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TRAINING REPORT

GUIDED BY:Mr. V. N. Lad


(ASST. PROF.)
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT,
SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
SURAT

SUBMITTED BY:Ved Tripathi


(U07CH162)
B.Tech IV
Chemical Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


SARDAR VALLABHBHAI NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ICHCHHANATH, SURAT-395 007, GUJARAT, INDIA

GUJARAT REFINERY,
VADODARA
1ST June, 2010 TO 30TH
June SARDAR
VALLABHBHAI
NATIONAL INSTITUTE
2

SUBMITTED BY:
Ved Tripathi
Chemical Engg.
Dept.
NIT SURAT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my profound gratitude to the Head of Department Dr. Mousumi
Chakraborty for allowing me to proceed with the seminar.

TRAINING REPORT

I am also thankful to all the Faculty and Staff members of Department


of Chemical Engineering, SVNIT for helping me with my seminar. Their
ideas and thoughts have been of great importance.
I am extremely thankful to Indian Oil Corporation Limited for providing me
an opportunity to undergo industrial training at Gujarat Refinery, Koyali.
The industrial training was an enriching experience which will be
beneficial to me in my future endeavours. The training enabled me to
develop technical skills & also helped me in improving my communication
and management skills.
I take this opportunity to thank all employees of Gujarat Refinery who
helped and guided me during training.
I would especially like to express my gratitude towards,
Mr. S. Nagwanshi
Mr. V.M Ranalkar
Mr. Ranjit Mandal
Mr. P. K. Kar
Mr. S. V. Soni
Mr. M. S. Patel
Mr. A. L. Sahu
Mr. M. M. Ramani
Mr. I. A. Victor
Ms. Stuti Chawlani

Contents
INTRODUCTION:..................................................................................................... 6
DEMAND SUPPLY DATA, MANUFACTURERES IN INDIA...........................................19
ATMOSPHERIC UNIT -3......................................................................................... 23
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS..............................................................24
EQUIPMENT DATA.............................................................................................. 25
LINE SIZING...................................................................................................... 34
TROUBLE SHOOTING........................................................................................ 55
INSTRUMENTATION........................................................................................... 58
CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL INVENTORY LEVEL................................59
METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER.........................................................................60
PROCESS CHEMISTRY....................................................................................... 60
PROCESS DESIGN BASIS................................................................................... 61
PROCESS DESCRIPTION.................................................................................... 64
INSTRUMENTATION / DCS.................................................................................. 74
UNIVERSAL DOW CHEMICAL EXTRACTION PROCESS...........................................79
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................. 79
PLANT CAPACITY............................................................................................... 79
MATERIAL BALANCE.......................................................................................... 81
PRINCIPLE......................................................................................................... 81
PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION..........................................................................83
INSTRUMENTATION........................................................................................... 87
PUMP DATA..................................................................................................... 89
FOOD GRADE HEXANE....................................................................................... 101
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 101
PLANT CAPACITY............................................................................................. 101
HYDROGENATION CATALYST........................................................................... 102
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS.........................................................................102
PROCESS DESCRIPTION.................................................................................. 105
SAFETY INFORMATION.................................................................................... 110
DIESEL HYDRO DE-SULPHURIZATION.................................................................112

BASIC REACTION CHEMISTRY OF HYDROTREATING........................................112


INSTRUMENTATION......................................................................................... 118
HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT..........................................................................119
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 119
BRIEF DESCRIPTION........................................................................................ 119
PROCESS CHEMISTRY..................................................................................... 120
MATERIAL BALANCE........................................................................................ 125
PROBLEMS...................................................................................................... 127
COMPRESSOR TROUBLING SHOOTING CHART................................................127
SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT................................................................................. 129
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 129
PLANT CAPACITY AND MATERIAL BALANCE.....................................................129
PROCESS DESCRIPTION.................................................................................. 130
PUMPS/EJECTORS............................................................................................ 136
SAFETY........................................................................................................... 137
CENTRAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT............................................................139
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 139
PROCESS DESCRIPTION.................................................................................. 141
INSTRUMENTATION......................................................................................... 147
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM............................................................................... 150
SAFETY MEASURES ADOPTED............................................................................ 151
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES................................................................................... 158
PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED AND SOLUTIONS............................................................160
LEARNING.......................................................................................................... 163

INTRODUCTION:
The oil and gas sector is life line of the countrys rapid economic growth it
contributes over 15% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).Oil is
extremely crucial commodity; it accounts for 34% of Indias total energy
consumption and has been growing gradually .The consumption of oil is
increasing rapidly but the production is more or less constant. (Refer
exhibit 1, 2) This means that oil marketing companies have huge scope to
capitalize this gap by tapping more reserves
and producing hydrocarbons because India
has 26 sedimentary basins covering an area

Highlights
Percentage gap
between consumption

of 3.14 million km2, of which only 20 per

and production of oil

cent has been moderately to well explore.

has increased from

Exploration efforts have been initiated in 44

64% in 1998 to 75% in

per cent and 36 per cent remains poorly to


completely

unexplored.

(Source:

DGH,

(MoPNG, 2010))

2008.
Implication:
Production has to be

Oil and gas industry of India is broadly

scaled up to meet the

classified as Upstream, Downstream and

current demand which

Industry bodies (Refer exhibit 3). As we can

means huge business

see from exhibit key players in refining and

for Oil marketing

marketing section of Oil and gas industry

companies like IOCL

has Hindustan petroleum, Indian Oil, Bharat

and BPCL.
17 public refineries

Petroleum,

Reliance

India

Limited

as

mention in exhibit 3. In terms of oil refining


we have come a long way from the era of
1950s ,now we have 17 Public Sector
refineries-

are

owned

by

Indian

Oil

= 148.96 MMTPA
Implication: India is
becoming refining hub
of the world.

Corporation Limited (IOCL), 2 each by Chennai Petroleum Corporation


Limited (a subsidiary of IOCL), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited
(HPCL), Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) (Kochi Refinery
merged with BPCL in august 2006) and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
Limited, 1 each by Numaligarh Refinery Limited (a subsidiary of BPCL) and
Bongaigaon Refineries and Petrochemicals. The private sector refineries
belong to Reliance Industries Limited and Essar Oil Limited. These
refineries were majorly set up by the government after independence so
that India achieves self reliance in the field of oil refining i.e the reason
that out of the total installed refining capacity of India capacity 72%
control is in hands of public sector oil companies. (Refer exhibit 5). Credit
goes to these 17 refineries that the dream of attaining refining capacity
has been achieved India is now refining hub of the world. Indias total
refinery installed capacity is 148.968 MMTPA. (Refer Exhibit 4) The country
is not only self-sufficient in refining capacity for its domestic consumption
but also exports petroleum products substantially. During the last year,
total value of export of petroleum products was worth Rs. 1, 07,603
crores. The refinery sector produced 156.10 MMT of petroleum products
during 2007-08 i.e. net increase of 6.51% over 2006-07.
Apart from capacity another important parameter which is heart and veins
of this industry is GRMs i.e. Gross Refining Margins (GRMs) it is the
difference between total value of petroleum products and price of crude,
so higher the GRMs higher the profit yields. Total GRM of IOCL has been
significantly high year on year in comparison to HPCL, BPCL, MRPL and
reliance (refer exhibit 6).But here we should consider very crucial point
that the gross GRM of IOCL is high because they have 9 refineries in
comparison to HPCL having 2, BPCL having 3 and MRPL, Reliance having 1
each, they have higher capacity and robust vertical integration that gives
them leverage. So if we calculate rough GRM per company per refinery
(Refer exhibit 7) that will show completely different picture. It shows GRM
of Reliance refinery has always been higher than its competitors. GRM for
RIL has been double to the standard bench mark of GRM. Key factors

working in favour of RIL. The cost of


sourcing crude RIL imports sour, heavy,
challenged category crude is one the
cheaper side. This aspect can be learning
for other state owned refineries to brace
themselves

with

such

measures

which

improves their GRMs and provide them


operating profit.
Economies of scale can be achieved easily
by refinery which has highest capacity and

Highlights
In business of oil and gas
economies of scale and
vertical integration are
two crucial concepts.

IOCL leads in terms of

Highlights

capacity utilization but if


BPCL
Refining
margin
is
attains
the strategy
of
inorganicbetween
growth or
difference
total
rapid expansion then it
value of petroleum
might pose a threat to
products produced by the
oil refinery and the price

ultimately that company will get higher


market share (Refer exhibit 8). It shows

of the input i.e. crude oil.

it clearly shows IOCL as leader in this

Factors that have


contributed to high GRMs
are

segment but RIL and BPCL can pose a

Cost of sourcing crude oil

2Manufacturing reliability
and efficiency

Ability to produce quality


transportation fuels

Flexibility of crude oil


receipt and product
evacuation infrastructure

the refinery capacity of major Oil companies,

significant threat to its dominance if they


acquire rapid growth of strategy.

Benchmark: The
Singapore crude is
considered a benchmark
for complex refineries. If
GRM for Singapore crude
is between USD 5-7 per
barrel, RIL has actually
been giving a number

Broadly there are two types of oil pipelines: crude oil pipelines and
product pipelines. While the former carry crude oil to refineries, the latter
transport refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, and
heating oil from refineries to the market. Given the environment friendly
nature of pipeline transportation, 60-70% of transportation of oil products
is done through pipelines in most developed countries. India has network
of 24 product pipelines with length of 10514 K.Ms. & capacity to carry
62.91 MMT of products (Refer exhibit 9) Over and above this, there are
6 crude oil pipelines of 5795 K.Ms, with capacity of transporting 52.75
MMT. We can clearly see that IOCL is leader in having pipeline K.M wise it
has more than 55 % share of total pipeline network of India K.M wise and
65.81 % capacity wise.

Highlights
Length wise IOCL has
55% share of the total
pipeline network while
BPCL has only 7.4 %
share in it.
Capacity wise IOCL has
65.81 % share of the total
pipeline capacity while
BPCL has only 5 % share
in it.

Indian Oil Corporation Limited


The Gujarat Refinery at Koyali near Vadodara
in Gujarat in Western India is Indian Oil
Corporations largest Refinery .It largest Public
Sector Refinery of India and most energy
efficient Refinery of IOCL.

Its facilities include five Atmospheric Crude


Distillation Units (ADU). The major secondary
units include CRU, FCCU and the first
With 11% share capacity
Hydrocracking unit of the country. Through
wise and 11.5% share
length wise HPCL is a
the product pipelines and also by rail
wagons/trucks, the refinery primarily serves the demand for petroleum
products in western and northern India.
When commissioned, the Refinery had an initial installed capacity of
2MMTPA (Million Metric Tonnes Per Annum) and was designed to process
crude from Ankleshwar, Kalol and Nawagam oilfields of ONGC in Gujarat.
The Refinery had further modified to handle imported and Bombay High
Crude. Secondary processing facilities like CRU, FCC, Hydrocracker, DHDS
are also commissioned time to time. Its present day capacity is 13.70

MMTPA. The company has already commissioned the facilities for MTBE
and Butene-1 production. The Refinery also produces a wide range of
speciality products like Benzene, Toluene, MTO, Food Grade Hexane,
solvents, LABFS, etc.
The Gujarat Refinery achieved the distinction of becoming the first
refinery in India to have completed the DHDS (Diesel Hydro Desulphurisation) project in June 1999, when the refinery started production
of HSD with low sulphur content of 0.25% wt (max).
Following the conclusion of an Indo-Soviet agreement in 1961 February, a
site for the establishment of a 2 MMTPA Oil Refinery in Gujarat at Koyali
near Vadodara was selected on 17th April 1961. The Soviet and Indian
engineers signed a contract in October 1961 for the preparation of the
project report jointly. The first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal
Nehru laid the foundation stone of this Refinery on 10th May, 1963.
The Refinery was commissioned with Soviet assistance at a cost of Rs. 26
crores and went on stream in October 1965. The first million tonne Crude
Distillation Unit was Commissioned for trial production on 11 th October
1965 and full production at the rated capacity was achieved on 6 th
December 1965. The throughput was further increased by 20% beyond
the designed capacity in January 1966.
Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, the then President of India, dedicated the Refinery
to the nation with the commissioning of the second Crude Distillation Unit
and Catalytic Reforming Unit on 18th October, 1966.
The third 1.0 MMTPA Crude Distillation Unit (AU-3) was commissioned in
September 1967 to process Ankleshwar and North Gujarat crudes. In
December 1968, UDEX plant was commissioned for the production of
Benzene and Toluene using feedstock available from CRU. By 1974-75
with in-house modifications, the capacity of the Refinery was further
increased by 40% to a level of 4.2 MMTPA. To process imported crude the
Refinery was expanded during 1978-79 by adding another 3.0 MMTPA
Crude Distillation Unit (AU-4) along with downstream processing units
such as Vacuum Distillation Unit, Visbreaker and Bitumen Blowing Unit. By
1980-81 this unit started processing Bombay High crude in addition to
imported crudes. It was for the first time in Indian Petroleum industry that
Indian engineers independently handled such a big project.
To recover high value products from the residue, the secondary processing
facilities consisting of Fluidized Catalytic Cracker Unit (FCCU) of 1.0
MMTPA capacity along with a Feed Preparation Unit (FPU) of 1.0 MMTPA
capacities, were commissioned in December 1982. Refinery also set up

10

Pilot Distillation Facilities (PDF) for the production of n-heptane and light
Aluminium Rolling Oils (LARO). Meanwhile, to enable absorption of
increased indigenous crudes the crude processing capacity of the refinery
was further increased to 9.5 MMTPA.
In 1993-94, Gujarat commissioned the countrys first Hydrocracker Unit of
1.2 MMTPA for conversion of heavier ends of crude oil to high value
superior products. Countrys first Diesel Hydrodesulphurisation Unit
(DHDS) to reduce sulphur content in diesel was commissioned by Gujarat
Refinery in June 1999. Also MTBE Unit was commissioned in September
1999 to eliminate lead in MS. Conceptualized and commissioned SouthEast Asias largest Centralised Effluent Treatment Plant by dismantling all
the four old ETPs in June 1999. By September 1999 with commissioning of
Atmospheric Distillation Unit (AU-5), Gujarat Refinery further augmented
its capacity to 13.70 MMTPA making it the largest PSU refinery of the
country.
A project for production of high value LAB (Linear Alkyl Benzene which is
one of the major raw materials used in manufacturing detergents) from
Kerosene streams has been implemented. In order to meet future fuel
quality requirements, MS quality improvement facilities were
commissioned in 2006.
LAB (Linear Alkyl Benzene): The year 2004-05 marked Indian Oils big
ticket entry into petrochemicals with the commissioning of the countrys
largest LAB plant at Gujarat Refinery in August 2004. It is also the largest
grassroots single train Kerosene-to-LAB unit in the world, with an installed
capacity of 1, 20,000 MTPA. Currentl , two grades of LAB high molecular
weight and low molecular weight are being produced. The quality of the
LAB produced here has found wide acceptance in the domestic and
overseas markets. Built at a cost of Rs. 1,248 crore and commissioned in a
record 24 months time, the plant produces superior quality LAB for
manufacturing environmental friendly biodegradable detergents, using
state-of-the-art Detal Technology from M/s UOP, USA. The key raw
materials for the plant, catering to domestic as well as export market
requirements meeting the latest and most stringent quality standards, are
Kerosene and Benzene produced at Gujarat Refinery.

Refineries:
Digboi Refinery, in Upper Assam, is Indias oldest refinery and was
commissioned in 1901. Originally a part of Assam Oil Company, it

11

became part of Indian Oil in 1981. Its original refining capacity had
been 0.5 MMTPA since 1901. Modernisation project of this refinery
has been completed and the refinery now has an increased capacity
of 0.65 MMTPA.
Guwahati Refinery, the first public sector refinery of the country,
was built with Romanian collaboration and was inaugurated by Late
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, on 1 st January
1962.
Barauni Refinery, in Bihar, was built in collaboration with Russia and
Romania. It was commissioned in 1964 with a capacity of 1.0
MMTPA. Its capacity today is 6 MMTPA.
Gujarat Refinery, at Koyali in Gujarat in Western India, is Indian Oils
largest refinery. The refinery was commissioned in 1965. It also
houses the first Hydrocracking unit of the country. Its present
capacity is 13.70 MMTPA.
Haldia Refinery is the only coastal refinery of the Corporation,
situated 136 km downstream of Kolkata in the Purba Medinipur (East
Midnapore) district. It was commissioned in 1975 with a capacity of
2.5 MMTPA, which has since been increased to 5.8 MMTPA.
Mathura Refinery was commissioned in 19982 as the sixth refinery
in the fold of Indian Oil and with an original capacity of 6.0 MMTPA.
Located strategically between the historic cities of Delhi and Agra,
the capacity of Mathura refinery was increased to 7.5 MMTPA
Panipat Refinery is the Seventh refinery of Indian Oil. The original
refinery with 6 MMTPA capacity was built and commissioned in
1998. Panipat refinery has doubled its refining capacity from 6.0
MMTPA to 12.0 MMTPA with the commissioning of its Expansion
Project.

There are also some subsidiary refineries which work as a supplementary


organization to IOCL and fully controlled and handled by IOCL. These are
following
1. Bongaigaon Refinery (2.95 MMTPA)
2. Chennai Refinery (9.5 MMTPA)

Group Companies and Joint Ventures

12

Indian Oil Technologies Ltd. is the marketing arm of the entire range
of technologies developed at the R&D Centre of Indian Oil
Corporation Limited. This website gives an overview of the various
technologies, products, quality services and solutions, developed
and tested to meet or exceed customer requirements. These
technologies are tailor made and meant to provide competitive
advantage. Indian Oil Technologies is built on the strength of its
credibility proven in its sister divisions. Indian Oil Technologies Ltd.
headquarters are located at Indian Oil R&D Centre, Faridabad.
Indian Oil (Mauritius) Ltd
Lanka IOC PLC Group company for Sri Lanka retail and storage
operations which is listed on Colombos stock exchange. It was
locked into a bitter subsidy payment dispute with Sri Lankas
Goverment which has been resolved.
IOC Middle East FZE
Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd.
Bongaigaon Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd.
Green Gas Ltd. joint venture with Gas Authority of India for city
wide gas distribution networks.
Indo Cat Pvt. Ltd., with Intercat, USA, for manufacturing 15,000
tonnes per annum of FCC (Fluidised Catalytic Cracking) catalysts &
additives in India, for catering to rising global demand.
Numerous exploration and production ventures with Oil India Ltd.,
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation.

13

SOME SALIENT FEATURES OF GUJARAT REFINERY

First Riser Cracker FCCU in the country


First Hydro Cracker in the country
First Diesel Hydro Desulfurisation Unit in the country
First spent caustic treatment plant in refineries
First automated rail loading gantry
First LPG mounded bullets in Indian refineries
State-of-the-art CETP
Quality management system(ISO-9001:2000)
Environmental management system(ISO-14001)
International safety rating system(ISRS) LEVEL 9(Highest)
First organization in country; one amongst 30 refineries in
world.

14

PRODUCT END USES


LPG

Cooking
gas
marketed
as
'INDANE'
Benzene
Raw material for petrochemicals
Toluene
Raw material for petrochemicals
Naphtha
Raw material for petrochemicals
Motor Spirit(90 Octane) Petrol for vehicles
Aviation
Turbine Fuel for jet aircraft
Fuels(ATF)
Superior Kerosene(SK)
Illuminant, domestic purpose
High
Speed Diesel Locos, trucks, buses, ships
Diesel(HSD)
Light Diesel Oil(LDO)
Small
engines
attached
to
irrigation pumps
Low
Sulphur
Heavy Low Sulphur Heavy Stoke(LSHS)
Stoke(LSHS)
Fuel Oil(FO)
Industrial furnace boiler
Bitumen
Road Surfacing
n-Heptane
As solvent
ARO
Used in aluminum rolling industry
Linear
Alkyl Detergent manufacture
Benzene(LAB)
Butene
Co-polymer
for
producing
polyethylene and polypropylene
Methyl Terriary Butyl Blending
in
gasoline
for
Etner(MTBE)
increasing Octane no. and oxygen
content
Food
Grade Solvent for oil seed extraction,
Hexane(FGH)
Glues/adhesives for footwear,
Polymerization
reaction
in
industries like pharmaceuticals &
printing ink, Retreading of car
tyres
Sulphur
Sulphuric
acid
and
tyre
manufacture

15

16

1) GR1
Atmospheric Distillation Units,
AU1 & AU2

4.2 MMTPA

AU5
Catalytic Reforming Unit, CRU

3.0 MMTPA
0.33 MMTPA

2) GR2
AU3
UDEX
Food Grade Hexane, FGH
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether,
MTBE
BUTENE 1
Pilot Distillation Fraction, PDF
3) GRE
AU4
Vacuum Distillation Unit, VDU
Bitumen Blowing Unit, BBU
Visbreaker Unit, VBU
4) GRSPF
Feed Preparation Unit, FPU-1
Fluidized Catalytic Cracker
Unit, FCCU
5) GHC
FPU-2
Hydrogen Generation Unit,
HGU-1
Hydro Cracking Unit, HCU
HGU-2
Diesel Hydro DeSulphurisation Unit, DHDS
Sulphur Recovery Unit, SRU
Nitrogen Unit
6) POWER GENERATION &
EFFLUENT TREATMENT
Cogeneration Plant, CGP
Thermal Power Station, TPS

2.7 MMTPA
0.166 MMTPA
0.03 MMTPA
47 MMTPA
2 MMTPA

3.8
1.2
0.5
1.6

MMTPA
MMTPA
MMTPA
MMTPA

2.0 MMTPA
1.5 MMTPA

2.97 MMTPA
38,000 MTPY
1.2 MMTPA
10,000 MTPY
1.4 MMTPA
88 MMTPD

30*3 MW
12*2 + 12.5 MW

17

Combined Effluent Treatment


Plant, CETP

1500 M3/H

18

NAPHTH
A

CRACKED
LPG
LABF
S

BENZEN

SULPH
MTB
E

FGH

LARO

LSH
S

19

TOLUE

DEMAND SUPPLY DATA, MANUFACTURERES IN INDIA


DEMAND AND SUPPLY DATA
The turnover of Indian Oil Corporation for the year ended 31.03.2007 was Rs.
114,864 Crore as compared to Rs. 117,371 Crore in the previous year. The
reduction in turnover is mainly on account of reduced sale of crude and product
to other Oil Marketing Companies. Further, the inland sales volume reduced by
0.63 million metric tones, from 47.80 million metric tones in 2006-07 to 47.17
million metric tones during 2007-08, registering a decline of 1.32%. The
reduction in sales is mainly due to lower off-take of HSD, SKO and Naptha
consequent to slow down of economy.
EXPORT EARNING
During the year, Indian Oil Corporation earned Rs. 2,078 Crore through experts
as against Rs. 2,206 Crore in 2006-07. The exports include exports of lubricants
to Nepal, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Bahrain and Mauritius, and sale of
ATF to international airlines.
PIPELINES
Indian Oil Corporation owns and operates the largest network of crude and
product pipelines in the country with a total length of 6,523 km and overall
capacity 43.45 MMT. The pipeline network transported 40.36 MMT of crude and
petroleum products during 2007-08 against the previous years throughput of
39.44 MMT.
MARKETING
During the year, Indian Oils Marketing Division performed well in all key areas
despite increased competition and unpredictable market conditions. New
initiatives in the form of products and services were taken to achieve Customer
Delight.
SALES
During 2007-08, IndianOil Corporation sold 47.17 MMT of petroleum products as
compared to 47.80 MMT in the previous year. The actual demand for petroleum
products in the country during the year was much below the projections. This
had an adverse impact on Indian Oil Corporations sales. Despite the sluggish
demand and severe competitions, IOCL increased its market share in products
like MS(Retail) and HSD (Retail). Indian Oil Corporation commissioned 350 Retail
Outlets and 19 SKO / LDO Dealerships during the year, raising their total number
to 7,870 and 3,455 respectively. This includes 80 jubilee Retail Outlets.

20

CUSTOMER SERVICE
In Indian Oil Corporations pursuit to provide better services, IVSR based
complaint tracking and redressal system for customers was launched in 33
Indane Area Offices. Further, in order to provide value added services to
monitoring public, Indian Oil Corporation, in association with State Bank of India,
launched the SBI-Indian Oil Co-branded pre-paid card called Smart Gold for
customers to avail of products and services at IndianOil retail outlets. Indian Oil
Corporation introduced 35 ATMs at retail outlets during the year in various parts
of the country, thereby bringing the total number of ATMs installed to 57. The
IndianOil-Citibank co-branded credit card has reached a membership of 1.48 lakh
as on 31.03.2008.Indian Oil Corporation, in association with Chennai based
Sundaram Finance ltd., also launched Power Plus Fleet Card for transport fleet
operators.
INDANE COOKING GAS
During the year, Indian Oil Corporation enrolled 26 lakh Indane customers, and
the cumulative Indane consumer population reached 322 lakh. The number of
Indane distributorships commissioned during the year was 457 raising the total
number of distributors to 3,881. During the year, seven new Indane Bottling
Plants were commissioned, thus raising the total number of Indane Bottling
Plants to 78 and the total bottling capacity to 32.21 metric tones per annum.

AVIATION
Indian Oil Corporation continued to be market leader in Aviation Fuel supply
business with a market share of 67.9%. The entire Aviation Fuel requirements of
Indian Navy and Indian Army, and over 87% requirement of Indian Air Force was
met by IOCL. The major requirements of other market segments like Indian
Airlines were catered to by Indian Oil Corporation. IOCL commissioned a state-ofthe-art Hydrant Refuelling System at Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Airport in
Kolkata during the year for use of Industry. As part of customer service initiatives
Indian Oil Corporation has developed a user-friendly IndianOil Aviation web page
on Internet, providing information on ruling prices, service network, aviation
highlights, and information on products available location-wise.Indian Oil
Corporation organized the 11th International Aviation Conference at Hyderabad,
which was attended by representative of major international airlines, IATA,
aviation equipment manufactures and Government.
LUBRICANTS
Indian Oil Corporation produced 3.96 lakh metric tones of lubes and 0.13 lakh
tonne of grease during the year. In spite of depressed market conditions, Indian
Oil Corporation improved its market share in finished lubricants. 36 R bazaar-onwheels were added to penetrate the bazaar trade. 24 R stockists (auto) and 11 R
stockists (industrial) were commissioned during the year to give a thrust to

21

lubricant sales. During the year, R lubricants were launched in Bangladesh and
Sri Lanka.
SPECIALITIES
Indian Oil Corporation introduced four new products, viz., Needle Coke (Guwahati
Refinery), Microcrystalline Wax (Haldia Refinery), and Polymer Grade Hexane and
Butene-2 (Gujarat Refinery) in the market as import substitutes.
SHIPPING
149 product import tankers, 11 product tankers and 444 crude import tankers
were handled during the year.
QUALITY ASSURANCE
IOCL consistently accorded top priority on Quality Assurance for its products and
services. IndianOil continues to be the market leader for testing petroleums
products by providing the largest network of testing facilities. More than 2 lakh
samples were tested in its 37 laboratories located across the country. During the
year, a mobile laboratory was added at Patna, taking the number of mobile
laboratories to 23. Laboratory Information Management System was successfully
commissioned in a few IndianOil laboratories with the Laboratory Documentation
and Management System software developed by the Quality Control Department
of Marketing Division.
INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Indian Oil Corporation arranged import of crude oil, petroleum products and
lubricants for meeting the countrys requirements through a carefully selected
diversified mix of supply sources and also exported petroleum products during
2007-08 as detailed hereunder:

Value (Rs.
Crore)

Quantity(MMT)
Imports
Crude Oil - 47.98

38,910.15

Petroleum Products, including for


Nepal Oil Corporation
2.28

2,506.80

Lube Base Oils / Lubricants / Additives

0.02 51.30

Exports
Petroleum Products

0.21

203.41

22

Lubricants

1,382 MT

4.28

Principal Subsidiaries:
Indo Mobil Ltd. (50%); Avi-Oil Ltd. (25%); Indian Oiltanking Ltd. (25%); Petronet
India Ltd. (16%); Petronet VK Ltd. (26%); Petronet CTM Ltd. (26%); Petronet CIPL
Ltd. (12.5%); IndianOil Petronas Ltd. (50%); IndianOil Panipat Power Consortium
Ltd. (26%); IndianOil TCG Petrochem Ltd. (50%); Librizol India Pvt. Ltd. (50%).
Principal Competitors: Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd.; Hindustan Petroleum
Corporation Ltd.; Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies.

Refinery Division
IndianOil controls 10 of Indias 20 refineries. The group refining capacity is 60.2
million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) or 1.2 million barrels per day -the
largest share among refining companies in India. It accounts for 33.8% share of
national refining capacity.
IndianOil refineries have an ambitious growth plan with an outlay of about Rs.
55,000 crore for capacity augmentation, de-bottlenecking, bottom upgradation
and quality upgradation. Major projects under implementation include a 15
MMTPA grassroots refinery at Paradip, Orissa, Naphtha Cracker and Polymer
Complex at Panipat, Panipat Refinery expansion from 12 MMTPA to 15 MMTPA,
among others.

