Anda di halaman 1dari 446

iiiimiii miiifflim

mum

the ppesence of this Book

thej.m.kelly LIBRARY
has Been nu6e possiBle
thRouqh the qeneROSity

Stephen

B.

Roman

From the Library of Daniel Binchy

AURAICEPT NA N-ECES
THE SCHOLARS PRIMER

4
*

AURAICEPT NA N-ECES
THE SCHOLARS PRIMER
BEING THE TEXTS OF THE OGHAM TRACT FROM THE
BOOK OF BALLYMOTE AND THE YELLOW BOOK OF
LECAN, AND THE TEXT OF THE TREFHOCUL
FROM THE BOOK OF LEINSTER

EDITED FROM

EIGHT MANUSCRIPTS, WITH INTRODUCTION, TRANSLATION


OF THE BALLYMOTE TEXT, NOTES, AND INDICES
BY

GEORGE CALDER,
Lecturer in

B.D.

University of Glasgow

Celtic,

EDINBURGH: JOHN GRANT


31

GEORGE

IV.

1917

BRIDGE

A CHUM GLOIRE DHE


AGUS

MAR CHUIMHNEACHAN AIR MO BHRATHAIR


IAIN
NACH MAIREANN

NOTUS

IN

KRATRES AN1M1

ATERNI

PREFACE
THE appearance of the Auraicept at the present tine,
however inopportune, is necessary, because long overdue.
Recent events have exercised, it is to be feared, an
adverse influence at least temporarily on Celtic studies, and
to my deep regret I find myself constrained materially to
curtail

this

assisted

or

me

But

preface.

my

advice, to accept

indebted to

Mr

heartfelt

Egerton

help in deciphering

some

from

Lindsay
his

am

MS., to

difficult

Mr W.

words

in

for friendly criticism, chiefly

edition

MacFarlane

thanks.

specially

E. C. Quiggin for his kindness in giving

his transcript of the

Prof.

beg of all friends who have


whether by encouragement

in this undertaking,

of

the

Origines,

and

J.

Purton

the

MSS.,

me
for
4

co

on the extracts
to

Mr Malcolm

labour of verifying the references of


the Indices to the Text, and for pointing out some errors.

Every

for

the

has been given by the Librarians of the


Glasgow and Edinburgh, the Advocates

facility

Universities

of

Library, the Royal


Dublin.

Irish

Academy, and Trinity

The Carnegie Trust has generously borne

College,

part

of the

expense of publication.
G. C.

GLASGOW,
November

1916.

CONTENTS

....
....

MSS. TRANSCRIBED OR COLLATED

AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO OR QUOTED

INTRODUCTION
I.

II.

.....
.....
.......
.

TEXT WITH TRANSLATION


TEXT UNTRANSLATED

xiii

xv
\ix
2

.171

TREFHOCUL WITH EXAMPLES

258

DE DUILIB FEDA

270

OGAM.

PROLOGUE AND EXAMPLES, WITH TRANSLATION

272

PHOTOGRAPHS OF OGHAM ALPHABETS, WITH TRANSCRIPT


OF THE INTERLINEAR EXPLANATIONS AND TRANSLATION
THEREOF

300

GLOSSARIAL INDEX

315

.......
.......

INDEX OF PLACES, TRIBES, AND NATIONS

INDEX OF PERSONS

...

.362

...
.

368

MSS.

TRANSCRIBED OR COLLATED
FIRST FAMILY (Short Text).

BB., B.

M.,

Book

of Ballymote (308

E.

MS.

L.

Book

HM.

Book

I.,

/3

44-333) I4th century, R.I.A.

Advocates Library, Edinburgh.

of Lecan, R.I.A.
of

Hy Maine
L

B, E,

(Trefhocul, with examples), R.I.A.


contain the mnemonic poem but not the

Trefhocul.

SECOND FAMILY (Long


YBL.
Eg.

T.

Text).

Yellow Book of Lecan (219 a 23-241 p

13).

T.C.D.

b 26-76 i a 41), British Museum.


YBL, Eg. do not contain the mnemonic poem or
the Trefhocul.

Egerton, 88 (63

H.4.22 (pp.

This MS. is intermediate


159-207) T.C.D.
first and the second family.
It does

between the

not contain either the Trefhocul or the mnemonic


poem, but it has a poem of about 200 verses on early
Bible history.
century, T.C.D.

LL.

xii.

Ed.

MS.

The Trefhocul
Advocates

with examples.

1-39,
Library, the beginning of
a glossary of the Auraicept which closely resembles
the Lecan glossary.

xiil

vii.

ii

AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO OR
QUOTED.
A.U.

