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Executive Summary

Autorickshaws, which qualify as a paratransit mode of transport, are one of the


most popular modes of public transport in India. They stand incomparable in their
segment of providing door-to door transportation and last-mile connectivity at an
affordable cost to a major chunk of the Indian population. In spite of the existence
of buses and trains, connectivity remains an unresolved issue, due to the
underdeveloped feeder system. Thus, there is a strong rationale to emphasize upon
paratransit modes of transport, such as autorickshaws, which can provide the
missing link.

In addition to the basic problems of livelihood of autorickshaw drivers, other


problems like availability of parking spaces, autorickshaw stands and LPG stations
need to be dealt with. They need to be provided formal training and knowledge
about driving rules, so that they can save money spent on fines and penalties. The
government needs to seriously consider revamping the image of autorickshaws and
educating people about its role in daily life and mobility. Autorickshaw drivers are
a crucial sect of the community and the government must provide them with a
sense of security by not only indexing their income by constant revision of fares,
but also by providing benefits in the form of medical insurance, vehicle insurance
and educational scholarships.

Promoting autorickshaws in a city remains a key part of developing a sustainable


well-connected public transport system and discouraging the growth of private
modes of transport. In this scenario, it is critical to reassess the role of

autorickshaws in the urban transportation landscape, considering its smaller,


befitting size and unchartered ability to provide connectivity.

Chapter 1
Introduction
Auto rickshaws are a common means of public transportation in many countries in
the world. Also known as a three-wheeler, Samosa, tempo, tuk-tuk, trishaw,
Scooter, autorick, bajaj, rick, tricycle, mototaxi, baby taxi or lapa in popular
parlance, an auto rickshaw is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use
and as a vehicle for hire. It is a motorized version of the traditional pulled rickshaw
or cycle rickshaw. Auto rickshaws are an essential form of urban transport in many
developing countries, and a form of novelty transport in many developed countries.
However, in some parts of Europe they remain an essential mode of transportation,
notably Italy's.

It is the world's largest manufacturer of 3-wheelers and accounts for almost 84% of
Indias three-wheeler exports. During the FY 2012-13, it sold approx. 480,000
three-wheelers which was 57% of the total market share in India. Out of these
480,000 three-wheelers, 53% were exported and remaining 47% were sold in
India.

An auto rickshaw is generally characterized by a sheet-metal body or open frame


resting on three wheels, a canvas roof with drop-down sides, a small cabin in the
front of the vehicle for the driver, and seating space for up to three passengers in
the rear. Newer models are generally fitted with a compressed natural gas (CNG)
fuel scooter version of a 200 cc four-stroke engine, with handlebar controls instead
of a steering wheel

The auto is a 'small hybrid motorised three-wheeled, three-seater (in addition to


driver), low floor vehicle with a 'contract carriage' permit. Given their compact
size, autos are less space occupying than the four - wheeled taxis (motor and maxi
cabs). Recent figures reveal that the number of autos registered in the city is more
than double that of all taxis. Autos are also in far greater demand and used on a
more regular basis in comparison to taxis, that are used more 'on occasion' and
typically for travelling longer distances or when required to carry more passengers
or luggage. They largely cater to visitors to the city and the more affluent sections
of society. Whereas autos function more like 'the common man's taxi', catering to
the substantially much larger middle/upper middle income groups, with travelling
costs that are currently about 50% cheaper than the basic non-AC taxi, and with
practically negligible waiting charges.

Today, autos are an indispensible component of urban mobility for scores of people
in our cities. But despite its significant contribution in catering to public transport
needs, there has been little by way of in-depth research and consolidated efforts in
trying to effectively understand and improve the auto rickshaw sector.

Chapter 2
Indian Automobile Industry Overview
A total of of 2,968,201 vehicles were sold in India during the first two months of
the financial year 2013-14, thus registering a feeble decrease of 0.64% as against
same period of 2012-13. The sales stood at 2,987,438 in April-May for 2012.
One of the key highlights of the year so far is the dip in sales of LCV Trucks by
2.38% as against the previous year. Slight growths were registered in two and
three wheelers while the other segments posted declines. In terms of production
two wheeler production increases by 18.10%, while passenger vehicle segment
decreases by 10.25%. The two wheeler export segment is forced down to 16.50%
due to weak demands while commercial vehicle suffered further blow as their
exports decreased by 19.47%
The recent fall of Rupee against Dollar, the increase in price for crude oil and fear
of inflation will install bigger hurdles to the Indian automobile industry in the
coming months.