23

ATMOSPHERIC UNIT -3
AU-III Unit has been revamped in may-June 2000 to capacity of 3.0 MMTPA
and with capability of processing 100% NG or in a recommended
proportion of NG and BH crude. . At times of requirement, the Unit can
also process slop at a slow rate together with the in-going crude. LPG,
Naphtha, SKO, HSD (SRGO) and RCO/LSHS are normal products obtained
from this Unit. On demand from UDEX, Hot Oil is produced here.
Atmospheric Unit-3 consists of two Electrostatic Desalters, Pre-topping
Column K-1, Main Fractionating Column K-2, Hy Naphtha-I Kero-I
Stripper K-6A/B, Hy Naphtha-IISRGO Stripper K-3A/B, Kero-II Stripper K3C, Naphtha Stabilizer K-4 and three Furnaces F-1/ F-2/F-3.
No of On-stream hours in a year considered for design is 8200 hrs (344
days)
The design yield pattern is as follows.( Actual yield pattern obtained from
Test Run on 12th October, 2000 compared)
Feed: 375 MT/ Hr (NG 100 %)
SR PRODUCT
NO
1
LPG
2
Naphtha-I
(Stb
Naphtha)(K4
Bottom)
3
Naphtha-II
(Lt Naphtha i.e.
E2 Gasoline)
4
Hy Naphtha-I
(K-6A Naphtha)
5
Hy Naphtha-II
(K-3A Naphtha)
6
Kero-I
7
Kero-II
8
SRGO

TEST RUN
(MT/Hr)
0.75
10.21

DESIGN
(% Wt)
0.20
2.07

TEST RUN
( % Wt)
0.02
2.73

8.10

0.80

2.17

4.10

0.93

5.23

0.80

1.4

11.90
32.31
54.26

2.87
9.94
11.88

-8.64
14.51

9
RCO
10 Gas + Loss

262.25
0.0095

70.71
0.0025

70.12
-

24

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS


Crude from OM&S is received through booster pumps located at GR/GRE
Crude Control. Crude is charged at a temperature of 35 0C by feed pumps
H-2, H-2A, 2B, 2C for processing. These are actually crude booster pumps,
which take suction from discharge of offsite pumps at GR/GRE Crude
Control. It is pumped and preheated by successive heat exchange with Hy
Naphtha-I, Hy Naphtha-II, Kero-I, Kero-II, SRGO (HSD), and RCO and
received in desalters. Salts, water and BS&W are removed from crude by
applying high voltage across the electrode grids in the desalters. Crude is
further heated by successive heat exchange with RCO, SRGO and then it
enters the pre-topping column K-1.
K-1 top gasoline vapours are condensed in two sets of condensers (T7A/B) and received in reflux drum E-1. A part of this liquid is sent as reflux
back to column and the remaining quantity is sent to stabilizer column K-4
after passing through heat exchangers where LPG is removed & naphtha
is sent to R/D. K-1 bottom residue is further preheated in RCO and SRGO
exchangers and then heated up in three furnaces running in parallel. Hot
residue crude from the furnaces is combined and is sent to flash zone of
the main fractionating column K-2.
Column K-1 has two side cut products. Heavy Naphtha-I is the first side
cut product, which goes to K-6A for stripping, and Kerosene-I is the second
side cut which is sent to stripper K-6B. Later Hy Naphtha-I combines with
Hy Naphtha-II and SRGO of K-2 and goes to HSD rundown. Kerosene-I
combines with Kerosene-II of K-2 and exchanges heat with crude and then
it is cooled in cooler and sent as Kero R/D.
In flash zone of K-2 all products except RCO go in vapour form in upper
section whereas RCO drops in stripping section of
K-2.
Vapours rise
through the upper section of the column and are fractionated and
withdrawn as a side product. Gasoline comes out as vapours from K-2 top
whereas Hy Naphtha-II, Kerosene and SRGO are withdrawn as side cuts
from column K-2.
From the top of K-2, Gasoline vapours enter into four sets of condensers
(T-8A/B/C/D) and after condensing are collected in reflux drum E-2. A part

25

of E-2 gasoline is put back into the column as a reflux and balance is sent
to Naphtha-2 rundown.
Hy Naphtha-II is drawn as first side cut from column K-2. This Hy
Naphtha enters the top section of
K-3 stripper. After stripping, Hy
Naphtha-II together with Hy Naphtha-I of K-6A and SRGO exchanges heat
with crude and circulating water and is sent to HSD rundown.
Kerosene-II is withdrawn as 2nd draw-off from column K-2. After
withdrawing it is fed to K-3C for steam stripping. Product pumps H-10/10A
deliver kero-II from K-3C to crude exchangers where it exchanges heat
with crude. T-14A cooler is used to cool down the final rundown product
(Kero-I and Kero-II). A part of Kero-II is taken from the same draw-off line
and sent to crude exchanger where it exchanges heat with crude. From
crude exchanger it returns to column K-2 as CR-II.
SRGO is withdrawn as 3 rd side cut from column K-2. SRGO enters the
bottom section of K-3 stripper. SRGO from stripper is pumped to storage
after exchanging heat with crude, K-4 feed and circulating water (in cooler
E-315). After K-4 feed preheat exchanger E-311, Hy Naphtha-I and Hy
Naphtha-II together combine with SRGO. These three streams in
combination pass through another crude exchanger E-102A/B as HSD.
Cooler E-315 is used to cool down this HSD to rundown temperature.
A part of SRGO upstream of stripper is pumped through K-4 bottom
reboiler; K-1 residue exchanger, crude exchanger and DM water heat
exchanger and then returns to main column K-2 as circulating reflux (CRIII). There is interconnection between discharge lines of P-307A/B and H4/5A to facilitate SRGO C/R through stripper K-3B instead of upstream of
SRGO withdrawal.
RCO from K-2 bottom is routed to FPU-I, II and OM&S after exchanging
heat with crude in different crude heat exchangers and with circulating
water in coolers T-16/16A/B/C/D/E

EQUIPMENT DATA
PUMPS

26

FLOW
(M/Hr)

DISCH P
MOTOR
PRESS
(kgf/cm (kgf/cm
Rate
2
)
)
kW d
Amp

Sr
No

EQPT
NO

SERVICE

Rate
d

Norm
al

1
2

H-2/2A
H-2B

CRUDE
CRUDE

175
175

150
150

21.0
21.0

18.0
18.0

220 23
260 27

SS100
,,

H-2C

CRUDE

175

150

22.0

19.0

260 27

,,

H-4/5A

H-6

H-8

H-8A

H-9

SRGO

90

K-1 TOP
REFLUX
K-2 TOP REFLUX/
NAPHTHA-2 R/D
K-1 TOP
REFLUX
K-2 TOP
REFLUX /
NAPHTHA-2 R/D
KERO-II

75

10.5
65

8.0

LUBE
OIL

SS121
5.0

22

37.8

SS100

65

6.8

20

36

,,

75

12

22

38

,,

75

6.0

20

36

,,

75

6.0

20

36

SS121

RCO (K-2 BOT)

200

12

110 190

,,

K-4 BOT

40

14.5

18.5 45

SS100

K-4 REFLUX /
LPG R/D
SLOP/CBD

56

30

50

,,

13

H-15/
15A
H-18

80

6.0

16

,,

14

H-19

SLOP/CBD

60

6.0

11

20

,,

15

IFO/E6-E7 pump

18

7.3

18

,,

6.0

0.37 0.9

,,

17

H-20/
20A
H-21A/
/B/C/D
H-25

20

0.37 1.1

,,

18

H-26

20

0.37 1.1

,,

19

H-28/
28A
H-29/
29A

40

35

,,

21

0.37 1.1

9
10
11
12

16

20

H-10/
10A
H-11/
11A
H-14

47.4

AHURALAN
Injection
CAUSTIC Injection

5
LPH
150
LPH
CAUSTIC Injection 150
LPH
DM Water Injection 20
Pump
DEMULSIFIER
8

27

15.0

6.2

52

SS100

FLOW
(M/Hr)
Sr
No

EQPT
NO

21

20
LPH
220

23

H-30 /31 AMMONIA


SOLUTION
H-41
K-1 BOT
A /B / C (K-1 RESIDUE)
H-42
RCO (K-2 BOT)

24

H-101

25

H-102

26

H-103

27

45-PM002 A/B
P-231
DESALTER
A/ B
DESLUDGING
P-231C DM WATER
Injection
P-301
K-1 CR-I
A/ B
(KERO-I)
P-302
K-2 CR-II
A/ B
(KERO-II)
P-304
Hy Naphtha
A/ B/C
(K-6A
&
K-3A
bottoms)
P-305
KERO-I Product
A/ B
(K-6B bottoms)
P-306
K-4 Feed
A/ B
(E-1 to K-4)
P-307
K-2 CR-III
A/ B
(SRGO)
P-5A/B
Hot Oil/FO to UDEX
Sucn.
ex
TK212/213

22

28
29
30
31
32

33
34
35
36

SERVICE

SUCTION FROM
TK-212/213/214
SPARE FOR (Slop)
H-101 / H-103
SUCTION FROM
TK-209/210/211
VR/IFO PUMP

Rate
d

200

Norm
al

168

DISCH P
MOTOR
PRESS
(kgf/cm (kgf/cm
Rate
2
)
)
kW d
Amp

LUBE
OIL

0.37 1.1

,,

12

160 268

SS121

11.4

10.5

110 180

,,

60

5.5

15

27.5

SS100

50

4.3

11

20

,,

52

5.2

15

28

,,

10

15

27.5

SS121

22

16

5.5

10.5

,,

30

52

SS100

3.25

28

23.2

6.6

4.0

7.5

13.5

SS121

250

225

6.5

5.1

45

74

,,

23

18

8.5

6.0

15

25.1

,,

28

17.5

9.0

6.0

15

26.5

,,

37

61

SS100

15
270

238

7.5

6.1

67

105

SS121

11

19.9

SS100

28

Pressure Safety Valves'

SNO TAG
NO
1
3PSV-3201
A/B

Nos

LOCATION

SERVICE

To vent
Naphtha

3PSV-05

K-1O/H
(On
Condensers
Platform)
On E-1 Vessel

3PSV-3501
5
A/B/C/D
&
3PSV3502
3PSV-3503
1

.
5

3PSV-3601
A/B
3PSV-3601

3PSV-901

3PSV-902

3PSV-3101A

10

3PSV-3101B

11

3PSV-4501

12

3PSV-4504

13

3PSV-4505
1

SET PR
(kgf/cm2)
3.7

RELEASE
TO
FLARE

3.15

FLARE

1.5

L.P Flare

To vent
LPG
K-4 TOP
To vent
LPG
On E-4 Vessel To vent
LPG
Desalter -I
To vent
O/H line on K-1 Crude
8th Platform
Desalter -I
To vent
O/H line on K-1 Crude
8th Platform
Desalter-II O/H To vent
On
K-1 Crude
Platform
Desalter-II O/H To vent
On
K-1 Crude
Platform
On VR surge
To vent FG
Drum
On disch of VR
pump
To vent VR
45-PM-002B

1.2

L.P Flare

9.4

FLARE

9.4

FLARE

19.34

K-1

18.7

K-1

20.3

K-1

20.3

K-1

On disch of VR
pump
To vent VR
45-PM-002A

10
Temp=
120
1700C

K-2 TOP

To vent
Naphtha
To vent
Naphtha

On E-2 Vessel

29

3.15

Flare
K.O. Drum
10
Suction of
Temp=120 the
to 1700C
same
pump
Suction of
the
to same
pump

SNO TAG
NO
14
3TSV-4501

Nos

LOCATION

VR O/L of Exch To vent VR


45-EE-003A/B

15

3TSV-4502

VR O/L of Exch To vent VR


45-EE-003C/D

16

3TSV-4503

On
VR/FO
Supply lines to
AU-3/Udex
furnaces
before supplyreturn bypass
On
VR/FO
Supply
Line to Udex
On
VR/IFO
Return line (to
VR Drum) near
E-7
On IFO line ex
E-6/E-7 to VR
Drum near VR
pumps

17

3TSV-4504

18

3TSV-4505

19

3TSV-4506

SERVICE

RELEASE
TO
CBD

To vent VR/FO

SET PR
(kgf/cm2)
10
Temp=235
0
C
10
Temp=235
0
C
10

To vent VR/FO

10

Surface
Drain

To vent VR/FO

10
Surface
Temp=235 Drain
0
C

To vent FO

10
CBD
Temp=170
0
C

CBD

Surface
Drain

MOTORS DATA

Amps

S.NO

EQUIPMMENT

SERVICE

KW

1.

10PM-1A

Crude charge Pump-Motor

440

45

2.

10PM-1B

Crude charge Pump-Motor

440

45

3.

10PM-1C

Crude charge Pump-Motor

520

53

4.

10PM-1S

Crude charge Pump-Motor

440

45

5.

10PM-2

Desalter water pump-Motor

110

187

6.

10PM-2S

Desalter water pump-Motor

110

187

7.

10PM-2A

Desalter water pump-Motor

8.

10PM-4

Caustic Circulation Pump-Motor

15

27

30

(FLC)

9.

10PM-4S

Caustic Circulation Pump-Motor

15

27

10.

10PM-5

Caustic dosing pump-Motor

2.2

11.

10PM-5 S

Caustic dosing pump-Motor

2.2

12.

10PM-6A

Brine Pump-Motor.

15

22

13.

10PM-6B

Brine Pump-Motor.

15

22

14.

10PM-7A

Brine Pump-Motor.

15

22

15.

10PM-7B

Brine Pump-Motor.

15

22

Post Desalter Pump-Motor

485

50

16.

11PM-102A

17.

11PM-102B

Post Desalter Pump-Motor

485

50

18.

11PM-102C

Post Desalter Pump-Motor

485

50

19.

11PM-102S

Post Desalter Pump-Motor

485

50

20.

11PM-2

Stabiliser feed pump-Motor

200

20

21.

11PM-2S

Stabiliser feed pump-Motor

200

20

22.

11PM-3

11C1 Reflux Pump-Motor

160

262

23.

11PM-3S

11C1 Reflux Pump-Motor

160

262

24.

11PM-4A

ATF CR pump-Motor

132

224

25.

11PM-4B

ATF CR pump-Motor

132

224

26.

11PM-4S

ATF CR pump-Motor

132

224

27.

11PM-5

ATF draw off pump-Motor

160

262

28.

11PM-5S

ATF draw off pump-Motor

160

262

29.

11PM-7

HK draw off pump-Motor

90

156

30.

11PM-7S

HK draw off pump-Motor

90

156

31.

11PM-8

LGO draw off pump-Motor.

75

132

32.

11PM-8S

LGO draw off pump-Motor.

75

132

33.

11PM-9

HGO pump-Motor

75

132

34.

11PM-11

Stabiliser reflux pump-Motor

45

78

31

35.

11PM-11S

Stabiliser reflux pump-Motor

45

78

36.

11PM-15A

Heavy Naphtha pump-Motor

55

91

37.

11PM-15B

Heavy Naphtha pump-Motor

55

98

38.

11PM-16A

HK CR pump-Motor

150

266

39.

11PM-16B

HK CR pump-Motor

150

266

40.

11PM-16C

HK CR pump-Motor

150

266

41.

11PM16

CBD Pump-Motor

11

20

42.

11PM-17

CORROSION INHIBITOR DOSING


PUMP

0.8

1.7

43.

11PM-17S

CORROSION INHIBITOR DOSING


PUMP-MOTOR

0.8

1.7

44.

11PM-18

Ammonia sol. dosing pump-Motor

0.6

1.4

45.

11PM-18S

Ammonia sol. dosing pump-Motor

0.4

1.1

46.

11PM-22S

CBD Pump-Motor

7.5

13.5

47.

11PM-23A

Desalter Pump-Motor

45

82

48.

11PM-26

11V9condensate pump-Motor

19

32

49.

11PM103A

Prefractionator reflux pump-Motor.

75

125

50.

11PM103S

Prefractionator reflux pump-Motor.

75

125

51.

11PM104A

LGO CR Pump-Motor

440

49.5

52.

11PM104B

LGO CR Pump-Motor

440

49.5

53.

11PM104S

LGO CR Pump-Motor

440

49.5

54.

11PM-105A

Tempered water pump-Motor

55

93

55.

11PM-105B

Tempered water pump-Motor

55

93

56.

11PM-105S

Tempered water pump-Motor

55

93

57.

11PM-106A

Ammonia dosing pump-Motor

3.7

58.

11PM-106S

Ammonia dosing pump-Motor

3.7

59.

11PM-107A

Corr. inhibitor dosing pump-Motor

1.1

11

32

60.

11PM-107S

Corr. inhibitor dosing pump-Motor

1.1

11

61.

11PM-108A

Prefractionator Bottom Pump-Motor

570

60

62.

11PM-108B

Prefractionator Bottom Pump-Motor

725

74

63.

11PM-108C

Prefractionator Bottom Pump-Motor

570

60

64.

11PM-108S

Prefractionator Bottom Pump-Motor

570

60

65.

11PM109A

LPG Product pump-Motor.

37

63

66.

11PM109S

LPG Product pump-Motor.

37

63

67.

11PM110A

Caustic Recirculation Pump-Motor

68.

11PM110S

Caustic Recirculation Pump-Motor

69

12PM-1A

Atm. Residue pump-Motor

280

31

70.

12PM-1B

Atm. Residue pump-Motor

280

31

71.

12PM-1S

Atm. Residue pump-Motor

280

31

72.

12PM-2A

LVGO pump-Motor

132

224

73.

12PM-2S

LVGO pump-Motor

132

217

74.

12PM-2C

LVGO pump-Motor

110

178

75.

12PM-2B

LVGO pump-Motor

132

224

76.

12PM-3A

HVGO pump-Motor

475

60

77.

12PM-3B

HVGO pump-Motor

475

60

78.

12PM-3C

HVGO pump-Motor

475

60

79.

12PM-4

Vacuum. Slop pump-Motor

90

145

80.

12PM-4S

Vacuum. Slop pump-Motor

90

145

81.

12PM-5

Vacuum. Residue pump-Motor

160

262

82.

12PM-5S

Vacuum. Residue pump-Motor

160

262

83.

12PM-5A

Vacuum. Residue pump-Motor

160

255

84.

12PM-5B

Vacuum. Residue pump-Motor

160

262

85.

12PM-6

12V1 Condensate pump-Motor

5.5

10.3

86.

12PM-6S

12V1 Condensate pump-Motor

5.5

10.3

87.

12PM-7

LDO pump-Motor

90

149

33

88.

12PM-7S

LDO pump-Motor

90

149

89.

12PM-8

12V1 Oil pump-Motor

11

21

90.

12PM-8S

12V1 Oil pump-Motor

11

21

91.

12PM-9

HVGO Pump back-Motor

60

101

92.

12PM-9S

HVGO Pump back-Motor

60

101

93.

10AC-12

Desalter brine A/C-Motor

40

72

94.

11ACM-107(A-X)

Atm. Column OH A/C-Motor

15

28

95.

11ACM-6A

ATF cut A/C Motor

40

72

96.

11ACM-8A

HGO cut A/C Motor

40

72

97.

11ACM-8B

LGO cut A/C-Motor

40

72

98.

11ACM-10A

HVGO cut A/C-Motor

40

72

99.

11ACM-10B

HVGO cut A/C-Motor

40

72

100.

11ACM-11

LVGO CR A/C-Motor

40

72

101

11ACM-14

HGO A/C Motor

40

72

102.

11ACM-101(A-T)

Prefractionator O/H A/C-Motor

40

53

103.

11ACM-108(A-H)

Tempered Water A/C-Motor.

22

40

104.

12ACM- 1 A/B

LDO A/C-Motor

40

72

105.

12ACM-2 A/B

LVGO A/C-Motor

22

38

106.

12ACM-3 A/B

HVGO A/C-Motor

11

20

107.

11KM-1/2/3

FD fan-Motors

230

26.5

110.

11KM-4

ID fan-Motor

410

46.5

111.

12FD01A/B

FD fan-Motors

90

155

112.

12ID02

ID fan-Motor

132

226

34

LINE SIZING

35

S.NO

PSV NO. EQUIPMENT DISCHARG SET PR INLET Dia.


E TO
(Kg/cm2 (inches)
)

OUTLET
Dia(inche
s)

