper and PWM inverter stages.

Figure 3.27: WECS system with limit cycle based HCS MPPT algorithm.
[

The DC link voltage between two power conversion stages is kept constant by the PI
control loop on the boost chopper side. At the same time, the DC link voltage error signal
is also observed by the comparator in the load leveling loop on the three phase PWM
inverter side. The algorithm is characterized by its hardware simplicity however it suffers
from all those conventional HCS failures. The control parameters affect the MPPT
performance.
The loading level is adjusted by changing the AC current amplitude command Ipeak
for the Ac line interface inverter. This load leveling operation is controlled by integrating a
switched input terminal of two different values, +1/ Tiu and -1/ Tid, based on the result of
error signal comparison. If the switch is initially connected to the positive side +1/ Tiu.
Then, Ipeak start to rise up gradually until the output power reaches the maximum power
point PMPP of the generator rotating at the speed at that moment, using the PI control loop
54

on chopper side to keep the DC link voltage Vlink constant. Once the PMPP is reached, the
voltage Vlink could no longer be kept constant because the power equilibrium cannot be
maintained. Thus, Vlink begins to go down, and the voltage error signal may soon become
larger than a preset small value Vlink. Then, the switch is turned over to the negative value
-1/Tid, and Ipeak command decreases.
Then, gradually stops decreasing and again begins to increase. In this way, a kind of
non-linear oscillation, so-called "limit cycle", occurs on the equilibrium /non-equilibrium
boundary of the system power flow around the potential maximum power operating point.

3.2.5.3 Hybrid Optimal Torque


Hybrid Optimal Torque MPPT is a technique that tracks the MPP accurately through
a HCS process, while in the same time it uses the predefined T - characteristic for selfadjustment in case that the HCS algorithm is thrown off due to heavy disturbances such as
sudden wind speed changes or improper initialization [73]. The system measures the
generators rotating speed and calculates both actual torque Tt and optimum torque Topt. For
a small error between Tt and Topt, the system performs HCS algorithm, based on the
calculation of actual power Pt , overlooking the use of the optimum T - characteristic.
However, if the difference between Tt and Topt exceeds a certain limit the duty cycle is
commanded according the optimum characteristic. This hybrid OT algorithm helps to
avoid look-up table drawbacks such as system detuning due to parameter changes or
miscalculations in the optimum characteristic. It can also cope with the rapid wind changes
which is the main problem using HCS technique. A block diagram for this technique is
illustrated in Figure 3.28.

55

Figure 3.28: Hybrid OT MPPT technique.

3.2.6 State Space Feedback Linearization Technique


This technique introduces a nonlinear controller for converter-based wind turbines
that ensures that the currents are maintained within the design limits [67]. This protects the
converters from over current which happens in case of using conventional linear controllers
that operate at network faults far off the nominal point for which they were designed, that
may leads to converter damage at the end [54].
The main idea behind feedback linearization is the reworking of the nonlinear system
by means of a transformation and feedback in order to be able to obtain a linear relation
between the input and output of the system. The system includes a disturbance observer for
estimation of parameter uncertainties. Estimated uncertainties values are injected in order
to construct the control law, improving in this way the systems performance.
Thus, feedback linearization tries to cancel the system nonlinearities through the
input of the system. After that, a desired dynamic can be imposed on the system by adding
a new control input [89]. This makes the system robust against system perturbations and
uncertainties; but on the other hand, this technique is very difficult to be implemented and
also require system modeling which may not be available or known in general. An example
for linearization control for nonlinear turbine system is shown in Figure 3.29.

56

Figure 3.29: Feedback linearized system.

3.2.7 Sliding Mode with Extremum Seeking Control


This MPPT technique combines the ideas of sliding mode control and Extremum
Seeking Control (ESC). In this method only the active power of the generator is required as
input [91]. It does not require wind speed measurement, wind turbine parameters or rotor
speed etc. The block diagram of the control system is shown in Figure 3.30 [69]. In the
figure is the acceleration of Popt. When the sign of derivative of changes, a sliding mode
motion occurs and * is steered towards the optimum value while Po tracks Popt. The speed
reference for the vector control system is the optimal value resulting from the MPPT based
on sliding mode ESC.

Figure 3.30: Sliding mode ESC-MPPT control algorithm.

3.3 Summary
This chapter provides a survey of the MPPT techniques for PMSG wind turbines with
a brief explanation of each to demonstrate their strategy, benefits and drawbacks. Among
those techniques, the adaptive techniques provide high MPPT performance especially
adaptive TSR technique and self-tuning sensorless adaptive HCS technique. Both
algorithms have adaptive tracking with self-tuning capability. However the adaptive TSR
57

requires wind speed and generator speed sensors. Whereas the second is absolutely
mechanical sensorless and does not use a lookup table.
From the different presented MPPT techniques, the following points should be considered:

Using rotational speed or wind velocity sensors makes the controller costly and reduces
the overall systems robustness.