For the period April-May 2013, the two and three wheeler segments show slight
growths while passenger vehicle segment decades by 8.56% in comparison with
the same period last year. The turmoil of commercial vehicle segment continues as
they slips at a negative 5.28 at the periodic year-to-year comparison.

Two Wheelers hold 79% of the total automobile sales during the period April-May
2013 and passenger vehicle takes up 15% of sales share for the same.
Production : April May FY 2013-14

So far in this financial year, a total of 3,422,144 vehicles were produced which is
3.14% less than what was during the same period in 2012. The production of three
wheelers had increased by 18.10% and commercial vehicles by 6.64%. Meanwhile
there is a decline in the production of passenger vehicles during the April-May
period of 2013 as against the same period 2012. Two wheeler production has also
decreased by 2.97%.
Export : April May FY 2013-14

There is an 8.62% decline in cumulative exports of vehicles from India in April to


May 2013, as against the same period last year. Notable the three wheeler exports
are on the up with a 26.53% increase during this financial year so far against the
same period in 2012. Passer vehicle exports has also increased by 7.34% this
financial year so far, as against April-May 2012. Commercial Vehicle exports had
declined by 19.47% while two wheelers suffered a decline of 16.50% in April-May
period for 2013, as against same period 2012.
Three Wheeler Segment : April May FY 2013-14

The sales of three wheelers saw a feeble growth of 1.47% in April-May 2013
against April-May 2012. Both passenger carrier and goods carriers has registered
similar growth of 1.48% and 1.44% respectively during the April-May 2013 as
against April-May 2012.
The IIP stumbles to a discouraging 2% in April and the rate of Rupee against dollar
became weak. Somehow there is a relief as Fitch Ratings has revised Indias
Outlook to Stable from Negative and affirmed its Long-Term Foreign- and LocalCurrency Issuer Default Ratings (IDRs) at BBB-. And even better as the inflation
has come down. A much more boost has be provided in the form of timely arrival
of monsoon this term. This had already set off the tractor sales in a good mode.
ACG forecast that encouraged by these positive factors, the GDP may reach
between 5.5 6 percentages during the fiscal year 2013-14.
India Three Wheeler Market to Grow at Over 5% CAGR during 2014-19
India is the world's largest consumer and exporter of three wheelers across the
globe. Over the last decade, India's three wheeler industry has been exhibiting
consistent growth in both domestic sales as well as exports. Sri Lanka, Bangladesh,

Egypt, Nigeria, Tanzania, Kenya, Ghana, Guatemala, Sudan, Botswana and Nepal
are the key export destinations for the country's three wheeler industry. However,
over the last few years, the three wheelers market in India has been facing
increasing competition from light commercial vehicles (LCVs), Electric Rickshaws
and Quadricycle products such as Bajaj RE.
"India Three Wheeler Market Forecast & Opportunities, 2019", a research study
on India's three wheeler industry by TechSci Research, has concluded that the
country's three wheeler market is projected to grow at a CAGR of over 5% during
2014-19. Rising demand for cheap and convenient public conveyance in the
country's rural and semi urban areas and increasing number of permits being issued
by state governments across the country are playing a major role in driving the
three wheeler market in India. Moreover, establishment of new CNG filling station
in semi urban and rural areas and inception of new engine and fuel technologies
are expected to further boost three wheeler market over the next five years.
India's three wheeler market is categorized into passenger carrier and load carrier
three wheelers. Passenger carrier three wheelers are used for public conveyance,
while load carrier three wheelers are used for carrying goods and materials over
short and medium distances. The demand for passenger carrier three wheelers
exceeds that of load carrier three wheelers in domestic as well as export markets.
"Passenger carrier segment accounted for majority of the three wheelers exports in
2013. Maximum demand for three wheelers outside India arises from under
developed countries of Africa and South America. Inadequate availability of public
transportation, underdeveloped logistic infrastructure, low per capita income and
increasing unemployment are the key factors that contribute to increasing adoption
of three wheelers in African countries. Consequently, a number of major Indiabased three wheeler manufacturers are targeting African countries for boosting