10PSV01 10V1A/B/C/D

11C101

14.5

10PSV02 10V1A/B/C/D

11C101

14.5

10

10PSV03 10V1A/B/C/D

11C101

14.5

10

CBD

31.2

1.5

10PSV05 10E1 Tube


Outlet

CBD

31.2

1.5

10PSV07 10E3 Tube


Outlet

31.2

1.5

10PSV08 10E26A Shell CBD


Outlet
CBD

31.2

1.5

10PSV09 10E6 Tube


Outlet
10PSV10A 10E2 Tube
Outlet

CBD

31.2

1.5

10PSV11 10E9 Tube


Outlet

CBD

31.2

1.5

CBD

32.9

1.5

10

10PSV12 10E10 Tube


Outlet

CBD

31.2

1.5

11

10PSV101 10E7 Tube


3
Outlet

CBD

31.2

1.5

12

10PSV39 11E17 Shell


Outlet

OWS

28

0.75

13

10PSV240 10E4 Tube


1
Outlet

OWS

28

0.75

14

10PSV240 11E39A/B
2
Tube Outlet

OWS

28

0.75

15

10PSV240 10E16 Tube


3
Outlet
10PSV240 10E1B Tube
4
Outlet

OWS

28

0.75

16
17

10PSV15 10E15

OWS

36

0.75

CBD

31.2

1.5

18

10PSV60 10E10A/B
Tube Outlet

31.2

1.5

19

11PSV48 10E26B Shell CBD


Outlet
CBD

20

11PSV29 11E7 Tube


Outlet

32.9

1.5

CBD

32.9

1.5

21

11PSV200 11E08 Shell


2
Outlet

36

37

CHAPTER 6:
INSTRUMENTATION

S
.
N
O
. TAG NO. SERVICE

UNIT

RANGE LO

LOLO HI

HIHI

2.2

3.6

11V-10 FUEL GAS


1 11PRC11 PR
KG/CM2 0 - 6.0

2.4

FUEL GAS TO 11V02 11FIC301 10


NM3/HR 16000

3000 2800

12000 12500

3.5

3 11FR65

FO SUPPLY TO
UNIT

M3/HR

0 - 75

20

15

70

75

4 11FR66

FO RETURN EX
UNIT

M3/HR

0 - 66

20

15

50

60

FUEL GAS TO
5 11FR64B FURNACES

0NM3/HR 12000

6 11FI63

PILOT GAS TO
FURNACES

7 AT29-03

FUEL GAS EX 11V10


oC

MP STEAM TO
8 11PRC16 UNIT

9 11FR67

MP STEAM TO
UNIT

5000 2000

NM3/HR 0 - 630 200

0 - 600 20

KG/CM3 0 - 16

T/HR

9.5

0 - 100 20

11000 12000

150

500

600

15

80

100

9.0

12.5

12.8

15

50

55

9.0

12.5

13

1
MP STEAM TO
0 11PAL303 UNIT

KG/CM2 0 - 16

1
1 AT29-06

STEAM TO UNIT

oC

0 - 600 210

200

275

300

1 12AT322 24

FO SUPPLY TEMP

oC

0 -600

120

190

200

38

10

130

1
3 AT32-25

FO RETURN TEMP oC

0 600

1
4 12FR93

CW TO UNIT

0 - 8820 3900 3500

M3/HR

130

120

190

200

7000

7500

2.2

5.0

5.5

1
5 12PAL57 CW TO UNIT PR

KG/CM2 0 - 6

1
HC DETECTOR
6 10HCD01 CHEM. AREA

% LEL

0 - 100 0

10

1 10AMGD NH3 DETECTOR


7 01
CHEM. AREA

PPM

0 - 100 0

10

20

1
8 11PH01

11V1 WATER pH
VALUE

0-14

1
9 12PH01

12V1 WATER pH
VALUE

0-14

RANGE LO

2.5

CRUDE PRE-HEAT TRAIN-1

S
.
N TAG
O NO

SERVICE

UNIT

1 10PI03

CRUDE TO UNIT

KG/CM2 0 - 10

3.0

LOLO HI

HIHI

2.5

5.5

6.0

720

1350

1400

8.0

12.8

13

10FFRC
2 1030
CRUDE TO UNIT

M3/HR

10PC10
3 01
DESALTER PR

KG/CM2 0 - 25

10FC19
4 01
CRUDE TO 11E-17

M3/HR

0 - 750 280

250

475

500

10FC19
5 02
CRUDE TO 11E-26A M3/HR

0 - 750 280

250

475

500

0 - 2200 750

39

9.0

10FI010
6 57
CRUDE TO 10E-3

M3/HR

0 - 600 280

250

475

500

10HIC1
7 901
CRUDE TO 10E-3

0 - 100 40

30

75

90

10TC19
8 01
CRUDE EX 11E-26A oC

0 - 150 60

50

120

130

10TI190
9 2
CRUDE EX 10E-6

oC

0 - 150 40

35

125

135

1 10TI190
0 3
CRUDE EX 10E-9

oC

0 - 150 70

65

130

140

1 10TI190
1 4
CRUDE EX 10E-7

oC

0 - 200 110

100

170

180

1 10TI190
2 5
CRUDE EX 11E-17

oC

0 - 150 60

50

120

130

1 10TI190
3 6
CRUDE EX 11E-16B oC

0 - 150 65

55

130

140

1 10TI190
4 7
CRUDE EX 10E-1A

oC

0 - 150 100

90

130

140

1 10TI190
5 8
CRUDE EX 10E101

oC

0 - 200 110

100

160

175

1 10TI190
6 9
CRUDE EX 10E-2

oC

0 - 200 110

100

160

175

1 10TI191
7 0
CRUDE EX 11E-26B oC

0 - 200 110

100

160

175

1 10TI191
8 1
RCO EX 11E-26B

oC

0 - 400 150

140

250

280

1 10TI191
9 2
LVGO EX 10E-3

oC

0 - 150 100

90

130

140

2 10TI191
0 3
HK EX 10E-6

oC

0 - 150 40

30

140

150

2 10TI191 CRUDE EX 10P1 4


1A/B/C/S

oC

0 - 100 25

22

50

60

2 10TI191 HK TO 10E-6

oC

0 - 350 210

200

235

250

40

2 5
2 10TI191
3 6
RCO EX 11E-26A

oC

0 - 300 120

110

210

220

2 10TI191
4 7
ATF TO 11E-17

oC

0 - 300 110

100

180

190

2 10TI191
5 8
LVGO EX 10E-2

oC

0 - 200 120

110

180

190

2 10TI191
6 9
ATF EX 11E-17

oC

0 - 150 45

40

130

140

2 10TI192
7 0
ATF CR EX 10E-101 oC

0 - 200 120

110

150

155

2 10TI192
8 1
HVGO EX 10E-9

oC

0 - 200 120

110

160

170

2 10TI192
9 2
LVGO TO 10E-2

oC

0 - 250 155

150

195

200

3 10TI192
0 3
HVGO EX 10E-7

oC

0 - 200 135

125

175

185

3 10TI192
1 4
LGO EX 10E-1A

oC

0 - 200 120

110

180

190

3 10FICN
2 1
SLOP TO UNIT

M3/HR

0 - 43.3 0

40

43

UNIT

RANGE LO

LOLO HI

HIHI

10V-1A INTERFACE
1 10LIC401 LEVEL
%

0 - 100 20

15

45

50

10V-1A INTERFACE
2 10LI401A LEVEL
%

0 - 100 20

15

45

50

3 10LIC402 10V-1B INTERFACE %

0 - 100 20

15

35

40

DESALTERS ASSEMBLY

S
.
N
O TAG NO

SERVICE

41

LEVEL
10V-1B INTERFACE
4 10LI402A LEVEL
%

0 - 100 20

15

35

40

10V-1C INTERFACE
5 10LIC403 LEVEL
%

0 - 100 20

15

40

50

10V-1C INTERFACE
6 10LI403A LEVEL
%

0 - 100 20

15

45

50

10V-1D INTERFACE
7 10LIC404 LEVEL
%

0 - 100 20

15

35

40

10V-1D INTERFACE
8 10LI404A LEVEL
%

0 - 100 20

15

35

40

9 10LIC01

0 - 100 60

55

95

100

1
0 10FIC601 WATER TO 10V-1D M3/HR

0 - 72.3 10

30

32

1
1 10FIC602 WATER TO 10V-1B M3/HR

0 - 72.3 10

30

32

1
2 10FI603

WATER TO 10V-1A M3/HR

0 - 72.3 10

32

30

1
3 10FI604

WATER TO 10V-1C M3/HR

0 - 75

35

40

1
4 10FI106

CRUDE TO 10V-1A M3/HR

0 - 1500 400

350

600

700

1
5 10FI107

CRUDE TO 10V-1C M3/HR

0 - 1500 350

300

900

1000

1
6 10FI108

10V-1C
DESLUDGING
FLOW

M3/HR

0 - 50

10

15

1
7 10FI109

10V-1D
DESLUDGING
FLOW

M3/HR

0 - 50

10

15

1
8 10T501

CRUDE TO 10V-1A oC

0 - 220 100

90

155

160

1 10T502

CRUDE TO 10V-1B oC

0 - 220 100

90

155

160

10V-5 LEVEL

42

10

9
2
0 10TI503

CRUDE TO 10V-1C oC

0 - 600 100

90

155

160

2
1 10T504

CRUDE TO 10V-1D oC

0 - 600 100

90

155

160

2
2 10T36-18 BRINE EX 10AC-12 oC

0 - 600 30

20

80

90

2
3 10AI-01

10V-1A TR-1
CURRENT

oC

0 - 100 10

40

50

2
4 10AI-02

10V-1A TR-2
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

2
5 10AI-03

10V-1A TR-3
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

2
6 10AI-04

10V-1B TR-1
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

2
7 10AI-05

10V-1B TR-2
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

2
8 10AI-06

10V-1B TR-3
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

2
9 10AI-07

10V-1C TR-1
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

3
0 10AI-08

10V-1C TR-2
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

3
1 10AI-09

10V-1C TR-3
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

3
2 10AI-10

10V-1D TR-1
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

3
3 10AI-11

10V-1D TR-2
CURRENT

oC

0 - 150 10

40

50

3
0 10AI-12

10V-1D TR-3
CURRENT

oC

0 - 100 10

40

50

0.5

1.1

1.2

3
10V1A MIXING
1 10PDI401 VALVE DP

Kg/cm2 0 1.2

43

0.6

3
10V1B MIXING
2 10PDI402 VALVE DP

Kg/cm2 0 1.2

0.6

0.5

1.1

1.2

3
10V1C MIXING
3 10PDI403 VALVE DP

Kg/cm2 0 1.2

0.6

0.5

1.1

1.2

3
10V1D MIXING
4 10PDI404 VALVE DP

Kg/cm2 0 1.2

0.6

0.5

1.1

1.2

CRUDE PREHEAT TRAIN-2

S
.
N
O TAG NO

SERVICE

UNIT

RANGE LO

LOLO HI

HIHI

CRUDE TO 11E1 11FI2001 102

M3/HR

0 - 775 280

250

475

500

CRUDE TO 11E2 11HIC14 102

0 - 100 20

15

70

80

11FI0111 CRUDE TO 11E3 28


16A

M3/HR

0 - 664 280

250

475

500

11HC100 CRUDE TO 11E4 1


16A

0 - 100 20

15

70

80

11FI0111
5 29
CRUDE TO 11E-8

M3/HR

0 - 664 280

250

475

500

11HC100
6 2
CRUDE TO 11E-8

0 - 100 20

15

70

80

7 11TI2001 HK CR EX 11E-16A oC

0 - 300 120

110

180

190

CRUDE EX 11E8 11TI2002 16A

oC

0 - 300 120

110

190

200

9 11TI2003 HVGO EX 11E-18

oC

0 - 300 200

190

250

260

1
0 11TI2004 HVGO EX 11E-103 oC

0 - 300 225

210

260

275

44

1
1 11TI2005 CRUDE EX 11E-18 oC

0 - 300 150

140

240

250

1
CRUDE EX 11E2 11TI2006 103

oC

0 - 300 170

160

260

270

1
3 11TI2007 LGO CR EX 10E-10 oC

0 - 350 200

190

270

280

1
4 11TI2008 CRUDE EX 10E-10 oC

0 - 300 180

170

280

290

1
5 11TI2009 LGO EX 11E-7

oC

0 - 300 150

140

260

275

1
6 11TI2010 CRUDE EX 11E-40 oC

0 - 300 175

165

280

290

1
7 11TI2011 SR EX 11E-8

oC

0 - 350 160

150

250

260

1
8 11TI2012 CRUDE EX 11E-8

oC

0 - 250 120

110

190

200

1
9 11TI2013 HK CR EX 11E-10

oC

0 - 300 150

140

240

250

2
0 11TI2014 CRUDE EX 11E-10 oC

0 - 300 130

120

200

210

2
1 11TI2015 SR EX 11E-9

oC

0 - 350 200

190

280

290

2
2 11TI2016 CRUDE EX 11E-9

oC

0 - 300 180

170

250

260

2
3 11TI2017 LGO EX 11E-40

oC

0 - 350 150

140

240

250

2
ATF CR EX 11E4 11TI2018 102

oC

0 - 250 110

100

250

260

2
CRUDE EX 11E5 11TI2019 102

oC

0 - 300 120

110

160

175

2
6 11TI2020 HGO EX 11E-112

oC

0 - 300 110

100

250

260

2 11TI2021 CRUDE EX 11E-

oC

0 - 300 130

120

180

190

45

112

2
8 11TI2022 CRUDE EX 11E-7

oC

0 - 300 140

130

200

210

2
9 11TI2023 LGO TO 11E-40

oC

0 - 400 260

250

290

300

3
ATF CR TO 11E0 11TI2024 102

oC

0 - 300 150

140

200

210

3
CRUDE EX 11P1 11TI2025 102ABCS

oC

0 - 200 110

100

150

160

46

CDU APH

S.N TAG
O
NO

SERVICE

11TI705 FLUE GAS TO APH

UNIT

RANGE

LO

LOLO HI HIHI

oC

0-600

300 250

42
5 450

11TI718 FLUE GAS TO APH

oC

0-600

300 250

42
5 450

11PR70
7
FLUE GAS TO APH

MMWC

0-100

-85

11PI738 FLUE GAS EX APH

MMWC

-200-0

-120 -150 -50 -20

11TI727 FLUE GAS EX APH

oC

11TI741 FLUE GAS EX APH

oC

0-600

0-600

-90

160 150

21
0 215

160 150

21
0 220

11TI736 11K4 SUCTION TEMPERATURE

oC

0-1000

160 150

20
5 210

11TI737 FLUE GAS TO STACK

oC

0-550

170 160

39
0 410

11ANS
O2

10

11MSD
01
MAIN STACK DAMPER

PPM

0-500

20

10

20
0 250

0-100

20

10

80 90

11

11PIC7
02
FURNACE COMMON DRAFT

MMWC

-20 TO
+20

-15

-20

12

11HIC7
01
11K1 MANUAL LOADER

0-100

30

25

70 75

13

11HIC7
02
11K2 MANUAL LOADER

0-100

30

25

70 75

14

11HIC7
03
11K3 MANUAL LOADER

0-100

30

25

70 75

15

11HIC7 11K4 MANUAL LOADER

0-100

30

25

70 75

CDU FURNACE SO2

47

+1

04

16

11PI711 11K1 DISCHARGE PRESSURE

MMWC

0-600

230 220

38
0 400

17

11PI712 11K2 DISCHARGE PRESSURE

MMWC

0-600

230 220

38
0 400

18

11PI713 11K3 DISCHARGE PRESSURE

MMWC

0-600

230 220

38
0 400

19

11PLL7
41
COLD AIR EX 11K1

MMWC

0-600

230 220

40
0 410

20

11PLL7
42
COLD AIR EX 11K2

230 220

40
0 410

21

11PLL7
43
COLD AIR EX 11K3

MMWC

0-600

230 220

40
0 410

22

11TIC7
28
HOT AIR EX 11SH1

oC

0-150

40

30

10
0 110

23

11TIC7
29
HOT AIR EX 11SH2

oC

0-150

40

30

10
0 110

24

11TIC7
30
HOT AIR EX 11SH3

30

10
0 110

MMWC

oC

0-600

0-150

40

25

11TI738 HOT AIR EX 11SH1

oC

0-600

40

30

10
0 110

26

11TI739 HOT AIR EX 11SH2

oC

0-600

40

30

10
0 110

27

11TI740 HOT AIR EX 11SH3

oC

0-600

40

30

10
0 110

28

11TI717 COMBUSTION AIR TO APH

oC

0-600

35

30

80 90

29

11PLL7
10
APH I/L AIR PRESSURE

MMWC

0-600

140 110

36
0 400

30

11PR70
9
APH I/L AIR PRESSURE

150 120

35
0 400

MMWC

0-600

31

11TI731 COMBUSTION AIR EX APH

oC

0-600

200 175

31
0 325

32

11TI735 COMBUSTION AIR TO FURNACE oC

0-600

200 175

30 325

48

33

11TI719 FLUE GAS EX APH1

oC

0-600

170 160

22
5 240

34

11TI720 FLUE GAS EX APH2

oC

0-600

170 160

22
5 240

35

11TI721 FLUE GAS EX APH3

oC

0-600

170 160

22
5 240

36

11TI722 FLUE GAS EX APH4

oC

0-600

170 160

22
5 240

160 150

30
0 320

37

11TI723 HOT AIR EX APH1

oC

0-600

38

11TI724 HOT AIR EX APH2

oC

0-600

160 150

30
0 320

39

11TI725 HOT AIR EX APH3

oC

0-600

160 150

30
0 320

40

11TI726 HOT AIR EX APH4

oC

0-600

160 150

30
0 320

12C-1 (VACCUM DISTILLATION COLUMN)

S.N
O
TAG NO

SERVICE

UNIT

RANGE

LO

LOL
O
HI

HIH
I

12LC2202

12C-1 BOTTOM LEVEL

0 - 100

50

40

85

90

12LI2201

12C-1 BOTTOM LEVEL

0 - 100

40

35

90

95

49

12LRC11

12C-1 BOTTOM LEVEL

0 - 100

40

35

95

100

12LIHL28

12C-1 BOTTOM LEVEL

0 - 100

40

50

12FRC74

SR TO TANK

M^3/Hr 0 - 239

30

25

225 230

12FRC75

SR TO TANK

M^3/Hr 0 - 22500

12FRC51

SR TO BITUMEN

M^3/Hr 0 - 200

195 200

12FI2701

SR TO BITUMEN

M^3/Hr 0 - 300

250 275

12FRC52

SR TO VBU

M^3/Hr 0 - 100

60

10

12FRC39

SR QUENCH TO 12C1

M^3/Hr 0 - 140

20

15

135 140

12FRC38

SR PUMPS MINIMUM
FLOW

M^3/Hr 0 - 40

40

11

75

40

12

12FRC40

S.STEAM TO 12C-1

KG/HR

250 200 500 600


0- 12000 0
0
0
0

13

12FRC14B

S.STEAM TO 12C-1

KG/HR

150 120 250 290


0 - 2900 0
0
0
0

14

12TRC12

12C-1 BOTTOM TEMP

oC

0 - 600

320 300 380 385

15

12PR47

12C-1 BOTTOM PR

MMHG

0 - 200

70

60

110 120

16

BT31-03

SR R/D TEMP

oC

0 - 600

90

75

180 200

17

BT31-04

SR TO VBU TEMP

oC

0 - 600

160 150 220 230

18

12TIN4

12C-1 FLASH ZONE


TEMP

oC

0 - 500

380 370 412 414

19

12PIN4

12C-1 FLASH ZONE PR

MMHG

0 - 200

75

20

12TIN312

VAC SLOP DRAW TEMP

oC

0 - 500

370 360 400 425

21

12LIC103

12V-10 LEVEL

0 - 100

40

30

80

90

22

12FRC102

VAC SLOP P/B TO 12C-1 M3/HR

0 - 51

10

40

45

23

12FRC50

VAC SLOP R/D FLOW

M3/HR

0 - 50

10

50

50

24

12PIN6

12C-1 PR

MMHG

0 - 200

80

75

110 120

25

BT34-28

12C-1 TEMPERATURE

oC

0 - 600

250 240 290 300

26

BT34-19

HVGO DRAW TEMP.

oC

0 - 600

295 290 325 330

50

70

110 120

27

12TIN68

HVGO DRAW TEMP.

oC

0 - 600

295 290 325 330

28

12LIC102

HVGO TRAY LEVEL

0 -100

45

40

70

75

29

12FRC101

HVGO P/B FLOW

M3/HR

0 -166

40

35

80

100

30

12PI2201

HVGO P/B TO 12C-1 PR Kg/ CM2 -1 TO +3 0.1

31

12FRC37

HVGO REFLUX TO 12C1


M3/HR

0 - 400

120 100 300 320

32

BT34-23

HVGO REFLUX TEMP.

oC

0 - 600

100 90

170 175

33

12FRC49

HVGO R/D FLOW

M3/HR

0 - 326

100 90

310 325

34

12FIC100

HOT FEED TO FCC

M3/HR

0 - 146

80

35

BT34-22

HVGO EX 11AC 10 A

oC

0 - 600

100 90

190 200

36

BT34-24

HVGO EX 11AC 10 B

oC

0 - 600

100 90

190 200

37

BT31-02

HVGO R/D TEMP.

oC

0 - 600

85

160 170

38

12TI211

LDO DRAW TEMP

oC

0 - 500

240 230 280 290

39

12LIC101

LDO TRAY LEVEL

0 - 100

25

20

75

40

12FIN2

LDO P/B

M3/HR

0 - 235

50

40

210 220

41

12FRC150

LDO R/D FLOW

M3/HR

0 40

30

42

BT34-33

LDO EX.12AC1A/B

oC

0 - 500

75

70

150 160

42

BT34-18

LVGO DRAW TEMP.

oC

0 - 600

160 150 200 205

43

12LIC-13

LVGO TRAY LEVEL

0 - 100

50

45

80

44

12FIC-13

LVGO P/B FLOW

M3/HR

0 - 127

40

25

125 127

45

12FRC-63

LVGO REFLUX FLOW

M3/HR

0 - 382

120 100 360 380

46

12FRC-36

LVGO R/D FLOW

M3/HR

0 - 92

90

47

BT34-25

LVGO EX 11AC11

oC

0 - 600

70

60

140 150

48

BT31-01

LVGO TO 12 E-2

oC

0 - 600

70

60

140 150

49

BT34-27

LVGO R/D TEMP.

oC

0 - 600

25

20

90

51

0.08 0.8 1.0

80

100

80

35

85

92

100

50

BT-N-46

LVGO REFLUX TEMP

oC

0 - 600

50

45

80

85

51

BT-N-51

12E3 CWR TEMP

oC

0 - 600

25

20

70

80

52

12FRC-48

LVGO R/D FLOW ( OLD ) M3/HR

0 - 40

40

40

53

12TRC-10

12C-1 TOP TEMP.

oC

0 - 200

50

45

80

90

54

BT34-02

12C-1 TOP TEMP.

oC

0 - 200

50

45

80

90

55

12PRC-01

12C-1 TOP PR.

MMHG

0 - 200

45

40

80

90

56

12PR-47A

12C-1 TOP PR.

MMHG

0 - 200

45

40

100 110

-0.92TO
0.92

0.87 0.17
5
0.88 5
0.19

57

12PI-2203

12C-1 TOP PR.

MMHG

58

12PRC-66

MP STEAM TO EJECTOR Kg/ CM2 0 - 16

7.5 11.0 11.5

59

BT34-32

12-V-2 TEMP

oC

25

20

60

12PT-03

EJECTOR OFF GAS PR.

Kg/ CM2 0 -0.3

61

12LIC-12

12V-1 INTERFACE LEVEL %

0 - 100

35

25

70

80

62

12LIC-29

12-V-1 OIL LEVEL

0 - 100

30

25

75

85

63

12LIC-29A

12-V-1 OIL LEVEL

0 - 100

30

25

75

85

64

12FI-155

12V-1 OIL TO MGO

M3/HR

0 - 7.0

0.8

0.5 6.8 7

65

12LIC-14

12V-5 INTERFACE LEVEL %

0 - 100

30

20

70

80

66

12HIC-201

HGO TO 12C-1

0 - 100

65

80

67

12PIC02

12V6 PRESSURE

Kg/cm2 0 - 0.3

0.1 0.15

68

12HIC-2901

NITROGEN TO 12C-1

0 - 100

50

60

69

BT34-12

COND. EX 12E-1A

Oc

0 - 600

20

15

45

50

70

BT34-13

COND. EX 12E-1B

Oc

0 - 600

20

15

45

50

71

BT34-14

COND. EX 12E-1C

oC

0 - 600

20

15

45

50

72

BT34-15

COND. EX 12E-1D

Oc

0 - 600

20

15

45

50

73

BT34-16

COND. EX 12E-1E

Oc

0 - 600

20

15

45

50

52

0 - 600

45

50

0.02
5
0.01 0.12 0.15

74

BT34-17

GAS EX 12V-2

oC

0 - 600

12TI1A

12J1A CONDENSATE
TEMP.

15

45

0 - 1000 0

110 120

76

12TI2A

12J2A CONDENSATE
TEMP.

0 1000 0

110 120

77

12TI1B

12J1B CONDENSATE
TEMP.

0 - 1000 0

110 120

78

12TI2B

12J2B CONDENSATE
TEMP.

0 1000 0

110 120

12TI1C

12J1C CONDENSATE
TEMP.

0 1000 0

110 120

80

12TI2C

12J2B CONDENSATE
TEMP.

0 1000 0

110 120

81

12TI1D

12J1D CONDENSATE
TEMP.

0 1000 0

110 120

82

12TI2D

12J2B CONDENSATE
TEMP.

0 - 1000 0

110 120

83

BT-N-47

LVGO EX 11AC-11

0 - 600

70

60

140 150

84

BT-N-48

LVGO TO 12E-3

0 - 600

70

60

140 150

85

12FRC53

SR TO RCO

M3/HR

0 50

10

40

75

79

20

50

45

TROUBLE SHOOTING
SR
NO
1.

PROBLEM

PROBABLE CAUSES
OF PROBLEM

REMEDY

Too much salt Mixing valve pressure Increase mixing valve pressure
remains in drop is too low
drop

53

SR
NO

PROBABLE CAUSES
OF PROBLEM

PROBLEM
the treaoil

REMEDY

ted Insufficient amount of Increase fresh water flow rate


wash water being
injected
Operating temp too Increased temp of untreated
low
oil

2.

There is too Mixing valve pressure Reduce mixing valve pressure


much
water drop is too great
drop
in treated oil
Water injection rate Reduce water injection rate
too great
Untreated crude has a
very
high
BS&W
content insufficient oil
and water separation
is occurring.

Sample crude for BS&W; a


change in fresh water injection
or mixing valve pressure drop
may help.

Voltage
at
the Check electrical system
electrode assembly is operating problem
too low

for

Not
enough Increase demulsifier chemical
demulsifier chemical injection rate/or change type
is being added to of demulsifier chemical.
untreated crude, or
demulsifier should be
changed.
Oil /water
too low

3. Dirty/crude
mixed effluent
water
is
existing at the

interface Adjust controller set point as


necessary

Incorrect amount or
wrong
type
demulsifier chemical
is being added to
untreated oil

54

Adjust
injection
rate
of
demulsifier chemical and/or
change type of demulsifier
chemical

SR
NO

PROBLEM

PROBABLE CAUSES
OF PROBLEM

effluent water Oil temp is too low for


line
good operation of
plant. Mixing valve
pressure
drop
too
great
or
process
water injection rate
too great.

REMEDY
Check temp and increase as
necessary.
Reduce
mixing
valve pressure drop and/or
process water injection rate.

Set point at level Check controller set point and


controller
may
be valve action.
Adjust if
improperly adjusted necessary.
or the valve on the
effluent water outlet
may be stuck open.

4. Voltmeter
Vessel
operating
readings vary temp too high or back
widely
and pres. Insufficient
continuously
Incorrect amount or
wrong
type
demulsifier chemical
is being added to
untreated crude.

Check vessel temp. adjust


temp of oil if necessary. Check
action of back pressure valve.
Adjust
injection
rate
of
demulsifier chemical and/or
change type of demulsifier
chemical.

Mixing valve pressure Reduce pressure


drop too great
mixing valve

drop

at

An insulator inside Take desalter out of service.


the vessel has failed When entry is permitted, enter
vessel & determine which
insulator has failed and replace
the same.

55

SR
NO

PROBLEM

PROBABLE CAUSES
OF PROBLEM

REMEDY

Energized
electrode Shutdown
system.
Inspect
has become grounded vessel interior and locate point
at
which
electrode
is
grounded.
Unground the
electrodes.
Set point at level Check the controller set point
controller
is and valve and adjust as
improperly adjusted required.
or valve on effluent
water outlet line is
sticking.

5. Voltmeter
Stable (difficult to
readings are break) emulsion has
continuously entered the desalter.
very low.

Stop the injection of process


water. Allow the vessel to
operate for about 30 minutes
without water injection. If this
does not seem to clear the
emulsified material out of the
electrode zone,
use the
following procedure :
Reduce the level of water in
the vessel. Stop operation of
vessel for about two hours and
then resume operation. If
voltage returns to normal,
resume injection of wash
water, but without a pressure
drop across the mixing valve.
Once water injection has
resumed,
increase
the
pressure drop at the mixing
valve
until
the
desired
operating
conditions
are
reached.

56

SR
NO

PROBLEM

PROBABLE CAUSES
OF PROBLEM

REMEDY

Temperature in the Check temperature of oil


vessel is too high or
too low.
Incorrect amount or
wrong
type
demulsifier chemical
is being added to the
untreated oil.

Adjust the injection rate of


demulsifier chemical and/or
change type of demulsifier
chemical.

A separate vessel Check bushing and replace.


entrance bushing has Check the bushing only if tests
failed.
indicate that the transformer
connected to that bushing is
not the source of the problem.

INSTRUMENTATION
For the monitoring of the desalter performance certain instrumentations
are involved.
1.

P ACROSS MIXING VALVE

The differential pres. indicator across mixing valve gives the pres.
drops. Seeing the pres drop the mixing valve is adjusted to get the
required Delta p.
2.

BACK PRESSURE CONTROLLER

The back pressure controller 3PC3101 maintains the desalter pressure


and this helps in avoiding the water carryover along with the crude oil.
3.

AMMETER

The ammeter reading shows the current consumption in the desalter.


Higher the ammeter reading, higher is the water carryover along with
crude. At certain high valuel of current trips the desalter.

57

4.

LDIC

The most important instrumentation in the desalter is the LDIC, which


maintain the interface level of the desalter by controlling the brine
discharge from the desalter. LDIC dictates the actual performance of the
desalter efficiently and the performance of the desalter is satisfactory,
then the oil content in the brine should be very less. If oil content in the
brine is high the performance and dosage of the demulsifier is to be
checked and the desalter operating parameters are to adjust.

CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL INVENTORY LEVEL


In atmospheric distillation unit main hazardous chemical, are ammonia &
NaOH. Caustic solution is dozed at pre-desalter inlet to neutralize
Naphthenic acid & at post desalter exchanger train to neutralize HCL
generated by hydrolysis of salts of MgCl 2. NH3 is injected in the over head
of column to neutralize any HCL vapour which has remained unneutralized by caustic. NH3 is injected in some units as ammonia solution
of 2-3% strength diluted with DM water & in some units as ammonical
caustic solution where NH3 remains in solution with dilute caustic for
neutralization purpose.
NH3 is procured in cylinders of 40 Kg weight. Caustic is received from OMS
& diluted to required strength with DM water.

Caustic is also used for removing H2S from naphtha & LPG
streams in naphtha & LPG Caustic & water wash system, where
caustic of 10% strength is used. Inventory of this chemical is
maintained for about 15 days of average daily consumption.

Chemic
al

Unit

Average Daily Requiremen Inventory


consumption t
for
15 level
days
(requirement
+ 10%)

NaOH

AU-3

200Kg

3.0 MT

3.3 MT

Ammoni
a

AU-3

13Kg

0.2MT

5 Cylinders

58

Demusi
fier

AU-3

65Kg

1.0MT

5 drums

Ahurala
n

AU-3

7Kg

0.1MT

1 drum

METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER


Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Gujarat Refinery has set up 37,000 TPA MTBE
(Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) plant and has been commissioned in
September 1999. The objective of putting up the MTBE unit is to produce
MTBE for blending into gasoline for octane enhancement as well as
increasing the oxygen content as required by future statutory regulations.
The process licensor for the unit is M/s. CATALYTIC DISTILLATIONS
HOUSTON, TEXAS. The MTBE unit consists of seven major sections:

C3/C4 Fractionation

Feed Water Wash

Primary Reactors

CD Reaction Column

Methanol Extraction Column

Methanol Recovery Column

Lights Column

59

The feed consisting of Hydrocarbon feed and Methanol is fed to the MTBE
Section from storage to form MTBE.
Cracked LPG ex FCC unit is the feedstock. And methanol is procured from
G.N.F.C. Bharuch a near by Industry.

PROCESS CHEMISTRY
The reaction of Isobutene and Methanol over a strong acidic catalyst
produces Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE). The liquid phase reaction
proceeds as follows:

CH3

CH3

CH3 - C = CH2 + CH3 - OH

CH3 - C - O - CH3
CH 3

The reaction is reversible and exothermic; therefore, a lower reaction


temperature favours MTBE production. The heat of reaction at 25C is
approximately 9,450 kcal/kmol. The concentration of Isobutene, the ratio
of Methanol to Isobutene, and the residence time are parameters, which
control the overall conversion of Isobutene. Increasing either of the first
two variables increases conversion of Isobutene to MTBE. As the reaction
reaches equilibrium increasing the reaction time has no effect on
conversion.

Following is a summary of major side reactions:


Methanol + 1-Butene

Methyl Secondary Butyl Ether (MSBE)

Isobutene + Isobutene

Diisobutene (DIB)

Isobutene + Water
Methanol + Methanol

Tertiary Butyl Alcohol (TBA)

Dimethyl Ether (DME) + Water

High reaction temperatures favor production of DIB and DME. Increased


water content contributes to higher TBA production. Lower concentrations
of Isobutene, without adjusting the Methanol rate, increases the quantity
of DME and TBA produced.

60

Methanol in substoichiometric concentrations significantly increases the


amount of DIB production. Excess Methanol has less impact on byproduct formation than other process variables. Methanol present in
excess of the azeotropic limit with
C 4 Hydrocarbon increases the
Methanol concentration in the MTBE product.

PROCESS DESIGN BASIS


DESIGN CAPACITY: 37000 TPA Production of MTBE.
The MTBE Unit is designed as a stand-alone unit.
The calculated
production of MTBE product is 1,026 BPSD or 4986 kg/h for Case I and 981
BPSD or 4814 kg/hr for Case II, at Start of Run condition, based on the
feed compositions and rates as defined in Section 1.3.2. The unit is
designed to process, at its maximum capacity, 120% of the feed rates
specified in Section 1.3.2. Unit turndown is expected to be 50% of the
maximum capacity. No additional over-design is applied.
The reflux pumps are designed to handle 120% of the required reflux flow;
whichever is the controlling case, to ensure proper operation. The normal
turndown flow for the unit is 50% of the maximum capacity.
The expected concentration of Isobutene in the hydrocarbon feed for both
design cases 1 and 2 is 12 weight percent. The feed compositions and the
rates specified in Section 3.2 were utilized for the design.
Other operating cases with alternate feedstock were considered for the
design of the unit. The feed rate and Isobutene concentrations of these
cases are: Alternate Feed

Rate, kg/hr

30615

30615

26450

26450

Wt% / Isobutene

16.0

8.0

16.0

8.0

A fifth alternate operating case with the following feed composition and
feed rate was also considered in the design of the unit.

Component

Wt%

61

Propane

16.54

Propylene

1.02

Isobutane

23.93

N-Butane

6.29

T-2-Butene

14.84

1-Butene

12.23

Isobutene

14.76

C-2-Butyene

9.08

1,3 Butadiene

0.50

I-Pentane

0.78

N-Pentane

0.03

Total

100.00

Rate, kg/hr

11,213

Two Primary reactors are used in the design and piping facilities have
been included so that the spent catalyst in any one of the two reactors
can be changed out with the unit remaining on stream.
The affluent from the Primary Reactor is fed to the CD Reaction Column,
which consists of a total of twelve reaction beds which are used to achieve
the required high Isobutene conversion. The baled catalyst in the CD
Reaction Column has an expected run-length of five (5) years between
changes.
Longer run times between catalyst change-outs may be
achievable depending upon operating experience and conversion
requirements.

Secondary Methanol is directly fed to the column on flow control to meet


the reaction requirement. An on-line infra-red Methanol Analyzer / Control
is used to reset the secondary Methanol feed flow rate.
The MTBE Unit utilizes a maximum Methanol concentration of 4% (wt) in
the C4 overhead of the CD Reaction Column. During normal operation, the

62

Methanol concentration in the C4 overhead is in the range of 3 to 3.5


weight percent.
Higher Methanol concentrations improve overall
conversion, but increase utility consumption by the Methanol Recovery
System.
The Water Wash Column has been designed to remove 50 ppmw,
maximum, ACN from the C4 feed with a wash water of 20 wt% of the C4
feed rate (normal operation).
The Methanol Drains and Slop Drums are provided for smoother start-up
operation as well as to provide a more environmentally sound unit design.
Although non-condensable material is not envisaged, vents are provided
from each condenser header, as well as from the CD Reaction Column
Overhead Drum, to remove accumulations of non-condensed material.
During the start-up, vents will be used to purge nitrogen from the unit.
Pump Minimum Flow bypass lines are provided on four pumps (1100-P3A/B, 1100-P-4A/B, 1100-P-6A/B and 1100-P-13A/B) based on pump
vendor specification.
All vessels that require steam out have been designed for full vacuum.
However, certain vessels have been recommended to have full vacuum
for normal operational reasons. These vessels are Methanol Recovery
Column and its re-boiler, condenser and overhead drum. Also full vacuum
has been specified for liquid-filled vessels such as the Water Wash
Column, Methanol Extraction Column, and Primary Reactors.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The unit functions to produce MTBE for blending into gasoline for octane
enhancement as well as increasing the oxygen content as may be
required by future statutory regulations.
MTBE formation occurs by the selective reaction between Isobutene and
Methanol. Non-reactive C4 s return to battery limits after Methanol
recovery and lights removal.
C3/C4 FRACTIONATION

63

The C3/C4 Feed Surge Drum, 1100-V-1 receives the hydrocarbon feed from
Outside Battery Limit (OSBL) on flow control. The C 3/C4 hydrocarbons are
fed to tray No. 33 in the C 3/C4 Splitter, 1100-C-1 by C3/C4 Feed Pumps
1100-P-1A/B through C3/C4 Splitter Feed Bottom Exchanger 1100-E-4.
The C3 s and lighter components in the feed vary from about 17 weight
percent to about 38 wt %. Tray No.33 is the optimal feed tray location.
The Splitter is designed to achieve 1 wt % of total C 3 s in the bottom
product and 1 wt % percent of C4 s and heavier in the C3 product.
The C3/C4 Splitter Feed / Bottom Exchanger, 1100-E-4 preheats the feed to
64C.
A total of 50 valve trays is used to achieve the required
fractionation. Column overhead vapour is condensed against cooling
water in C3 / C4 Splitter condenser, 1100-E-2. The C3 product is further
subcooled to 40C in C3 Product Cooler 1100-E-3 and sent to OSBL for
storage. The Splitter Reboiler (1100-E-1) is provided by low pressure
steam. The C4 product is cooled to 40C in the C 3 / C4 Splitter Feed/
Bottoms Exchanger (1100-E-5) before being charged to the Water Wash
column (1100-C-2).

Feed Water Wash


The bottom product from 1100-C-1 is fed below, the bottom packed bed in
the Water Wash Column (1100-C-2) where it is washed with a counter
current stream of demineralized water to remove catalyst poisons such as
acetonitrile, metal ions, and other basic nitrogen compounds. The washed
C4 stream containing about 1 ppmw acetonitrile is fed to the C 4 Feed
Coalescer Drum (1100-V-18). The C4 Coalescer Drum has a coalescer pad
which provides additional protection against water carryover. The washed
C4 is filtered through C4 Feed Filters (1100-G-1A/B) before being mixed
with the Methanol feed stream.