Using aerodynamic control increases the complexity, capital cost, and maintenance cost
of the wind turbine generator.

Using of complex control methods such as artificial intelligence-based methods requires


on-site tuning.

58

CHAPTER FOUR
SENSORLESS MPPT TECHNIQUE:
Methodology and Simulation Results

4.1

Introduction
This chapter discusses the design of a sensorless based WECS comparing between two

MPPT techniques. The performance of the proposed system is verified using


MATLAB/SIMULINK model for 2 MW PMSG wind turbine.

4.2

Algorithm Concept and Features


The system presented in this thesis compares between two tracking strategies (HCS and

fuzzy logic) to extract maximum power under fluctuation wind conditions. The block diagram
for the considered variable speed WECS is presented in Figure 4.1. The system consists of
variable speed wind turbine connected to the grid using direct driven PMSG. The PMSG is
connected to the grid through three phase uncontrolled diode rectifier converting the PMSG
output voltage into DC voltage (Vdc), which is then followed by DC-DC boost converter. The
boost converter help to maintain a fixed DC output voltage with maximized output power by
controlling the converters gate duty cycle ( Vdc Link ). The MPPT technique to control the
converters duty cycle can be divided into two main parts, rotor speed estimator and main
control algorithm.

59

iL

Lo

CdcLink

C dc

VdcLink

Vdc
V dc
2 / 60

iL

2 Rs

iL

( P / 20)(Ls + Li )

Km

(3 3 ) /

i d*

vd

V *dcLink

v*d

id

iq

vq

L
L

i q* = 0

va
vb
vc

vd

vq
vq

iL

id

V dc

iq

ic

ib

ia

Figure 4.1: Block diagram of the proposed system.

The ratings for the complete system shown in Figure 4.1 is illustrated in Table 4.1

Table 4.1 Ratings of the case study components

Wind Turbine

PMSG

Rectifier (Vdc)

Rated
power

2.3
MW

Rated
power

2 MW

Rated
Voltage

900V

Rated
Speed

14
m/s

Rated
voltage

690V

Min
Voltage

240V

Min.
Speed

4m/s

No of
Poles

30

Max.
Speed

25
m/s

Freq.

11.5 Hz

60

Boost
converter
Range

2 to 10
Times

DC Link
Voltage
( Vdc Link )

2500V

Grid
Voltage/
Frequency

690v/50 Hz

4.2.1 Rotor speed Estimation


One of the basic advantages of the presented system is that it is free of all kinds of
mechanical sensors getting rid of all mechanical and maintenance issues thats arises from
these kinds of sensors. its very simple accurate sensorless technique depending on some
known generators parameters and only measuring the diode rectifier DC link rated voltage
( Vdc ) and the inductance current (iL) [92]. The mathematical representation of the rotor speed
estimation is given:

m =

V dc + 2 R S i L

(4.1)

3 3
p
Km
( L i + L S )i L

20

Where m is the estimated rotor speed, Km is the peak line to neutral back emf constant in
V/rpm, Rs is the stator winding resistance in Ohm, Ls is the stator Leakage Inductance in mH,
Li is the In-Line inductance mH, and p is the number of poles [93]. A block diagram for the
rotor speed estimation system is illustrated by Figure 4.1.

4.2.2 Designed MPPT Technique


In this section, two types of MPPT techniques are discussed. The first is a conventional fixed
step HCS technique and the second is a variable step fuzzy logic technique.

4.2.2.1 HCS Technique


The presented technique depends on taking an initial rotor speed () and measuring the
generators power (P), then start increasing or decreasing the rotor speed by a step (step) and
measuring the power with each step, then calculating signs for both P and . Figure 4.2
presents a flow chart for the HCS technique, where the output ref is calculated using (4.2).

61

P = P ( k ) P ( k 1)

m = m (k) m (k 1)

P > 0

> 0

< 0

ref (k) = ref (k 1) + Step ref (k) = ref (k 1) + Step

ref (k) = ref (k 1) + Step ref (k) = ref (k 1) + Step

Figure 4.2: Flow Chart of conventional HCS technique.

ref ( n ) = ref ( n 1 ) + Sign ( P ) Sign ( ) step

(4.2)

The controller then passes through two PI control loops in cascade. The first loop
controls the boost inductor current by means of controlling m where the output ref is
subtracted from the estimated speed m and the output error is controlled with a speed PI
regulator. This output is considered the current reference iLref for the next cascaded loop which
controls the boost PWM signal by controlling iL where the iLref is subtracted from inductor
current iL and then the output error is controlled with a current PI regulator. This is simply
illustrated in Figure 4.3.

iL

ref

i L ref

Vdc

iL

Figure 4.3: Block diagram of conventional HCS technique.