their exports. Moreover, domestic three wheeler market is likely to grow on


account of anticipated demand increase in rural and semi urban regions of India
over the next five years".
"India Three Wheeler Market Forecast & Opportunities, 2019" has evaluated the
future growth potential of the India's three wheeler industry and provides statistics
and information on market structure and future growth. The report is intended to
provide cutting-edge market intelligence and help decision makers to take sound
investment evaluation. Besides, the report also identifies and analyzes the
emerging trends along with essential drivers, challenges and opportunities
available in India's three wheeler industry.

Chapter 3
Company Profile

Bajaj Auto Limited is an Indian two-wheeler and three-wheeler manufacturing


company. Bajaj Auto manufactures and sells motorcycles, scooters and auto
rickshaws. Bajaj Auto is a part of the Bajaj Group. It was founded by Jamnalal
Bajaj in Rajasthan in the 1930s. It is based in Pune, Mumbai, with plants in
Chakan (Pune), Waluj (near Aurangabad) and Pantnagar in Uttarakhand. The
oldest plant at Akurdi (Pune) now houses the R&D centre 'Ahead'.

Bajaj Auto is the world's third-largest manufacturer of motorcycles and the secondlargest in India. It is the worlds largest three-wheeler manufacturer.

On 31 March 2013, its market capitalisation was INR 520 billion (US$9.57
billion), making it India's 23rd largest publicly traded company by market value.
The Forbes Global 2000 list for the year 2012 ranked Bajaj Auto at 1,416

Bajaj Auto Limited

Type
Industry

Public company
Automotive

Founders
Headquarters
Key people
Products
Revenue
Net income
Employees
Parent
Subsidiaries
Website

Jamnalal Bajaj
Pune, India
Rahul Bajaj (Chairman)
Rajiv Bajaj (MD)
Motorcycles, three-wheeler vehicles and cars
208 billion (US$3.4 billion) (2012-13)
42.77 billion (US$690 million) (2012-13)
8,036 (March 2013)
Bajaj Group
Bajaj Auto Indonesia
www.bajajauto.com

History
Bajaj Auto came into existence on 29 November 1945 as M/s Bachraj Trading
Corporation Private Limited. It started off by selling imported two- and threewheelers in India. In 1959, it obtained a licence from the Government of India to
manufacture two-wheelers and three-wheelers and it became a public limited
company in 1960. In 1970, it rolled out its 100,000th vehicle. In 1977, it sold
100,000 vehicles in a financial year. In 1985, it started producing at Waluj near
Aurangabad. In 1986, it sold 500,000 vehicles in a financial year. In 1995, it rolled
out its ten millionth vehicle and produced and sold one million vehicles in a year.
With the launch of motorcycles in 1986, the company has changed its image from a
scooter manufacturer to a two-wheeler manufacturer.

Product

Bajaj manufactures and sells motorcycles, scooters, auto-rickshaws and most


recently, cars. Bajaj Auto is Indias largest exporter of motorcycles and threewheelers. Bajaj Autos exports accounted for approx. 35% of its total sales. 47% of
its exports are made to Africa. Boxer motorcycle is the largest selling single brand
in Africa
Time line
1977 Rear engine autorickshaw
1997 Rear engine diesel autorickshaw
2007 RE GDi autorickshaw, was launched.

RE
All variants of our RE range of threewheeler products comprising small, medium
and large platforms and covering gasoline, gaseous and diesel engines have been
put through a complete upgrade. These products have been updated with much
better driver comfort through revised ergonomics, smart looks, improved engine
performance and revised gear ratios leading to excellent drivability and upto 15%
improvement in fuel economy.
DTSi technology has also been employed in the spark ignited engine versions,
while fivespeed gear box has been deployed in the diesel engine versions.