The Water Wash Column consists of two packed beds. Each bed is 7.8m
high and is packed with a random packing of 2 stainless steel pall rings.
The water feed rate is at least 20 wt% of the design feed rate of the
hydrocarbon.
Wash water from OSBL is fed to the Wash Water Break Drum (1100-V-3).
The wash water is Demineralized Water which has a pH of about 7.5 to 9.
The DM water from Wash Break Drum (1100-V-3) is pumped by DM Water
Booster Pumps (1100- P-3 A/B) to the Wash Water Column (1100-C-2) on

64

flow control.
Temperatures higher than 40C adversely impact the
efficiency of acetonitrile removal and increase hydrocarbon losses in the
effluent water. The effluent water is degassed in the Water Degasser
Drum (1100-V-4) then discharged to the Oily Water Sewer (OWS). This
waste water typically contains 200-250 ppmw acetonitrile and 0.06 wt%
hydrocarbon.

PRIMARY REACTION (Reactor No.1).


Fresh Methanol from the tank farm area is pumped by Methanol Feed
Pumps (1100-P-13 A/B) to the Methanol Surge Drum (1100-V-5) on level
control. Before being fed to the surge drum it is mixed with re-cycled
Methanol from the Methanol Recovery
section. About 2.0 m/hr of
Methanol is circulated back to the pump suction continuously based on
pump vendor requirements.
The mixed Methanol from 1100-V-5 is
pumped by Methanol Feed Pumps (1100-P-4 A/B) through the Methanol
Filters (1100-G-2A&B) and then through the Methanol Guard Beds (1100R-3A & B) to remove foreign particles and catalyst poisons. The Methanol
stream is combined with the washed C 4 stream. The two streams are
mixed on ratio control. The C 4 / Methanol mixture is then fed to Reactor
No.1. If necessary, the C4 / Methanol mixture can be pre-heated by the
Medium Pressure (MP) steam in the Reactor No.1 Feed Heater (1100-E-6).
The normal inlet temperature to Reactor No.1 is 40C for Start-of-Run and
65C for End-of-Run operation.

The feed enters Reactor No.1 (1100-R-1) where MTBE and a limited
quantity of by-products are formed. Under normal operating conditions,
ninety (90) percent of Isobutene conversion takes place in Reactor No.1.
A temperature gradient across the reactor results from the exothermic
MTBE reaction.
Vaporisation of the reactor contents limits the
temperature rise.
The CD Reaction column overhead pressure
controls the pressure of the reactor system. The expected percent
vaporisation is between 5-10 weight percent. A Johnson Screen, provided
on the outlet of the reactor prevents the catalyst migration to the CD
Reaction Column and downstream equipment.

PRIMARY REACTION (Reactor No. 2)

65

The effluent from Reactor No.1 is condensed / cooled against cooling


water in Reactor No.2 Feed Cooler (1100-E-7) and then fed to Reactor No.2
(1100-R-2). The normal inlet temperature to Reactor No.2 is 50C for Start
of Run (SOR) condition and 65C for End of Run (EOR) condition. This
temperature is controlled by bypassing a slip stream around 1100-E-7 if
necessary.
About 60% of Reactor No.2 feed Isobutene conversion takes place in this
reactor. The actual percent conversion of the Isobutene in each of the two
reactors depends on the condition / age of the catalyst. The total
percent conversion in the two reactors combined is expected to be about
96%.

Catalytic Distillation
The effluent from Reactor No. 2 is preheated to 67C (SOR) and 78C
(EOR) against CD Reaction Column bottom product in the CD Reaction
Column Feed / Bottoms Exchanger (1100-E-8) and then fed directly to the
CD Reaction Column (1100-C-3). Isobutene conversion is completed in the
reaction column. A total of twelve beds packed with CDTECH proprietary
catalyst bales is provided in this design. The expected conversion
across the CD Reaction Column is 97.5% of the Isobutene in the feed to
the column.

The amount of Methanol carried overhead in the CD Reaction Column is


limited by the azeotropic composition of 4 weight percent Methanol in C 4
hydrocarbons.
Methanol in feed is not sufficient to meet the
stoichiometric requirement of the reaction and methanol carried over in
distillate. A secondary Methanol feed is directly injected to the reaction
zone on flow control reset by an online Methanol analyser / controller.
Three alternate locations for the secondary Methanol injection have been
provided.
The overhead vapour is condensed against cooling water in the CD
Reaction Column Condenser (1100-E-10). Distillate flows to the CD
Reaction Column Overhead Drum (1100-V-6) and is pumped via the CD
Reaction Column Reflux Pump (1100-P-5 A/B) to the column as reflux. A
part of 1100-P-5A/B discharge is fed to the Methanol Extraction Column
through the Feed Cooler (1100-E-12). Non-condensable if present are
vented to the flare.

66

Medium pressure (MP) steam supplies the heat to reboil the column
bottoms in the CD Reaction column Reboiler (1100-E-9). The steam is on
flow control reset by the temperature on tray No. 12. MTBE product from
the bottom of the Reaction Column flows to the CD Reaction Column
Bottoms / Feed Exchanger (1100-E-8) where heat is recovered by heating
the Reactor No.2 effluent. Further cooling to battery limit temperature
(40C) is achieved in the MTBE Product Cooler (1100-E-11). against
cooling water.
Methanol Extraction
The Methanol Extraction Column Feed Cooler (1100-E-12) cools the CD
Column distillate product to 40C before the distillate is fed to the
Methanol extraction column (1100-C-4). Counter-current contact with
water recycled from the Methanol Recovery Column (1100-C-5) extracts
the Methanol from the distillate. The extraction occurs across two packed
beds. Each bed is randomly packed with
2 stainless steel pall rings
5.15m high. The hydrocarbon effluent leaves the top of the Extraction
Column to feed the Lights Column (100-C-6) under pressure control. The
water-Methanol mixture leaves the bottom of the Extraction Column on
flow control reset by the interface level in the top section of the column.
The Recycle water is a closed circulation system between 1100-C-4 and
1100-C-5. Recycle water from the Methanol Recovery column Feed /
Bottoms Exchanger (1100-E-14) heats the Methanol and water from the
Methanol Extraction column to 76C. The recycle water is further cooled
to 40C in the Recycle Water Cooler (1100-E-13) against cooling water
prior to being fed to the Methanol Extraction Column.

Methanol Recovery
The Methanol Recovery Column (1100-C-5) utilises four packed beds.
Each bed is randomly packed with 1 metal stainless steel pall rings. Each
of the two packed beds above the feed point is 3.66m high and the two
beds below the feed are 3.1m high. Medium pressure steam provides
heat in the Methanol Recovery column Reboiler (1100-E-15). Water exits
the bottom of the column for recycle to the Methanol Extraction Column,
via the Methanol Recovery Column Bottoms Pump (1100-P-6 A/B). The
overhead vapour is condensed against cooling water in the Methanol
Recovery Column Condenser (1100-E-16). Condensate collects in the
Methanol Recovery Column Overhead Drum (1100-V-7). The Methanol
Recovery Column Reflux Pump (1100-P-7 A/B) transfers recovered
Methanol to the column as reflux. The net overhead from the Methanol

67

Recovery Column is cooled to 40C against cooling water in the Recycle


Methanol Cooler (1100-E-17) and then recycled to the Methanol Surge
Drum (1100-V-5).

To limit fouling the column bottoms are purged once every two weeks until
the low liquid level in the column bottom sump is reached. The water is
purged by the operator observing the level in the sump of the Methanol
Recovery Column. The purged water is sent via the OWS to wastewater
treatment for disposal.
The purged water under normal operating
conditions contains about 25 ppm Methanol (max.). Make-up water
(demineralized) from OSBL is also hand controlled by the operator
watching the liquid level in the sump of the column.Water accumulates in
the Methanol Recovery Section due to dissolved water in the C 4 feed from
the water wash column and production of water by side reactions. A
portion of the water is removed from the unit by the saturated C 4
raffinate.
Accumulation exits the system by the periodic purge to the
waste treatment via OWS.

Lights Removal
The overhead stream from the Methanol Extraction Column is preheated
in the Lights Column Feed / Bottom Exchanger (1100-E-18) before
entering the lights column (1100-C-6). A total of 68 valve trays are
installed in the column to separate lights from the C 4 hydrocarbons. DME,
Methanol and other non-condensable are vented to the fuel gas system on
flow control from the Lights Column Overhead Drum (1100-V-8).The
overhead vapour is partially condensed in the Lights Column Condenser
(1100-E-21) against cooling water. The condensed liquid is returned to the
column as reflux by the Lights Column Reflux Pump (1100-P-8 A/B).
Excess water which may build up in the column is removed as a separate
liquid phase from the overhead drum or from a special draw-off tray
located immediately below the column feed tray. Normally water is
removed as a portion of the vent gas.The column bottom is reboiled
against Low Pressure (LP) steam in the Lights Column Reboiler (1100-E20). The C4 bottoms product from Feed / Bottoms Exchanger (1100-E-18)
is pumped through the C4 Product Cooler (1100-E-19) and transferred to
OSBL storage at 40C .

PUMP DATA

68

ALL ARE CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

PUMP NO

1100
A/B

Service

Splitter
Feed Pump

Splitter
Reflux Pump

DM
Pump

Maker

KEPL

IRL

KEPL

KEPL

Type

Horizontal
100*80R2M
40

Horizontal
3HP*13A

Horizontal
80*50UCWM
35

Horizontal
80*50R2M33

No of Stages

40

45.2

40

40

0.523

0.461

0.989

0.775

Pumping Temp
Sp.Gr.at P-T
Suc Pr
Kg/cm2

Disch Pr 9.3 / 22.5


ab

Differential
m
NPSH
m
Design
min /
m3/hr
Min
m3/hr
Impeller
Mm

Avail

Head 254
/

17.7
22.2

Flow 50
Dia. 348
Mech
(D)

: Grade

80

P-4

Water MEOH
Pump

Feed

3.94
18.2

154.9

183.8

44 / 3.05

40.5
3.155

/ - / 6 / 12

- / 3 / 8

11

292

351

304

Mech Seal

Mech Seal

Seal Mech Seal

Servo S- 46

P-3 1100
A/B

/ 4.4 / 19.7

/ 2.8 / 2.4

Capacity 50 / 59 / 57 /
nor / max 77
115
Cont

P-2 1100
A/B

97.6

Req 4.25
3.59

Seal
Lube Oil

P-1 1100
A/B

Servo Prime Servo S- 46


32

69

Servo S- 46

Max. Allow.
Temp
Rated
KW

Bearing 80C

Motor

Cap. 110

Motor RPM

2975

Volt / Phase / Cycle

415
50

Full
amps

/ 3

80C

80C

80C

30

37

30

2935

2950

2935

/ 415
50

/ 415
50

Load 184

/ 415
50

62

Decoupled Motor Load 35.7


amps
35.4

/ 10.62
10.8

50

/ 14.2 / 14.85

KEPL : Kirloskar Ebara Pumps Limited.


I.R.L : Ingersoll Rand (India) Limited

9.8 / 10.2

K.B : Kirloskar Brothers.

PUMP DATA
ALL ARE CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
PUMP NO

1100
A/B

P-5 1100
A/B

Service

CD
Reflux
Pump

Col Meoh
Col Meoh
Bottom
Pump
Pump

Maker

KEPL

KEPL

IRL

IRL

Type

Horizontal
100*80R2M
40

Horizontal
80*50R2M3
3

Horizontal
1HP*11A

Horizontal
1.5HP*12A

No of Stages

131

78

53

0.934

0.733

0.494

3.3 / 20.9

2.4 / 8.7

11.9

Pumping
c

Temp 46

Sp.Gr.at P-T
Suc Pr

0.555
Disch 6.2 / 21.9

70

P-6 1100
A/B

P-7 1100
A/B

P-8

Col Lights
Reflux
Pump

Col

Pr
ab

Kg/cm2

16.6

Differential Head 282


m

188.4

85.5

NPSH Avail / Req 4.3 / 3.84


m

3.9
2.955

/ 3.65
2.25

Design Capacity 35.4 / 60 / 1.5


min / nor / max 86.4
2.5 /.55
m3/hr
Min Cont
m3/hr
Impeller
mm

Flow 32

Mech
(D)

Lube Oil : Grade

/ 3.01 / 2
- / 28.4 /
34.1

Dia. 319 / 368

Seal

/ 1.7 / 3 / 4.2

95.1

308

Seal Mech Seal

274

Mech Seal

Mech Seal

Servo S- 46

Servo Prime Servo Prime


32
32

Max.
Allow. 80C
Bearing Temp.

80C

80C

80C

Rated Motor Cap. 90


KW

30

7.5

15

Motor RPM

2935

2885

2920

Volt /
Cycle
Full
amps

Servo S- 46

253

2970

Phase

/ 415 / 3
50

Load 151

Decoupled Motor 42.4


Load amps
42.2

/ 415 / 3
50

/ 415 / 3
50

/ 415 / 3
50

/ 5.54
4.95

50
/ 9.75 / 9.3

KEPL : Kirloskar Ebara Pumps Limited.


I.R.L : Ingersoll Rand (India) Limited

71

2.22
2.12

K.B : Kirloskar Brothers.

PUMP DATA
ALL ARE CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

PUMP NO

1100
A/B

P-9 1100 P-10

Service

Lt.
Bottom
Pump

Col Meoh Drain Flare KO Drain CBD Pump


Pump
pump

Maker

IRL

KB

KEPL

KB

Type

Horizontal
1.5HP*13A

Vertical
Submerge

Horizontal
80*50UCWM3
5

Vertical
Submerge

No of Stages

53

40

40

40

0.599

0.755

0.750

0.750

1.6 / 7.1

1.6 / 12.5

1.1 / 4.5

72.4

145.7

43

10.3 / -

4.5 / 3.055

4.0 / -

Pumping Temp
Sp.Gr.at P-T
Suc Pr
Kg/cm2

Disch Pr 12.4 / 18.6


ab

Differential
m
NPSH
m

Avail

Design
min /
m3/hr
Min
m3/hr

Head 114.5
/

Req 65.6 / 1.68

Capacity 15
nor / max 33
Cont

Impeller
Mm

25

Flow
Dia. 298

Seal
Lube Oil :

Mech Seal
Grade

Servo
32

/ - /
4.5

4.5

1100 P-11

/ - / 12 / 12

1100 P-12

- / 6 / 6

3.84

11

2.64

342

Balanced

Mech Seal

Balanced

Servo S-46

Not Req.

Prime Not Req.

72

Max. Allow.
Temp.
Rated
KW

Bearing 80C

Motor

Cap. 18.5

Motor RPM

2925

Volt / Phase / Cycle

415
50

Full
amps

Load 32

Decoupled Motor Load 8.45 / 7.5


amps

80C

80

80C

9.3

30

3.7

2935

2935

2935

/ 415 / 3 / 415 / 3 / 50
50

415
50

16.5

50

16.5

4.52

10.1

2.8

KEPL : Kirloskar Ebara Pumps Limited.


I.R.L : Ingersoll Rand (India) Limited

K.B : Kirloskar Brothers.

PUMP DATA
ALL ARE CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS EXCEPT P-15
PUMP NO

1100 P-13A/B

Service

Meoh
Pump

Transfer Condensate
Pump

Maker

KEPL

IRL

SEPL

Horizontal

Horizontal
50*40UCWM25

Horizontal
1.5HP*12A

Horizontal
Positive disp.

No of Stages

40

100

25

0.775

0.980

1.010

1.6 / 8.7

0.01
11.89

Pumping Temp
Sp.Gr.at P-T
Suc Pr
Kg/cm2

Disch Pr 0.8 / 6.3


ab

73

1100
14A/B

P- 1100 P-15
Amine
Dosing
Pump

Differential
m
NPSH
m
Design
min /
m3/hr
Min
m3/hr

Avail

Head 71
/

Req 4.4 / 3.055

Capacity - / 3 / 6
nor / max
Cont

Dia. 248

Seal
Lube Oil : Grade

Rated
KW

Motor

2.03
1.52

/ 10

- /
24

2.5

/ 120 LPH

Bearing

242

Mech Seal (D)

Mech Seal

Gland

Servo S- 46

Servo Prime Enklo 320


32

80 C

Cap. 7.5

80 C

80 C

18.5

0.37
1395

Motor RPM

2885

2925

Volt / Phase / Cycle

415 / 3 / 50

415
50

Full
amps

19

Flow 5

Impeller
mm

Max. Allow.
Temp.

72.3

Load 12

Decoupled Motor Load, 2.28


amps

32
/

2.3

KEPL : Kirloskar Ebara Pumps Limited.


I.R.L : Ingersoll Rand (India) Limited
Ltd

74

8.35
8.4

/ 415
50

1.1
/ 0.52

K.B : Kirloskar Brothers.


SEPL :Swelore Engineering Pvt

INSTRUMENTATION / DCS
General
MTBE Plant for IOCL - Gujarat refinery is controlled by DCS which is a open
control system. DCS offered for this job is Yokogawa Centum CS, which
works on UNIX operating system, is 'OPEN' to third party devices at TCP/IP
level and the same is being utilized to integrate the system with IOCL's
MIS package Honeywell UNIFORMANCE RTDBMS.
CONTROL PHILOSOPHY
All field transmitters considered for this project are SMART which work on
HART protocol superimposed on 4 20 mADC. However, only analog
signals are used for control and monitoring purpose in the DCS and HART
signal is being used for remote calibration and diagnostics via hand held
calibration. Analog 4 20 mADC signals are used as output signals for
controlling control valves.
All analog signals are intrensically safe;
intrinsic safety is achieved through active barriers.
Interlocks and shutdown is performed by dedicated TMR (Triple Modular
Redundant) PLC which is hooked on to the DCS via RS232C serial link.
SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Yokogawa Centum CS unix based DCS is considered for MTBE Plant. The
system comprises of 1 No. HICS (Engg. console) and 3 Nos. ICS (Operator
console). The system communicates with the FCS's (Controller cards) on
dual redundant V-net bus at 10 Mbps communication speed.
Communication between ICS's and MICS is through dedicated E-net bus
which is non-redundant. 2 Nos. alarm and 1 No. Logging printer is
considered for this project.

75

The system comprises of 2 Nos. dual redundant FCS's (One for process
control and one for PLC interface). Single channel AI/AO cards are used for
closed loops so as to maintain loop integrity. For open loops 16 channel AI
and 32 channel DI/DO cards are being used.
Dedicated FCS is used for PLC serial interface PLC serial interface 32
channel DI/DO cards are used in PLC. Separate programme PC terminal is
provided for PLC ladder programming.

10.2 Online Analyser


Following are application reviews for hydrocarbon stream on-line
analysers :
Washed and Filtered HC (AI-701)
Stream Data
Sample phase at tap

Liquid

Sample phase to analyse

Liquid

Temperature

40 C

Pressure

12.0 kg/cmg

Stream

Washed and filtered HC

a)

b)

Measurement - Component range, wt%


Isobutane

0-50

Isobutene

0-50

Stream composition, wt%

76

Case I

Case II

Propene

0.18

0.10

Propane

0.58

0.67

Isobutane

31.58

38.64

Isobutene

19.06

17.07

1-Butene

11.71

10.75

1, 3-Butadiene

1.51

1.42

N-Butane

9.30

8.82

Trans-2-Butene

14.31

13.01

Cis-2-Butene

9.26

8.42

C5s+

2.35

1.10

Water

0.00

0.00

Application Review
1.

C
a
r
ri
e
r
:

Helium or Hydrogen
1.

Analysis Time : 6-8 minutes

2.

Sample Phase to Analyser : Vapor

3.

Oven Temperature : 110 C

4.

Detector
:
Thermal Conductivity with Constant
Temperature Bridge

5.

Eight hour reproducibility 1% of full scale for each


component

6.

Vendor : ABB Process Analytics

Reaction Column overhead (AI-1002)


Stream Data
Sample phase at tap

Liquid

Sample phase to analyse

Liquid

77

Temperature

a)

50/59 C (SOR/EOR)

Pressure

12.2/14.0 kg/cmg (SOR/EOR)

Stream

Reaction column overhead

Measurement - Component range, wt%

Isobutane

0-50

Isobutene

0-1.0

Methanol

0-10

MTBE
b)

0-1.0
Stream composition, wt% (at SOR)
Case I

Case II

Propene

0.22

0.12

Propane

0.71

0.78

Isobutane

38.52

45.27

Isobutene

0.02

0.02

1-Butene

14.36

12.58

1, 3-Butadiene

1.94

1.67

N-Butane

11.34

10.33

Trans-2-Butene

17.44

15.23

Cis-2-Butene

11.27

9.85

C5s+

0.01

0.01

Water

0.06

0.06

Methanol

4.00

4.00

DME

0.10

0.10

78

Application Review
1.

Carrier : Helium or Hydrogen

1.

Analysis Time : 10-11 minutes

2.

Sample phase to Analyser : Liquid

3.

Oven Temperature : 80 C

4.

Detector : Flame Ionization

5.

Eight hour reproducibility 3% of full scale for each


component

6.

Vendor : ABB process analytics

Note : The detectable limit for MTBE will be in the 1-3 ppm range.

10.3 PUBLIC ADDRESS (P.A) SYSTEM

There are 4 nos of P.A Station in MTBE plant manufactured by Philips India
Limited for communication between field area and Control room.

79

UNIVERSAL DOW CHEMICAL EXTRACTION PROCESS


INTRODUCTION
UDEX process is a very versatile Solvent extraction process which
employs the solvent Tetra ethylene Glycol (or other glycols like Diethylene , Tri-ethylene) for production of Aromatics. The Udex Process was
originated by DOW Chemicals Co.(USA) and developed by Universal oil
products Co.(USA). So unit is named as UDEX- Universal DOW Chemical
Extraction Process.
It recovers Benzene, Toluene and Xylene from Naphtha (Reformate)
hydrocarbon mixtures, using a glycol water solvent. Normally, the
reformate (from CRU/AU-II) in charged to the Udex plant for separation of
Aromatic i.e. Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes.
The Udex Plant Of Gujarat Refinery was designed and licensed by M/s
Universal Oil Corporation of U.S.A. and was commissioned in December
1968. The design capacity of the plant was 1,09,000 MTPA and a
solidification point of 5.2 deg. C min. of Benzene. Over a period of time
utilizing the available design margins and also by optimising the unit
operations, it was possible to operate the UDEX unit at a tput level of

80

1,50,000 MTPA with a Benzene solidification point of 5.3 deg. C minimum


(Which is a measure of purity of Benzene).
Of late the quality of Benzene produced is becoming increasingly critical in
view of the stringent specifications being demanded by the customers and
availability of better quality Benzene in the country. Also there is a
likelihood increase in the availability of Reformate feedstock as well as
improvement in Benzene / Toluene potential of feed due to usage of
Bimetallic catalyst in CRU.
In view of above, revamping of UDEX unit at GR has been taken up
through M/s EIL to a tput level of 500 MTPD to produce high purity
Benzene and Toluene with a Benzene solidification point of 5.45 deg. C
minimum using a new solvent TTEG (Tetra Ethylene Glycol) in place of TEG
(Tri Ethylene Glycol).

PLANT CAPACITY:
The Unit is designed to process 500 MTPD Reformate.
Products:

Case I

Benzene

220

Toluene

80

Case II
180
120

No. of Stream days per year: 333


Design turn Down percentage of maximum capacity: 50
No. of trains: One

FEEDSTOCK CHARACTERISTICS:

Weight

C-5

C-6

C-7

C-8

Total

Paraffins

0.77

24.24

12.60

0.41

38.02

Napthene

0.08

4.99

0.58

5.65

81

s
Aromatics

44.52

11.81

56.33

TOTAL

0.85

73.75

24.99

0.41

100.00

Note : The following potentials of aromatics are accounted for equipment


design purpose :

Case I

Case II

% Wt/Wt

% Wt/Wt

BENZENE

44.00

34.00

TOLUENE

16.50

26.00

XYLENE

02.00

02.00

MATERIAL BALANCE:
Wt. % or feed
Case I

Case ii

INPUT:
1. Aromatic Reformate 100
OUTPUT:
2. Benzene

44.0

34.0

3. Toluene

16.5

26.0

4. C8+
5. Raffinate

2.0

2.0

34.9

35.4

82

6. Gas + Loss

2.6

2.6

-------

--------

Sub total output 100.0

100.0

-------

--------

PRINCIPLE
SOLVENT EXTRACTION:

Recovery of pure aromatics from the mixtures with non-aromatics is


normally complicated due to the occurrence of minimum boiling
azeotropes. Benzene, for instance, will form azeotropes with nonaromatics boiling within about 18 deg. C of itself, and Toluene with those
boiling with 9 deg. C. This behavior prevents production of pure aromatics
by simple fractionation. Therefore, separation of aromatics (benzene,
Toluene, Xylene) from that of non-aromatics is achieved by utilizing their
basic property of selective solubility in solvents like Tetraethylene glycol.
Through this process of extraction of hydrocarbon mixtures, it is possible
to produce an aromatic-rich-extract containing Benzene / Toluene /Xylene
having less than 0.2% non-aromatics. Further separation of aromatic
mixture into pure compounds (viz. Benzene, Toluene etc) is however,
effected through fractionation.

There are many solvent extraction processes available for commercial


application to separate the aromatics. They use different types of solvent
as well as extraction equipments.

UDEX PROCESS:

In the Udex process, either a diethylene glycol or triethylene glycol or


tetraethylene glycol is used as a solvent alongwith a small percentage of
water to increase its selectivity. The feedstock can be of wide boiling
range so as to ensure inclusion of all desired aromatic. The extractive
power of the Udex solvent for various types of hydrocarbon roughly

83

parallels their octane rating. Thus, the most readily extractable


compounds are the aromatics, followed in order by naphthenes, low
boiling paraffins and high boiling paraffins.The addition of water to glycol
improves the ability of the solvent to push out the raffinate and still hold
a maximum aromatic extract.
The feed to a catalytic reformer unit, for production of aromatics through
solvent extraction in Udex Plant, will largely depend upon the desired type
of the aromatics viz. Benzene or Toluene or Xylene etc. The Benzene
precursors are mostly concentrated in the boiling range of 60-85 deg. C;
the Toluene precursors from 85 to 110 deg. C. and the Xylene precursors
are encountered in the boiling range of 110-140 deg. C.

GLYCOLS AS SOLVENTS:
Glycols, as solvent, are very versatile in aromatic-nonaromatic extraction.
Most of the numerous extraction units today employ Diethylene Glycol
(DEG) or Triethylene Glycol (TEG) or Tetraethylene Glycol (TTEG) as
solvent. There are some units operating with mixtures of Dipropylene
Glycol and Diethylene Glycol (Antisolvents). Such mixtures are apparently
used more in the newer units than in the previously installed ones. In
addition, whether one or two glycols are employed, water is also
contained in the solvents.
Dipropylene Glycol, though completely miscible with low molecular weight
alkyl benzene, dissolves a considerable proportion of n-heptane and other
non-aromatic hydrocarbons. On the other hand, Di-Ethylene and Propylene
Glycols are rather selective for aromatics, but have lower capacities than
are desired at 25 deg. C. Mixing either of these two glycols in appropriate
proportions (Called Antisolvents) will result in solvent systems having
good selectivity and high capacity. Introducing water into such solvent
mixtures results in lower capacity but improves the selectivity and
products purity, since the proportion of non-aromatics which dissolve in
the extract is reduced. Numerous solvent compositions can be made with
Glycols having similar extraction properties.
Aromatic selectivity of Glycols decreases with increasing temperature. In
the extraction of relatively narrow boiling feedstock with any specific
glycol mixture, there is an optimum temperature range within which it is
desirable to operate.

84

PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION


The process flow of Udex Plant can be distinctly divided into four following
sections.

(A) EXTRACTION SECTION


(B) CLAY TOWER AND FRACTIONATION SECTION
(C) HOT OIL SECTION
(D)

SOLVENT STORAGE SECTION

EXTRACTION SECTION
The Udex Plant feed, as reformed naphtha received ex CRU /AU-II is
drawn from the Udex Charge storage tanks 501-504 provided with gas
blanketing to prevent air contamination.The aromatic rich feed is pumped
by P-101 A/B and introduced into a counter current multistage extractor
column C-1 at 40th tray, after having been preheated to 120-130 deg C by
exchanging heat with raffinate in E-2 A/B and by hot oil in preheater E101. The feed flow is controlled by FC 1101. The extractor column has 60
perforated trays.
The solvent (aqueous Tetra ethylene glycol), which is essentially immicible
with the non-aromatic hydrocarbons of the feed is drawn from the bottom
of stripper column C-2 and is pumped by P-104 A/B to the upper section of
column C-1 at 120-130 deg C after heat exchanging with stripping water
in E-5/E-105. The solvent flow is controlled by FC 1104. The raffinate,
almost free of aromatics is withdrawn from the top of extractor and sent
to first stage settler V-6, after heat exchange with feed in E-2 A/B and
water cooler E-3 A/B from V-6 it is sent to second stage settler V-5 for
further water wash. Before raffinate enters the settlers, the wash water is
injected in the line to wash out the Glycol from raffinate. The solvent free
raffinate is sent to the intermediate storage tanks 509-510 by pressure
gradient while the settled water from V-5 is partly circulated and partly
sent to V-6 by P-3 A/B and settled water from V-6 is partly circulated and
partly sent to either V-3 or C-3 by P-2/P-3B through LDC 1201. Flow of
raffinate is controlled by FC 1103 which is cascaded with LC 1101 which
maintain raffinate level at C-1 top.

