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Anda di halaman 1dari 6

Linear Parameter-Varying Approach

Qiugang Lu1 , Lixian Zhang2 , Peng Shi3 , and Hamid Reza Karimi1

with dramatic parameter variations and large flight range,

a class of LPV modeling and control methodologies for

the hypersonic vehicles have been developed. For example,

[6] proposes a LPV framework, in which the structural

dynamics are represented with dependency on operating

parameters as a set of state-space matrices that are affine

functions of those parameters. For the over-actuated issue,

in [7], the controller design is given for the longitudinal

LPV model of the hypersonic vehicle to enforce an ideal

behavior in the presence of redundant actuation. Moreover,

with respect to large parameter variation and flight envelope,

some literature using switching-relevant techniques have also

been reported, refer to [3]. Recently, the switched LPV

approach has also been proposed with applications to such

as F-16 aircraft system [8], active magnetic bearing system

[9], and missile autopilot system [10]. However, surprisingly,

in the hypersonic vehicle regime, the utilization of switched

LPV technique still remains open, which inspires the study

in this paper. As far as the switching logic is concerned, the

typical average dwell time (ADT) switching logic has been

widely investigated [11] but revealed conservative, a more

flexible switching strategy called mode-dependent average

dwell time (MDADT) has been created in [12].

This paper mainly addresses the switched LPV system

modeling and controllers design for the hypersonic vehicle

under the ADT and MDADT switching logics. In Section II,

the detailed procedures to convert the nonlinear system of

the hypersonic vehicle into switched LPV system are thoroughly demonstrated. In section III, in the former part, some

necessary preparations for further derivation are illustrated.

Afterwards, the stability criterion and controllers design

approaches under the frameworks of ADT and MDADT are

explored respectively, which are expressed in the form of

linear matrix inequalities. The nonlinear simulations for the

switched LPV model of the hypersonic vehicle are conducted

under the ADT and MDADT switching logics in Section IV.

The conclusions of this paper are given in Section V.

of the air-breathing hypersonic vehicle using switched linear

parameter-varying (LPV) systems approach. By linearizing the

nonlinear model of the hypersonic vehicle at trim points and

dividing the velocity scope into several partitions, a switched

LPV model for the underlying systems is derived. With aid

of multiple Lyapunov-like functions technique, the controllers

ensuring the tracking of given commands of the closed-loop

system are designed under the mode-independent and modedependent switching logics, respectively. Simulation results for

the hypersonic vehicle show the effectiveness of the proposed

method and the advantages of the mode-dependent switching

logic.

Index Terms Average dwell time; Hypersonic vehicle;

Mode-dependent average dwell time

I. I NTRODUCTION

The air-breathing hypersonic vehicles have received extensive attention in the world during the past decades.

However, the control of hypersonic vehicles is considerably

challenging due to the strong parameter coupling, large

modeling uncertainty and the slender geometries required

for the aircraft [1]. To overcome such impediments, the

longitudinal dynamic equations including rigid and flexible

models are widely utilized to address the control problems of

the hypersonic vehicles [2]. In practice, for convenience, the

rigid longitudinal models are more frequently employed to

verify the control methodologies although they are relatively

simplified.

The characterized dramatic parameter variations and wide

velocity scope of the hypersonic vehicles render their stability and dynamic performance different from other aircrafts.

With such properties, the hypersonic vehicle aircrafts are

sensitive to the flight condition changes and it is difficult

to measure and estimate the aerodynamic characteristics. To

solve such problems, numerous effective control strategies

have emerged in the recent literature, refer to [3] and [4] for

the flexible and rigid model of the hypersonic vehicles.

Besides, the LPV system has drawn considerable attention

in the past decade [5]. Because of its merits in dealing

1 Qiugang

Lu and Hamid Reza Karimi are with the Department of Engineering, University of Agder, N-4898 Grimstad, Norway

The switched LPV model for the rigid longitudinal dynamics of the hypersonic vehicle is presented in this section.

Firstly, we need choose the scheduling parameters and divide the scope of the scheduling variables into partitions.