Chapter 4
Product Profile

Leading Brand
Bajaj RE is a name deeply inscribed in every Indian's heart. After all, it has been a
tried and trusted companion since 50 years. By being world's largest manufacturer
of 3 wheelers and the largest exporter of 3 wheelers in India, it has been the highest
employment generator. Other than India, the brand enjoys a strong presence across
36 countries

Bajaj RE offers an extensive product portfolio of vehicles, compatible with all fuel
types - Petrol, LPG, CNG, Diesel and for all categories - small, medium & big.
With such a wide range of products, Bajaj RE is continuously exploring new
dimensions to enhance its products and make public transportation easy.

Legacy
Since 1961 it has changed the way millions of Indians travel, touching their lives
every single day. Today Bajaj has over 50 lakh vehicles plying on Indian roads
empowering millions of families to earn their livelihood & "Respect " in the
society.

Mileage Auto Ricksha


At Bajaj RE we believe in manufacturing vehicles which deliver superior
performance. That's why our products give best in-class mileage, negligible
maintenance and come with service assurance. Also, our products are specially
made to keep the environment clean, which is why RE vehicles are lowest on
harmful emission in its category. All of these coupled with high income, makes RE
a stronger performer.

Types
(Petrol)
Features
Improved 2 stroke engine gives better mileage
Less expenses on fuel, which means more profit
New Skudo design gives more leg space
Comfortable seating position means less fatigue and more trips
Front indicators: Less chance of breakage during sharp turns Flush type rear
indicators: Prevents water from seeping in
Longer lasting stronger chassis
Improved 2 stroke engine means less expenses on maintenance

BEST IN CLASS MILEAGE


Improved 2 stroke Engine

ADVANTAGE
Gives better mileage and lesser maintenance costs
NEW & IMPROVED SKUDO DESIGNS
New & improved Skudo design
ADVANTAGE
More leg space for driver
STRONGER CHASSIS
Stronger chassis
ADVANTAGE
More load carrying capacity and enhanced durability
FRONT INDICATORS
Front Indicators & Flush type rear indicators
ADVANTAGE
Less chance of breakage during sharp turns & Prevents water from seeping
in
EASY MANEUVERABILITY
Easy maneuverability
ADVANTAGE
Drive swiftly with ease to the last point and in difficult traffic conditions
BEST IN CLASS WARRANTY
Best in class warranty
ADVANTAGE
Warranty - 120 days or 15000 km whichever comes first
HIGH RESALE VALUE
High resale value
ADVANTAGE
Recover good value for the vehicle. Encashable anytime anywhere

HIGHLY RELIABLE
Tried, tested and trusted over decades - NO problem vehicle
ADVANTAGE
No off road - No revenue loss
Specification
Power

6.6Kw@5000rpm

Torque

15.5 N.m@3300rpm

Cubic Capacity

145.45 cc

Transmission

4 forward + 1 reverse gear

Clutch

Wet multidisc type

Kerb weight

307 kg

Wheel Base

2000 mm

Overall width

1300 mm

Overall length

2635 mm

Overall Height

1692 mm

Grade ability

18%

Features

Improved 4 stroke DTSI engine gives better mileage


Less expenses on fuel which means more profit
New Skudo design gives more leg space
Comfortable seating positions means less fatigue and more trips
Front indicators: Less chance of breakage during sharp turns Flush type rear

indicators: Prevents water from seeping in


Longer lasting stronger chassis
More durable 4 stroke engine with extra coated pisto

RE Compact 4s
Power

9.00Kw@6000rpm

Torque

16.7 N.m@4500rpm

Cubic Capacity

198.88 cc

Transmission

4 forward + 1 reverse gear

Clutch

Wet multidisc type

Kerb weight

337 kg

Wheel Base

2000 mm

Overall width

1300 mm

Overall length

2635 mm

Overall Height

1704 mm

Grade ability

19%

(Diesel)

The trusted diesel engine with a superior design, gives greater mileage
First time in this category 5 Speed Gears for smooth gear shifting
Less expense on fuel which means more profit
The long-life engine that runs successfully for years, goes upto 1 lakh
kilometers
Big clutch lasts upto 35,000 kms
Longer lasting stronger chassis
New Skudo design gives more leg space
Comfortable seating position results in greater trips, with less fatigue
Car-like foot clutch & higher position of handle gives more leg space