85

The aromatic rich solvent is withdrawn from bottom of extractor. Extractor


pressure is set to maintain the hydrocarbon below its bubble point which
is controlled by split range control valve PC 1101 at 6-7.8 kg/sq.cm. The
rich solvent from C-1 bottom introduced to flash drum section of C-2
column by pressure gradient at 120-130 deg C through flow control valve
FC 1102. Flash drum operates at 1.8 to 2.5 kg/sq.cm. pressure which is
controlled by PC 1302. In this flash drum, light ends hydrocarbons escape
together with most of the light aliphatic hydrocarbons, condensed in E108 A/B and received in V-2. From the stripper receiver V-2, the condensed
light ends are recycled back to the bottom section of extractor column C-1
by P-106/6A for further recovery of aromatics through FC1105.
The bottom from the flash drum flow to the stripper section of column C-2
through LC 1305 where heat is supplied at the bottom by a hot oil reboiler
E-106. Bottom temperature is controlled at 140-150 deg C by TC 1304
cascaded with FC 1302, hot oil flow to E-106. The aromatic stripping from
rich solvent is carried out and facilitated by the water which is pumped
from water receiver V-3 by P-7 A/B via E-5/E-105 through FRC 1303 at 39 th
tray in the form of steam through PC 1303 and at the bottom in the form
of water through LC 1301 and LC 1302 of E-5/E-105 respectively. Some
aromatics leave the top of the stripper as vapour while the aromatic
(Extract) is drawn as side stream from 25th tray through FC 1301 which,
after condensation in E-8 goes to the extract receiver V-1. The condensed
aromatics, thereafter, are pumped by P-105 A/B for water washing in V105. Wash water can be taken from V-1, V-2 (i.e. via V-5A) and C-3. The
washed extract flows through FI 1506 and coalescer T-31 to the clay tower
feed storage tank S-4 after being pressure controlled by PC 1502 for clay
treatment and fractionation. The solvent / water mixture from extract
settler V-105 can be sent to V-5, V-3 or C-3 by P-123 A/B.
The stripper solvent is withdrawn as bottoms from the stripper column
and returned to the extractor column C-1 through FC 1104. A slip stream
of this solvent is preheated to around 200 deg. C in E-22 by hot oil, flow
of which is controlled by LC 1702 a level of regenerator C-4 through FC
1106 which is kept under vacuum (750 mm of Hg) by the steam jet
ejector. Regenerator bottom temperature is controlled at around 200 deg
C by reboiler E-23 using hot oil which flow is controlled by FC 1701. The
solvent vapours from the top of the C-4 are condensed in E-24 A/B ,
received in V-8 and pumped back to the bottom of column C-2 by P-20 A/B
maintaining level in V-8 by LC 1702. A certain amount of sludge
accumulates at the bottom of column C-4 which is drained out during the
shutdown.

86

CLAY TOWERS AND FRACTIONATION SECTION


The aromatic extract from the extraction section is routed to a buffer tank
S-4 wherefrom it is pumped by P-108 A/B through FC 2101 to the clay
tower after being preheated with clay tower bottoms in E-109 A/B/C/D/E
and hot oil preheater, E-10/10A/110 to 160-220 deg C one of the clay
tower C-5/C-6 and E-10/10A or E110 is used at a time.
The clay tower C-5/C-6 are packed with 10 MT of DCM of Korvi clay (30 to
60 mesh) having de-colourizing properties. The clay treatment removes
trace quantities of olefins and diolefins so as to meet the acid wash colour
specification for nitration grade benzene and toluene. If the acid wash
colour of out going product is no longer satisfactory, the extract will be
sent through other clay tower, while the former clay tower is emptied out
and loaded with fresh charge of clay.
Clay tower pressure is controlled by PC 2101 at 19-23 kg/sqcm to keep the
extract in liquid phase to obtain the maximum decolourizing efficiency by
the clay treatment.
The decolourized product after heat exchange with feed in E-109A to E
enters the benzene column C-107 at around 90-100 deg C at 41 st tray
(provision is also given for feed entry at 49 th tray) Hot oil flow to the
reboiler E-111 is on the flow control FC 2205 which is adjusted to maintain
bottom temperature at 136-139 deg C. Tray 41 st and 49th temperatures
are maintained around 95-97 and 98-108 deg C respectively, these
indications are essential to know the flooding condition of the column. The
column top temperature is maintain at 89-92 deg C and top pressure is
maintain at 0.3 kg/sq.cm. by PC 2201.
When toluene percentage in extract is more than normal then feed entry
is diverted to 49th tray then temperature profile is like bottom 136-139
deg. 41st tray 95-97 deg C and 49 th tray 98-108 deg C. Column over head
vapours are condensed in E-7 and received in receiver V-109 from where
settled water is drained out through LDC 2207 level of water boot and
hydrocarbons are pumped by P-111 A/B as C-107 reflux through FRC 2201
which is cascaded with LC 2201 (level of V-109). A drag stream is
withdrawn from pump discharge and recycled back to stripper overhead
condenser after passing through drag stream cooler E-126 and drag
stream settler V-5A to keep the concentration of non aromatics in Benzene
at a tolerable limit (presently V-5A is not in use).

87

Benzene product is withdrawn as a liquid side cut from the 7th tray through
FRC 2206 which is cascaded with differential temperature controller DTC
2205 which maintains differential temp in the range of 1.4 to 1.7 between
tray 14 or 18 and tray 4. A selector switch is provided for selecting either
tray 14 or 18. Benzene run down is sent to OM & S or intermediate
storage by pump P-110 A/B after cooling in E-112 A/B.
Benzene column bottoms are charged to the toluene column C-7 on C-107
controller LC 2204 by F-109 A/B. Hot oil flow to the reboiler E-115 is on
flow control FC 2204 which is adjusted to maintain bottom temp at 140160deg C. Column top temp is being maintained at 121-122 deg C and top
pressure is maintain at 0.3 kg/sq.cm.
The reflux flow controller FC 2301 will be reset by the differential temp
controller DTC 2302 which maintains differential temp in the range of 1.52 deg C between the tray 14 and tray 4.
Column overhead vapours are condensed in E-113 and received in V-9.
Toluene is pumped by P-113 A/B from V-9 partly as reflux to column and
partly as rundown toluene to OM & S or intermediate storage tanks 505506 through LIC 2302 after cooling in E-117 A/B. Toluene rundown flow is
measured by FC 2302 which is cascaded with LC 2302. Toluene rundown
temperature is measured by TI 2308.
Toluene column bottoms are generally sent to M.S.Pool through C-7
bottom level controller LC 2301 after cooing in E-114 by pumps P-112 A/B.
This flow is measured by FI 2303. C-7 bottom rundown temperature is
measured by TI 2306. C-7 bottom circulation is controlled by PC 2303. Also
provision exists for routing C-7 bottoms to intermediate raffinate tanks
509-510.

HOT OIL SECTION


Hot oil (heavy diesel, flash more than 60 deg. C and pour point 21 deg C)
is used as the heating medium for all the reboilers and preheaters in the
plant. This is supplied to the Udex Plant from Atmospheric Unit no.-3 / FPUII.
The hot oil returning from the reboilers and preheaters is collected in the
gas-blanketed-surge-drum V-12, from which it is pumped by P-121 A/B/C
through the heater for picking-up heat and then supplied to the various
exchangers as heating medium. The heater is vertical cylindrical having
eight numbers of oil/gas burners at the bottom. Fuel oil required by the

88

heater is supplied by AU-3 High speed diesel is used as fuel, oil, while fuel
gas is supplied from G.R.Fuel gas network. Provision exists for taking fuel
gas from G.R.E.U. side. Fresh hot oil is added time to time to make-up
required level in V-12. When the hot oil is found to have degraded, some
quantity is withdrawn from the system which is finally cooled in E-25
before sending it back to the storage tank in Au-3.

SOLVENT STORAGE SECTION


A special system is incorporated in Udex plant to collect the pump drips,
samples drains and from those locations where the streams contain
significant quantity of glycol.
TTEG solvent drums are offloaded through pump P-20A/B and
transferred to V-8 vessel by vacuum. Then solvent from V-8 is
pumped via P-20A/B to C-2 bottom.
For transferring solvent from drum to vessel V-8, provision is
done in P-20A/B discharge line for sucking the solvent by vacuum.
Precautions should be taken in order to avoid air ingress in the
system while transferring.
This system drains into a solvent sump V-11 and is subsequently pumped
to wet-solvent-tank S-3 by solvent-sump-pump P-16. The solvent rich
material can be returned to Unit for solvent recovery either in V-3 or C-4.
A fresh solvent tank S-1 is also provided so that fresh solvent inventory
can be maintained for make-up purposes. In the unit, a solvent storage
tank S-2 is also provided so that the liquid hold-up of the unit may be
pumped out for emptying out the unit during scheduled shutdown.
The solvent storage tanks are provided with gas blanketing and breather
valve arrangement to keep the solvent out of contact with air.

INSTRUMENTATION
INTRODUCTION TO DISTRIBUTED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM
The control scheme provided along with the TDC 3000 distributed digital control
system (DDCS) adopted for advanced control strategies for energy and yield
optimization.
TDC 3000

89

Local control network (LCN) / Hiway based distributed control system.

LCN to distribute the functionality over several modules called as nodes.

DATA HIWAY for different modules called as boxes.

VARIOUS MODULES AND BOXES


LCN-NODES
Application module

History module

Universal station

Industrial
Programmable
Controller

Critical
Controller

Universal work station

DATA HIWAY - BOXES


Advanced multifunction
Controller

process

* UNIVERSAL STATION (US)


Universal window through which operator monitors and controls and process,
and handles process and system alarm. Stands on the LCN. Communicates with
all modules on the LCN, process connected devices on the Hiway via Hiway
Gateway.
For Process Operator
-

Monitor and manipulate both continuous and discontinuous process or


portions of processes.

Annunciate
messages.

Display and print Process History, Process Trend and Process Averages.

Display and print journals, logs and reports.

Monitor and change status of system equipment in the control room and in
the field.

Load other system modules with operating programs and databases from
history module, floppy diskettes or cartridges.

and

handle

process

alarms,

For Process Engineer

90

system

alarm

and

operator

Build system and process data base, graphic displays and reports.

Prepare, edit and compile CL programs.

Load operating programs and data bases from or to History Module or Floppy
Diskettes.

Configuration of the network.

For Maintenance Technicians


-

Diagnose problem in any module in the system.

Display and print troubleshooting information.

* HISTORY MODULE (HM)


-

Mass storage media.

Global database. Can be accessed by any node on the LCN.

Custom displays can be stored.

Storage of system software and application software.

* APPLICATION MODULE (AM)


-

Supervisory level control.

Has access to broader scope of information.

Can access any process connected box in the system.

Programming for custom algorithms through powerful process oriented


language CL.

* HIWAY GATEWAY (HG)


-

Link between LCN and data hiway.

Protocol conversion between LCN and data hiway.

Scans hiways for alarms.

* ADVANCED MULTIFUNCTION CONTROLLER (AMC)

91

Control loops, logic operations, sequence control, digital inputs, digital


outputs.

Faster execution and control with 500 millisecond processing rate.

4-20 mA analog output.

24V DC digital inputs.

* CRITICAL PROCESS CONTROLLER (CPC)


-

Takes care of S/D system and inter locks.

* INDUSTRIAL PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER


-

Open loops.

All indications Ll, Pl, Tl, Fl, DPl.

PUMP DATA
Pump No.

P-101A/B

P-2

Service

Extractor
charge

V-6
Raff V-5
Raff Lean
wash
wash
solvent
water
water

Maker

KSB

NP

NP

NP

Type

RPK-EM-50400

BX-1X7TC

BX-1X7TC

ZE-100315

No of stages

Liquid handle

Arom HC

Solv water

Solv water

Solv water

40

40

40

1.015

0.99

1.03

Suction
Pr.Norm. 0.8
kg/sqcm ab

5.24

6.28

2.0

Discharge

7.0

8.74

15

Pumping
deg. C

temp 40

Sp.
Gravity
Pumping temp

at 0.760

14.6

92

P-3A/B

P-104A/B

Pr.Kg/sqcm ab
Diff.Head (Normal) 181
M

17.4

25

126

NPSH
metre

3.0

3.04

2.5

27.4/30

2.95

1.81/3.4

130/150

2900

2850

2850

2965

0.915

1.19

90

32.5

26

65

Min.cont. flow cub 16


M/hr.

0.5

0.5

58

Impeller dia

352

130

152

315

min/max mm

320/360

104.7/178

104.7/-

Seals

Dura-PTOE85

Mech.Flew
box
RRCB2845L

Same
P-2

1.85/2950

1.85/2950

120/2965

available 4.0

Design cap.Nor./
max.cub. M/hr.
Speed RPM
Input power
Design cap.KW

at 45

Design eff %

Drive
HP
Motor/RPM

36

of 60/2920

as BSTFL
SEAL- OL
MS503.5

Volts/phase/cycle

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

Full load amps

75

3.12

3.12

145

Lube oil

SS 81

SP 46

SP 46

SS 81

PUMP - DATA
Pump No.

P-105A/B

P-106

P-6A

P-7A/B

Service

Extract

Extractor
reflux

Extractor
reflux

Stripping
water

Maker

KSB

KSB

Bharat

NB

93

pumps
Type

RPK-EM50-315(5)

RPK-EM-50
400

KSM
2X3X71

K F-2X12LTCM

A-2ST
No of stages

Liquid handle

Aromatic
H/C

Aromatic
H/C

Arom H/C

Water+TTE
G

45

45

55

0.795

0.795

Suction
Pr.Norm. 1.4
kg/sqcm ab

1.4

1.4

1.0

Discharge
Pr.Kg/sqcm ab

13.5

13.5

3.52

Diff.Head (Normal) 100


M

152

152

35.2

NPSH
metre

3.5

3.5

3.04

15/17.5

29.1/35

29.1/35

5.2/6.8

2950

2920

2950

2850

45

45

2.6

37

4.3

Min.cont. flow cub 7.5


M/hr.

13

13

2.0

Impeller dia

276

332

279

173

min/max mm

260/320

320/360

Seals

DURA-PTO

DURA-PTO

Pumping
deg. C

temp 55

Sp.
Gravity
Pumping temp

at 0.88

10

available 4

Design cap.Nor./
max.cub. M/hr.
Speed RPM
Input power
Design cap.KW
Design eff %

at 18.5
33

94

104/178
-

Mech.Flex

E-85

E-85

Box
RC-1375AYIL

Drive
HP
Motor/RPM

of 25/2900

2960

2960

2.75/2950

Volts/phase/cycle

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

Full load amps

52

74

76

4.8

Lube oil

SS 81

SS 81

SS 81

SP 46

Pump No.

P-108A/B

P-109A/B

P-110A/B

P-111A/B

Service

Clay tower Benzene


charge
bottoms

Benzene
rundown

Ben.Col.Refl
ux

Maker

Nikkiso
Sundstran
d
co.ltd.,Tok
yo Japan

Khimline

KSB

KSB

Type

CC-40-250

CPK-EM-32
(200) S

CPK-EM-50
(250) S

No of stages

Liquid handle

Aromatic
H/C

Arom H/C

Arom H/C

Arom H/C

145

93

80

0.79

0.83

0.835

PUMP DATA

Pumping
deg. C

temp 45

Sp.
Gravity
Pumping temp

at 0.86

95

Suction
Pr.Norm. 0.9
kg/sqcm ab

1.8

4.6

1.4

Discharge
Pr.Kg/sqcm ab

7.6

8.8

8.1

73

50

80

3.6

7.5/17.5

6.8/7.5

11.1/13

30.8/37

10400

2910

2900

2900

Input power at 37
Design cap. KW

9.3

5.5

18.5

Design eff %

33.5

44

57

Min. cont. flow cub 4.7


M/hr.

3.0

4.0

10

Impeller dia

234

202

241

160/208

200/260

BSTL
SEALOL
503.5

SEALOL

DURA-PTO

503.5

E-85

12.5/2910

7.5/2890

25/2900

Diff.
(Normal) M
NPSH
metre

26

Head 292

available 3

Design cap. Nor./


max. cub. M/hr.
Speed RPM

46

116.5

min/max mm
Seals

Drive
HP
Motor/RPM

JohnCrane
BSTGL,
GAB
of /2960

Volts/phase/cycle

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

Full load amps

50

17

17.6

32

Lube oil

S.transflui
d F-10

SS 81

SS 81

SS 81

PUMP DATA

96

Pump No.

P-112A/B

P-117A/B

Service

Toluene Bott

Water still Bott

Maker

VK pumps

VK pumps

Type

PR-35

PR-60

Liquid handle

Arom H/C

TTEG + Water

Pumping temp deg. C

40

120

Sp. Gravity at Pumping 0.855


temp

0.96

Suction
kg/sqcm ab

Pr.Norm. 1.4

1.5

Pr.Kg/sqcm 8.1

6.0

Discharge
ab

Diff.Head (Normal) M

79

47

NPSH available metre

Design cap.Nor./

0.6/0.8

0.5/3

1800

1500

max.cub. M/hr.
Speed RPM

Input power at Design 1.1


cap.KW

2.2

Min.cont. flow cub M/hr.

0.2

0.2

Drive HP of Motor/RPM

1.5/1500

3/1500

Volts/phase/cycle

415/3/50

415/3/50

Full load amps A

2.7

4.8

Cylinder Bore mm

76

91

Plunger Dia mm

75

90

No. of strokes / min

100

100

Piston Speed M/sec.

90.11

0.2

97

Volumetric eff %

> or =90

>or =90

Mechanical eff %

>or =25

>or =25

Relief Valve
Kg/sqcm ab

set

pr. 8.8

Lube oil

6.6

SS 81

SS 81

PUMP DATA
Pump No.

P-113A/B

P-14

P-15

P-16

Service

Toluene
O/H

Solv.
trans

Wet.solv

Solv.
tank

Maker

KSB

NP

Roy & Roth

NP

Type

CPK-EM40

PR - 60

58COA2133 SI

1.5VCMSH-/1

250(S)
No of stages

Liquid handle

Arom H/C

TTEG

Water+TTE
G

TTEG+
Water+
HC

Pumping
deg. C

temp 115

38

38

38

1.1

Suction
Pr.Norm. 1.4
kg/sqcm ab

Discharge
Pr.Kg/sqcm ab

4.52

8.04

2.76

32

70.4

16

3.04

3.04

Sp.
Gravity
Pumping temp

Diff.
(Normal) M
NPSH

at 0.80

8.1

Head 84

available 3.5

98

Sump

metre
Design cap. Nor./

19/22.8

11.4

1.13

5.7

2960

2950

2880

2900

Input power at 15
Design cap. KW

3.45

2.9

Design eff %

43

21

37.5

Min. cont. flow cub 6.0


M/hr.

1.37

Impeller dia

256

163

122.5

200/260

109/177.
8

Turbine
Type

DURAPTO

Mech.Fle
x box

Mech.Join
Crane

Sigma-Crane

E-85

R1375AYIL

of 20/2900

4.9/2950

3/2880

1.84/2950

max. cub. M/hr.


Speed RPM

min/max mm
Seals

Drive
HP
Motor/RPM

47

114.5/152.4

Volts/phase/cycle

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

Full load amps

26

7.8

5.61

3.12

Lube oil

SS 81

SP - 46

SP-46

PUMP DATA

Pump No.

P-118A/B

P-119

Service

Water still Water


side cut
reflux

Maker

Khimline

Khimline

99

P-20A/B
still Solv.Reg.
H/O
Chempu
mp

P-121A/B/C
Hot oil cir.
Khimline

Type

Packingle
ss

No of stages

Liquid handle

Water

Water

TTEG

H/C

Pumping temp deg. 110


C

65

38

220

Sp.
Gravity
Pumping temp

0.97

1.1

0.720

Suction
Pr.Norm. 1.8
kg/sqcm ab

0.9

0.014

2.5

Discharge
Pr.Kg/sqcm ab

4.5

3.957

11.0

Diff.Head (Normal) 78
M

60

35.8

118.0

NPSH
metre

3.04

>6

7.5

3 /4.5

0.908/1.3
6

245/290

2910

2865

2880

2960

7.5

13

125

27.5

74

Min.cont. flow cub 3.0


M/hr.

3.0

105

Impeller dia

249

209

6 5/6

300/310

Sealol

Sealol

Sealol

503.5

605H

at 0.96

4.5

available 6

Design cap.Nor./
Max.cub. M/hr.
Speed RPM
Input
power
Design cap.KW
Design eff %

at 11
26

min/max mm
Seals

Drive
HP
Motor/RPM

of 15/2910

10/2865

100

605H C/TC
5.6/2880

168/2960

Volts/phase/cycle

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

Full load amps

20

14

3.93

198

Lube oil

SS 81

SS -81

SP 46

SS 81

Pump No.

P-122A/B

P-123A/B

Service

V-2 wash Extract


water
settler
water

Drag Sett. C/W booster


Water
pump

Maker

Khimline

Khimline

KSB

No of stages

Liquid handle

Water+TT
EG

Water+TT
EG

Water

Water

40

40

33

0.98

0.98

1.0

Suction
Pr.Norm. 1.4
kg/sqcm ab

5.0

4.0

4.0

Discharge
Pr.Kg/sqcm ab

8.5

8.5

5.0

Diff.Head (Normal) 80
M

36

46

NPSH
metre

3.5/5

7.5/10

.5

2900

2850

2850

PUMP DATA

Pumping
deg. C

temp 40

Sp.
Gravity
Pumping temp

at 0.98

9.2

available 8

Design cap.Nor./

P-124

P-130

max.cub. M/hr.
Speed RPM

101

1450

Input
power
Design cap.KW

at 11

Design eff %

3.7

26.5

18.5

40.9

Min.cont. flow cub 3.0


M/hr.

1.5

Impeller dia

249

174

Sealol
503.5

Sealol
503.5

min/max mm
Seals
Drive
HP
Motor/RPM

of 15/2900

5/2850

-/2865

Volts/phase/cycle

415/3/50

415/3/50

415/3/50

Full load amps

20

7.3

7.3

Lube oil

SS 81

SS - 81

SS 81

SS 81

Note : P130 redundant from FCC- ETP installed in Sept. 1998.

PUMP DATA
PUMP NO.

MP-1/2

Service

MP-1:
Transfer

MP-3/4
Benzene MP-3: Standby for MP1/2/4

MP-2: Toluene Transfer MP-4:


Transfer
Maker

Kirloskar

Kirloskar

Type

15CH 9-OM

80CH 250-M

No of stages

Pumping temp Deg. C

Ambient

Ambient

Sp. Gravity at Pumping 0.85


temp

0.85

Diff.Head (Normal) M

50

50

102

Raffinate

Design
cap.Nor./ 25.2
max.cub.m/hr.

52.2

Speed RPM

2900

2900

Input power at Design 4.67 x Sp. Gr.


cap. KW

9.66 x Sp. Gr.

Design eff %

61

55

Impeller dia min /max 205


mm

255

Rating KW/HP

7.5/10

15/20

Volts/phase/cycle

415/3/50

415/3/50

Full load amps A

24.6

103

FOOD GRADE HEXANE


INTRODUCTION:
Food Grade Hexane (FGH) is a petroleum fraction having a boiling range of
63-70 OC. In India, nearly 95% of the FGH consumption is for the solvent
extraction of oil bearing seeds, cakes and brans to produce edible oil.
Market analysis indicates that nearly 35% of FGH consumption is in the
three states viz. Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Moreover, the
increasing oil seed production has contributed to a spurt in FGH
consumption over the years and demand estimates indicates a deficit of
about 7000 MT in 1992-93, about 20,000 MT in 1993-94 and 30,000 MT in
1994-95 on all India basis.
The FGH plant at Gujarat Refinery was designed by M/s EIL of India and
plant was commissioned in September 1995. The design capacity of the
plant is 1,00,000 MTPA.
The FGH plant is having a capacity to produce 28,000 MTPA of FGH with a
blend of UDEX Raffinate and IBP-70 / Light Naphtha as the feed stock.
The plant was revamped by installing hydrogenation reactor in place of
Clay Tower to reduce maximum Benzene concentration in FGH from 1%
to 0.2% by vol. Hydrogenation Technology was developed by IOC R& D
and EIL Plant was commissioned with hydrogenation reactor in May, 2001.
Afterwards Gujarat refinery produces WHO grade and Polymer grade
hexane.
The common uses of FGH are:
Solvent for oil seed extraction.
Glues and Adhesives for production of foot wear
Medium for various polymerization reactions
Pharmaceuticals, lacquers, printing ink.

in

industries

like

Retreading of car tyres etc.

PLANT CAPACITY:
The unit is designed to process 300 MTPD of mix feed of Udex Raffinate
and IBP-70 / light naphtha.

104

Products:

FGH
Balance Naphtha

084 MTPD
216 MTPD

Number of stream days per year

333

Turn down percentage of maximum capacity

50

Number of trains

One

HYDROGENATION CATALYST
CATALYST:
The catalyst used in hydrogenation process is Ni/Al203. It is commercially
available from several vendors. In general the catalyst is expected to
perform well up to 5 years. However, it may get effected due to:
Chemical poisoning
Pore blocking
Loss of active sides
Impurities (such as S, CL, F water and Co) present if any in feed streams
poison the catalyst.
S < 1 ppm wt.
Cl < 0.5 ppm wt.
Co < 1

ppm wt

Blocking of catalyst pores is caused by coking. In general coke is formed


at excessive temperatures and or with low hydrogen to feed ratio. Under
normal operating conditions, coking is unlikely to take place. The loss of
active sites due to sintering not envisaged under normal operating
condition. Feed to the hydrogenation reactor is envisaged to contain
impurities like Cl, F and Co within acceptable limit.

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The typical properties of the catalyst are as given below.
Composition / Information on ingredients:

105

Chemical nature: Nature of nickel / mixed oxide and aluminium


oxide

Components

CAS No.

Symbol
s

RPulzes(s)

Concentration

Aluminum
oxides

1344- 28.1

Nickel

7440 -20 -0

Xn

R-40, R-43

15.00 30.00%

Nickel
Monoxide

1313-99-1

R-49,R-43

15.00 30.00%

Physical and chemical properties:


Form

Tablets

Colour

Grey

Odour

None

Bulk density

1.000 kg/sq.m

Water solubility

Insoluble

Stability and Reactivity:


Hazardous reaction
(possibly ignition)

(Conditions to avoid)
Hazardous reaction

Above 50 Deg.C self heating


in contact with air can occur.

Acids and bases

(Materials to avoid)
Information about:

In contact with acids or bases

Decomposition

hydrogen gas will develop

Quantity:

106

Initial charge

1593 kg catalyst in each bed

No. of catalyst drums off loaded in each bed


13.5
Net weight of drum 118 kg
Volume of each drum 100 ltrs.

Hydrogenation catalyst
(C-46)

4.5 M Cub (Min)

Alumina balls (size 19 mm) : 673 kg (min)


Alumina balls (size 6 mm) :

274 (min)

Catalyst Supplier : Shud Chemie India Limited, Nandesari,


Gujarat

MATERIAL BALANCE:
Strea
m No

Stream

Udex
K-7
Raffina Top
te

Name

Depe
nt
Feed

Depe
nt

Depe
nt
Top

Hex.
Col
Top

Hex.C Bal.
FGH
ol
Nap
h
Botto
(4+7
m
)

Top

Flow
Kg/hr

8750

375 1250
0
0

4828

7673

352
8

4145

897
3

352
0

Pressur
e

3.5

2.5

6.5

6.5

40

40

60

63

111

87.7

120

40

40

614

601

612

607

610

612

Kg/Sq.
Cm
(abs)
Temp
Deg.C

Density 674

637 643

107

kg/Cu.
m (Op
Density 680
Kg/Cu.
M @ 15
Deg.C

642 668

644

684

669

697

670

697

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
INTRODUCTION
PROCESS THEORY:
A fractionating column or fractionation column is an essential item used in
the distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its
component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in their volatilities.
In refineries, the crude oil feedstock is a very complex multicomponent
mixture that must be separated and yields of pure chemical compounds
are not expected, only groups of compounds within a relatively small
range of boiling points, also called fractions and that is the origin of the
name fractional distillation or fractionation.

108

Figure: Chemical engineering schematic of a continuous fractionating


column

In FGH Unit a heartcut Hexane stream (63-70 oC) is obtained by two


column distillation in the fractionation section which is hydrotreated to
reduce unsaturates and benzene to the specification levels.
The plant is designed to produce Food Grade Hexane from feed consisting
of Udex Raffinate (70,000 TPA) and straight run naphtha / light naphtha
(30,000 TPA).
The process sequence along with major control schemes and material
balance is shown in process flow diagram.
The process can be broadly classified into three sections:
Fractionation section.
Hydro treating section.
Rerun section.
A heart-cut hexane stream (63-70 Deg.C) is obtained by two column
distillation in the fractionation section which is hydro treated to reduce
unsaturates and benzene to specification levels.
The rerun section removes light and heavy contaminants from hydro
treated stream to yield finished product.

109

FRACTIONATION SECTION
Feed to the fractionation section consists of Udex Raffinate and IBP-70
from AU-1 or light naphtha from hydro cracker. Udex Raffinate comes
from TK-209 / 210 / 211 and is pumped to the feed surge drum by
raffinate feed pump P-10 A/B under level control of feed surge drum V05.Naphtha comes directly from AU-1 / Hydro cracker under flow control.
Depentaniser feed pump P-01 A/B pumps the feed under flow control to
the depentaniser after heat gain in the feed pre heater (E-12), by heat
exchange with C-02 bottoms.
Feed enters the 20th tray and alternate feed entries are provided in 24th
and 16th tray to handle variations in feed composition. Distillates from C01 consists of lighters [ 63(-)c ] which are condensed by the depentaniser
O/H condenser and collected in the reflux drum V-01.Part of the distillates
are pumped by the reflux pump P-02 A/B to C-01 as reflux under flow
control and the rest goes to the balance naphtha cooler E-10 under level
control of reflux drum.
The 63 (+) c cut leaves C-01 as bottom product, pumped by the bottom
product pump P-03 A.B to the hexane column under flow control. Feed
enters the hexane column C-02 in 32nd tray. Provision is there for alternate
feed locations to take into account variations in feed compositions. The
distillates consist of raw hexane (63-69 c cut) which is condensed by
hexane O/H condenser E-03 and collected in reflux drum V-02.
A part of the raw hexane is pumped by the reflux pump P-04 A./B back to
C-02 as reflux under flow control cascaded to a temperature controller
on tray no.48 of C-02 and the rest is sent to raw hexane surge drum V06.There is a provision for cooling the raw hexane before it enters V-06 via
raw hexane cooler E-11. This is by passed during normal operation.
Bottom of C-02 goes to balance naphtha cooler after giving up heat in
feed preheater. Both C-01 top and C-02 bottom streams leave the unit as
balance naphtha product.
C-01 and C-02 columns are under split range pressure control by hot
vapour bypass of over head vapours to their respective reflux drums.
Heat to the columns is provided by thermosiphon reboilers using MP
steam and controlled by flow controllers cascaded to either temperature
controllers on 3rd tray from bottom of column or reboiler return stream to
column. The condensate from each reboiler go to their respective
condensate pots, from where they leave the unit under level control of
condensate pots.