The Annals
1887

A call.

of Ulster, vol.

vol.

ii.,

ed.

i.,

ed.

Hennessy, Dublin,

MacCarthy.

Acallamh na Senorach,

ed.

Stokes, Irische Texte

iv.,

Leipzig, 1900.
JLlt. Ir. Dicht.

Uber

die

Alteste

Irische

K.

Dichtung, ed.

Meyer,

SPA., 1913.

The
AisL
Anec.

Arch. C. P.
Ascoli.

Texts Society, London, 1907.


Meic
Aislinge
Conglinne, ed. K. Meyer, London, 1892.
Anecdota from Irish Manuscripts, Dublin, 1907-12.
Irish ALneid, Irish

Archiv

fiir

Celtische Lexikographie.

Glossarium Palaeohibernicum, Archivio Glottologico


italiano, vol. vi.

Arms.

Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed. Armstrong,

lieatha Col.

Beatha Colmain maic Liiachain, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin,

BB.

(With Roman numeral) Beitrage zur Kunde der idg.


Sprachen, herausgegben von Bezzenberger u.

1825.

1911.

Prellwitz.

C.

Cath Ruts R.

CC.
Coir An.
Cor. 2

Cor. Tr.

K. Meyer

s Contributions to Irish
Lexicography.
Cath Ruis na Rfgh, ed. Hogan, Dublin, 1892.
In Cath Catharda, ed. Stokes, Irische Texte iv.

Coir

Anmann,

Anecdota from

Cormac s

ed. Stokes, Irische

Texte

Irish Manuscripts, vol.

translated

Glossary,

by

iii.

iv.,

Dublin, 1912.

Donovan,

ed.

Stokes, Calcutta, 1868.

CZ.

Zeitschrift

fiir

Celtische Philologie.
ed. K. Meyer,
Dublin, 1906.

Death Tales of the Ulster Heroes,


Din.

Donl.

Ducange.
XV

An

Irish-English
Dublin, 1904.

Dictionary,

ed.

P.

S.

Glossary to Donlevy s Catechism, Arch. C.


Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis.

Dineen,
P.

ii.,

i.

xvi

AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO OR QUOTED


Ed. Dinds.
Eriu.

The Edinburgh Dindsenchas, ed. Stokes, 1893.


The Journal of the School of Irish Learning, Dublin.
/

Pel}

Felire Oengusso, ed. Stokes, Dublin, 1880.


id.

Fian.

FM.

Henry Bradshaw

Society, 1905.

Fianaigecht, ed. K. Meyer, Dublin, 1910.


The Annals of the Four Masters, ed.

Donovan,

Dublin, 1848, 1851.

Gold?
Gor.
Gr. Lat.

HB.

Old and Early Middle-Irish Glosses, Prose


and Verse, ed. Stokes, London, 1872.
Martyrology of Gorman, ed. Stokes, London, 1895.
Grammatici Latini, i.-viii., ed. Keil.

Goidelica,

H.

3.

18.

Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed. Macdonald,


Herne Bay, 1902.
A MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.

H.

4.

18.

Hib. Min.

Hog.
Hy.

HSD.
Hail

MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.


Hibernica Minora, ed. K. Meyer, Oxford, 1894.

Names of Herbs, Plants, and Trees,


The Irish Hymns in TP. ii. or Ir. T.
The Highland Society s Dictionary of

Gaelic

ed.

Hogan.

the

Gaelic

i.

Brigit.

Language.
Ed. K. Meyer, Dublin,

Ir.

Studies in Irish Epigraphy, ed. R. A. S. Macalister,

Ep.

1912.

London, 1897-1907.
Ir.

Metr.

Irish Metrics, ed. K.

Ir. T.

Irische Texte, edd.

Meyer, Dublin, 1909.

I.T.S.

Irish

Windisch and Stokes,


Texts Society, London.

Keat. Hist., K.

Irish

Texts Society,

Laws.

vols.

Ancient Laws of Ireland,

iv., viii., ix.,

vol. vi.,

xv.,

Leipzig.

London.

Glossary to

vol. i.-v.,

Celtische

Lexiko-

ed. Atkinson, Dublin, 1901.

Lee.

The Lecan
graphie,

Lism.

glosses,

Archiv

fiir

i.

Lives of Saints from the

Book

of Lismore, ed. Stokes,

Oxford, 1890.
Lor. Gild.

LL.

LU.
MacNeill.

The

Lorica of Gildas, Stokes Irish Glosses, p. 136,


Dublin, 1860.
Facsimile of the Book of Leinster, Dublin, 1880.