Diesel fuel Compact


Power

6.19Kw@3400rpm

Torque

19.4 N.m@2600rpm

Cubic Capacity

447.3 cc

Transmission

5 forward + 1 reverse

Clutch

Dry, Single Plate

Kerb weight

371 kg

Wheel Base

2000 mm

Overall width

1300 mm

Overall length

2635 mm

Overall Height

1692 mm

Gradeability

18%

5 speed gear box gives smooth gear shifting


Less expense on fuel means more profit
New Skudo design gives more leg space
Comfortable seating position means less fatigue and more trips
Maintenance-free CV shaft
More luggage space
Car-like foot clutch & higher position of handle gives more leg space
Longer lasting stronger chassis

Diesel fuel Optima


Power

6.19 Kw @ 3400 rpm

Torque

19.4 Nm @ 2600 rpm

Cubic Capacity

447.3 cc

Transmission

5 forward + 1 reverse

Clutch

Dry-single plate

Kerb weight

414 kg

Wheel Base

2000 mm

Overall width

1330 mm

Overall length

2800 mm

Overall Height

1778 mm

Gradeability

18%

Powerful 447cc engine that runs upto 1 lakh kms (No need to change Barrel
Piston)
Maintenance-free CV shaft
Bigger clutch that runs upto 35,000kms
More powerful chassis lifts more weight
No need of frequent oil topping
More durable big end bearing than competition
Less expense on fuel means more profit
5 speed gear box gives smooth gear shifting

Diesel fuel Maxima


Power

6.19 Kw @ 3400 RPM

Torque

19.4 Nm @ 2600 rpm

Cubic Capacity

447.3 cc

Transmission

5 forward + 1 reverse

Clutch

Dry-single plate

Kerb weight

505 kg

Wheel Base

2025 mm

Overall width

1422 mm

Overall length

3063 mm

Overall Height

1849 mm

Grade ability

18%

Bajaj Auto Rickshaw passenger motor tricycle BA150ZK-7

Technical Specification
Engine
Type
Displacement Ratio
Compression Ratio
Max. Power
Max. Torque
Clutch
Type
Transmission
Type
No. of Gears
Steering
Steering
Chassis
Chassis
Suspension
Front
Rear

4 strokes 150cc water-cooled rear side


149cc
11:01
8.5KW / 8000r / min
10N.m / 7500r / min
Multi-Plate Wet Type
Constant Mesh Type
5 Forward + 1 Reverse
Handle Bar
Rectangular steel tube
Solo-arm Dual Coil Spring Shock Absorbers
Fully Floating Axle Shaft & Diff. Unit,Swing

Arm,Cylindrical

Springs,Assisted

Telescopic Shock Absorbers


Brakes
Front
Drum Brake
Rear
Drum Brake
Parking Brake
Mechanical on Rear Wheel
Wheels & Tires
Front
4.00 - 12
Rear
4.00 - 12

Ground Clearance

160mm
Electrical System
System voltage
12 V
Battery
12 - V - 9/18/28 Ah, Maintenance free
Wiper
Single Blade, Motorised
Starting
Electric Start
Head lamps
Double Filiment, Twin 35w
Fuel Tank
Capacity
PETROL 12L ; CNG 22L cylinder
Fuel Consumption
<=354 g/Kw.h
Max Speed
60km/h
Overall Dimensions (mm)
Wheel Base
2000
Cargo Area (L X W X H)
Dimension
263013201750mm
Weight (Kg)
Net weight
350
Loading Capacity
350