110

HYDROTREATING SECTION:
From raw hexane surge drum, raw hexane is pumped by reactor charge
pump P-08 A/B to the reactor. The raw hexane gets heated up to the
reactor inlet temperature of 100 130 deg C. in feed / effluent heat
exchanger E-07 and charge heater E-08.
Hydrogen gas coming from bullet at pressure 21 kg/sq.cm (g) is
introduced in the feed to the hydrogenation reactor at a predetermined
rate. The mixed feed enters the hydrogenation reactor R-101.The reactor
inlet temperature is controlled by the temperature controller cascaded to
flow controller of steam entering the charge heater E-08.The mixed phase
hot reactor effluent is separated in the gas liquid separator V-101.The
liquid from this vessel is passed through feed effluent exchanger E-07
where it exchanges heat with incoming raw hexane.
The separator pressure is controlled by a back pressure controller installed
on the gas outlet line from pipe separator V-102. The reactor pressure is
controlled automatically by separator pressure control.Gaseous stream
from separator is routed to fuel gas system via a vent condenser E-102
and pipe separator. A provision has been kept to route it to flare header
also. In the hydrogenation reactor, the olefin gets saturated to paraffin
and benzene gets converted to cyclo-hexane. The liquid phase of the
reactor effluent meet the specification of WHO/Polymer grade hexane.
Liquid from separator flows to the existing rerun column C03 under level
control.
Liquid stream from the separator CS envisaged meeting all specification of
WHO/Polymer grade hexane. However, it is proposed to retain the existing
rerun column C-03 to minimize the changes. Rerun column also serves
the purpose of a surge drum. After getting sufficient level in rerun
column, the food grade hexane product pump is started by drawing the
FGH from column. The sample of FGH is analyzed and it is diverted to
balance naphtha storage, if it is off spec. otherwise it is diverted to FGH
storage.

RERUN SECTION: (Following provisions are there. Steps are to be


followed as per requirement)

111

The rerun column C-03 removes the oligomers formed in the hydro
treatment section and produces food grade hexane meeting required
specifications as a side cut.
Feed enters to 8th tray from column bottom under level control. The rerun
column has 20 trays in total.
Overhead vapours are condensed in O/H condenser E-05. Total distillates
are pumped back as reflux by reflux pump P-06 A/B under level control of
reflux drum cascaded to flow control.
A provision is kept to bleed off accumulated light ends if any, by flow
control to balance naphtha cooler E-10 and sent to storage along with
naphtha stream.
Columns pressure is maintained by hot vapour by pass of overhead
vapours to reflux drum V-03 under split range pressure control.
Heat to the column is provided by thermosiphon reboiler E06 using HP
steam under flow control which is cascaded to temperature control of
either 3rd tray of column or reboiler return stream.
Food grade hexane product is obtained as a side cut from 17 th tray bottom
of C-03. It is pumped by P-07 A/B to FGH product cooler E-09 from where
it goes to storage under flow control.
The bottoms from C-03 are removed via the bottom cooler E-13 and taken
to closed blow down drum V-10 on its own pressure. This stream is
withdrawn as and when the level builds up in the column bottom by on /
off control valve.
Effluent from the unit consist of water which collects in the reflux drum
boots of all the three columns and are periodically drained.

4
S
n
o

PUMPS DETAILS
Eq
up
.
no

Ser type
vice

Pum
ping
tem
p.C

Flow rate

Nor M
mal a
x

112

M
in

Dis
c.
Pr

Diff
. Pr

NP
SH

De
sig
n

Des
ign

Kg/
cm
2

Kg/
cm
2

Te
mp
.
C

Pr.
Kg/
cm
2

06
PA
01
A/
B

Fee
d
pu
mp

06
PA
02
A/
B

M
Dep
ec
ent.
h
Refl Centr se
ux
ifugal al

06
PA
03
A/
B

M
Dep
ec
ent
h
bott Centr se
om. ifugal al

06
PA
04
A/
B

Hex
col
m
refl
ux

5
6

M
ec
h
Centr se
ifugal al

18.
3

2
2.
6

9.
4

9.4

43.
2

5
4.
0

2
1.
6

10.
2

111. 12.
4
8

1
5.
3

6.
4

M
ec
h
Centr se
ifugal al

28.
87.7 8

3
6.
0

1
4.
4

8.0

06
PA
05
A/
B

M
Hex
ec
col.
h
Bott Centr se
.
ifugal al

120.
3
6.8

8.
2

3.
4

10.
9

06
PA
-

Rer
un
col.
Refl

102

1
1.
1

4.
4

9.0

Centr M
ifugal ec
h
se

40

63

8.9

113

8.3

4.5

15
0.0

12.
4

3.5

15
0.0

14.
5

3.5

15
0.0

10.
7

3.5

15
0.0

11.
6

7.6

4.0

15
0.0

14.
0

3.8

3.5

15
0.0

12.
6

1.8

7.9

5.0

3.7

06
A/
B

ux

06
PA
07
A/
B

FG
H
pro
duc
t

M
ec
h
Centr se
ifugal al

110

06
PA
08
A/
B

Rea
ctor
cha
rge

M
ec
h
Centr se
ifugal al

06
PA
09
A/
B

CB
D
pu
mp

M
ec
h
Centr se
ifugal al

1
0

06
PA
10
A/
B

Raff
f.
Fee
d
pu
mp

M
ec
h
Centr se
ifugal al

al

6.1

7.
3

2.
4

10.
2

6.3

88/4
0
5.8

7.
0

2.
3

38.
0

40

1
0.
0

13.
0

1
6.
5

6.
5

40

SAFETY INFORMATION

114

7.0

4.0

5.5

15
0.0

13.
4

35.
1

4.0

15
0.0

49.
0

6.0

floo
ded

15
0.0

11.
0

3.0

15
0.0

7.7

3.2

Name:
n-Hexane (Hexyl Hydride)
(Saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon
straight run gasoline)

Chemical formula :

(UN
No

1208)
obtainable by distillation of

CH3 (CH2)4 CH3

Physical Properties

Other Characteristics

BP

68 Deg.C

Physical state

Liquid

MP

- 95 Deg.C

Odour

Milk

gasoline

FP
acetone, ether

- 22 Deg.C

Miscibility

in

alcohol,

like

soluble

and insoluble in water.


IT

253 Deg.C

SP. GR

0.7

VD

3.0

EL

1.2 7.5 % vol in Air

TLV / MAC value: 50 PPM for more than 08 hrs on time weighted average
(TWA) basis in a shift working on any working day.
Immediate danger to life and health

5000 ppm

HAZARDS

PRECAUTIONS

EXTINGUISHING AGENTS

FIRE: Dangerous when


exposed to heat and
flame;
can
react
vigorously with oxidising
agents.

No open flame

DCP, CO2, Foam like AFFF /


Protein based.

No smoking
Adequate
ventilation

Explosion : Moderate
when exposed to heat or
flame
Disaster: Dangerous in
the presence of heat or

115

flame.

SYMPTOMS:
Inhalation in high concentration of vapour causes loss of consciousness,
coma, and sudden death. In less severe cases headache, nausea, mental
confusion and depression may occur. Vapours are mildly irritating to
mucous membrane and eye. Contact with lung tissues can result in
chemical pneumonities, pulmonary cedema, and hemorrhage. Contact
with skin and mucous membrane gives sensation of burning.

PRECAUTIONS:
Adequate ventilation to keep vapour concentration down. Not to be
siphoned by mouth. Protective clothing and gloves to be worn to avoid
skin contact.

FIRST AID:
Remove victim immediately from the contaminated area. Rescuers should
take suitable precautions to prevent their being overcome by high vapour
concentration, if required artificial inspiration should be applied
immediately.

DIESEL HYDRO DE-SULPHURIZATION


As per the environment policy of Gujarat Refinery, Refinery is committed
to provide cleaner fuels to its customers to protect environment from toxic
emissions from diesel engines, according to the international stringent
regulatory norms. With a view of this, DHDS unit of Gujarat Refinery were

116

installed and commissioned in 1999 with a capacity of 1.44 MMTPA to


produce sweet diesel of S content 500 PPMW from Sour Diesel of S
content 1.46% W/W.
In Jan-2005 catalyst turn around, catalyst of both reactors has been
changed from UOP catalyst to Criterion catalyst. This criterion catalyst is
capable of producing sweet diesel of S content <200PPMW.
To increase the overall refinery throughout, efforts have been made to
increase the throughput of DHDS unit. For this, numbers of trials have
been done and subsequently limitation were observed and studied with
the help of T/S, Inspection and E/S department, UOP and EIL.
After eliminating the limitations, in JAN-2005 shut down, DHDS unit of
G.R., is continuously, running with increased capacity of 1.7 MMTPA with
an aim to produce sweet diesel of S content <200 PPMW.

BASIC REACTION CHEMISTRY OF HYDROTREATING


Basics of Hydrotreating
Hydrotreating of diesel stream from various units is mainly done to meet
the stringent diesel fuel specification in force from time to time. The
hydrotreating of any hydrocarbon stream is done to achieve following
objectives.
* Sulfur removal
* Nitrogen removal
* Aromatic saturation
* Olefin saturation
* Metals removal

117

* CCR/RCR removal
* Cracking

The diesel boiling range hydrotreatment is mainly done to achieve the


sulfur

and

aromatic

specification.

For

VGO

and

heavier

fraction

hydrotreatment in addition to S, N and aromatic saturation, metals


removal, CCR reduction becomes important. Some cracking is also
achieved (though not desirable sometimes due to product yield loss) due
to operating severity and feed quality.We will briefly describe some of the
basic reactions for some of the above reactions.

Sulfur Removal
Sulfur is found in various molecular forms in hydrocarbon stream. H2S is
the main by product due to desulfurization of the hydrocarbon stream.
HDS

reaction

produces

moderate

heat

release

and

consumes

approximately (20 Nm3/m3of feed ) of hydrogen for 1 % wt sulfur removal


from feed. Some of the basic sulfur compound reactions are described
below

Mercaptan : RSH + H2 --------> H + H2S


Sulfides:

RSR' + H2 --------> RSH + R'H

OR

RSR' + 2H2 --------> RH + R'H + H2S

Thiophene:
4C4H4S + 12 H2 ------> C4H9SH + C4H6 + C4H8 + C4H10 + 3H2S
C4H9SH + C4H6 + C4H8 + C4H10 + 3H2S + 4H2 ------> 4C4H10 + 4H2S
C4H4S + 2H2------> C4H8S + H2 -----> C4H9SH + H2 ------> C4H10 + H2

Nitrogen Removal

118

Nitrogen is found in many forms in hydrocarbon molecules. Nitrogen is


generally present in unsaturated molecules. Cracked streams contain
more unsaturated molecules and hence contain higher nitrogen
compounds. Coker and FCC diesel fractions have higher level of nitrogen
than SR diesel fraction.
HDN reaction is irreversible reaction and by product NH3. HDN produces
moderate heat release like the HDS reactions. Typical hydrogen
consumption for HDN reaction is approximately 0.7 Nm3/m3 of feed per
100 PPM nitrogen removed. Some of the HDN reactions are

Cyanides

HCN + 3H2

CH4 + NH3

Amines

RNH2 + H2

RH + NH3

Pyrrole

C4HSN + 2 H2

C4H9N

C4H9N + H2

C4H9NH2

C4H9NH2 + H2

C4H10 + NH3

Olefin saturation
Olefins saturate rapidly and completely. Only traces of olefins are usually
present in straight run fractions. Cracked streams from coker and FCC
units contains higher levels of olefins.Olefin saturation is highly
exothermic reaction. Biggest contributor to heat release. Higher hydrogen
partial pressure and lower temperature favour formation of saturate
compounds. No by-product generation due to olefin saturation. Typical
hydrogen consumption for olefin saturation reaction is
1.5 Nm3/m3 of feed per 1 wt % olefins. Some of the olefin saturation
reaction is given below

RCH=CH2 + H2

RCH2CH3

RCH=CHCH=CH2 + H2

R(CH2)3CH3

Cycloolefins + H2

Cycloparaffins

119

Aromatic Saturation
Aromatic saturation contributes significantly to hydrogen consumption
and heat release. Aromatic saturation depends on many factors like the
type of aromatic in feed, operating pressure, LHSV and temperature.
Aromatic saturation is limited by equilibrium. Cracked streams from FCC
and Coker units have more potential for aromatic saturation than
straight run diesel fraction. LCO and other cracked streams contain more
of the poly aromatic which is easier to saturate under normal
hydrotreating conditions. It will be difficult to saturate the mono
aromatics in the feed.
Aromatic saturation is favored by high hydrogen partial pressure and
lower operating temperature. Aromatic saturation helps in lowering the
product density and improving the Cetane number of the product.Typical
hydrogen consumption for aromatic saturation is 27 Nm3/m3 of feed per
each one percent reduction in aromatic content. No by-products
generated due to these reaction.
The CCR removal and cracking are not major reactions associated with
diesel fraction hydrotreatment at moderate pressure. These reactions
will be critical for high severity operation while treating VGO and heavier
fraction.
BRIEF PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The Unit comprises of mainly Four sections viz. Feed Section, Reactor Section,
Separator/Compressor

Section and Fractionation Section. The purpose and

brief description of each section is as under:FEED SECTION


In this section, Sour Diesel is received from storage tank in to a surge vessel V01, after passing through feed filter G-01A/B. The purpose of both equipments
is as under:1010G-01A/B: - It removes the foreign particles that come along with feed.

120

1010 V-01:-

(a) It provides sufficient surge volume to the feed pump P-01A/B.

(b) It provides sufficient NPSH to the feed pump.


(c) It removes water coming with feed. The water gets collected in
the boot.
REACTOR SECTION
Feed from feed pump P-01A/B splits in to two identical exchanger trains and
combined with Recycle gas (from discharge of RGC 1010K-01A/B). Combined
feed gets preheated in the shell side of CFE trains (Train 1 st contains 1010E04A/B/C and 1010E-02A/B and Train 2 nd contains 1010E-04D/E/F and 1010E02A/B) and F-01 coils up to the required reaction temp. and then entered in to
two identical reactors R-01 and R-02, installed in series. Desulphurisation
reaction takes place as the stream passes through across the reactors catalyst
bed. As the desulphurisation reaction is an exothermic reaction in nature, so an
increase in temp. profile down through the reactor bed shows that the
desulphurisation reaction is going on.
Provision of Quench with Recycle gas is given in the 2 nd bed I/L of R-01 and 1st
bed of R-02 for controlling the reactor bed I/L temps.
Reactor effluent is cooled in the tube side of 1010E-02A/B/C/D, 1010E-05,
1010E-04
A---F, 1010EA-01A---H and then gets collected in HP Separator Vessel 1010V-02.
Wash water is injected to dissolve the H 2S formed during the reaction and to
prevent the precipitation of salts inside the tubes of 1010EA-01AH and
1010E-04A--F, which is formed during the reactions. These salts gets dissolved
in wash water, which is collected in to 1010V-02 boot as sour water, and then
sent to SRU for stripping.

SEPARATOR /COMPRESSOR SECTION


The Recycle gas (containing unutilized H2 gas and H2S formed during reaction)
gets separated in 1010V-02 and cooled in recycle gas water cooler 1010E-07.

121

The purpose of the recycle gas cooler is to decrease the dew point of the
recycles gas and condense any H.C. which may cause foaming of amine, during
amine treatment of recycle gas, resulting loss of operation of Recycle gas
scrubber 1010C-01. H2S from Recycle gas gets absorb in Lean Amine (received
from SRU & fed to C-01 via P-07A/B). This H2S rich amine (called Rich Amine)
routed to SRU from bottom of the column. 20% level of D.M. water is
maintained and starts circulation of water in the chimney tray of C-01 by
running 1010PA-02A/B, to remove the traces of amine that may have entrained
in the RG leaving the amine column. This rich amine containing water is
drained in to ABD through the new drain line of 1010PA-02A/B to ABD,
when the chimney tray level increases up to 80%, and then again takes fresh
water in chimney tray up to 20% for circulation. H2S free, Recycle gas from the
top of the column goes to the suction of the Recycle gas compressor after
combining with make up gas (i.e pure H2 gas from H 2U-II/H2U-I) from Make Up
gas compressor 1010K-02A/B, via RGC suction KOD. The purpose of make up
gas compressor, is to supply H2 which is

required for the reaction, to the

suction of RGC.
STRIPPER SECTION
The purpose of this section is to remove the dissolved H 2S from the Diesel
along with removal of low boiling H.C. in the form of Wild Naphtha and volatile
H.C. in the form of FG.
Liquid H.C. from HP separator, gets heated in the shell side of 1010E-03A/B and
1010E-05A/B up to 215-240 degree centigrade and entered in to the stripper
column 1010C-02. MP steam is used as stripping steam. By adjusting the
operating parameters of column, required flash point of Diesel can be achieved.
By increasing column I/L temperature, reducing column top pressure and
increasing the flow of stripping steam, FLASH POINT CAN BE INCREASED, but
WILD NAPHTHA generation will also be increased. By reducing the column top
temperature, Wild Naphtha generation can be decreased.
(A) STRIPPER COLUMN OVERHEAD SECTION
Vapours from the top of the column get condensed in the overhead Fin cooler
1010EA-02

and

water

cooler

1010E-09

collected

in

the

overhead

receiver1010V-06. Sour water from boot of the receiver, transferred to SRU

122

through P-13A/B. Uncondensed gases containing H2S and volatile H.C. gases
goes to Amine treater column 1010C-03 via KOD 1010V-07 where any entrained
liquid H.C. gets removed from the gas stream. Gases from V-07 enter in to
1010C-03. Here H2S gets absorbed in Lean Amine and H2S rich amine (called
Rich Amine) transferred to SRU by the column bottom pump 1010P-14A/B.
Overhead H2S free H.C. gases passes through another KOD 1010V-08 to
remove any entrained amine and then goes to FG/ flare header via
1010PC4501, which controls the pressure of the system.
(B) STRIPPER COLUMN BOTTOM SECTION
Diesel from the bottom of the column C-02 is transferred to OM&S tanks by
the pump 1010P-04A/B, after cooling

in (a) Tube side of 1010E-03A/B (b)

Tube side of 1010E-01(c) Tube side of Air Fin cooler 1010EA-03A/B and (d)
Shell side of water cooler 1010E-11, in series and after removing the

water from the product diesel in diesel coalscer 1010 V-09 (old) / 109
(new). The sour water from product diesel coalscer, is routed to SRU
through sour water pump 1010P-13A/B.
In winter season (Nov-Feb), in order to maintain sweet diesel pour
point between 0-3 deg.C, PPD solution doping should be started by
lining up & starting the 1010P-11C/D. The doping rate should be
adjusted on the basis of guidelines provided by the T/S department
from time to time. The PPD doping facility was successfully
commissioned in August-2004.

INSTRUMENTATION
INSTRUMENTS
All instruments should be checked as soon as possible so that any
malfunctions or other faults can be detected early. The instrument
checkout should include the following items :
1. Pressure test of instrument air lines
2. Control valve action and calibration

123

3. Positioner calibration
4. Board calibration and loop check
5. Thermocouple calibration and identification
6. Level instrument calibration
7. Thermometers, pressure gauges, etc.
All orifice plate bores should be measured, recorded and compared with
required sizes. The orifice plates should also be checked to see if they
were counterbored wherever required. After hydrotesting and water
flushing have been completed, the orifice plates can be installed.

HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT


INTRODUCTION
The DHDS project at Gujarat Refinery was set up at a cost of 547 Crores.
To meet the Hydrogen requirements of Diesel Hydro De-Sulphurisation
unit a new Hydrogen unit of Capacity 11,000 MTPA producing
99.99%pure Hydrogen was installed in DHDS complex.
Process Licensor

M/s HALDOR TOPSOE A/S, Denmark.

Process

Steam Naphtha Reforming

Capacity

11,000 MTPA of 99.99% Pure Hydrogen

On stream factor

8000 Hrs/year.

The Hydrogen unit Project Engineering, Procurement & Construction


contract was awarded on Lump Sum Turnkey (LSTK) Basis to M/S LARSEN
& TOUBRO Ltd, India.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION
The Hydrogen Generation unit:

124

To meet the Hydrogen requirement of DHDS unit the Steam Naphtha


Reforming Process has been considered. Naphtha is first De-Sulfurised in
the Pre-Desulfurisation Section (PDS) by converting Sulphur in the Raw
Naphtha to H2S in presence of H2. The reaction is promoted by Co-Mo
Catalyst. The H2S in then stripped of in a stripper column.
The Sweet Naphtha is further De-Sulfurised in the Final De-Sulfurisation
Section (FDS). Here again Co-Mo Catalyst is used in presence of
Hydrogen. The HCI formed is absorbed in the K 2CO3 (HTG-Bed) and the
H2S is adsorbed in the ZnO (HTZ-Bed). The De-Sulfurised Naphtha is
mixed with Steam and sent to the Pre-Reformer at 500C, for conversion
of Naphtha to lower Hydrocarbons, CO, CO2 & H2 in presence of Nickel
Catalyst. The gases along with Steam enter the Reformer at 630C. The
Reforming reaction is Endothermic. Heat is supplied through the sidefired Reformer by burning off gases of PSA, Vaporized Naphtha/ Fuel gas.
The reformed gas at exit of Reformer is cooled from 930C to 200C for
Medium Temperature Shift Reaction (MT-shift). The MT-shift converts CO
to CO2 in presence of Excess Steam. Cu Catalyst promotes the reaction.
Pre-Heating Naphtha, BFW and DM water cool the synthesis gas leaving
the Reactor.
The impurities like CO2, CH4, CO & water vapour are removed by high
Pressure adsorption on molecular sieve, activated Carbon and Alumina in
the PSA system to give 99.99% pure Hydrogen. The adsorbed impurities
are removed during De-sorption & Regeneration of the beds and used as
Fuel in the Reformer.
The main sections in Hydrogen unit:
1)

NAPHTHA PRE-DE-SULPHURISATION.

2)

NAPTHA FINAL DE-SULPHURISATION.

3)

STEAM REFORMING.

4)

MEDIUM TEMPERATURE SHIFT CONVERSION.

125

5)

GAS PURIFICATION SECTION USING P.S.A TECHNOLOGY.

Different type of Catalysts are used in each of the above four sections.
As Steam Reforming is high Temperature Process and shift conversion is
a low Temperature Process.

The Waste heat is used for Steam

generation, the Steam generated meets Steam requirement of the unit


and surplus Steam is exported.
The PSA system designed by M/s UOP comprises of six Adsorbers, each
Adsorber is having three different types of adsorbents. The PSA
purification system is Micro Processor based control system supplied by
M/s UOP.

PROCESS CHEMISTRY
PRE-DE-SULPHURISATION SECTION
The Nickel based Catalyst used in Reformer will be poisoned by the
Sulphur present in the Naphtha.

In the Pre-De-Sulphurisation section

Sulphur content in Naphtha is reduced to 5 ppm wt (approx). In the DeSulphurisation section Sulphur content in reduced to 0.05 ppm wt.
In the Pre-De-Sulphurisation section all Organic Sulphur is converted into
H2S in a Hydrogenator which contains TOPSOE TK-550 Catalyst (Co-Mo
bed) and H2S formed is removed in a stripper column. The reactions in
Co-Mo bed are as follows:
RC1 + H2

RH + HC1

RSH + H2

RH + H2S

R1SSR + 3H2

R1H+RH+2 H2S

R1SR2 +2H2

R1H+R2H+ H2S

(CH)4S (THIOPHENE)+4H2

C4H10 +H2S

COS + H2

CO + H2S

Where R is a radical of HydroCarbon.

126

Besides above-mentioned reactions the Catalyst also hydrogenates


olefins to saturated Hydrocarbons and Organic Nitrogen compounds are
to some extent converted to Ammonia and saturated Hydrocarbons.
FINAL DE-SULPHURISATION SECTION
In the final De-Sulphurisation section all the remaining Organic Sulphur
compounds are converted into H2S in the second Hydrogenerator. HCl and H 2S
formed in second Hydrogenator are absorbed in Chlorine guard bed containing
HTG-1 Catalyst and in Sulphur guard bed containing HTZ-5 Catalyst
respectively.The reactions and Catalyst in the second Hydrogenator are same
as first Hydrogenator. In order to maintain the activity in the Co-Mo Catalyst
Sweet Naphtha should have minimum 2 ppm Sulphur.In the Chlorine guard bed
which contains K2CO3 following reactions take place:
K2CO3 + HCI

KCI + KHCO3

KCI + KHCO3

2KCI + H2O + CO2

The calculated equilibrium constant K = PCO2 X PH20

K = 2.8 1019at 200

K = 2.8 1014 at

C
P HCI2

K = 2.8 10 14 at
400 C
The reactions in Sulphur guard bed, which contains ZnO following takes place:
H2S +ZnO

ZnS + H2O

The calculated equilibrium constant K = PH2S,

K = 2.510

-6

at 380

C
PH2O
The rate of all the above reactions depends on Temperature, Pressure and
Diffusion properties.
REFORMING SECTION

127

Steam Reforming of Naphtha takes place in two Reactors, Adiabatic PreReformer & Tubular Reformer. Both Reactors are having Nickel based
Catalyst.In the Adiabatic Pre-Reformer having RKNGR Catalyst all heavier
Hydrocarbons are converted to Hydrogen, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide &
Methane.In the Tubular Reformer having Catalyst a R-67-7H Hydrogen is
produced from Methane & Steam by Reforming.
Reactions in Pre-Former are :
1.

CnHm + nH2O (Steam)

2.

CH4

+ H2O (Steam)

3.

CO

+ H2O (Steam)

nCO + [ n + m/2 ] H2

- heat

CO + 3H2
CO2 + H2

- heat
+ heat

Reactions are 1 & 2 strongly Endothermic while reaction 3 is Exothermic.


Reactions in Tubular Reformer are as follows:
Reforming Reactions:
CH4 + H20 (Steam)

H=219 KJ/MOL

CO + 3H2

The equilibrium constant can be expressed as follows:


Kref

P H2. Pco
P CH4. P H20

Kref is the equilibrium constant. The values of K ref is enclosed in Annexure


Chapter.
P is the partial Pressure of components in Atm.abs.
Shift Reaction:
CO + H20

Co2 + H2

H= -41 KJ/MOL

K shift = CH2 . Cco2


Cco . C H20
K shift is the equilibrium constant.

The values of K shift are enclosed in

Annexure for a range of Temperature.


Ci is the partial Pressure of components in Atm.(absolute).
Reaction equilibrium is controlled by the partial Pressure of CH 4, H2, CO & CO2.
The Reforming reactions are strongly Endothermic hence forward reactions are

128

favored by high Temperature as well as by low Pressure while the shift reaction
is Exothermic and is strongly favored by low Temperature and is largely
unaffected by Pressure.To maximise overall efficiency of the conversion for
higher yield of Hydrogen, reformers are operated at high Temperature and
relatively lower Pressure.
MT SHIFT SECTION
This is followed by shift conversion, which permits the Shift Reaction to be
brought to equilibrium at a lower Temperature in a Medium Temperature Shift
converter, which contains LK-811 Catalyst. This Catalyst consists of oxides of
Copper, Zinc and Chromium.
The reaction taking M.T Shift converter is:
CO + H20

CO + H2

H= -41 KJ/MOL

PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION


The PSA system is designed for full automatic operation with respect to
variations in the process gas flow.Variations in the composition (especially the
CO content), pressure or temperature of the process gas may require a
variation of the adsorption time period of the adsorbed.The desired purity of
the Hydrogen determines the adsorption time of the Adsorbers. This time
should be as long as possible to obtain a high efficiency of the PSA system.
The temperature of the inlet gas to the PSA must be maintained at design
temperature or below. Too high a temperature will result in too high moisture
content in the inlet gas, and less adsorbent efficiency. Too high a temperature
inlet the PSA (above 40o C) indicates bad cooling efficiency upstream.

INTRODUCTION
Adsorption phenomena are well known as the physical interaction of gaseous
molecules with substances with high surface area. The degree of interaction
depends on both the kind of molecule and the surface properties of the solid
adsorbent material. Thus on adsorbents which possess high surface areas,
highly volatile components with low polarity as presented by Hydrogen or

129

helium are not bound tightly compared to molecules as N 2, CO, CO2 and
hydrocarbons.Use is made of these differences in properties to purify gases
using the so-called Pressure Swing Adsorption process (PSA).
PRINCIPLES OF PSA SYSTEM
The pressure swing adsorption process works between two pressure levels.
Adsorption Phase
Adsorption of impurities is carried out at high pressure, to increase the partial
pressure and, thus the loading of the impurities on the adsorbent.The raw feed
gas flows through an Adsorber in an upward direction and the impurities are
selectively adsorbed on the surface of the adsorbent material water,
hydrocarbons, carbon oxides and nitrogen from bottom to the top (ref to table
Adsorption Forces). The purified product gas leaves the adsorber at the outlet
and flows to the product line.
The adsorption capacity of one Adsorber is limited and after a certain time
period, the impurities break through at the outlet of the Adsorber (ref to Break
Through Curve). First the impurities come in traces, but gradually the
concentration increases.To avoid this break-through the adsorption step must
be interrupted to regenerate the loaded Adsorber.
Regeneration Phase
Desorption or regeneration is performed at low pressure at approximately the
same temperature. The residual loading of the impurities is reduced as much as
possible is order to achieve a high adsorption capacity and a high Hydrogen
recovery. During the regeneration the adsorbed impurities are desorbed.
The regeneration phase consists of several steps:
-

Expansion to desorption pressure whereas the adsorbed


components start to desorb from the adsorbent.

Purging supports the desorption with some gas having very low
partial pressure of impurities.

Pressurization to adsorption pressure.

130

Gas losses resulting from the depressurization step can be reduced by using a
third Adsorber carrying out a pressure compensation step with the desorbing
adsorber after the adsorption step.When more Adsorbers are installed the
pressure can be equalized several times to different intermediate pressure
levels and gas losses are further reduced.
PLANT CAPACITY
Design Capacity

On stream factor

11,000 MTPY/ 15280 Nm/hr


:

8000 hrs/year.