Facsimile of the Leabhar na hUidhre, Dublin, 1870.

Notes on Irish

Ogham

Inscriptions, ed.

John MacNeill,

Dublin, 1909.

Maro.

Virgilius
1886.

Maro Grammaticus,

ed.

Huemer, Leipsig,

AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO OR QUOTED


M

B.

xvn

Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, ed.

MacBain.

Med.

Gl.

Three

Irish

Medical Glossaries, Archiv

Lexikographie,

MR.
MS. Matt.
Metr.

Metr. Dinds.

Ml.

O
O

Br.

C. Lect.

fiir

Celtische

i.

Cath Muige Rath, ed. O Donovan, Dublin, 1842.


O Curry s Lectures on the MS. Materials, Dublin, 1872.
Metrical glosses, Bezzenberger, Beitrage, xix.
The Metrical Dindsenchas, ed. Gwynn, Dublin.

The Milan

glosses on the Psalms, TP.

O Brien s Irish-English
O Curry s Lectures on

i.

Dictionary, Dublin, 1832.


the Manners and Customs of

the Ancient Irish, 1873.

O Cl. O Clery s Irish Glossary, Revue Celtique, iv., v.


O D. O Donovan s supplement to O Reilly s Dictionary.
O D. Gr. O Donovan s A Grammar of the Irish Language, 1845.
O Dav. O Davoren s glossary, Archiv fiir Celtische Lexiko
graphie,

Molloy Gr.
O Mulc.

i.

On., Onn.,

Onom.

R.

ii.

3, 4.

Grammatica Latino-Hibernica, Romae, 1677.


O Mulconry s glossary, Archiv fiir Celt. Lexikographie,
2

Onomasticon Goedelicum,

Reilly

ed.

Hogan, Dublin,

1910.

Irish-English Dictionary.

Isidori

Ped. Gr.

Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum sive


Originum Libri, xx., ed. Lindsay, Oxford, 1911.
Pedersen s Vergleichende Grammatik der Keltischen

Petrie R. T.

Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland, ed. Petrie, 1845.

PH.

Passions and Homilies from the Leabfiar Breac, ed.


Atkinson, Dublin, 1887.
Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae, ed. Plummer, Oxon., 1910.

Origg.

Sprachen, Gottingen, 1913.

PI.

Vit.

Sanct.

P.

O C.

Peter

RC.

Revue

Sg.

Connel

MS.

Glosses

on

Priscian

hibernicus, vol.
Sil.

Gad.

SR.
St. Crit.

(St

Gall),

ed. K.

Palaeo-

O Grady,

London, 1892.

Meyer, London, 1903.

der
Wissenschaften.

Sitsungsberichte

Thesaurus

ii.

Silva Gadelica, ed. Standish

Songs of Summer and Winter,

SPA.

Dictionary.

Celtique, Paris.

kon.

preuss.

Academic

Saltair na Rann, ed. Stokes, Oxford, 1883.


Stokes Criticism on Dr Atkinson s glossary to vol.
of the ancient Laws of Ireland, London, 1903.

der

i.-v.

xviii

AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO OR QUOTED


ST.
Stoive Gl.
Str.

Dep.

Stories from the Tain, ed. John Strachan, Dublin, 1908.

Stowe glosses, Archiv


The Deponent Verb

fiir

in

Celtische Lexikographie,
Irish,

John Strachan

in

iii.

the

Transactions of the London Philological Society.


Str. Gl.

Tbc.

Three Med. Gl.

TP.
TP. Suppl.

Old

Irish Paradigms and Glosses, ed. John Strachan,


London, 1909.
Tain Bo Cuailnge, ed. Windisch, Irische Texte, v.

Archiv

fiir

Celtische Lexikographie,

i.

3.

Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, edd. Stokes and Strachan,


Cambridge, 1901.
Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, Supplement, ed. Stokes,
Halle, 1910.

Thur.

Handbuch des

Alt-Irischen, ed.

Rudolf Thurneysen,

Trip.

The
The

Heidelberg, 1909.
Triads of Ireland, ed. K. Meyer,, Dublin, 1906.
Tripartite Life of Patrick, ed. Stokes, London,

Trip. Gl.

The

glosses from the Tripartite Life, Arch. C. P.

Triads.

1887.

TSh.

Three Shafts of Death, by Keating,

T.T?

Dublin, 1890.
Togail Troi, ed. Stokes, Calcutta, 1882.
Togail Troi, ed. Stokes, Irische Texte ii.

Wb.

The Wiirtzburg
vol.

Wi.

MS.

Zeuss

ZCP.