Packing
20 FT container
8 UNITS IN SKD
40 FT container
18 UNITS IN SKD
40 HQ container
27 UNITS IN SKD, 35 UNITS IN CKD

by

Two

Service Chart

Findings, Suggestions and Conclusion


A majority of the autorickshaw drivers enter the profession at an early age and
come from the lower economic strata of the society. The study revealed that
most of them (54.02 per cent) are school dropouts
Most of the autorickshaw drivers family incomes range between Rs 6,000 to
Rs 12,000 per month
Poor education, large family sizes and the financial burden on the autorickshaw
drivers could possibly be some of the reasons for their unruly behaviour with
their passengers.
As the study revealed, a staggering 71 per cent of autorickshaw drivers are
driving rented autos. They not only have to earn their livelihood but also help
the owners repay their loans. The drivers have to pay a daily rent of Rs 150 to
Rs 200 i.e. Rs 4,500 to Rs 6,000 per month to their seths.
According to the study, 66 per cent of the autorickshaw drivers belong to the
age group of 26-40.
Autorickshaws are mostly preferred for short distance trips of 3-5 kilometres
(67 per cent) and are typically used by the middle class (95 per cent).
There is no social security in the autorickshaw driving profession. Though they
are a major transporter of commuters in the city, the drivers do not have any
form of insurance or social security.
Per day, the autorickshaw drivers spend around 10-12 hours on job (66.60 per
cent), which includes 4-6 hours of waiting (49.71 per cent) for passengers to
hire them. A majority of the autorickshaw drivers said that they travel at an
average speed of 30-40 kmph and cover a distance of 80-100 Km per day.
A majority of 52 per cent of the drivers said that they charge Rs 20 per
kilometre. The autorickshaw drivers are accused of overcharging by 95 per cent
of the passengers.

Suggestions
As in the case of regular auto stands, institute a proper system for providing pre
-paid/fixed fare auto stands across the city.
Conclusion
From the present study it was concluded that respiratory functions of the auto
rickshaw drivers who are continuously exposed to emissions from vehicles, petrol
vapor and dust were significantly reduced as compared to respiratory functions of
age, weight and height matched control groups. To prevent the respiratory
dysfunction among auto drivers, medical observation and periodic check ups for
pulmonary function tests should be performed.

Questionnaire
Questionnaire for Drivers
Profile of the Respondent
1. Name
2. Gender
Male
Female
3. Age (years)
i. 18-20
ii. 21-25
iii. 26-30
iv. 30-40
v. 40-50

vi. >50
Autorickshaw driver Age Group (Years)
Own Autorickshaw
Rented Autorickshaw
18-20
0%
3%
21-25
4%
16%
26-30
18%
27%
30-40
45%
40%
40-50
29%
13%
>50
3%
1%
Base
146
355
The Study revealed that a majority of the drivers of both categories fell in the age group of 30-40 years. In
the owner-operated category, the drivers in the age group of more 40 years were more (22 per cent) than
those in the driver-operated category (14 per cent). While there were no autorickshaw owners who were
driving their own vehicle in the age groups of 18-20 years, 3 per cent of the drivers who are driving the
autorickshaws on rent. There were also a significant number of drivers of rented autorickshaws in the age
group of 21-25 years, as compared to owner-operated ones.

4. Educational Qualification
i. < 8th pass
ii. 8th pass
iii. 10th pass
iv. 12th pass
v. Graduation
vi. Other
A majority of the drivers in both the categories are school dropouts (54 per cent). A mere 3 per cent are
graduates. There are more drivers with a 10 th pass amongst those that rent their autorickshaws (33 per
cent) than those that drive their own (29 per cent). This indicates that autorickshaw drivers in Chennai are
less educated and mostly school dropouts.

5. Marital Status
i) Married
ii) Single
6. Monthly income (Rs)
i) 3000
ii) 3000-5000
iii) 6000-8000
iv) 9000-12,000
v) 12,000-15,000
vi) 15,000-20,000
vii) >20,000
Professional Information:
7. Why do you drive an autorickshaw?
i) Did not get any other job
ii) Gives higher earning than other jobs
iii) Family business
iv) Friends/family suggested
8. How many years of experience do you have in driving autorickshaw?
i) Less than 1 year
ii) 3-5 yrs
ii) 5-10yrs
iv) 10-15yrs
v) 15-20yrs
vi) >20 yrs

Autorickshaw driving experience (years)


The Study revealed that there were very few drivers who have less than one year of experience. About 37
per cent of the drivers have been driving for 3-5 years, while another 30 per cent have been driving for at
least 5-10 years. A larger group (23 per cent) has driving for the past 10-15 years. A negligible proportion
of 1 per cent has been driving for more than 20 years. This is a corollary to the fact that most of the
drivers enter the profession in their early 20s and leave in the early 40s. A majority of them (56 per cent)
took up autorickshaw driving due to lack of alternate employment. Only 22 per cent chose this profession,
for its image of being a decently remunerative profession, as compared to other jobs that they could have
opted for.