Minimum Turndown Ratio :

30 % of design/ 3300 MTPY

PRODUCT QUALITY
PURITY:

99.99 Vol %

IMPURITIES: CO, CO2 & CH4

(minimum)
15 mole ppm (max)

Chloride

1 mole ppm (max)

Nitrogen

Traces

MATERIAL BALANCE
11,000 MTPY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
Case 1: 100% LOAD ; BASIS - 1 HOUR
PRE DE-SULPHURISATION SECTION
INPUT

OUTPUT

Raw Naphtha

5292

Kgs

Sweet Naphtha

5206

Kgs

Make-up
Hydrogen

6.3125

Kgs

Off gas from V-02 & V03

92.3125 Kgs

Total

5298.3125 Kgs

Total

5298.3125 Kgs

PROCESS REFORMER
INPUT
Naphtha Feed

Process Steam

OUTPUT
4412

14002

Kgs

Kgs

HYDROGEN

1378.74 Kgs

P.S.A OFF GAS

12732.9475
Kgs

Process condensate Ex V-06

452

131

Kgs

Total

18414

Kgs

Process condensate Ex V-07

3844

Kgs

Total

18414

Kgs

BFW & STEAM GENERATION SYSTEM


INPUT

OUTPUT

D.M.Water

14492

Kgs

BFW export

25,000

Kgs

Process condensate
Ex V-06

452

Kgs

Process Steam

14,002

Kgs

Process condensate
Ex V-07

3844

Kgs

Export Steam

6413

Kgs

Import Condensate

27,000 Kgs

Vent from V-08

212

L.P. Steam to
Deaerator

212

Blow Down Ex V-05

373

Kgs

Total

46000

Total

46000

Kgs

Kgs

Kgs

Kgs

CHEMICAL INJECTION SYSTEM


Following are the details of chemicals dosing system provided in the
Hydrogen Generation Unit:
a) Hydrazine
water.
b) Morpholine
steam Drum.
c) TSP
level

:
:

To remove residual oxygen from deareated DM


To maintain PH of BFW as well as blow down of

Tri sodium phosphate to maintain residual phosphate


in
boiler water to certain range to avoid scaling on drum

surface.
d)DMDS : To maintain second hydrogenator catalyst in sulphided state to
enhance the catalyst activity life.
e)Corrosion Inhibitor
lines.

: To avoid O/H corrosion of stripper overhead

132

PROBLEMS
COMPRESSOR TROUBLING SHOOTING CHART
TROUBLE

PROBLEMS CAUSES (S)

REMEDIES

COMPRESSOR
1. Power supply failure
1. Correct voltage or
WILL NOT START
power supply.
2. Switch gear or starting
panel malfunction.
2. Check
circuit,
interlocks relays, etc.
3. Low
oil
pressure
See
manufacture's
shutdown switch.
literature.
3. Check switch setting.
Install
momentary
bypass or on-delay
panel
for start-up.

4. Control
problems.

MOTOR
WILL 1. Low voltage.
NOT
2. Excessive
SYNCHRONIZE
torque.
ON APPLICABLE
UNITS

4. Check
connections
and settings of all
devices.

starting

LOW
PRESSURE

voltage

2. Unload
compressor
during starting.

3. Incorrect power factor.


4. Excitation
failure.

1. Correct
supply.

voltage

OIL 1. Oil pumps failure.

3. Adjust exciter
rheostat

field

4. Check
excitation.

filed

1. Repair oil pump.

2. Oil
foaming
from 2. Reduce oil level.
counter-weights
striking oil surface.
3. Heat

3. Cold oil.

133

oil

before

4. Dirty oil filter.

starting.

5. Interior frame oil leaks.


6. Excessive
bearings.

leakage

at

4. Replace
cartridge.

filter

5. Check oil piping.

6. Replace bearings to
remedy
excessive
7. Improper
low
oil
running clearance.
pressure
switch
settings.
7. Reset
per
switch
manufacturer's
8. Malfunctioning oil relief
instructions.
valve
8. Service
valve;
replace
defective
parts.
9. Defective
pressure
gauge.
9. Replace gauge.
10. Plugged
strainer.

oil

134

sump

10.

Clean strainer.

SULPHUR RECOVERY UNIT


INTRODUCTION
Facilities have been installed in GHP for the recovery of sulphur from
H2S.

H2S is present in fuel gas streams in GR block as well as in

Hydrocracker complex and in sour water generated in FPU and HCU.


Sulphur recovery from the above mentioned streams will restrict SO 2
emission level from Gujarat Refinery (including GHP complex) to below
the stipulated level of 1360 Kg/hr. The NH 3 present in the above streams
will be burnt as NOx and the same along with SO 2 will be discharged
through SO2 stack at a height of 60 m.
The design basis of SRU is to recover 96% of sulphur in the feed and to
allow 10 ppm of H2S in the final flue gas going to stack.
Following feed streams are available for SRU to recover elemental
sulphur.
i)

Fuel gases from the following units from which


H2S rich acid gases are recovered.
a)

Atmospheric Distillation unit-(AU-5)

b)

Visbreaker Unit.(AU-4)

c)

Fluidized catalytic Cracker Unit.

d)

Pre-treater unit at reformer.

e)

Hydrocracker unit

ii)

Sour gases from sour water strippers of the following units.


a)

Feed Preparation unit of HCU

b)

Hydrocracker Unit.

PLANT CAPACITY AND MATERIAL BALANCE


Feed

135

a)

Acid gas Ex ARU

1116.4 Kg/hr

b)

Sour gas ex FPU :

25.5 Kg/hr

c)

Sour gas ex HCU :

305.5 Kg/hr
__________
1447.4 Kg/hr

Total

1450 Kg /hr

Product: Sulphur Gas emitted :


through stack

783

Kg/hr

667 Kg/hr
________________

Total

1450 Kg hr

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
Sulphur recovery unit has been installed to fulfill pollution control
requirements. The SO2 emission level from the entire Refinery complex
is to be restricted within 1360 kg/hr. In order to achieve this acid gases
from fuel gas ex GR block as well as from HCU and sour gas from FPU
and HCU sour water strippers are converted to elemental sulphur.
Sulphur recovery unit consists of one thermal stage and three catalytic
stages for the recovery of elemental sulphur. The sulphur recovery is
based on modified Claus process. The unit can be divided into two main
sections namely, the sulphur recovery section and tail gas incineration
section.
The sulphur recovery section includes knock out drums for various inlet
streams, feed pre-heater, a main burner, a main combustion chamber, a
waste heat boiler, three numbers of catalytic converters, three
reheaters, four numbers of sulphur condensers, a tail gas coalescer,
sulphur pit, etc.The tail gas incineration section includes

incinerator

with burner and a vent stack for disposing off flue gas from incinerator
containing SO2.Two separate H2S flares, one located adjacent to the

136

existing NHFC flare and the other adjustment to the old GHP flares have
been provided. Separate vent stack of 100 M height for disposing off
waste gases.
Sulphur Recovery Section
Sour gas from FPU sour water stripper unit and HCU sour water stripper
unit combine and enter the sour gas knock out drum 10VV002. Sour gas
temp. is maintained at 90 C by 1/1/2" LP Steam coil provided inside the
vessel. The vessel is provided with hot insulation and operates at 1.6
kg/cm2 (a). Separate flow meters (FI 1104 for FPU sour gas and FI 1105
for HCU sour gas) have been provided for flow measurement. Acid gas
from Amine regenerator unit enters Acid gas knock out drum 10VV001
and the same is measured by FI 1203 provided downstream of K.O.D Pot.
The purpose of the drum is to arrest liquid entrainment along with acid
gas going to main burner and combustion chamber. Thus a 150 mm thick
SS-316 wire mesh (98% free volume) has been provided at the top of the
vessel. The vessel operates at 1.6 kg/cm2 a.
Gas liquid separation takes place in knock out drums. Sour water from
10VV002 is drained to sour water sump 08VV014. Liquid from acid gas
KOD 10VV001 is drained to amine sump 09VV008. Acid gas KOD has high
level alarm (LAH 1103) and very high level in the KOD will trip the unit.
LAHH-1102 will give an alarm in the control room. Similarly sour gas KOD
has a high level alarm (LAH 1107) and a very high level in KOD will trip
the unit and SDV-1202 is closed. LAHH-1106 will give an alarm in the
control room.
Sour gas from top of KOD is fed to the main burner 10FB001 on pressure
control (PIC 1202) and acid gas from top of KOD is preheated by LP
steam in 10EE010 from 40 C to 130 C and partly flows to main burner
on flow control (FIC 1205) and balance on pressure control (PIC 1201) to
back end of the combustion chamber 10FF001. One third of the total
H2S present in the feed gases (both sour and acid gas) is burnt in the
main burner to SO2 and the flame is sustained using the heat of

137

combustion. An adiabatic flame temperature of 1370 C is required to


be maintained to destroy NH3 present in sour gas to acceptable levels.
To achieve this, a part of acid gas is bypassed to the back end of the
combustion chamber. In case acid gas is not available, feed to unit will
be sour gas only without bypass. This will correspond to off ratio
operation and flame temperature will be in the range of 1350C to
1400C.
Air required for burning 1/3rd of total H2S present in the gases is
achieved by flow control FV1201. Ratio controller FRRC 1201

sets

the value of main air control valve PV 1201 bases on the input signals of
FI 1203 (acid gas flow), FI 1104 (FPU sour gas) and FI 1105 (HCU sour
gas) in order to supply stoichioetric quantity of air for burning 1/3rd of
total H2S. Thus the entire system works on a feed forward control bases
on flow rate of the three feed streams and a ratio to determine air
requirement for each stream.

In addition to this there is a feed back

loop, incorporating a tail gas analyser (ANT-1801) at sulphur plant outlet


which gives signal to trim air controller FIC 1202. This feed back loop
corrects the air flow to the main burner to ensure that the concentration
of H2S is twice the concentration of SO 2 in the tail gas stream leaving the
sulphur recovery unit.Air to the main burner is supplied by combustion
air blowers 10 KA001 A/B. H 2S and SO2 react to form water vapour and
sulphur vapour in the front and back end of the combustion chamber
10FF001. For further details of main burner refer Data sheet
The conversion of H2S to elemental sulphur involves the following steps :
-

i)

1/3 H2S + 1/2O2

1/3 SO2 + 1/3 H2O + Heat

ii)

2/3 H2S+ 1/3SO2

iii)

Overall reaction H2S + 1/2O2

H2O + Heat

138

+ 2/3H2O + Heat
S+

The entire reaction takes place in the gaseous phase.


Reaction no (i) which is essentially an oxidation step takes place in the
front end of the combustion chamber. The front end of the combustion
chamber also known as oxidation section converts H 2S into SO2 and NH3
into NOx.
Reaction No. (ii) which is essentially a reduction step takes place at the
back end of the combustion chamber. In the reduction section (back end
of the combustion chamber) SO2 formed in oxidation section reacts with
balance H2S to form elemental sulphur with evolution of heat.

The

operating temperature is in the range of 1370 C to 1600 C in the


oxidation section whereas in the reduction section the temperature
range is in between 800 C to 1200 C. The operating pressure is between 0.003 kg/cm2 to 0.6kg/cm2 (g).
The reaction gases are fed to waste heat boiler 10EE001 where the
gases are cooled down to 350 C
water,

generating

medium

by transferring heat to boiler feed

pressure

steam

at

15-18

Kg/cm 2g

pressure.Waste Heat Boiler is a shell and tube heat exchanger with


reaction gases on the tube side and BFW on the shell side. Boiler feed
water at 105 C from the deaerator located in hydrogen plant enters the
unit at 18kg/cm2g and is pumped by booster pump 10PA004A/B to
40kg/cm2a pressure before entering the waste heat boiler. The pump is
provided with a back pressure controller PCV 1303 to maintain the BFW
header pressure.
Boiler feed water to waste heat boiler is fed normally under level control
(LIC 1304) with provision of high and low level alarms. However, then
there is a sudden surge in the flow rate of MP steam, the flow of MP
steam (FIC 1304) is used to control boiler feed water.

This control is

provided to prevent tube dry out under all situation. Level switch LSLL
1305 sounds a alarm LALL 1305 and will automatically, shutdown the
plant (SD1).

139

As medium pressure steam is generated in the waste heat boiler,


maintaining the pressure of the boiler feed water is of prime importance.
In view of above, PSL 1309 is provided on the common discharge line of
the BFW pumps. At low BFW header pressure, the spare pump will start
automatically. In case the pressure comes down further, shutdown of the
plant (SD1) takes place.PIC 1305 controls the MP steam header pressure.
MP steam is routed to downstream of PIC 1305 which joins the MP steam
header.

During start up, re-heaters will be fed with MP steam from the

main header. Hence a jump over, connecting HP and MP headers has


been provided.
Cooled reaction gases from waste heat boiler flow through sulphur
condenser-I (10EE002) where the sulphur vapour formed in the thermal
stage is condensed and drained to sulphur pit.
reaction gases produces LP steam at

Heat recovered from

4 kg/cm2 g. Process gas from

sulphur condenser I which is saturated with sulphur vapour is reheated


from 165 C to 218 C in reheater I(10EE006) controlled by TIC-1402 by
using HP steam generated by waste heat boiler and fed to catalytic
converter-I (10 RB 001) from the top. Process gas passes through a fixed
bed of catalyst where a temperature rise from 218 C to 283 C takes
place and leaves from the bottom. This gas is then cooled to 165 C in
sulphur condenser II (10EE003) to condense in the sulphur produced in
the converter-I.
Condenser I (10EE002) and condenser II (10EE003) are housed in a
single shell. Process gas from the above condenser exchange heat with
BFW generating LP steam and the condensed sulphur flows to sulphur pit
BFW level control is on LIC 1403 with low and high alarm provision.
Process gas from sulphur condenser II is reheated from 165 C to 218 C
in reheater II (10EE007) by HP steam controlled by TIC 1408 and flows to
catalytic converter II (l0RB002). Further conversion of H 2S and SO2 to
sulphur takes place in the converter and the process gas at temperature
of 234 C flows from the bottom to sulphur condenser III (10EE004) and

140

liquid sulphur flows to sulphur pit. Process gas from sulphur condenser
III (10EE004) saturated

with sulphur vapour is reheated to 218 C in

reheater no.III (10EE008) controlled by TIC-1503 and sent to catalytic


convertor-III (10RR003) for further conversion of H 2S and SO2 to sulphur.
Process gas from convertor III bottom at a temperature of 221 C goes to
sulphur condenser IV (10EE005) where the gases are cooled and the
condensed liquid sulphur is drained to sulphur pit. As in case of
condensers I/II, condensers III/IV are housed in a single shell. Boiler feed
water level control for the production of LP steam is on LIC 1503 with
low and high alarm provision.
Demisters pad have been provided in each set of condensers to prevent
entrainment of liquid sulphur to the process gas. The demisters are
heated externally with LP steam coil, LP steam outlet nozzles from
condensers I/II and III/IV have been sized 14" and 10 respectively to
facilitate demister removal. Sulphur recovery after the first stage reactor
is about 89% and in the subsequent converters II & III 97% sulphur
recovery is achieved.
Converter I top pressure (Maximum) is 0.22 Kg/cm 2 g converter II top
pressure (Maximum) is 0.16 Kg/cm2g whereas converter III operates at
0.1 kg/cm2g pressure. Pressure drop across each catalyst bed is 0.018
Kg/cm2 (Maximum).

DPT 1601, 1602 and 1603 measure the pressure

drop across the respective beds.


Local as well as control room indications are provided for measurement
of pressure drop.
Each reactor bed is provided with 5 nos.of thermo couples. In bed I, TI
1601, 1602 measure the top bed temperature TI 1610 measures the
middle of the bed temperature. TI 1611 and 1612 measure the bottom
bed temperature. Similarly 5 thermocouples TI 1603, 1604, 1613, 1614
and 1615 measure measure the bed temperatures at different elevations
of bed II. TI 1605, 1606, 1616, 1617 and 1618 measure the respective
temperatures in bed III.

141

The converted gas outlet from Converter I/II/III are indicated by TI 1607,
1608,1609 respectively. Gases leaving the fourth Condenser (10EE005)
are passed through sulphur coalescer (10VV006) which removes any
entrained sulphur mist and then routed to thermal incinerator (10FF002).
Liquid sulphur from the condenser waste heat boiler and coalescer enter
sulphur pit at a gradient of 1:50 towards pit via sulphur locks (10X001 A
to F) and look pots(10X003 A to F).

Sulphur locks act as a seal

preventing H2S leakage to atmosphere. In order to physically verify the


liquid sulphur flow, look pots are provided.
Sulphur drained from various equipment is maintained in liquid form
between 130 140 C using pit heating coils (10EE011) which are
heated using LP steam and are made of SS316.

Liquid sulphur

temperature is required to be maintained between 130 to 165 C as it


solidifies at 118 C and its viscosity increases between 180 C and 415
C. For the same reason liquid sulphur lines

are steam jacketed (LP

steam).
The dimension of sulphur pit is 5m x 3.2 x 4.3 m and is made of
concrete.

Sulphur pit is covered with concrete slabs. The pit is lined

with fire brick (C Grade) which is cemented with acid resistant cement
with water seal sulphur oxydiseU.P.74.

Pit capacity is equivalent to 3

days production of sulphur.


During storage of sulphur in the pit, H2S dissolves in it gets liberated
gradually. Hence a constant sweep air circulation is maintained over the
liquid sulphur in the pit using pit ejectors 10JA001A/B.

Air and steam

from pit ejector containing H2S is routed to thermal incinerator.


MP steam flow to the ejectors is measured by FI 1701.

In case of

incinerator 10FF002 failure shut-down valve SDV 1701 will close and
stop steam flow to the ejector.
Inert gas passes through a rotameter RO 1701 which protects the level
troll tapping from liquid sulfur. The LT tapping (LT 1701) is also steam

142

jacketed to prevent sulfur solidification. LI 1701 is provided with high and


low level alarms. Smothering steam (LP steam) is injected into the pit
which will facilitate H2S evacuation by the ejector.
Vertical submerged pumps (10PA003 A/B) have been provided to pump
out liquid sulphur from pit to sulphur yard. Suction and discharge lines
of the pump are steam jacketed. The pump can empty out sulphur pit
down to sulphur floor level to facilitate
Maintenance of pit. Sulphur yard (10-T-002) is made of concrete with
sulphur resistant cement.

The length of the yard is 24 m, width 10

meter and height 1.2 meter. Liquid sulphur line enters the pit from the
top and emanates with an open pipe in the middle of the yard.
Service water line ends in a ring (2" header) with 130 Nos. 3mm
holes 2" apart to spray water on liquid sulphur. Water ring is located 50
cm above the sulphur nozzle. Removable weir plates 6mm thick and 30
cm height have been provided in both the compartments in order to
facilitate water overflow by gravity to storm sewer.
Tail Gas Incineration Section
Tail gas incinerator 10FF002 receives ammonia rich gases from the
overhead of 08CC012.

Additionally

sulphur dioxide from sulphur

coalescer top and sweep gases from the sulphur pit via. Ejector are also
burnt in the incinerator. The thermal incinerator converts almost all the
H2S and NH3 to leave with a concentration less than 10 ppm by weight
of H2 S and an acceptable NOx level in the flue gases. The flue gases
are vented to atmosphere at 0.03 Kg/cm 2g through vent stack (10X002)
60m high. The stack which is made up of carbon steel has 50mm
refractory lining of
Insulyte-11 inside to keep metal temperature above 230 C as the
Insulyte-11 inside to keep metal temperature above 230 C as the dew
point of gas vented through stack is about 200 C. Pressure inside the

143

stack is 0.03kg/cm2g .

Flue gas passing through the stack contains

about 87.5 kg/hr of SO2.

PUMPS/EJECTORS
Sr.No.

1.

Item No.

Description

10-PA-001

WHB Chemical injection


pump.

2.

10-PA-002

Condenser Chemical

Injection Pump.

3.

10-PA-003A/B

Sulphur Pumps.

4.

10-PA-004A/B

Boiler Feed Water Booster

Pumps.
5.

10-PA-005A/B

L.P. Condensate Pump.

6.

10-JA-001A/B

Sulfur pit ejectors.

SAFETY
H2S properties and toxic effects
H2S is a colourless inflammable and very toxic gas having an offensive
odour and sweetish taste. The offensive odour like that of rotten eggs, is
not reliable as a warning of

dangerous concentration, as

person differ much in the ability to detect smells and is of little

use

thereafter in noting even greatly increased concentration as stated

144

earlier.2.3. H2S is almost as toxic as hydrogen cyanide and six times as


toxic as carbon monoxide. The toxic effects vary considerable with the
concentration and also to some extent with individual susceptibility. In
low concentration it has an irritant action on the respiratory tract with
consequent sickness. Vomiting and a feeling of pressure on the breast.
Simultaneously

it

depresses

the

nervous

system.

Even

in

low

concentration H2S effect a marked irritant action upon the cornea of the
eye.

SO2 properties and toxic effects.


Sulphur dioxide is colourless gas with a specific gravity of 2.23. In the
presence of mist or water this gas forms sulphurous acid.
The gas has a sour taste. It irritates the respiratory tracts because it
combines with the water present to sulphurous acid and further to
sulphuric acid. This acid itches human tissue.Very high concentrations
cause acute bronchitis tightness of the chest and a quick start of
perturbance

of

consciousness.

Acute

deadly

poisoning

is

rare.

Suffocation however can cause death quickly.


SO2 also causes an increase of hemoglobin in the blood.
effects vary to some extent individual susceptibly.

145

The toxic

CENTRAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT


INTRODUCTION
Indian Oil Corporation Limited - Gujarat Refinery, Baroda has put up a
central effluent treatment plant (CETP) for treatment of process waste
water generated from GR, GRE, GHC, GRSPF, TOWNSHIP EFFLUENT &
STROME WATER , TREATED CAUSTIC of the Refinery.

The waste water,

generated in the above units is treated in the existing separate Effluent


Treatment Plants of the respective units.
The waste water generated in GR/GRE unit is collected in GR/GRE SUMP
and then pumped to the CETP for treatment.
GHC, TOWNSHIP, STROME WATER
underground

Waste water from GRSPF,

is received by gravity in an

sump in CETP and then pumped for treatment. Treated

caustic from Spent caustic treatment plant also joins the influent after
TPI & gets treated after getting diluted. The major pollutants in this
waste water are oil and grease, suspended solids, BOD, COD, Sulphides,
Phenol, Cyanide etc. The treated effluent will meet the required treated
water quality as given in the Design Basis Chapter - 2, which is for
recycling the treated effluent for cooling tower & fire water makeup.
The plant employs latest and

proven

technology.

Oil & grease is

removed in Tilted Plate Interceptors (TPI) and Dissolved Air Floatation


(DAF) system where as degradation of organic matter is carried out in a
two stage Biological system comprising of plastic media biotower
followed by activated sludge process designed in extended aeration
mode.

The treated effluent is taken for polishing, for the removal of

suspended solids and residual BOD & COD in the pressure sand filter and
Activated Carbon Filters. The filtered effluent is disinfected by injecting
chlorine before being used as cooling tower and fire water make-up.
Excess effluent is any is diverted to ECP.
Purpose of manual

146

This operating manual is to assist the operating team for smooth and
trouble free operation of the central effluent treatment plant.

The

arrangement of chapters is such as to give sufficient and required


information to the reader in steps and thereby avoiding confusion. The
characteristics of influent and effluent waste water, process description
etc. are given in the first few chapters which is followed by a detail
operation procedure of each and every individual units/equipments. To
keep the plant in good working conditions in normal operation, a good
maintenance of all equipments and a good house keeping is essential.
As the operating experience accumulates it is expected that this manual
will be supplemented, updated and modified to include the procedure
which have proven most efficient under the plant conditions. This will
help the new staff to acquire complete backup informations and the
correct methodology of operating the plant.
FLOW RATE OF EFFLUENT
Design flow

1500 M3/hr

Normal flow

1100 M3/hr

Minimum flow

750 M3/hr

INFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS
Parameter

Av. conc.

pH

Oil content (Total)

BOD mg/l
Sulfide (mg/l)

6 - 7.5

8.5

5000*
:

20000*

200

10

Max. Conc.

350
70

Phenol (mg/l)

6.0

20

Total S.S (mg/l)

100

300

Cyanide mg/l

0.5

147

COD (mg/l)

600

1200

Majority of oil is in free form, inlet to TPI will be 2000 mg/l of oil with
max. of 70% free and 30% emulsified portion.

TREATED EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS (After Treatment)


pH

Oil (mg/l)

6.5 - 8.0
:

BOD (mg/l)

<5

Sulfide (mg/l)

<0.1

Phenol (mg/l)

<2

<0.1

TSS (mg/l)

Cyanide

<0.005

COD

<40

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The treatment scheme is broadly divided into five sections as follows :
1.

Section - I

Physico-chemical treatment for removal of hydrocarbons,


sulphides and residual oils.
2.

Section - II

Biological treatment system incorporating plastic media


biotowers and activated sludge system.
3.

Section - III

Tertiary treatment system comprising of pressure sand filters


and activated carbon filters.
4.

Section - IV
Slop oil handling and sludge dewatering systems.

5.

Section - V
Chemical dosing system.

148

The treatment scheme is designed to produce the treated effluent


quality for reuse/disposal as per the characteristics of influent and
effluent stream a detailed under design basis Chapter - 2.
Section - I
Oil & sulphide removal section
The effluent from GR, GRE is pumped to the CETP area after collecting it
in the GR/GRE sump. The effluent from the GRSPF / GHC / STROME
WATER FROM DHOLA KUA pump house and domestic sewage flows by
gravity to the surge sump (100-S-02). The off spec. effluent from the
GR, GRE area is collected in the surge tanks (100-T-02 A/B/C). This
effluent is than

routed

by

gravity

to

the surge sump (100-S-02).

Process drain from various Locations within CETP is also routed by


gravity to surge sump (100-S-02).
The effluent from GR, GRE area and effluent from surge sump (100-S-02)
having a combined capacity of 1500 M3/hr (design flow rate) is taken
to the TPI

oil separator (100-TPI-01). This unit removes free oil. In

view of high free oil present in the effluent,

a predeoiler system is

provided at inlet of TPI to remove excess oil. A slotted pipe skimmer


mechanism is provided for collecting the top layer of oil. The slop oil
removed at TPI unit is routed by gravity to the slop oil sump (100S-07) and the settled oily sludge is periodically withdrawn manually and
collected in oily sludge pit (100-T-07).
The effluent after free oil removal from TPI Separator is led to a TPI
effluent sump (100-S-01) and then pumped to the equalisation
(100-T-01 A/B) by

TPI

sump

tanks

pumps (100-P-01 A to F), for the

equalisation and homogenisation of effluent. Treated caustic from SCTP


also is routed at t he outlet of TPI SUMP. A provision is made at inlet
chamber of TPI effluent sump to directly divert effluent to surge sump
(100-S-02) for recycling the off spec. effluent. The equalisation tanks are
circular vertical fixed roof tanks. Effluent enters at bottom of tank and
overflow is taken from top to achieve effective utilisation of tank

149

capacity for effluent equalisation. A floating funnel type oil skimmer is


provided in the top portion of equalisation tanks to remove the free oil
floating on effluent surface. The effluent from the equalisation tanks will
be led by gravity to

flash mixing tank (100-T-03). Acid/Alkali addition

facility to maintain pH of effluent is provided in case the effluent pH


needs pH correction. Ferric sulphate solution is added in the flash mixing
tank for reacting with sulfide and also to act as coagulant. Alum and
deoiling poly. are added for deemulsifying oil and coagulation purpose.
The effluent from flash mixing tank (100-T-03)

is then split into two

streams (approx. 750 M3/hr each) by operating the inlet gates and fed to
two flocculation tanks (100-T-04 A/B) equipped with flocculator. In this
unit, the deoiling polyelectrolyte solution is normally added which works
as a coagulant aid for de-emulsification. The effluent then flow by gravity
to the dissolved air flotation tanks (100-DAF-01 A/B).

A part of the

treated effluent from DAF tanks is recycled back to DAF tank after
saturating same with air at high pressure. This is done in a saturation
vessel

by

means of

DAF

recycle pumps (100-P-05 A/B/C) under

pressure of about 4.0 kg/cm2g. Compressed air

from Air compressor

(100-AC-01 A/B/C) at a regulated rate is introduced into the saturation


vessel to make the effluent saturated with air. This

saturated recycle

flow is returned to the DAF tank. When the saturated water is released
under atmospheric pressure in DAF tank, it forms small air bubbles which
get attached to the flocs.

It carries the flocs formed in flocculation tank

along with it to surface of the unit in the form of scum. The scum thus
formed in DAF tank is skimmed off by a mechanical skimmer moving on
the surface of DAF tank. The collected scum is routed to the sludge pit
(100-T-08). The sludge settled at bottom is also routed to sludge pit. The
sludge from the sludge pit is pumped to the sludge lagoon (100-L-01
A/B) by sludge pump (100-P-09 A/B). The effluent from DAF system is
fed to biological system. An arrangement of bypassing DAF system is
also provided.
Biological Treatment System (Section - II)

150

The effluent from the DAF tank is led to the FT sump (100-S-03) for
feeding the effluent to the trickling filters (Plastic media biotowers) (100BT-01 A/B). Nutrient like DAP and urea required for biological treatment
are added in the FT sump.
The design flow to the

Biotowers is 1600 M3/hr.

The biotower

essentially operates on natural draft with random media packing having


more than 90% voidage. The bio film develops on the surface of plastic
media. The trickling filter system works as a roughing stage.

The

effluent ex-biotower is collected in the splitter chamber from where the


effluent is routed by gravity to activated sludge process. A provision is
also made to recycle effluent to F.T. sump (100-S-03) to maintain
hydraulics in case inlet flow rate is less and not adequate for rotating the
distribution mechanism. Under normal flow rate recycling of effluent to
biotower is not required.
The activated sludge process is designed in extended aeration mode in
order to achieve the low BOD & S.S conc. out of the biological system.
The aeration tank is in three compartments and provided with fixed type
surface aerators. Provision is made to isolate any of the compartments
by closing the inlet gates. The effluent from the aeration tank flows by
gravity to the final clarifiers (100-CF-01 A/B) for separation of biomass
from the effluent.