= CZ.

Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus,

Worterbuch, Irische Texte,

Grammatica

in italics.

vol.

i.

Celtica, editio altera.

contractions, about which there

extended

iii.

Atkinson,

i.

Windisch

Z. 2

glosses,

ed.

may

be doubt, are

Interlinear additions to the texts are

enclosed in round brackets, additions by the Editor in square


brackets.
Errors or peculiarities in the text are in some
cases silently corrected in the translation.

impracticable footnotes are added.


of the MSS. is unchanged.

Where

this

is

Otherwise the reading

INTRODUCTION
THE Handbook
is

time,

Eces

whole

of the Learned, here edited

for the

first

work that opens up many questions.

is

field

grammar,

often equivalent to

fill.

FilidecJit

covered the

of poetry, romance, history, biography, geography,

and

antiquities,

law.

The

gave judgments

The Auraicept

treats chiefly of the

is

poet-jurist,

who, seated,

probably referred to at lines 407,8.

in verse,

Ogham

grammar, but if the Trefhocul be included,


poetry in the strict sense.

it

alphabet and
treats also of

The

poets, filid, were a guild, making their own special


and
laws,
exercising discipline upon their own members (2 193).
They claimed and used the right to quarter themselves
and their retinue upon society (2221), and they exacted a

fixed

sum

for their

poetic compositions.

In general this

was cheerfully paid


the means for enforcing unwilling
was
The
exercise of this potent weapon
satire.
payment
was moderated by rule (1935), certain forms of satire, such as
tamall n-aire (1932), being forbidden in the Trefhocul and
though the poets have been abolished by law for over a
;

century, even at this day in certain districts the phrase,


dheanamh aoir air, to satirise one, is not without its
terrors.

The
and

poets were a secret society with a language peculiar

intelligible

literary

tradition

to

themselves only.
Fenius,

at

language for them (195), and

its

their

According

to

request, devised

their
this

obscurity was essential (21).

INTRODUCTION

XX

to

people often rose up against the poets and attempted


One such rising was that
repudiate their claims.

at

Drumketta,

The

numbered

A.D.

15,000.

590 (1472).

Owing

a fji, they were

himself

to the

About

that

time they

advocacy of St Columba,
under

suffered to continue, but

restrictions.

The

filid

were a

rigorous training to

strictly professional class,


fit

them

undergoing a

for their position.

The

bards,

on the other hand, were unprofessional, and more or less


untrained, but they practised a large number of metres in

which the filid also were required to become proficient.


The following tables (cf. the later scheme in Joyce
Social Hist.,

i.

430), will

occupied in their studies.

The

Ftli, his

Rewards

s,

show what place the Auraicept

Rank, Name, and Compositions, with the


therefor, and his Retinue (2219-2254).

INTRODUCTION
The Yearly

Studies of the

Each year included the


Year.

xxi

studies of

all

Fili.

preceding years.

Name.

focloc

1.

oghum, besides regular oghum the Auraicept


with its prologue and with its flexions
;

1.

macfuirmid

1.

doss

1.

drecht ;

vi.

dian.

Jr. T.

oghum, besides ebadach nllmain


lessons

of

filidecht;

cli

drecht ;

1.

vi.

xl.

Ir. T.

iii.

34, 12.

iii.

36, 18.

iii.

37, 21.

drecht; xxx. anair; xxx. iarmberla.

Ix.

Ir. T.

anrad

ollam

other

drecht;

bretha nemid; xx. cmain.


Ir. T.

xvi. laid.
1.

32.

detailed
besides usual oghum
vi.
lessons of filidecht; xxx. drecht ; x. setrada,
senamain, and snaithe senamna.
Ir. T. iii. 34, 9.

oghum,

detailed

cano

iii.

nath

drecht; Ixxx.
berla no. filed.

Ixx.

mor ;

Ixxx.

nath becc

Ir. T.

iii.

38, 25.

brosnacha suad, i.e. the bard metres which the


poet ought to know, for that is the poet s
lesson of the seventh year e.g. I. divisions of
browacha, i.e. dechnad mor, and two species
of dechnad mor are there reckoned, viz. sned
;

and

Ir. T.

trebrad.

iii.

39, 32.

fiscomarca filed -\- di dli berla 7 clethchor choem


7 reicne roscadach 7 Idide- i- tenmlaida 7 immas
forosnai 7 dichetal do chennaib na titaithe 7
dinshenchus, and all the principal tales of
Ireland in order to relate them to kings, lords,
and gentlemen. For the./?// is not yet perfect.
Ir. T.
9,

10

xl.

sennath
Ix.

vi.