62

4.2.2.2 Fuzzy Logic Technique


Fuzzy logic MPPT technique is considered as an extension for the HCS technique. It is
governed by a set of rules which choose different control actions according to the state of the
system at that instant while in HCS the control decision is taken based on only one if-else
statement. The main advantage over HCS is that it moves with a variable step size unlike HCS
which uses a fixed step size. This help to minimize oscillations in the output. Like HCS, fuzzy
control does not require to know system modeling [82], [83]. But it needs to define an optimal
set of rules and corresponding control actions based on operation experience; calculating lots
of boundaries and gains which differs from one system to another so the fuzzy controller has
to be build dedicated to each system [94], [95]. The processing stage is based on a collection
of logic rules in the form of IF-THEN statements.
A block diagram for the proposed fuzzy controller is illustrated in Figure 4.4. The inputs for
the proposed fuzzy are the error and the change of error as shown in (4.3).

iL
VdcLink

error

error
Z 1

Z 1

Figure 4.4: Block diagram of proposed Fuzzy technique.


[

error

P
P ( k ) P ( k 1)
=
m
m ( k ) m ( k 1)

(4.3)

error = error ( k ) error ( k 1 )


Where P, m are the power and rotor speed respectively at instant k. Error shows if the
operating point at the instant k is located on the left or the right side of the maximum power
point on the P- characteristic where it is equals to zero at MPP as shown in Figure 4.5 while
the change of error ( error) expresses the moving direction of this point.
63

Figure 4.5: Fuzzy control criteria.

The process of fuzzy logic is composed of four main parts as illustrated in Figure 4.6;
fuzzification, fuzzy interface, rules base, and defuzzification.

Figure 4.6: Fuzzy logic system.


First, a crisp set of input data are gathered and converted to a fuzzy set using fuzzy linguistic
variables, fuzzy linguistic terms and membership functions. This step is known as
fuzzification. Afterwards, an inference is made based on a set of rules. Lastly, the resulting
fuzzy output is mapped to a crisp output using the membership functions, in the
defuzzification step.
A fuzzy set is a function from the input reference sets (error and error) to the unit interval.
The fuzzy sets will be (error) and (error).
The Membership Function is then the graphical representation of fuzzy sets

F(error)

and

F(error) as shown in Figure 4.7 where F is the fuzzy sets (NL NS ZE PS PL) while
the membership function for the output duty F(Duty) is shown in Figure 4.8. This is called as
fuzzification process [96].
64

Figure 4.7: Membership functions of input variables (a) Error P /m (b) Change of Error.

Figure 4.8: Membership function of output variable; Duty.


Where NL = negative large, NS = negative small, ZE = zero, PS = positive small, PL =
positive large
The fuzzy rule base is then used to describe fuzzy sets and fuzzy operators in form of IFTHEN conditional statements.
Table 4.2: Fuzzy logic rules.
Error
NL

NS

ZE

PS

PL

NL

NL

NL

NS

NS

ZE

NS

NL

NS

NS

ZE

PS

ZE

NS

NS

ZE

PS

PS

Error

65

PS

NS

ZE

PS

PS

PL

PL

ZE

PS

PS

PL

PL

Where the rules are


R1: IF Error is NL and Error is NL, THEN Duty is NL
R2: IF Error is NL and Error is NS, THEN Duty is NL
.
.
.
R25: IF Error is PL and Error is PL, THEN Duty is PL

The most common type of inference system is the Mamdani fuzzy inference. For Mamdani
fuzzy interface, the firing level for the rules is i, i=1, 2,, 25

i = min[ F i ( error ), F i ( error )

(4.4)

Where the individual rule outputs are derived by

Fi ' = min[i , Fi ( Duty)]

(4.5)

Then the overall system output is calculated by taking the maximum of the individual rule
outputs

F ' = max[ F1' , F 2' ,..., F 25' ]

(4.6)

Finally comes the defuzzification process where it converts the fuzzy sets into single crisp
output [97]. One of the most common methods is the Center-of-Gravity (COG) method which
computes the centroid of the composite area representing the output fuzzy term which can be
expressed as:

z COG =

( z) zdz

F ( z) dz

Where F(z) is a membership function and z is output variable (Duty)


66

(4.7)

4.3

WECS Components
The WECS considered in this thesis is illustrated in Figure 4.1. The system consists of a

2 MW wind turbine, direct driven permanent magnet synchronous machine with rated volt 690
volt, a diode rectifier, boost converter, and three phase inverter connected to a 690v grid.