Secondly, in each partition zone, we need to select and

calculate the set point so as to achieve the LPV local

model of the hypersonic vehicle in this partition. Thirdly,

via Jacobian linearization method and tensor-product (TP)

model transformation approach, we can achieve the local

qiugang.lu@uia.no, hamid.r.karimi@uia.no

2 Lixian Zhang is with the Space Control and Inertial Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang

Province, P.R.China lixianzhang@hit.edu.cn

3 Peng Shi is with the Department of Computing and Mathematical

Sciences, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL, U.K., with

the School of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne,

Vic. 8001, Australia, and also with the School of Mathematics and

Statistics, University of South Australia, Adelaide, S.A. 5001, Australia

pshi@glam.ac.uk

670

all the local LPV models using the switching signal, which

is determined by the scheduling parameters, we can obtain

the overall switched LPV model of the hypersonic vehicle.

The hypersonic vehicle model considered in this paper is

developed by [13] and [14]. TH , DH , LH , GH are trust,

drag, left, graviton force, respectively. The rigid nonlinear

longitudinal model of a generic hypersonic vehicle can be

described as follows [4], [15],

model of the hypersonic vehicle is described as (3),

x(t)

(3)

y(t) = C(t) (VH , h)x(t) + D(t) (VH , h)u(t)

where x = [ VH h H q ]T is the state vector, y =

[ VH h ]T is the output vector, u = [ e ]T denotes

the control input of the system.

In this paper, we consider the tracking control of hypersonic vehicle. The reference signal is chosen as r(t) =

[ Vr hr ]T , and the actual output is y(t) = [ Vt ht ]T .

The tracking problem can be addressed by state-feedback

controllers such that the output of the closed-loop system

could track the given reference signal,

TH cos H DH

sin

f1 = V H =

E

m

(RE + h)2

LH + TH sin H

E cos

VH cos

f2 = =

+

2

mVH

VH (RE + h)

RE + h

f3 = h = VH sin

(1)

f4 = H = q

Myy

f5 = q =

Iyy

Z t

xe =

[y( ) r( )] d

0

velocity, flight path angle, altitude, angle of attack and

pitch rate, respectively. E , m, RE , Iyy are, respectively,

gravitational constant, mass, radius of the earth and y-axis

inertia. The coefficients can be expressed as

x a (t) = A(t) (VH , h)xa (t) + B

+B1 r(t)

(4)

where xa (t)

= [ x(t) xe ]T , A(t) (VH , h) =

A(t) (VH , h) 0

(t) (VH , h) = B(t) (VH , h) ,

,B

C(t) (VH , h) 0

0

Based on TP transformation [17], the LPV augmented

model (4) of the hypersonic vehicle can be rewritten as

x a (t)

xa (t)

B1

= SN

A

(p

(t))

+

r(t)

n

(t)n

n=1

y(t)

u(t)

0

(5)

where row vector A(t)n RIn (n = 1, 2, ..., N , N

is the dimension of the parameter vector p(t)) contains

one bounded variable and continuous weighting function

(t),n,in (pn ) (in = 1, 2, ..., In ), In is the number of the

weight function used in the ndimension of the parameter

vector p(t). S RI1 I2 IN OI is constructed from the

linear time-invariant (LTI) vertex systems Si1 i2 iN ROI

and p(t) P = [VH min ,VH max ] [hmin , hmax ].

From (5), the augmented switched LPV system (4) can be

transformed into the following polytopic form:

x a (t) =

(t),i (t) A(t),i xa (t) + B(t),i u(t)

i=1

+ B1 r(t)

(6)

y(t) = P

(t)C

x (t)

LH = 0.50 VH2 SH CL

DH = 0.50 VH2 SH CD

TH = 0.50 VH2 SH CT

Myy = 0.50 VH2 SH cCM

where LH , DH , TH , Myy are lift, drag, thrust and pitching

moment, 0 is the density of air. The aerodynamic coefficients and thrust coefficients which are the functions of Ma

(Ma = VH /a, a is the speed of sound), angle of attack (H ),

fuel rate () and pitch control surface ( e ) are provided in

[4] and [16].

We choose the velocity (VH ) and altitude (h) as the

scheduling variables, since velocity and altitude are the

main concerns in the flight of the hypersonic vehicle, p =

[ VH h ]T . Then we divide the velocity scope into three

partitions [7500, 8500], [8500, 9000], [9000, 9500]. In each

partition, the LPV model can be written as the following

form by Jacobian linearization method:

x = A(VH , h)x + B(VH , h)u

where x = [ VH h H q ]T , u =

[ e ]T . The specific expression of elements of matrices A(VH , h), B(VH , h) and C(VH , h) are omitted here.