II

1.

-i-

xv. luasca 7

vii.

xiv.

duili feda.

Ir. T,

1.

anamain

cxx. rochetal; \rn.cerda,

i.e.

srotha
iii.

and

54, 99.

becc.

Ir. T.

12

49, 91.

ena; eochraid si

words with metres and

anamain mor

iii.

iii.

59, 113.

cerdoi Ladchend mic

Bairchida (^Elt., pp. 17, 27),


cerd hui Bicni, 7 cerd Beci.

7 cerd hi Chota, 7
Ir. T. iii. 60, 121.

INTRODUCTION

xxii

A
one

brief study of the Auraicept

the

that

leading

sufficient to convince

is

extraneous

source

is

the

Latin

Grammarians. Some of them are cited by name, Priscian


(A.D. 450), Donatus (A.D. 350), Pompeius, and Consentius.
If it be urged that the quotations from these authors are
a late addition to the Auraicept by way of learned illustra
tion, it is answered that in any case the general setting

of the

matter

follows

closely

the didactic

style

the

of

grammarians, as the following examples, occurring passim,


will

show

est, Gr. Lat. v. 537, 16,

Quaestio

Aur.

cest,

Quaesitum

De qua

est
v.

Quaeritur,

v.

228, 18

165, 27

sciendum

541, 20, 32.

Auf 1Q
13?5

quaeritur, Origg, xvi. 10, 2

ut sciamus,

210, 38

ut sciam, v. 195, 19.


ut scias, v. 121, 15, 18

scire

29

9, 57.

173, 18

co fesear, Aur. 1577.

v. 10, 16.

est,

debemus,

v.

v.

180, 32:

is

soigti

Aur. 3508,

is

fisid

277, 30.

scire debes, v. 142, 15.

The matter itself of the Auraicept is largely identical


with that treated of by the Latin Grammarians in their
the alphabet, classification of letters, sounds
early chapters
and

syllables,

consonant and vowel changes, gender and

declension of nouns, comparison of adjectives, prepositions

governing dative and accusative cases, the accent, artificial


and natural, genus and species, and a few other incidental

The

points.

There

is

no

omissions

are

almost

equally significant.
no declension of

classification of declensions,

adjectives which are tacitly included with the substantives,


no treatment of pronouns except as tokens of gender

(aurlonn, 585), or as

emphasised by fein = met

(726),

and

INTRODUCTION
the whole accidence of the verb

between Latin and Gaelic


of the verb
is

made

is

to

tentative

show

is

xxiii

The similarity
The paradigm

wanting.

failed at this point.

and native

that, while

An

(304, 653).

there

is

meaning between the two languages, Gaelic


comprehensive (1081).
The language is Middle
been much worked

over,

Irish,
all

endeavour

a correspondence in

more

the

is

but the basis, which has

belongs

to

the

Old

Irish

period.

The composition
latter

consists of

Text and Commentary, the

forming the great bulk of the work.

oldest portion

The

text

is

the

the commentary, in parts as old as the text,


was in a process of continuous growth. The text, written in
;

a large hand in most MSS., is printed in leaded type. BB,


here followed, curtails the text. The Book of Lecan and T.

make

what

is

much

The question as to
larger delineation of text.
text and what is commentary will require further

study for a satisfactory solution, but

it

may be

here remarked

much

of the primary material is embodied in the tract


in the ordinary hand of the commentary so as to be indis

that

tinguishable from the

commentary

itself

commentary

at

sight,

and that the

occasionally points to the text

by the use

of such expressions as Cid am tuc-somh (97), Cid ara n-ebairt


(378, 484, 512, 385), intan roraidk (421), ata acht lent (2973),

amal

asbert

curp in libuir (173, 241) where corp in libuir

always means the text of the book under comment.


Another but a rather uncertain criterion is

this.

passage which does not occur by way of commentary on any


previous quotation, but which is itself made the subject of

commentary,

is

in

a sense

primary material, though not

necessarily so old as the principal text on which the


mentary is written.

The

com

use of conagar is generally to introduce commentary


even though the passage so introduced is itself subjected to

INTRODUCTION

XXIV

comment.

a primary commentary used


and a secondary commentary
developing the content of the primary commentary (e.g.,
1072 on 1068, 1637 on 1515). The etymological glossvvork
belongs to this last stage, and is incorporated without any
In a word, there

is

to explain the original text,

regard to the context.


The language even

Old

of

the

commentary

based on

is

recognises three genders in


In it airdibdad ( r 264) means the

Irish usage.