4.3.1 Wind Turbine


As discussed in chapter one; for a variable speed wind turbine, the power captured from
the wind (Pw) is given by (1.2). The mechanical power (Pm) generated by the wind turbine
depends on the power coefficient (Cp) of the wind turbine. A turbines efficiency, and thus
power coefficient curve, is what differentiates one turbine from another. This is shown in
(1.3). The general turbine mechanical torque (Tm) given in equation (1.8) for gearless system
(G=1) is illustrated in (4.8): [98]

Tm =

Pm

(4.8)

The wind turbine presented in this thesis is designed according to references [99], [100]
with equations (1.3) and (4.8), while the parameters are based on Enercon E70 wind turbine of
2.3MW, with rated wind speed 14m/s. This is illustrated in Figure 4.9. The main parameters
for the turbine are discussed in Table 4.3 [101].

Figure 4.9: Matlab model of the wind turbine.


67

Table 4.3: Wind turbine parameters


Turbine parameters

Value

Turbine rated power (MW)

2.3

Number of blades

Blade diameter (m)

71

Rated wind speed (m/s)

14

air (wind) density (kg/m3)

1.225

4.3.2 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator


The dynamic model of the PMSG is derived from the two phase synchronous reference
frame, which the q-axis is 90 ahead of the d-axis with respect to the direction of rotation. The
synchronization between the d-q rotating reference frame and the abc-three phase frame is
maintained by utilizing a phase locked loop (PLL) [102]. Figure 4.10 shows the d-q reference
frame used in a PMSG, where is the mechanical angle, which is the angle between the rotor
d-axis and the stator axis [103].

Figure 4.10: d-q and - axis of a typical PMSG.

The equivalent circuit of the PMSG in d-q axis is illustrated in Figure 4.11

68

Figure 4.11: Equivalent circuit of the PMSG in the synchronous frame (a) q-axis
equivalent circuit (b) d-axis equivalent circuit.

The voltage equations of a permanent magnet synchronous generator in the d-q reference
frame are illustrated in (4.9):

V qs = R s i qs L q

di qs

e L d i ds + e d

dt

(4.9)

V ds = R s i ds L d

di ds
e L q i qs
dt

where, Vds, Vqs represent the stator voltages in the d-q axis, ids and iqs represent the currents in
the d-q axis, Rs represents the stator resistance, Ld and Lq represents the d-q axis inductances,
e is the electrical rotating speed = p * m (p, number of pole pairs, m turbine rotor angular
speed) = angular frequency, eq is The q-axis counter electric potential (eq = e * fl ) while the
d-axis counter electric potential ed =0, and fl is the permanent flux linkage [104].
The electromagnetic torque equation for PMSG is given by:

T e = 1 .5(

p
)(
2

fl

i qs + ( L d L q ) i qs i ds )

(4.10)

The mechanical equation of PMSG is given by:

Tm = Te + B

+ J

d m
dt

(4.11)

Where, B is the friction coefficient, J the total moment of inertia, and Tm is the mechanical
torque produced by wind turbine, Te is the electromagnetic torque of PMSG.
The active and reactive powers of PMSG can be given in steady state conditions by [105]:
69

P s = V ds i ds + V qs i qs
(4.12)

Q s = V qs i ds V ds i qs
The PMSG presented in this thesis is a 2MW direct driven generator, with rated volt
690V. The parameters of the PMSG are listed in Table 4.4 [105].
Table 4.4: PMSG parameters
PMSG parameters
Rated Power (MW)
Rated Voltage (V)
Rated Stator Frequency (Hz)
Number of Poles P
Stator Winding resistance Rs (m)
d-axis Synchronous Inductance Ld (mH)
q-axis Synchronous Inductance Lq (mH)
Flux Leakage (V.s)
Stator Leakage Inductance Ls (mH)
Rated Rotor Speed (rad/sec)
Generator Inertia JG (Kg.m2)
Peak line to neutral back emf constant Km (V/rpm)

Value
2
690
11.25
30
0.73051
1.21
2.31
4.696
1.2
2.356
8000
15.8

4.3.2 Power Electronics Analysis


As mentioned earlier in chapter 2, various AC/DC converters are used with PMSG, the
most common among them is the back-to-back PWM power converter and the uncontrolled
diode rectifier with boost converter, also there is the matrix converter and the z-source
inverter. The back-to-back PWM is characterized with its low harmonics but suffers from high
switching losses and very complex control as it requires control for six switches. On the other
hand the diode rectifier with boost converter is characterized by its simple design and control
in most cases as it requires only one switch in the circuit to be controlled but suffers from
large harmonics and poor power factor [12].
The output from the PMSG is rectified using a three-phase uncontrolled rectifier. The output
DC voltage Vdc depends on the line voltage as shown in (4.13)
70

V dc =

3 2
V LL

(4.13)

As the PMSG voltage is variable with the wind speed, the DC output power of the rectifier is
also variable. A boost DC-DC converter has been used for maintaining the DC output voltage
at constant value Vdc Link . The relation between the output and input voltages depends on the
duty ratio (D) as expressed in (4.14) [106].