Provision is made to take backwash clarifier (100-CF-

02) as third clarifier for activated sludge system.

Under normal

operating conditions, backwash clarifier (100-CF-02) will also be kept in


line. This will avoid in operational problem in activated sludge system.
The biosludge settled at the bottom will be withdrawn in Biosludge
sump (100-S-05). The biosludge is recycled to the aeration

tank

by

sludge return pumps (100-P-10 A/B/C/D). Provision is made to recycle


50% normal & 75% max. biosludge back to aeration tank. A provision is
also provided to bypass complete aeration tank.

The

excess

biosludge is routed to the sludge thickner (100-ST-01) for thickening of


biosludge along with sludge from backwash clarifier (100-CF-02) and the

151

thickened sludge is fed to the thickened sludge sump (100-S-06). The


thickened sludge is subsequently pumped to Biosludge centrifuge (100C-01 A/B) by thickened

sludge

pump (100-P-11 A/B) for sludge

dewatering.
The treated effluent from the over flow of final clarifier is routed to the
Guard pond (100-GP-01 A/B) by gravity. A bypass channel is provided to
bypass the guard pond if required.

Tertiary treatment system (Section - III)


The biologically treated effluent from the Guard Pond is pumped by
effluent discharge pumps (100-P-07 A to F) to achieve the treated water
quality for recycling back to cooling tower makeup. The treated effluent
is pumped through pressure sand filters and activated carbon filter for
removal of suspended solids and residual COD/BOD/Oil & grease. The
pressure sand filters (100-PSF-01 A/B/C/D/E) and activated carbon filters,
(100-ACF-01 A/B/C/D/E) are horizontal filters. When the bed of filter gets
clogged with impurities and pressure drop across the filter bed increases,
then it is automatically backwashed with the filtered effluent. Initiation
of backwash operation is done manually from DCS panel and start/stop
of Air scouring blower is done manually. The backwashing sequence will
be controlled by a PLC. The backwash water from the filters will be fed to
a backwash clarifier (100-CF-02) for separation of suspended solids.
The filtered water is then disinfected by dosing chlorine. Chlorine dosing
is

through a chlorination unit.

The clear & Chlorinated water under

pressure will be brought at the plant battery limit for further distribution
to cooling towers for recycle, discharge through ECP line or in open
channel.

Slop oil Handling and sludge dewatering system (Section IV)

152

The slop oil handling system is meant to recover slop oil wasted during
various process operation. Slop oil is received in the slop oil sump (100S-07) from the TPI unit, equalisation & surge tanks, and the surge sump.
The slop oil collected in the sump is pumped to the slop oil tanks (100T-10 A/B/C/D) by slop oil pumps (100-P-13 A/B/C/D).

The slop oil

separated in the slop oil tank is pumped to the existing tanks in the
Refinery unit by slop oil transfer pumps (100-P-14 A/B).

The water

drained from the bottom of the tank is led to the surge sump (100-S-02)
through process drain for further processing.

Slop oil sump and tanks

are provided with steam coil at bottom for heating the slop oil whenever
it solidifies and pumping becomes difficult.
Three types of sludge are generated in the Effluent Treatment Plant (i)
oily sludge from TPI separator DAF tanks and (ii) biosludge from final
clarifier and backwash clarifier.
The oily sludge from TPI separator (100-TPI-01) is collected in the oily
sludge sump (100-S-07). The oily sludge is then pumped to oily sludge
lagoons (100-L-02 A/B). Sludge settles down at bottom and supernatent
is withdrawn from three outlet levels and led to surge sump for
reprocessings. Top scum/oily layer is led to a melting pit (100-T-09),
when the lagoon is filled up and it is heated to melt the oily scum and
then pumped to slop oil tanks.
Sludge from DAF tank is routed to sludge pit (100-T-08) and from there
pumped to the sludge lagoon (100-L-01 A/B). Sludge settles down at
bottom and supernatent is withdrawn by operating outlet pipe provided
at three levels.
The excess Biosludge generated from final clarifiers is fed to the
Biosludge thickener. The thickened sludge from the thickener is routed
to

the

thickened sludge sump (100-S-06). The sludge settled at the

bottom of backwash clarifier is also routed to the thickened sludge


sump (100-S-06). The supernatant from the thickener is returned to the
surge sump.

The thickened sludge is pumped to the Biosludge

153

centrifuge for dewatering of sludge. Dewatering polyelectrolyte is added


at the inlet of the centrifuge unit to aid the dewatering process.

The

solids content in the dewatered cake is expected to be 16-18% (% by


weight). The centrate from the centrifuge is returned to the surge sump
and dewatered sludge cake is disposed.

Area of drying/storing of

centrifuge sludge is proved by side of centrifuge shed to store dewatered


sludge for some time. Sludge drying beds 16 nos. of 100 m2 each are
also provided for drying of thickened sludge in case centrifuge is not in
operation.

Chemical dosing system (Section - V)


The chemical dosing arrangement is located in a chemical house in the
CETP area.
The chemicals to be used for the effluent treatment are i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

Deoiling polyelectrolyte in DAF system


Ferric sulphate for sulphide precipitation
Alum for deemulsification & coagulation in DAF system
Acid & Alkali for pH adjustment
Dewatering polyelectrolyte in the centrifuge
DAP and urea for nutrient requirements for the biological
treatment.

154

INSTRUMENTATION
Following different types of Instruments have been used in the
plant :
1.

Bourdon Pressure Gauges

Bourdon Pressure Gauges are used for treated effluent, filtered


effluent water & air services. They are located at Inlet & outlet of
Pressure Sand Filters, Activated Carbon Filters & at discharge of various
pumps.
2.

Diaphragm Pressure Gauges

Diaphragm Pressure Gauges are used for effluent, biosludge,


thickened sludge, slop oil, H 2SO4 , Caustic, Fe2(SO4)3, Alum, DAP, Poly
solution services & located at discharge of various pumps.
3.

Pressure Safety Valve

PSVs are used for effluent water services & located on saturation
vessels, PSFs & ACFs to relieve pressure more than set pressure.
4.

Level Gauges

Reflex type level gauges are used for monitoring of level in


different tanks for H2SO4, DAP, Caustic, Urea & Polyelectrolyte solution
services.
5.

Float & Board Type Level

Indicator

Float & Board type LIs are used with SS 316 float & used for
caustic lye, Fe2(SO4)3 & Alum solution services.
6.

Servo Level Gauge

Servo Level Gauges are used with SS 316 displacer & tankside
alphaneumeric digital indicator for effluent/slop oil services & mounted
on equalization tank, surge tanks & slop oil tanks. These instruments
are used with analog transmission of signal to Distributed Control
System (DCS) to monitor continuous level of the respective tanks.
7.

Ultrasonic type level indicator transmitter/switch

These instruments are used either as transmitters which shall give


continuous level monitoring on DCS operator console or as a switch in
combination of transmitter & trip amplifier which shall give potential free

155

contact for interlock to PLC System. Instruments are non contact type,
ensures trouble free maintenance as no wetted parts in the instruments
are involved.

8.

Flame arrestor with breather valve

Flame arrestor & breather valves are used as safety instruments in


equalization tanks, surge tanks & slop oil tanks.
9.

Differential Pressure Transmitter

Smart type with HART protocol are used for either differential
pressure or flow measurement in effluent, treated effluent services.
Remote indication of differential pressure or flow from these transmitters
shall be available on DCS console.
10.

On Line Rotameter

All OLRs are glass tube type & used for local flow indication of
various services like compressed air, Inst. air & Polyelectrolyte solution.
11.

Orifice plates & flanges, Annubar Flow Sensor

Primary elements for generating differential pressure which is


input to flow transmitters/Indicators used in effluent, treated effluent,
treated water & steam services.
12.

Temperature Gauge with Thermowell

Mercury in steel type with rigid stem back entry gauges are used
for local temperature indication for Slop oil, effluent & GRE effluent
services.
13. Resistance
Transmitters

Temperature

Detector

&

Temperature

Duplex type RTD sensor & smart Temperature Indicating


Transmitters are used together for measuring Temperature of Slop Oil.
Output of transmitters shall be used for indication & recording on DCS
console.
14.

Butterfly type ON/OFF valve

156

Different sizes of valves are used for effluent, backwash water &
air service for Pressure Sand Filters & Activated Carbon Filters.
All
valves are equipped with ex-proof solenoid valves & limit switches for
Auto/Manual operation of valves from DCS console. Status indication of
Butterfly valves are available on DCS console through valve on/off limit
switch contacts.
15.

Magnetic Flowmeter

Used on discharge line of biosludge return pump. The sensor is


seperated from ex-proof indicating transmitter. Output of transmitter is
used for flow indication on DCS console.

16.

pH Sensor with Transmitter

Used for monitoring of pH in flash mixing tank & treated effluent


line header after Chlorination on DCS console.
17.

DO Sensor with Transmitter

Used for monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen, in Biological aeration


tank on DCS console.
18.

Isolators

Different type of isolators (Analog I/O, Digital inputs) are used for
intrinsically safe electronic instruments located in hazardous area. This
provides galvanic isolation between safe area & hazardous area.
19.

Globe type control valve (Modulating)

Used for treated effluent flow control. This valve is air fail to open
type. Control action shall be taken by DCS, based on deviation between
set point & actual feedback of flow parameter & maintain the flow as
required per set point.
20.

Current to Pressure converter

This is a transducer which converts mA signal available from DCS


into the air signal which operates control valve. By this, based on output
mA, from DCS, control valve opening/closing is controlled as per set
point on DCS console.
21.

Differential

Pressure

Instrument

157

Used for local flow indication of low pressure steam available from
battery limit.
22.

Self Acting Control Valve


Used to maintain downstream pressure constant in the steam line
from battery limit.

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

EFFLUENT
FROM
FCC & GHC

SURGE
SUMP

EFFLUENT FROM
GR / GRE

SURGE
TANKS

TPI

FLASH
MIXER

EQ.
TANKS

TPI
SUMP

FLOCCULATION
TANKS

FECAL FEOM T/S


AERATION
TANKS

FT
SUMP

BIO-TOWERS

DAFs

20000 m3
SAT. VESSEL
Cl2 INJECTION

CLARIFIERS

SLUDGE
SUMP

GUARD
PONDS

PSFs

WASTING

158

ACFs

TREATED
WATER
FOR
REUSE

SAFETY MEASURES ADOPTED


INTRODUCTION
It is essential to recognize the various possible hazards in The operation of the
plant so that the remedial measures can be planned. Following are some of the
common safety hazards encountered in the FCC Unit.
HAZARDS OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
All petroleum products give out vapors in amount depending upon the type of
product. On expansion LPG forms a thick cloud of vapors. These vapors in a
confined space, will tend to make the atmosphere leaner in oxygen content thus
making it difficult to sustain normal breathing (asphyxiation).
The hydrocarbon vapours also produce some adverse physiological effects. Fire
and explosion hazards are associated with these vapours under favourable
conditions.
The hydrocarbon vapours heavier than air collect at low points near ground level.
These vapours have anesthetic effects. If air with hydrocarbon concentration of
0.1% is inhaled for about 5 minutes, the person feels giddy. If the concentration
increases to 0.5% and person inhales such air for about four minutes, the
exhibits symptoms similar to alcoholism. The maximum concentration of
hydrocarbon (except H2S) should not exceed 0.1% to avoid intoxication of
personnel.
Explosion Fire
When the proportion of hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon air mixture falls within
the explosive limits, an explosion or fire could occur in presence of ignition, such
as spark or an open fire. A hydrocarbon air mixture can more on the ground over
a considerable distance and catch fire with in contact with a spark or an open
fire. An explosion occurs when the air hydrocarbon mixture is enclosed in a
vessel and a fire takes place when the above conditions exist in the open.
Explosion produces a considerable volume of gas, which creates high pressure
causing damage. Explosion could initiate another explosion or fire at a distance
of ten to a hundred meters because of its physical nature. Explosion is generally
followed by a fire.

159

Explosive limits of Hydrocarbons

Product

Lower Explosive Limit

Upper Explosive Limit

(LEL, % Vol./Vol of air)

(LEL, %Vol /Vol of air)

hydrogen

4.1

74.2

methane

5.3

14.0

ethane

3.2

12.5

ethylene

2.75

28.6

Propane

2.37

9.5

SOURCE OF HEAT AND OPEN FIRE


Any fire source near the area having presence of Hydrocarbonsconstitutes a
danger by its open flame igniting the hydrocarbon vapours of evaporating and
heating the hydrocarbons to the ignition point. Example of each hazards are
match sticks, cigarettes, blow-pipe, smithy shop various furnaces etc.
Auto Ignition
For combustion, three conditions are necessary. These are combustible material,
sufficient quantity of oxygen and a source of heat. In free air, there is no risk of
ignition if the hydrocarbon vapor temperature is less than the ignition
temperature. However, if the temperature of hydrocarbon vapor is equal to its
ignition temperature, the vapor can catch fire on mixing with oxygen from the
atmosphere, even without the help of a flame or a spark. This is known as Autoignition are generally more as the molecular weight of the hydrocarbons
increases. The auto ignition temperature of some of important hydrocarbons are
given below:

Product

Auto Ignition Temperature


( C )

160

Hydrogen

589

Ethane

516

Ethylene

450

Propane

466

Butane

430

Pentane

309

Hexane

247

Sparks
Ignition of Hydrocarbon vapours and air mixture can be produced by a spark,
which may cause an explosion of fire. The possible sources of sparks are:
1) Rubbing of ferrous metals between themselves or with other hazard material
like concrete.
2) Rubbing of iron shoe sole with ground or metallic parts.
3) Filling of iron tools
4) Stroke of a steel hammer on a hard body like metal or concrete.
5) Sparks from lose electrical wheel.
Lightning
Lightning can fall on metallic objects such as chimneys, tower, tanks and tall
building. These can damage the structures or lead to ignition of hydrocarbon air
mixture, if present. The vent/safety relief valve discharge at high points to the
atmosphere are especially vulnerable to lightning.
Static Electrical charges
Static electrical charges can be produced by rubbing different bodies between
themselves and these can accumulate and produce sparks strong enough to
initiate a fire or an explosion. Such charges can be produced by rubbing of
petroleum products on the internal surfaces of pipes, tanks and various
equipment. The handling of dry substances as coke, sulfur, etc. in metal chute,
binds or even though relatively dry air can also result in the generation of static
electricity. Static charges can also be produced by other operation such as a
driving belt, cleaning with silk or charges can also be produced by other
operation such as a driving belt, cleaning with silk or nylon cloth and fine mesh
screens and filters, etc. A proper system of grounding is essential for such
operation.
161

GENERAL SAFETY GUIDELINES


All employees and persons responsible for operation in the FCC process should
be experience in petroleum refinery operating techniques and should be familiar
with applicable safety practices. All necessary precautions should be taken to
avoid accidents. The following general safety rules are applicable to FCC unit
operations. These must be known and strictly observed by all personnel. Clean
oil and grease off, the skin carefully. If allowed to stay, it serves as an agent for
maintaining dust, dirt and harmful bacteria on the skin. Wash the hands and skin
with soap and water.

1.) Smoking should be permitted only at approved smoking locations.


2) If an employees clothing becomes contaminated with acids, caustics,
alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons or any other chemical solution, he must
remove clothes immediately and shower.
3) Defective tools should not be used.
4) When using chiesels, cold cuts, sticking wrenches, hammers or punches,
examine the striking surfaces frequently for burrs and other foreign matter.
Non sparking tools should be used.
5) Use proper tools for the work involved, i.e. do not use a file for a bar, a hand
wrench for a hammer etc.
6) Over-stressing tools or equipment has frequently caused serious injuries.
Take precaution to prevent injuries to yourself or others.
7) Safety belts or lifelines shall be used when working 2 meters or more above
ground, where it is not practical to make other provisions to prevent falling.
8) Falls are the second largest cause of accidental deaths. Do not take the
following chances:
Failure to look where you are going.
Standing on boxes, chairs and make shifts instead of ladders or
platforms.
Neglecting to use handrails and running on stairs.
Failing to face ladder when carrying objects on the same.

162

9) Tools and materials should not be dropped from heights. They must be
carried down.
10)
Standing or walking under materials suspended by ropes, chains or cables
should not be permitted. Stay in the clear until material is well secured.

Electrical Equipment
1)

Dont temper with electrical apparatus. This is the work of qualified


electrician.

2)

Dont remove light bulbs to plug-in power equipment.

3)

Use only approved electrical fittings, the cover of electrical fitting in


hazardous areas should be secured properly to avoid entry of
explosive gases.

4)

All electrical equipment must be properly grounded.

5)

An electrical extension wire must not be used if it is in bad


condition, laid through water or in such manner as to allow
motorized equipment to travel over it.

6)

Employees should regard all electrical wires as live and dangerous.

7)

Never close a switch or breaker that has been opened unless


authorized to do so by your supervisor.

8)

All electrical breaker must be de-energized and locked before


process equipment can be worked upon.

9)

All live fuse, lighting and power cabinets must be kept closed.

10)

If an electrical power unit motivates moving machinery and it is


necessary to make repairs to it, then refer to and follow the
electrical lock out procedure laid down by the plant management.

SAFETY RULES FOR PARTICULAR OPERATIONS


The following safety instructions are for the operations carried out frequently in
the FCC unit. These must, in addition to the general safety rules, be understood
and observed strictly by all personnel.

163

Sample and purge connections


Sample and purge connections on liquefied products have two valves. Always
open the upstream valve fully and adjust the flow by the downstream valve. This
is done so that upstream valve is always operable in case of frosting. Draining of
LPG or Gasolene vessels should not be done unattended. Operator should be
present as long as draining/venting is going on.

Isolation of safety valves


Many safety valves are provided with the isolation valves at upstream and
downstream of the safety valve. This is to facilitate the repair of safety valve. It
is important to ensure that these isolation valves are kept in open condition.
When a safety valve is to be taken out of line, bring the spare safety valve in line
or shut down the equipment if the spare safety valve is not provided.

High point vents and relief valve discharges


The hydrocarbon discharges from the high point vents and relief valve discharges
to atmosphere pose hazard due to lightning. Such discharges are normally
provided with steam purge connections. It is essential to keep small purge of
steam in these lines, especially in monsoons when there is likelihood of lightning.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR


MAINTENANCE
Process equipment: Column, Vessel etc.
Before opening any equipment, it should be purged to render the internal
atmosphere non-explosive and breathable. Operations to be carried out are:
Isolation with valves and blinds.
Draining and depressurization.
Replacement of vapours or gas by steam, water or inert gas.
Washing of columns and vessels with water. Suitable service water
connections have been provided at various points in the unit.
Ventilation of equipment.
Opening of top manhole.
Testing of inside atmosphere with explosive meter
164

Complete opening if inside atmosphere is satisfactory.

Note: Open a vent on the upper part of the vessel to allow gases to escape
during filling and to allow air inside the vessel during draining.

Precautions Before handing over equipment


Following items should be checked by a responsible operating supervisor before
an equipment is handed over for maintenance after it has been purged.
1) Ascertain that the equipment is isolated by proper valves and blinds.
2) Ascertain that there is no pressure of hydrocarbons in the lines, vessel and
equipment.
3) Check that steam injection lines and any inert line connection are
disconnected or isolated from the equipment.
4) Put tags on the various blinds so as to avoid mistakes. Maintain a register
for blinds.
5) Keep the surrounding area cleaned up.
6) Get explosive meter test done in vessel, lines, equipment and surrounding
area.
If welding or hot work is to be done, also:
1.) Keep fire-fighting devices ready for use nearby.
2.) Close the neighbouring surface drains with wet gunny bags.
3.) Keep water flowing in the neighbouring area to cool down any spark bits,
etc.
After the above operations have been made, a safety permit should be issued for
carrying out the work. A responsible operating supervisor should be personally
present at the place of hot work till the first torch is lighted. Hot work should be
immediately suspended of instructed bythesupervisor. .

165

When people have to enter a vessel for inspection or other work, one person
should stand outside near the manhole of the vessel for any help needed by the
persons working inside.

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
The potential environmental impacts associated with the refinery are expected to
vary depending upon the construction alternative selected for the refinery and
the selected effluent discharge alternative. A brief discussion of the types of
environmental impacts analyzed in the DEIS is summarized below.
Groundwater, Soils and Spills
Ground water occurs beneath the refinery site. Groundwater is in the underlying
material called till which was deposited by glaciers in an approximately 100foot thick layer. Ground water generally moves slowly in till layers due to low
permeability. Depth to water in the till aquifer typically ranges from 5-15 feet.
Ground water in the till appears to flow toward the southwest at about 0.4 to 2.4
ft/year. Ground water also occurs in the Ft. Union Formation, which underlies the
till and the Fox Hills Formation which underlies the Ft. Union Formation.
It is anticipated that there would be spills and leaks at the proposed refinery
facility. Almost all refineries and other petrochemical facilities such as gas
stations eventually have spills and leaks. The majority of spills and leaks would
be completely contained within the facility and would not impact the
environment. However, over time, it is expected that there would be some
contamination of soils and groundwater immediately underneath the refinery site
due to leaks andspills. The contamination would remain generally within the
166

refinery site unless a major spill occurred or a series of spills and leaks occurred
over time.
Areas within the refinery storing synthetic crude or refinery products would be
required to be lined and have secondary containment (e.g., berms) to hold the
entire contents of storage tanks. Areas with a high potential for spills such as the
loading area for trucks and railcars would also be paved and curbed.

Transportation
The refinery will increase traffic on local roads and on the rail line. With the
shipment of refinery products, there would be an increased probability of
petroleum products spills along the pipeline corridor, transportation corridors and
the rail line.
Air Quality
Air emissions from the refinery would be minor. Potential air emissions have
been modeled; demonstrating that the proposed facility would not cause any
exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) or
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) increments. At this time, EPA has
determined that no Clean Air Act permits will be required for the facility because
the total quantity of air pollutants emitted throughout the year by the refinery
are less than the regulatory thresholds for any air permits.
Human Health
With proper operation of the refinery, potential impacts to human health are
anticipated to be negligible to the general public. Pollutants or materials which
would be of concern to public health would be contained within the refinery,
treated to nontoxic levels or disposed of at approved hazardous waste facilities.
Environmental Justice, Socioeconomics
Environmental Justice concerns that are raised in the DEIS include many of the
issues addressed above, such as air pollution emissions the discharge of
pollutants into surface waters and ground water and hazardous waste
generation. The DEIS also addresses socioeconomic effects of constructing and
operating a new refinery.
Economic benefits associated with the refinery may increase the quality of life
for members of the MHA Nation. However, negative effects to the quality of life
may be experienced by the communities surrounding the facility due to
increases in highway traffic, noise, and light pollution during construction and
operation.

167

PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED AND SOLUTIONS


1).In Desalter chloride is the source of hydrogen chloride evolved during
distillation, thus its presence is one of the indices of corrosion potential of the
crude. Magnesium chloride is the most prolific producer of HCl with calcium and
sodium in descending order. Apart from chlorides, carbonates and sulfates may
be present in significant quantities. Sulfates especially may be troublesome for
sulfate scale formation.
These water-soluble impurities are brought along with the residual water-content
into the crude oil. Much of the sediment also may be associated with this
dispersion of water. Water drops ordinarily are so small that gravity would require
a prohibitively long time to draw all of the drops to the bottom of a storage tank,
even if the tank were free from convection currents. Moreover, this water
dispersion, or in other words, the emulsion received at the refinery has been
'aged' over an extended period by stabilisers. These stabilisers are molecules or
groups of molecules asphalts, etc. in the oil that are least similar to the bulk oil
(i.e. least similar to the most prevalent oil molecular species), and therefore
subject to less intermolecular force. Being less attracted to the internal body of
the oil, the exceptional material will be rejected to the interface of the oil-water
168

drops. Such material may include asphalts, asphaltenes, resins sediments etc.
Such rejected surface-active materials comprise a physical bar that prevents
water drops getting close enough to bring about coalescence. Before the drops
can coalesce, therefore the stabiliser film must be reduced in thickness and
tenacity, and ruptured. An effective means for aiding this is heat. Heat
increases the solvency of the bulk oil for the stabiliser, reduces the viscosity of
the oil and decreases the viscosity and cohesion of the film. These effects though
decrease the viscosity and cohesion of the film, these effects though very much
beneficial are normally not adequate to permit coalescence.
2). Furthermore another important consideration is that the chances of collision
among drops in this sparse population of drops are relatively few. The limitation
of distance between drops is dealt with by dispersing about 5 percent of fresh
water to the oil. Thus the water has been increased about 25 times and the
distance between drops surfaces reduced by 10 Even so, the added water is not
likely to combine with a satisfactory portion of the brine particles and coalesce
effectively without additional means.
PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED AND CORRECTION DURING REVAMPS
(1). Scheme for Reduction in moisture content of MGO stream:
In order to meet the BS-III Specification Diesel both the LS & the HS diesel was
routed to DHDS/DHDT for reduction in total Sulphur and improvement in Cetane
number. Only 10 % of straight run find its destination as final product.
Temperature is not expected to be an issue after blending of hydro-treated and
straight run diesel. The moisture content of MGO stream from AVU, however
needs to be brought down to meet the final BS-III specification which is < 200
ppm. This will also reduce the hydrocarbon loss during draining/preparation of
the DHDS/DHDT feed tanks.

In order to bring down the moisture in LGO stream of AVU a two pronged
approach was exercised in 2005 shutdown.

Reduction in LGO R/D temperature:


The quantity of LGO drawn from the column is much higher than the design
value and the LGO R/D temperature observed in peak summer is 60 Deg C. In
order to bring down its rundown temperature after considering various options it
has been observed that cleaning 10-E-1A Heat exchanger & converting 11-E-26A
into dual service (i.e. LGO & RCO) will be most efficient and the same has been
executed in 2005 shutdown. Apart from the above,11-AC-14 which was
previously HGO Air-cooler has been retrofitted for LGO service. The above two
modifications is expected to bring down the LGO rundown temperature to 4045C.

169

Procurement of new coalescer for MGO (HSD ex AVU) stream.


A coalescer of 150 m3/Hr capacity was procured from M/S Ravi Techno and
placed south side of ATF cooler 11-E-1A. Provisions were made to route the MGO
through the coalescer. The moisture ridden(< 200 ppm). MGO stream can be
routed either to MGO pool or to DHDS/DHDT feed pool. The introduction of the
coalescer and exchanger in the MGO circuit will increase the Pressure drop in the
LGO circuit which will be offset by

Reduction in LGO R/D flow by shifting the load from LGO to HK & HGO.
Splitting the total MGO between DHDT/DHDS & MGO R/D line.

(2). Provision for routing Vac. Slop and SR in RCO R/D circuit:

The CDU of Mathura Refinery was revamped from 8MMTPA to 11MMTPA in June
2004. The Process Design Basis was finalized in May 1999. Due to wide gap in
the finalisation of Process Design Basis and the final execution of the project
following variations has been observed:

Decrease in desalter temperature by around 20C


Decrease in pre-fractionator feed temperature by around 19C
Reduced pre-heat for CDU furnaces by around 47C
Reduction of COT in CDU furnaces by around 41C
More than 90% less heat duty in Train-1 and Train-3
More than 75% less heat duty in RCO- tempered water circuit
More than 50% more heat duty in SR-tempered water circuit
Various reasons attributed to above were:
No RCO spill over after Sep. 2003 leading to low heat duty in certain
exchangers.
Processing 14% more RCO than design in Vacuum column thus
overloading certain exchangers.
Partial coking of 11F3 and 11F4

170

In order to remove some of the above bottlenecks the following has been
executed in 2005 shutdown:
Provision to route Vacuum Slop and S.R. in RCO line leading 11-E-38
B.
A control valve has been provided in RCO circuit leading to 11-E-38B.
Net load on the Tempered Water system came down by 3.5 Mkcal/Hr. The total
increase in Heat duty recovered in the Pre-Heat train comes out to be 7 Mkcal/Hr
considering processing of 1200 M3/Hr of HS crude & 50 % HS crude processing
throughout the year.
This has led to
Improved performance of Desalter due to increase in Desalter
temperature
Improved performance of Pre-Fractionator as its feed temperature
increases
Greater flexibility and safety in the Tempered Water System.
Monetary benefit of Rs.3.51 Cr./Yr

(3). Routing of Stabilized Naphtha from DHDT to AVU:


The Naphtha from DHDT is having high end point and low octane, thus limiting
its blending in the MS pool. In order to utilize this naphtha effectively, it is
proposed to process this stream in AVU. The existing Wild Naphtha line from
DHDS has been used to route stabilized naphtha from DHDT to AVU.
Provisions has been made in 2005 shutdown for routing the Stabilized Naphtha
to 11-V-2 by means of a hook-up in condensate drain line from 11V10.
with the top reflux of 11-C-1 at the D/S of reflux control valve 11-FRC-14.

The total quantity of the Naphtha is expected to be maximum of 9-10 m3/hr @


45 C which shall not pose any problem for the control of top temperature.

171

LEARNING
I have gained knowledge by this training in various aspects as
an engineer can, as I had firsthand experience in Indian Oil
Corporation Limited.
Training here, has enhanced my cognition, as the employees
have explained, with commitment, all the doubts and questions
arose in my mind. Here, I saw furnace with great detail, looking
into its interiors and its intricate design, which is the backbone
to the Oil industry. I also had opportunity to see the
maintenance of the same which enabled me and gave me
broader view of what might be happening inside when the
furnace in on-line.
I deftly grabbed the chance to see industrial compressors,
pumps and valves, their working and importance in the units,
with the help of the noble employees of IOCL. This chance
thrown at me, was a boon as I had only seen and read about all
the equipments used in industry, which now, I am able to
distinguish well enough. This was not possible with the bookish
knowledge.
I heartily thank all the employees of IOCL to have helped me in
my training.

172