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Power System Automation Lab

Overcurrent Protection for the


IEEE 34 Node Radial Test Feeder
Hamed B. Funmilayo, James A. Silva and
Dr. Karen L. Butler-Purry
Texas A&M University
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

Introduction
Major use of the benchmark radial test
feeders -- provide load-flow data for validating
load-flow results from existing/novel loadflow algorithms
Extend Current IEEE 34 node test feeder
Provide overcurrent protection, considering offthe-shelf protective devices
Make available for studies under new scenarios
(such as DG impact)

Work Reported in This Paper


Model of Test feeder in DIgSILENT
PowerFactory 13.1 and conduct LF and
SC studies
Coordination studies for temporary and
permanent faults for various fault
situations
Select OCP devices for the test feeder

IEEE 34 Node Radial Test Feeder

Developed by DSA Subcommittee


Majority at 24.9 kV (one 4.16kV lateral)
Total load: 2060 kVA at 0.86 pf
Long, unbalanced radial system

IEEE 34-Node Test Feeder system (modified from [1])


[1] Radial Test Feeders - IEEE Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee

Over Current Protective Devices


Modeled in DIgSILENT
1 recloser, 12 fuses
Fuse saving for fuses 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11

Maximum and Minimum Fault Currents


Comparison of Maximum Fault
Current to IEEE TF Results

Comparison of Minimum Fault


Current to IEEE TF Results

Faulted

IEEE*

DIgSILENT

DIgSILENT

Faulted

IEEE*

DIgSILENT

DIgSILENT

Node
800

(A)
718.60

(A)

% Error

678.60

5.57

Node
800

(A)
479.30

(A)
459.00

% Error
4.24

808

526.50

510.20

3.10

808

309.40

322.26

4.16

816

335.40

329.94

1.63

816

213.50

205.49

3.75

824

313.00

310.50

0.80

824

195.10

194.06

0.53

854

272.90

276.40

1.28

854

175.90

173.68

1.26

832

223.10

217.70

2.42

832

146.20

140.55

3.86

858

217.70

213.30

2.02

858

143.00

138.06

3.45

834

211.30

208.40

1.37

834

139.30

135.19

2.95

836

206.90

204.40

1.21

836

136.50

132.71

2.78

840

206.10

203.61

1.21

840

136.00

132.27

2.74

890

406.50

440.10

8.27

890

94.10

87.94

6.55

Recloser and Fuses Types


Recloser
Recloser's coordination range must provide adequate time to sense all
downstream faults.
Fuse Saving mode used
A triple single-phase electronic recloser was used

Load side fuses


Similar types of fuse links were selected for all branches within the
same nominal current range
Voltage rating equal to or higher than the maximum bus voltage at the
fuse location
Interrupting current rating larger than the maximum symmetrical fault
current at the fuse location
Type K, T and X expulsion fuse links

Step Down Transformer (XMF-1) Fusing


A type T external expulsion cutout on the primary side
The voltage rating equal to or greater than the voltage at transformer's
location
The ampere rating equal to or greater than the anticipated normal
loading level
The symmetrical short-circuit interrupting rating equal to or greater
than the maximum fault current

Be able to withstand the inrush current generated when


transformer is energized
Be able to protect against transformer faults and secondary
side faults (through faults)
Serve as backup device by coordinating with the OCP device
downstream of the lateral

Capacitor Bank Fusing


Group fusing method is used. (One fuse
protects the capacitor bank)
Promptly isolate the failed capacitor unit on
the line prior to any other protective device
on the system
1-phase grounded fault current without fault
impedance is assumed as the capacitor fault
value.

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Settings for Recloser and Load Side Fuses


Recloser Settings
No. of Instantaneous Trips

No. of Delay Trips

Nominal Voltage

14.4 kV, L-N

Minimum trip rating

100 A

Minimum Fault Current Observed at the Recloser


For The Minimum Fault At Each Lateral
Recloser

Faulted

Lateral

If recloser (A)

Node
800
800

Node
810

number
1

DIgSILENT
321.79

822

168.90

800

826

218.89

Instantaneous trip curve type

103

800

856

179.82

Delay trip curve type

134

800

888

61.08

800

864

126.36

800

848

165.82

800

838

166.88

800

Cap- 844

167.93

800

Cap- 848
840

165.82

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165.88

Load Side Fuse Settings


Nominal Voltage Rating
Nominal Current Rating of Each
Fuse

24.9 kV, L-L or


4.16 kV, L-L
Based on each
branchs current

800

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Coordination Studies
Two terms for OCP operation
Primary device
Near to the fault and first to clear the fault

Secondary (backup device)


Backup of the primary device

Coordination between recloser and fuse


For temporary fault, K factor is used
For permanent fault, fuse operates prior to reclosers delay trip

Coordination between fuse and fuse


Max clearing time of primary fuse will not exceed 0.75 times the
minimum melting time of the secondary fuse

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Fault Case Studies

Fault on main feeder


Fault on ordinary laterals
Fault on laterals with reactive compensation
Faults on laterals with step-down transformer

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Fault on ordinary laterals


Recloser operates on its
instantaneous trip for
temporary fault
For permanent fault,
fuse operates to clear
the fault and isolates the
lateral

Delayed curve of recloser (backup)

Fuse melting time


Instantaneous trip of recloser
Recloser-Fuse coordination for min fault at 810

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Discussion of Results
RECLOSER-FUSE COORDINATION TIME INTERVALS FROM DIGSILENT

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OPD List for the Test Feeder

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Summary/Conclusions
A conventional overcurrent protection and
coordination scheme was implemented on IEEE 34
Node Test Feeder computer model in DIgSILENT
The final list of selected OCP was provided
Coordination was achieved for different cases
This may be used for easy comparison and
assessment of future overcurrent protection studies
regarding radial distribution system with or without
additions such as DG

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Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank F. J. Verdeja
Perez, J. Mendoza, S. Duttagupta, M. Marotti,
K. Mansfield, T. Djokic, and H. E. Leon for their
contributions, along with the assistance of
Prof. W. H. Kersting.
This work was supported in part by the U.S.
National Science Foundation under Grant ECS02-18309.
Paper no. TPWRD-00792-2007.

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Contact information:
Dr. Karen L. Butler-Purry
Email: klbutler@tamu.edu