9. What type of driving licence is required to drive an autorickshaw?


i) Two wheeler
ii) Four Wheeler (light vehicle)
iii) Other (specify)........
10.How did you learn driving?
i) Self trained
ii) Trained by friends/family members
iii) Driving school
Source of learning autorickshaw driving
A whopping 77 per cent of autorickshaw drivers in Shivamogga learnt driving on their own or were
taught by friends and relatives, the Study revealed. Only 22 per cent received training from a driving
school. This could be a cause for the numerous complaints of rash driving and traffic violations against
autorickshaw drivers. This warrants attention towards provision of formal training to autorickshaw drivers
and altering their behaviour. If such a mass of drivers is allowed to take up driving without proper
training, it will lead to further chaos on the already congested roads. With the open permit system to be in
force soon, the number of autorickshaws in the city will increase. Thus, it is imperative that drivers are
given proper training to prevent aggravated chaos.

11.Kilo metres driven per day


i. <80
ii. 80-100
iii.100-120
12.How much do you charge as minimum fare (in Rs)?
i) Rs 20/1 km
ii) Rs 30/1km
iii) Rs 30/2km
iv) Rs 50/1km
v) Rs 50/2km
Minimum fare charged by auto drivers (Rs)
Per kilometre fare

Own

Rented

demanded: Own
autorickshaw vs
rented Rs
Rs 9
Rs 10
Rs 12
Rs 15
Rs 20
>Rs 20
Base

Autorickshaw

Autoricks
haw

7%
59%
14%
12%
4%
5%
146

8%
57%
11%
22%
1%
1%
355

Majority of the owner and the drivers of Autorickshaw rickshaws want the fare per kilometre to be raised
from Rs 6 to Rs 10. However, a substantial amount of the drivers (22 per cent) want the fare to be raised
to Rs 15 per kilometre.

13.On what basis do you charge fares: (can choose more than one)
i. Distance Routes
ii. Passenger: Local Resident or Outsider
iii. Fuel costs
iv. Rate of inflation in general
v. The ease of finding a passenger at the destination point
vi. Any other ( specify)
14.What should the meter down fare be increased to so that you start using the
meter? (for how many kilometres)
i. Rs 20
ii. Rs 25
iii) Rs 15
Meter Down Fare demanded by autorickshaw drivers (Rs)
A majority of autorickshaw drivers in Shivamogga admitted that they charged a fare of Rs 20 per
kilometre. While 41 per cent said they charged Rs 15 per kilometre, 4 per cent charged Rs 25 per
kilometre.

15.What are your average daily working hours?


a. If day shift : i) 6-8hrs ii) 8-12 hrs iii) 12-14 hrs iv) more than 14 hrs
b. If night shift : i) 6-8hrs ii) 8-12 hrs iii) 12-14 hrs iv) more than 14 hrs

Average daily working hours in day shift (hours)


Autorickshaw drivers in city work for 8-12 hours per day (95.09 per cent). Their daily schedule starts at 8
am and ends at 8-9 pm. They get several passengers during peak hours. However, most drivers have long
waiting hours during the non-peak traffic periods of the day. Several drivers work the night shift, running
lesser rides, but making almost the same amount of money through additional night charges, exorbitant
fares, and shared and non-shared trips.