It explicitly

substantives and pronouns.


silencing of the consonants, f and

In later usage this


s.
term becomes airdibad, urdubad (uirdhiughadh, O Molloy,
The tract before
Gr. 61), and denotes eclipsis, obnubilatio.

us takes no account of eclipsis.


At the time the tract was
written the combinations mb, nd, had evidently not yet
become assimilated (but cf. Nembroth, Nemruad).
For,
if

such assimilations had taken place, an account would

have been given of the phenomenon under such questions as


What two consonants have the force of one consonant ?

"

"

(1375).

As regards ng initial, the evidence is not so clear.


The nasal infection may have produced (ng + g) and not
ng simply (255). On the other hand the combination is an
but even vowels of diphthongs were
pronounced separately (1430) and is, considered along with
the example, uingi (4926), curiously suggestive of:

Ogham

letter

NF.

(442)

The scheme
between dative
1770),

Middle

and

dat.

Origg. xvi. 27,

of declension,

and

also,

accusative

Graeco

significat

4.

distinguishes

after

prepositions

clearly

(1651,

not

uniformly or often observed in


though a much later tract draws a distinction

distinction

Irish,

between

Gamma

Latinum adiuncto

semiunciam.

ace. after a

after

preposition importing motion,

preposition

importing

rest,

siubhal>

comhnaidhe

INTRODUCTION
(Eriu,

viii.

72, 73).

17,

This

last,

xxv

however,

may be merely

a grammatical recrudescence, or an imitation of Latin.

A
1.

few sporadic examples of Old Irish are here added

THE

ARTICLE.
muite 447,

n.p.m. in
tri

anmanda
inna

n.p.f.

taebomna tuissecha 918

in

focail 2018, but ainm

For

iiii.

art.

n, has art

in

n.p.m. ind

4828.
aipgitri-sea 1132.

developed from projected

n., v.

condelc,

etargoire n-inchoisc 647, in incoisc 641.


2.

NOUN

STEMS.

A. o-s terns

n.p.n. araile crand

149.

B. \Q-stenis:
a mberla sain 1044.

n.s.n.

ds.

oc nach ailiu 1044; a

5613
n.s.

gan

7 araill 3410;

quam

C. \\-stem

n-aill

fria araill

3106, ar araill

araill 3105.

nas

n-aill 1272.

4593, 4579 no da fhir-inaill 338.

gach reim n-olc 2177.


3.

NUMERALS

4.

THE VERB:

As

teora, ceitheora 4708, 3747,

cf.

872.

ailsius 5319, adrodamas 135; copula verb,


arnid 693, nadat 4588.

to the native elements,

we

are told that

Cenn Faelad

English Kinealy wrote the Prologue (80). As this


preface is not likely to have been omitted by the compilers
of the extant tract, one concludes that this must be the
in

actual introduction (1-62).

displacement in version

ii.

This view

confirmed by the

of the section (63-78) which

work of a commentator of Cenn Faelad


tra in the

is

also

is

the

by the particle

sentence quoted from Cenn Faelad, which


follows the introduction in both versions.
first

INTRODUCTION

xxvi

There are four authors of the Auraicept proper, Cenn


Faelad, Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius.

The

excerpts from the

The

Book of Cenn Faelad deal with

origin of Gaelic (100).

Divisions of the Latin alphabet (312), and of the Irish

alphabet (392).
Latin and Irish treatment of semivowels contrasted
(445)-

Genders in

Irish (520).

and

Latin, and qualitative


in Irish (639).
distinctions
quantitative

Degrees of comparison in

The

excerpts from the

Book

of Ferchertne deal with

The seven elements of speech in Irish (739), and


The formation and powers of Ogham letters (943).
from the Book of Amergen
is a long excerpt
of
with
the
dealing
origin
Goedelg (1034). This passage is
of earlier date and language than the general run of the
In substance it is an alternative prologue.
tract.

There

The excerpts from the Book of Fenius (1102) deal with:


The alphabets of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (1129),
hence probably the ascription to Fenius who was
learned in those languages (160), and contemporary
with the Exodus (i 104).
Verse feet or syllabic content of Irish words (1213).

Consonant changes

(1264).

The five kinds of Irish (1302).