The LPV model in the (t)-th partition zone is formulated

as

x = A(t) (p(t))x + B(t) (p(t))u

(2)

where

Ps

i=1

i=1

(t),i

(t),i a

(t),i (t) = 1, s =

Q

n

In = 2N .

S WITCHING L OGICS

In this section, the switched controllers design methodologies are given for the general switched LPV systems under

the frameworks of ADT and MDADT respectively, which

are expressed in the form of linear matrix inequalities.

the system between subsystems and I is the set comprised

of all subsystems. (t) is determined by the parameter

vector p(t). In this paper, the velocity VH is the parameter

determining the switching sequence of the switched LPV

671

TABLE I

T RIM CONDITION

1

2

3

h

90000 ft

90000 ft

90000 ft

VH

7500 ft/s

8700 ft/s

9500 ft/s

0

0

0

H

3.6262

2.7424

2.3044

q

0

0

0

0.2919

0.2169

0.1947

0 < i < 1, i 1 and > 0 be given constants. Suppose

there exist positive definite C1 functions V(t) : Rn R,

(t) I, with zero initial condition V(t0 ) = 0 such that

(i, j) I I, i 6= j, Vi (x(t)) i Vj (x(t)), i I.

Denoting (t) = y T y 2 wT w

V i (x(t)) + (t) i Vi (x(t))

(16)

e

5.1795

2.3033

1.2777

MDADT

ln i

ai ai =

(17)

i

with weighted L2 -gain

Z

Z

max ( t0 )

T

e

y( ) y( )d

2 w( )T w( )d

A. Preliminaries

Definition 1: [18] For a switching signal (t), (t) I,

and each t2 t1 0, let N (t2 , t1 ) denote the number of

discontinuities of (t) in the open interval (t1 , t2 ). We say

that (t) has an average dwell time a if there exist two

positive numbers N0 (we call N0 the chattering bound here)

and a such that

where =

N (t2 , t1 ) N0 + (t2 t1 )/ a , t2 t1 0

(7)

Definition 2: [12] For a switching signal (t), (t) I,

and any T t 0, let N(t)i (t, T ) be the switching

numbers of the ith subsystem activated during the interval

[t, T ], Ti (t, T ) is the total running time of the ith subsystem

in [t, T ], and i I. We say that (t) has a modedependent average dwell time ai , if there exist positive

mode-dependent chattering bounds N0i and ai such that

the following inequality is satisfied

N(t)i (t, T ) N0i + Ti (t, T )/ ai , T t 0

Definition 3: For > 0, > 0, system

y = h(t) (x(t), w(t))

(t) I

the

continuous-time

max

(18)

= max{i }, min =

iI

from Lemma 1, we can easily prove that if (17) holds,

the GUAS of (9) can be guaranteed. Now we turn to the

case w(t) 6= 0, integrating both sides of (16), and from

Vi (x(t)) i Vj (x(t)), we can get

V (t)

(9)

Z ti

Z t

ei1 (ti ) ( )d

ei (t ) ( )d

ei (t ) ( )d

ti

ti1

Z t1

i i1 1

ei (tti ) e0 (t1 ) ( )d

t

Z 0t2

i i1 2

ei (tti ) e1 (t2 ) ( )d

t1

Z t

ei (t ) ( )d

ti

(11)

V i (x(t)) i Vi (x(t))

(13)

ti

nonlinear

(12)

Z t1

i i1 1

ei (tti ) e0 (t1 ) y yd

t0

Z t2

ei (tti ) e1 (t2 ) y yd

+ i i1 2

t1

Z t

i (tti )

e

y yd

+ +

ti

Z t1

ei (tti ) e0 (t1 ) 2 wT wd

i i1 1

t0

Z t2

ei (tti ) e1 (t2 ) 2 wT wd

+ i i1 2

t1

Z t

+ +

ei (tti ) 2 wT wd

and ((t) = i, (t ) = j) I I, i 6= j,

(14)

ln i

i

N0i

,

iI i

(8)

ai ai =

max

min

iI

there exist positive definite C1 functions V(t) : Rn R,

(t) I, and two class K functions 1i , 2i , i I such

that i I

Vi (x(t)) i Vj (x(t))

min{i }.