V dc Link =

1
V dc
1 D

(4.14)

The main idea of the MPPT is to adapt the duty cycle with the change in wind speed to
maintain the constant output DC voltage Vdc Link .
On the other side, the inverter converts the boost DC output volt ( Vdc Link ) into AC volt
synchronizing the WECS with the grid voltage and frequency. The relation between grid
voltage Vg and boost DC voltage Vdc Link is expressed in (4.15) [106]

Vg =

3
m aV dc
2 2

Link

(4.15)

where ma in the modulation index.


The inverter controller contains 2 main loops; the d-axis loop, which controls the flux,
the q-axis loop, which controls the torque. The d-axis control system contains two control
loops in cascade. The inner loop controls the torque by means of controlling id with a current
PI regulator. The reference for this inner loop is given by the outer loop, which contains a
voltage PI regulator. The q-axis control loop performs the control of iq with a current PI
regulator where the reference value is 0 [107]. This is simply illustrated in Figure 4.1.
The inverter controller uses PLL (Phase Locked Loop) which is also known as dqcontrol. It transforms the grid voltages and currents from the abc to the dq reference frame. In
this way the variables are transformed to DC values which can be controlled more easily. This
71

structure uses PI controllers since they have good performance for controlling DC variables.
PLL is a device which is used to obtain the phase angle from the grid voltages. PLL output
signal tracks the input one. Therefore PLL provides the inverter with frequency and phase
angle. The purpose of that is to synchronize the inverter current angle with the grid voltage
angle in order to obtain a power factor as close to 1 as possible [108]. A block diagram for a
basic three phase PLL is illustrated in Figure 4.12.
va ,b,c

vd

vq

Figure 4.12: Block diagram of a three-phase PLL.

4.3.3 Low pass Filter


The diode rectifier presented in the system leads to large harmonic distortion and
affecting the tracking capability of the system. A passive filter is introduced to minimize the
harmonic distortion [109]. In the presented system low pass broadband filtering method is
utilized as an ideal approach to block the 5th and 7th harmonic currents at multiple
(widespread) frequencies [110]. A simple LC type low-pass broadband filter consists of a
large input AC line reactor (Li) along with the shunt filter capacitor (Cf) which is usually
connected (Cf = CfY = 3 Cf).The capacitor terminals are connected to the rectifier load. This
simple filter can be designed to achieve satisfactory line current THD level and to minimize
the input power factor [111]. The design for the passive filter is illustrated in Figure 4.13.

Figure 4.13: Low pass LC broadband filter.


72

The resonance frequency at which the filter is tuned is given by

fs =

1
2 Li C

(4.16)
f

4.3.4 PI Tuning
Ziegler-Nichols' Ultimate Gain Method was considered for the PI tuning [112]. This method is
based on experiments executed on an established control loop for the system model according
to the following steps [113].
1. Set the true plant under proportional control, with a very small gain.
2. Increase the proportional gain until the loop starts oscillating.
3. Record the controller critical gain Kp = Kc (which is the gain which causes sustained
oscillations in the signals in the control system without the control signal reaching the
maximum or minimum limits) and the oscillation period of the controller output, Pu.
4. Then, the controller is tuned using Kc and Pu as according to the formulas shown in
Table 4.5.
Table 4.5: Ziegler-Nichols' Ultimate Gain Tuning rules
Controller Type

4.4

Kc

P controller

0.5 Ku

PI controller

0.45 Ku

Pu / 1.2

PID controller

0.6 Ku

Pu / 2

Pu / 8

Simulation results
In this section MATLAB/SIMULINK results will be provided for the 2 MW wind

turbine, 690V PMSG based, 690V grid connected system as illustrated in Figure 4.1.

73

The designed wind turbine power characteristics cure is illustrated in Figure 4.14
showing the optimal power curve while Figure 4.15 illustrates the relation between power
coefficient and tip speed ratio (Cp - ) showing optimal TSR for the designed turbine. Also
Figure 4.16 shows the relation between power coefficient and wind speed (Cp- vw)
characteristics.

Popt

Figure 4.14: Simulation results for wind turbine characteristics optimal power curve.

Figure 4.15: Cp versus tip-speed ratio .

74

Figure 4.16: Turbine Cp versus wind speed vw.