The twenty-five inflections (1515).
What is alt? (1577).
The end

of the text of the Auraicept

is

noted (1636).
Book of Cenn

Besides those four ancient books cited, the


Faelad, the

Book

of Ferchertne (735), the

Book of Amergen

(1028), the Book of Fenius, lair mac Nema, and Gaedel mac
Ethiuir (1102), two others are mentioned, the Duile Feda
(5416), of which the

Ogham

tract

is

perhaps an expansion,

INTRODUCTION
and the
tract

Cm

xxvii

Ollainan (1204, 4385) possibly an early form of the


The quotations from the first four books

on Metrics.

are set forth as usual

large hand

in

but possibly other

passages from them are embodied in the commentary in the


normal hand. For wherever a passage in the commentary
afterwards explained in detail with the usual artificial
etymologies, this is an indication that the passage probably
belonged originally to the ancient text.
is

While the ascription of the Book of Cenn Faelad is


probably genuine, the same cannot be said of the Books of
The quotations may be
Ferchertne, Amergen, and Fenius.
from writings approximately of the time of Cenn Faelad, but

of unknown authorship.
commentator (1019-1027) takes
the view that the work of these authors were successive steps

leading up to the grand consummation, the Trefhocul.


the statement also of a commentator that
what is

By

"

first

according to book order was invented last, to wit, the Book


of Cenn Faelad" (66) may be meant that this author
co-ordinated

now
who

all

the ancient material, and presented

This view

it

as

it

upheld by another commentator


that
Ferchertne
says
composed the Auraicept but Cenn
Faelad rewrote it, or copied it, along with the greater part
stands.

is

of Scripture (2638).

"

There seems no reason to question the ascription of the


Book of Cenn Faelad to the author of that name. He is a
"

He died A.D. 679. His pedigree


found in the genealogy of the Cenel nEogain. His poems,
dealing to a large extent with the wars of his kinsfolk, the
Northern Ui Neill, are quoted largely in the annals. The

well authenticated person.


is

curious tradition about his

no doubt a foundation

"brain

in

of forgetfulness

fact.

education in youth, but developed a

by turning from learning


in the battle of Moira

(77)

had

Possibly he got a good


"

brain of forgetfulness

to soldiering.
A.D.

"

He

637, where

"

certainly fought

he was wounded.

INTRODUCTION

xxviii

Returning again to civil life and his early pursuits, poetry,


words, and reading" (78), he laid the foundation of that
"

reputation which as

"

Cenn Faelad, the Learned

"

he

still

His period as an author therefore


enjoys (O C. Lect.}.
extends over the forty-two years between the battle of
Moira and his death, and quotations from him must take
rank

among

But he
(79),

the oldest dated specimens of the language.


still older Irish writers, augdair na nGaideal

refers to

who wrote on

He may

origins.

the subject of Irish grammar, or of Irish


refer to such works as the Irish Chronicon

Eusebii (Eriu, vii. 62) which came down to A.D. 609, and of
which the lost portion at the beginning may well have

contained the story of Fenius. Writing in 603, S. Columbanus


refers to antiqui philosophi Hiberniae as experts in chronography. Thus that earlier than the seventh century a state
of learning existed which was held in esteem by the writers of
that century is proved, though the direct products of that
earlier learning are no longer extant.
If we assume Cenn

Faelad

to

be really the author, and therefore that the


seventh

Auraicept was begun about the middle of the

century, how did it happen that while the other Western


nations were sunk in ignorance, the Irish enjoyed the light
of learning? Zimmer (SPA., Dec. 1910, p. 1049) quoting

the passage in Aur. 1859-1876 puts the question with great


force
"

wie

Das

man

sind die

Elemente der Kasus- und Numeruslehre,

sie als Teil des iiber viele lahre sich

erstreckenden

Studiums der irischenyf/z (Grammatiker, Metriker, Antiquare


und professionsmassiger Dichter) in den nationalen Schulen
Irlands traktierte, als Klemens der Ire an der Hofschule
Karls des Grossen jungen Franken das abc beibrachte, als
Dicuil in St Denis, Dungal in Pavia, Sedulius in Liittich

und Metz, Moengal


Hofschule

Karls

in St Gallen,

des

Kahlen

Johannes Scottus an der


durch diesen
waren

a tig

INTRODUCTION

xxix

Cormac mac Cuilennain gegangen (gest. 908),


der nebenbei ganz austandige Kenntnis im Latein, GriechUnterricht

isch,

ist

Hebraisch, Altnordisch, Angelsachsisch und Kymrisch

besass."

The high tide of learning at a very early period in


ancient Ireland was beyond a doubt caused by the influx of
In his researches Zimmer
learned men from the Continent.
came upon

this

passage

Huni, qui ex nephario concubitu progeniti sunt, scilicet


demonum, postquam praeheunte caterva viam
invenerunt per Meotides paludes, invaserunt Cothos
quos nimium terruerunt ex improvise monstro
quod in illis erat. Et ab his depopulatio totius
sumpsit, quae ab Unis et
imperii exordium
et
Alanis
Gotis
Guandelis,
peracta est, sub quorum
vastatione

omnes

sapientes

cismarini

fugam

ceperunt, et in transmarinis, videlicet in Hibernia,


et quocunque se receperunt maximum profectum

sapientiae incolis illarum regionum adhibuerunt.