(GUAS) with weighted L2 -gain no greater than if under

zero initial condition, system (9) is GUAS and the following

inequality holds for all nonzero w(t) L2 [0, +)

Z

Z

s

T

e y(s) y(s)ds

2 w(s)T w(s)ds

(10)

Lemma 1: Consider

switched system

(15)

ti

672

It is easy to get

Z t

t0

t

B. Controllers Design

emax (t )

emin (t )

t

Z 0t

iI

t0

emax (t )

x(t)

+ E(t) ((t))w(t)

z(t) = C(t) ((t))x(t) + D(t) ((t))u(t)

+ F(t) ((t))w(t)

Ni ( ,t) T

iI

y yd

Ni ( ,t) 2

Y

iI

wT wd

Ni (t0 , ) T

y yd

z(t) Rnz is the controlled output, u(t) Rnu is the

control input. The system matrices are parameter-dependent

matrices of compatible dimensions of time-varying parameter (t) = [ 1 (t) 2 (t) N (t) ]T RN . To

proceed, we make the following assumptions:

1) The state-space matrices are continuous and bounded

functions and depend affinely on time-varying parameter

(t).

2) The parameter (t) is measurable online and varies in

a polytopic :

emin (t ) 2 wT wd

t0

Ti (t0 , )i

ln i

Hence, the following inequality can be obtained

Z t

emax (t ) emax ( t0 ) y T yd

t0

Z t

Y

0i

N

emin (t ) 2 wT wd

i

Ni (t0 , ) N0i

iI

(t)

t0

Z Z t

emax (t ) emax ( t0 ) y( )T y( )d dt

t=t0 =t0

Z Z t

Y

0i

N

emin (t ) 2 w( )T w( )d dt

i

iI

t=t0

i=1

switching controllers

t=

which is equivalent to

Z

emax ( t0 ) y( )T y( )d

t0

Z

max Y

N0i

2 w( )T w( )d

iI i

min

t0

K(t) ((t)) =

where =

(21)

system (22) and let 0 < i < 1, i I, > 0 and i > 1, i

I, be given constants. It is assumed that all the system matrices belong to the convex hull, (Aiz , Biz , Ciz , Diz , Eiz , Fiz )

are the vertices of the ith subsystem, z z := {1, 2, ..., s}.

If there exist matrices Si > 0 and Uiz , i I, z z, such

that (i, j) I I, Si i Sj , the following linear matrix

inequalities are satisfied

Eiz

I

Fiz < 0

(23)

2I

Remark 1: Lemma 2 presents the weighted L2 -gain of

a general nonlinear switched system under the MDADT

switching signals. From the derivation process, it is straightforward that the weighted L2 -gain under the ADT switching

logic can be obtained by letting max = min = 0 .

Therefore, the weighted L2 -gain for the general nonlinear

switched system can be written in the following form if

corresponding conditions similar to Lemma 2 are satisfied,

Z

Z

e0 ( t0 ) y( )T y( )d

2 w( )T w( )d

p

(t),i (t)K(t),i

exponentially stable with specified L2 -gain ,

x(t)

(22)

z(t) = C(t) ((t))x(t) + F(t) ((t))w(t)

t0

s

X

i=1

i.e.,

Z

Z

max ( t0 )

T

e

y( ) y( )d

2 w( )T w( )d

t0

( s

)

X

N

=

(t),i (t) = 1, s = 2

expressed as:

C(t) ((t)) D(t) ((t)) F(t) ((t))

s

X

A(t),i B(t),i E(t),i

=

(t),i (t)

C(t),i D(t),i F(t),i

=t0

=t0

i=1

Z

Z

emax ( t0 ) y( )T y( )d

emax (t ) dt

=t0

t=

Z

Z

Y

N0i

2

T

i

w( ) w( )d

emin (t ) dt

iI

(20)

(19)

N0 .

673

can guarantee the switched LPV system to be GUAS with a

weighted L2 -gain in the form of (18) under the MDADT

switching signal

9200

Cmd

ADT

MDADT

9100

9000

ai ai

Velocity(ft/s)

8900

ln i

=

i

(24)

8700

8600

(25)

Theorem 2: (ADT case) Consider the switched LPV system (22) and let 0 < 0 < 1, > 0 and > 1 be

given constants. It is assumed that all the system matrices

belong to the convex hull, (Aiz , Biz , Ciz , Diz , Eiz , Fiz ) are

the vertices of the ith subsystem, z z. If there exist

matrices Si > 0 and Uiz , i I, z z, such that

(i, j) I I, Si Sj , the following linear matrix

inequalities are satisfied

Eiz

I

Fiz < 0

(26)