The system results are taken at three wind speeds; 14m/s for 1 sec. duration then speed go
down to 9m/s for another 1 sec. then it speeds up again to 12m/s for 1 sec. as shown in Figure
4.17 (a). Figure 4.17 (b) shows the turbine output torque (Tm) at different wind speeds. The
spectrum analysis of the torque is shown in Figure 4.18, the dominant harmonic is the sixth
harmonic with harmonic factor of 3.5%.

Figure 4.17: Simulation results: (a) wind wpeed, vw, (b) wind turbine output torque, Tm .
75

Figure 4.18: Torque spectrum analysis


[[

The output of the rotor speed estimator meets the rotor speed for sensored based system,
where a comparison between rotor as shown in Figure 4.19 (a). Also the percentage of error
between both sensored and estimated error is shown in Figure 4.19 (b) for both HCS and fuzzy
technique. The error is close to 3% which is acceptable error value. Figure 4.19 (b) shows that
the error oscillations are minimized using fuzzy logic controller. Figure 4.19 (b) shows the
peak error occurring at the point of wind change. The performance proves that the rotor
estimation system is almost accurate close to the real measured rotor speed.

( )

(m )

Figure 4.19: Simulation results: (a) measured and estimated rotor speed, and m (b) rotor
speed error percentage.
76

Figure 4.20 discuss the results for the boost converter. It is very clear from Figure 4.20 (a) for
the controlled boost converter that the MPPT technique succeeded to maintain constant output
voltage ( Vdc Link ) with the change in wind speed for both HCS and fuzzy logic MPPT
techniques changing the output current and power according to the wind speed as shown in
Figure 4.20 (b). Figures 4.21 and 4.22 illustrate the tracking capability of the HCS technique.
Figure 4.21 (a) shows both reference speed ref (resulting from HCS technique) and estimated
speed m while Figure 4.22 (a), (b), and (c) gives a zoom in illustration for both ref and m at
the different speeds. It is very clear from Figure 4.21 (b) that the speed error range between +/0.01 which is very acceptable and proves that the MPPT tracking is very good.

Figure 4.20: Simulation results: (a) boost output voltage VdcLink , (b) boost output power

77

PdcLink .

Figure 4.21: Simulation results: (a) reference and estimated speed for HCS technique
(ref and m) (b) speed error.

Figure 4.22: Zoom in of reference and estimated speed for HCS technique (ref and m) at
wind speeds (a) 14m/s (b) 9m/s (c) 12m/s.
78

Figures 4.23, 4.24, and 4.25 discuss the results for the inverter controller which is
common for both techniques. As discussed earlier in section 4.3.2, the inverter controller
contains 2 main loops; outer loop which contains a voltage PI regulator and the inner loop
which contains current PI regulators for d and q-axis. Figure 4.23 (a) shows both reference DC
voltage vdc ref and boost output DC voltage

Vdc Link while Figure 4.23 (b) illustrated the output

voltage error to be subjected to outer PI loop. Figure 4.24 (a) shows both reference d-axis
current Id ref (which is output of the outer loop PI) and d-axis grid current Id while Figure 4.24
(b) illustrated the output d-axis voltage command vd. Figure 4.25 (a) shows both reference qaxis current Iq ref (equal to zero) and q-axis grid current Iq while Figure 4.25 (b) illustrated the
output q-axis voltage command vq.

Figure 4.23: Simulation results: (a) reference and boost DC voltage (vdc ref and Vdc Link )
(b) DC voltage error.

79

Figure 4.24: Simulation results: (a) d-axis grid current with reference current (Id and Id ref) (b)
PI output d-axis voltage.

Figure 4.25: Simulation results: (a) q-axis grid current with reference current (Iq and Iq ref) (b)
PI output q-axis voltage.
Regarding the grid results, Figures 4.26 (a) and (b) illustrated the output grid voltage (vg) and
current (ig) while in Figure 4.27 it is clearly verified the system achieves unity power factor at
the grid side. Figure 4.26 (c) compares the power for both HCS and fuzzy logic MPPT
technique. It shows that that in case of fuzzy the oscillation in the output power is almost
80

neglected while in case of HCS the oscillations are almost 0.8%. Comparing optimal power
curve in Figure 4.14 with Figure 4.26 (c), this verifies that the system suffers a drop in the grid
side of about 6% maximum power (Pmax) at different wind speeds. The reactive power output
is shown in Figure 4.26 (d), and although it is not exactly 0, it has been controlled down to 4
kW and it is decreasing with time, which allows for a much better connection to the supply.
The current total harmonic distortion for the system is about 0.93% as shown in Figure 4.28.
In Figure 4.29 shows that at constant wind speed (14m/s in this case) the reactive power
continue to decrease with time.