16.Do you refuse the take the customer to a particular destination?


i) If yes, which location............ ii) No
17.Do you have a radio in your autorickshaw?
i. Yes
ii. No
18.How old is your autorickshaw?
i) < 1 yr
ii) 1 Year
iii) > 3 yrs
iv) > 5yrs
v) >8yrs
19.Do you own this autorickshaw or is itrented?
20.If rented, how much do you pay as daily rent?
a) Rs 120
b) Rs 150
c) Rs 200
d) Rs 250
e) Rs 300
f) other Specify....
21. If owned, at what price did you buy it (excluding Permit price)?
a) < 1 Lakh
b) within 1.2 Lakh
c) within 1.3 Lakh
d) within 1.5 Lakh
e) within 1.7 Lakh

f) within 2 Lakh
g) >2 Lakh
h) Other..........
22. How did you finance the purchase?
a) Savings
b) Loan from bank
c) Loan from private financer, Seth
d) Govt. loan
e) Loan from friend/relatives
Mode of Purchase of Autorickshaw
The above graphs clearly tell that private financers are proactive in providing finance to buy
autorickshaws. A majority (46 per cent) of the autorickshaw owners has sourced their finance from
private financiers, and the cost is almost as much as that of a car. This has resulted in the transfer of
burden to the passengers, who have to pay a higher price for autorickshaw services.

23. What are the conditions for availing for loan: (choose the following)
a) Period of Loan:
i) 2Yrs ii) 3Yrs iii) 4yrs iv) 5yrs v) > 5yrs
b) Down Payment:
i) Rs 30,000
ii) Rs 50,000
iii) Rs 70,000
iv) > Rs 70,000
c) Monthly Installment
(EMI):
i) within 3000-5000
ii) 5000-7000
iii) other specify
24. What classes of passengers use autorickshaw services? (Choose any)
i) Lower class
ii) Lower Middle Class
iii) Middle Class
iv) Upper Middle Class
v) Upper class

Class of passengers using autorickshaws


The Study revealed that almost all classes of people use autorickshaws, with the exception of the upper
class. About 75 per cent of the drivers admitted that the lower class used autorickshaws, while 72.10 per
cent of the drivers also said that people belonging to the lower middle class also used them. However, a
majority of the drivers, i.e. 94.5 per cent claimed that the middle class used autorickshaws, making it a
major vehicle of transport for that category. About 49 per cent drivers admitted to the upper middle class
using their services, and only about 25.15 per cent claimed that the upper class did so.
If colluded with the earlier finding that drivers belong to middle class thresholds, the autorickshaw sector
can be identified for the middle class, operated by the lower middle class, contrary to popular wisdom.

25.Do you face competition from other modes of transport?


i) Call Taxi
ii) Bus
iii) Local Bus
iv) Taxi
v) Shared autorickshaw
vi) Maxi cab
Competitors of Autorickshaw
With regard to competition, autorickshaw drivers do not consider call taxis, buses or local bus as their
rivals. Their main problem was with shared autorickshaws. About 97.64 per cent of the drivers said
shared autorickshaws ate away their share of business, and sought removal of the same. Only 27.42 per
cent of the drivers consider maxi cabs as their competitors. An inconsistent policy dividing the
autorickshaw rickshaw segment is significantly glaring here.

26.How often do you engage in leisure activities?


i) Weekly once
ii) twice monthly
iii) 2-3 in a month
iv) 5-7 days in a month
v) more than 10 days in a month

Frequency of Leisure Activities


The drivers do not take out much time for leisure, as is revealed in the bar chart above. Most drivers
separate only 2-4 days for leisure activities in a month.

27.What kind of leisure activities do you engage in? Choose any.


i) Watch TV/listen to radio
ii) Sleep
iii) Drink
iv) Go out with family shopping/movies
v) Help in household chores
vi) Other (specify)......................
Leisure Actitives
A small proportion of 15.91 per cent of the drivers admitted that they drank alcohol in their free time. A
majority (54.62 per cent) of them said they slept in their free hours, while another 47.94 per cent said they
watched TV or listened to the radio.

28.Traffic rules that you have violated (choose any)


i. Speeding
ii. Breaking a traffic signal
iii. Driving on the wrong side of the road
iv. Illegal Parking
v. Overtaking
vi. Any other (Specify)

Waiting Charge (Rs)


Sixty per cent of the passengers said they were willing to pay Rs 30 to Rs 50 as waiting charge to
autorickshaw drivers, whereas 30 per cent said they would pay between Rs 10 to Rs 30. Ony 8 per cent of
the passengers said they would pay about Rs 50 to Rs 70.