2I

8500

8400

8300

Fig. 1.

logics

10

15

20

Time(s)

25

30

35

40

9.5

x 10

Cmd

ADT

MDADT

9.4

9.3

Altitude(ft)

9.2

9.1

9

8.9

8.8

can guarantee the switched LPV system to be GUAS with

a weighted L2 -gain in the form of (19) under the ADT

switching signal

ln

a a =

(27)

0

8.7

8.6

8.5

10

15

20

Time(s)

25

30

35

40

Fig. 2. The altitude response of the system under ADT and MDADT

switching logics

Kiz = Uiz Si1

8800

(28)

back and forth with its ADT or MDADT satisfying the

requirements of Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 (note that this

command may seem impractical, but it is difficult enough

to test our approach, since actually, the switching behavior is

much more smooth than this constructed command signal).

The command of altitude is chosen as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 1 shows the nonlinear responses of the hypersonic

vehicle aircraft under the command input. The solid line

is the command input. The dash line stands for the output

trajectory under the ADT switching logic, while the dot

line shows the velocity response under MDADT switching

logic. Both the two tracking performances are acceptable

over the entire time range. However, there is still difference

between the response curves. From Fig. 1, it can be observed

that the velocity response of MDADT switching logic is

faster than that of the ADT switching logic, which indicates

that the MDADT switching logic outperforms the ADT in

achieving the transient performance. Fig. 2 is the altitude

tracking responses of the two switching logics. The response

under MDADT framework is better than that under ADT

framework. It should be pointed out that both the tracking

responses are acceptable. Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 display the fuel

rate and the actuator inputs respectively. Note that the control

Based on the established switched LPV model of the rigid

longitudinal dynamics of the hypersonic vehicle in Section

II and the theorems proposed in Section III, the following

simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the

former results. In this section, the flight envelop is chosen

as VH [8000, 9500] and altitude h [85000, 95000], and

the velocity scope is divided into three partitions. The trim

conditions are illustrated in Table 1. For the ADT framework,

0 = 0.1, = 1.01, and for the MDADT framework, =

[ 0.1 0.11 0.12 ], = [ 1.01 1.01 1.01 ]. By solving

the LMIs (23)-(25) and (26)-(28), respectively, we can obtain

the controller gains. Via Theorem 1, for the MDADT case,

we have a1 = 2.7763 s, a2 = 2.5239 s, a3 = 2.3136 s.

From Theorem 2, we can get a = 2.7763 s.

Next, we mainly focus on the simulations of switched LPV

model of the hypersonic vehicle under ADT and MDADT

switching logics. To test the tracking performance of the

closed-loop nonlinear system of the hypersonic vehicle, a

velocity command input is constructed as the solid line in

Fig. 1. To fulfill the command tracking and illustrate the

effectiveness of the controllers, we employ similar techniques

as in [8]. In particular, the trajectory of the command is

674

NORCOWE is a consortium with partners from industry and

science, hosted by Christian Michelsen Research.

1

ADT

MDADT

fuel rate

0.8

0.6

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0.4

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0.2

0.2

0.4

10

15

20

Time(s)

25

30

35

40

The fuel rate input under ADT and MDADT switching logics

Fig. 3.

15

ADT

10

5

0

5

10

15

10

15

20

Time(s)

25

30

20

35

40

MDADT

10

0

10

20

0

10

15

20

Time(s)

25

30

35

40

Fig. 4. The pitch control surface deflection under ADT and MDADT

switching logics

peaks when switchings happen, since the command input

has a steep change at switching time point. It is easy to find

that the larger change of command velocity input implies the

larger control input.

V. C ONCLUSION

This paper explored the controller design problem for

the switched LPV model of the hypersonic vehicle under

the frameworks of ADT and MDADT switching logics. By

Jacobian linearization and TP transformation, the switched

LPV model was obtained to cope with this problem. With

regard to this switched LPV system, the controllers design

approaches under both ADT and MDADT switching logics

were given through linear matrix inequalities. By comparison, the MDADT logic had an advantage of more flexibility

in manipulating than the ADT switching logic. Finally, the

nonlinear simulation of hypersonic vehicle system was given

to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed ADT

and MDADT controllers design method, respectively, and the

merits of the MDADT switching logics.

VI. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was partially supported by the Norwegian

Center of Offshore Wind Energy (NORCOWE) under grant

675

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