Figure 4.26: Simulation results: (a) grid three phase voltage, vg (b) grid three phase current, ig
(c) grid output active power Po (d) grid output reactive power Qo.
81

ig

vg

ig

vg

Figure 4.27: Simulation results: (a) grid voltage (vg) and current (ig) for one phase
(b) zoom in grid voltage (vg) and current (ig) at 14m/s.

Figure 4.28: Grid current fruquency spectrum.

82

Figure 4.29: Simulation results: (a) wind speed, vw (b) grid output active power Po (d) grid
output reactive power Qo.
A comparison between reference and measured grid power for sensorless based system is
shown in Figure 4.29 (a). The percentage of error between both is illustrated in Figure 4.30 (b)
at both HCS and fuzzy technique where in worst cases error is about 6%. While in Figure 4.31
(a) it compares between reference and output power in case of sensored based systems where
the percentage of error for the sensored based system is shown in Figure 4.31 (b). The error in
this case is mainly due to power dissipated through power electronics present in the system
and also the grid interfacing resistance. Comparing both Figures 4.30 (b) and 4.31 (b) its clear
that the sensorless system has extra loses of about 2% more than the system with sensors.

83

Figure 4.30: Simulation results: (a) grid output power for sensorless system compared to
reference power (b) percentage of error in the output grid power in case of sensorless system.

Figure 4.31: Simulation results: (a) grid output power for sensored system compared to
reference power (b) percentage of error in the output grid power in case of sensored system.
84

To test the WECS robustness; a 1 MW active load with 10KVAR reactive load was added
after the inverter as shown in Figure 4.32 and the power was measured at three points, after
the inverter, at the load and at the grid. Figure 4.33 compares the active power at the three
operating conditions while Figure 4.34 compares the reactive power at the three operating
conditions. The results shows clearly how the grid interact with the WECS either supplied
with power in case of extra power from the load, or even supply power when the load need
extra power than that supplied by the WECS

Lo

Lo

Figure 4.32: WECS system with 1MW Load addition.

Figure 4.33: Active Power at the three stages for 1MW load.

85

Figure 4.34: Reactive Power at the three stages for 10KVAR load.

4.5

Comparing Results
To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, the obtained results are

compared to that of other already applied techniques.


Table 4.6: Comparing results with other techniques

System under
study
Generator

Power
converter
System
Rating

Ref. [114]

Ref. [115,116] Ref. [117,118]

Direct driven
PMSG

PMSG with
gearbox

Diode boost
PWM inverter

Diode 3L boost Back to back


- NPC (neutral- PWM converter
point clamped)
converter

Back to back
PWM converter

2MW 690V

3MW 3kV

2MW 7kV

86

Direct driven
PMSG

2MW 690V

Direct driven
PMSG

Fuzzy MPPT
with rotor speed
estimator

Converter
side
control

Using 2 control
techniques; (Po vw) Look up
table MPPT
technique, and PI
control for Vdc Link

hybrid technique:
PSF lookup table
in normal
condition, and
switching to
HCS technique
in case of grid
fault

voltage control
using very
complex digital
H controllers
(compared with
fuzzy and PI
controller) for d
and q axis
control

voltage oriented
control (VOC)
scheme

voltagecontrolled

Current control
using very
complex digital
H controllers
(compared with
fuzzy and PI
controller) for d
and q axis
control

reference

Classic Current
control

Inverter
side
control

current source

sensors

Completely
sensorless

Wind speed
sensor

Rotor speed
sensor

Rotor speed
sensor

Output
power

1.87 MW
(around 7%
losses)

3 MW (almost
no losses)

1.88MW (around
6% losses)

1.8MW (around
10% losses)

Oscillations are
oscillations about Output power is
almost neglected. 11%
smoothened due
to adding of
(For HCS
braking chopper
Oscillations

Output
power
around 0.8%
oscillations (oscillations are

minimized by
raising the boost
DC link value)

Output
power
delay with
wind
change

0.02 sec delay


(output power
becomes
unstable under
high fluctuation
of wind speed

Almost no delay
with wind
change

87

No delay,
technique is
suitable to work
with fluctuating
wind speed

Output power is
smoothened by a
coordinated
control of the
DC-link voltage
and the pitch
angle

No delay,
technique is
suitable to work
with fluctuating
wind speed

MPPT
tracking
capability

4.6

Tracking of
estimated rotor
speed
(oscillations
about 1% around
reference speed),
and also tracking
of boost DC
voltage
(oscillations
about 8% around
reference DC
volt) proves the
tracking
capability of
HCS technique

Tracking of
boost DC voltage
(oscillations
about 15%
around reference
DC volt) proves
the tracking
capability of the
MPPT technique

Tracking of
measured rotor
speed, and also
tracking of boost
DC voltage
(oscillations
about 4% around
reference DC
volt) proves the
tracking
capability of the
MPPT technique

Tracking of
boost DC voltage
(oscillations
about 3% around
reference DC
volt) proves the
tracking
capability of the
MPPT technique

Summary
In this chapter, the performance of the proposed technique was presented and

investigated through simulation. Also discussion of other already applied techniques is


presented. The results demonstrate effective tracking of with fluctuating wind speed
This method has several advantages:

WECS system is characterized by its simplicity with an efficient


control algorithm,

MPPT is sensorless with no need for any mechanical sensors,

Maximum power tracking with almost unity power factor,

Reduced system cost and size.

88

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE WORK
5.1 Conclusions:
With the evolution in the wind turbine aerodynamics and power electronic interface
technologies, wind energy has become one of the most promising non-conventional
renewable energy sources. Power electronic and intelligent control techniques make it
available to control variable wind speeds and much more reliable to design large and small
scale wind energy conversion systems (WECS). This thesis provides extensive background
knowledge on the wind energy market, providing a survey on different turbine technology,
generators and power converter topologies, and also a survey on different MPPT
techniques.

In this thesis, a simple sensorless control technique has been presented for a 2
MW variable speed wind turbine, grid connected through direct driven PMSG.
Two MPPT techniques have been proposed and discussed, comparing the results
for both techniques. The control technique shows its capability to track maximum
power with fluctuating wind speed. The system performance is investigated by
simulation.
This method offers several advantages:

Simple control algorithm with effective response,

Sensorless with no need for any mechanical sensors,

Maximum power tracking with almost unity power factor,

The main system limitations:

High harmonics due to the uncontrolled rectifier and large amount


of passive materials which required adding of passive filter at the
generators side to minimize the harmonics,

The rotor speed estimator, although it proved to be efficient but its


efficiency will decrease with time as it depends on the generators
parameters which will be drifted due to aging factor.
89

5.2 Suggestions for future work:


The following research points could be a future expansion to the work done in the
present thesis;

 Experimental verification for the presented algorithm. The algorithm can


implemented using Digital signal processing (DSP)

 Design and implementation for different converter topologies such as Z-source


converter or matrix converter, and comparing the results with the presented system.

 The presented sensorless technique depends on the PMSG characteristics which


changes due to aging factor. Design for different sensorless technique algorithm, that
should not depend on the generators characteristics would be more robust and
effective, with comparing the results with the presented technique.

90

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no. 1, 2011, pp. 7 13.
[111] K. Ahmed, S. Finney and B. Williams, Passive Filter Design for Three-Phase Inverter
Interfacing in Distributed Generation, Compatibility in Power Electronics CPE '07, May 2007
pp. 1 9.

[112] F. Haugen, Comparing PI Tuning Methods in a Real Benchmark Temperature Control


System, Modeling, Identification and Control, vol. 31, no. 3, 2010, pp. 79 91.
[113] M. Leite, P. Jardel, P. Arajo, Relay Methods and Process Reaction Curves: Practical
Applications, In: Rames C. Panda, Introduction to PID Controllers - Theory, Tuning and
Application to Frontier Areas, InTech, Feb. 2012, pp. 249 258.
[114] V. Yaramasu and B. Wu, Three-Level Boost Converter based Medium Voltage Megawatt
PMSG Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition
(ECCE), 2011, pp. 561 567.
[115] T. Nguyen and D. Lee, Advanced Fault Ride-Through Technique for PMSG Wind
Turbine Systems Using Line-Side Converter as STATCOM, IEEE Transactions on industrial
electronics, vol. 60, no. 7, July 2013, pp. 2842 2850.
[116] T. Nguyen and D. Lee, Ride-Through Technique for PMSG Wind Turbines using Energy
Storage Systems, Journal of Power Electronics JPE, vol. 10, no. 6, 2010, pp.733 738.
[117] A. Howlader, N. Urasaki, A. Yona, T. Senjyu and A. Saber, A new robust controller
approach for a wind energy conversion system under high turbulence wind velocity, Industrial
Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), 2012 7th IEEE Conference, July 2012, pp. 860 865
[118] A. Howlader, N. Urasaki, A. Yona, T. Senjyu, A. Saber, Design and Implement a Digital
H Robust Controller for a MW-Class PMSG-Based Grid-Interactive Wind Energy Conversion
System, Energies, June 2013, pp. 2084 2109.

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
1) A.M. Sebaii, M.S. Hamad and A.A. Helal , A sensorless MPPT technique for a gridconnected PMSG wind turbine system, IET Renewable Power Generation Conference
2013 Proceeding.


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