The

first

part of this statement relating to the

Huns

is

taken from Jordanis, who wrote about A.D. 550, and fixes
approximately the date of the depopulation of the empire

and the rush of learned men into Ireland.

We may

assume

that the migration had already continued for a time before


The intercourse between Ireland
this account was written.

and the continent was certainly kept up.


Three centuries later we have this testimony respecting
the

Natio Scottorum quibus consuetudo peregrinandi jam


paene in naturam conversa est.

Quid

Hiberniam

memorem, contempto

pelagi

dis-

crimine, paene totam cum grege philosophorum ad


littora nostra migrantem
(SPA., 1910, p. 1080).
!

Zimmer with

great

learning,

breadth

of

view,

and

INTRODUCTION

xxx

mastery of detail builds upon these


picturesque and surprising.
Stated

Homoousian

the

his

briefly

exodus from Gaul

hypotheses

a history at once

facts

amount

to

this.

The

Ireland (A.D. 419-507) was caused by


persecution.
Aquitania and the modern
to

Baskish territory suffered

and Ireland was

like other parts,

then the only haven of orthodoxy. Among the refugees


from that region was \.\\& fatims hoinunculus who was so called

by

his

fellow-countryman the deacon Ennodius (A.D. 473-521)


called himself Virgilius Maro, Grammaticus.
He

who

but

found an asylum with a native prince as was the fashion


for learned

men

in

nay more, gained

among

those days, settled, and taught grammar,


and a place

for himself fame, recognition,

the native

poets,

being in fact none other than

Ferchertne fili.

The Auraicept

bears abundant evidence of the influence

of two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro.


laboured to identify with Ferchertne fili.

The
It

latter

Zimmer

can be shown

Auraicept lends no support to this proposed


This Ferchertne fili (CZ. iii. 13) is .described
identification.
in the tract as a contemporary of Conchobar mac Nessa

that the

who, whatever reckoning be adopted, lived somewhere


about the second century (cf. A.u. 484). According to this
chronology, therefore, the identification of Ferchertne fili and
(736),

Maro would place the latter at least a couple of centuries


before his known floruit.
Again the matter treated of by
Ferchertne

the seven elements of speech in Irish, and


powers of Ogham letters does not

fili

the formation and

correspond to anything in Maro

s pages.
If it be proved
is
felt
Isidore
s
influence
while
that,
chiefly in the
Maro
s
influence
is confined
of
the
earlier part
Auraicept,

also

entirely to the later,

was Ferchertne
between

the

fili

Zimmer s main

cannot succeed.

inception

of

the

contention that

Maro

Several centuries lay

Auraicept

and

its

close.

INTRODUCTION

xxxi

had a profound influence on the Auraicept,


According to internal evidence
early stages.
Cenn Faelad wrote the part ascribed to him about the
middle or second half of the seventh century. That is the

Maro

tract

but none on

its

The inferior limit lies in the eleventh


superior limit.
century, or perhaps the tenth, and is determined generally
by two facts (i) that the Auraicept is found in two
MSS., the variations in which postulate many
generations of scribes, and (2) the immense development
which has taken place in the tract itself as it has advanced

families of

from crude statements to a prosody which is exceedingly


complicated and difficult. But the argument does not rest
entirely on general considerations.

The second text (3382) quotes native grammarians by


name, Ua Bruic^ Ua Coindi^ Ua Coirill and Ua Finn (3391).
They are named by their surnames (each being the acknow
ledged head of his family), a usage that is not found earlier
than the tenth century, one of the earliest instances being

Ua Ruairc, A.u. 953. Ua Coirill mentioned above


have
been the professor of law and history, who died
may
A.u. 1083.
Hence the Auraicept was not completed before
the middle of the tenth century, perhaps not till towards
the end of the eleventh, when Maro s influence is still
that of

in evidence.

Let us now look at some excerpts from the works of


the two Latin authors, Isidore and Maro.

I.

ISIDORE OF SEVILLE, who died

His Etymologiae or Origines


vast

amount

in

A.D. 636.

twenty books contain a

of information of such a sort that one finds

it

impossible to resist the conclusion that the compilers of


the Auraicept had this document before them.
At least
that

Cenn Faelad and

Isidore

drew matter from a common

INTRODUCTION

xxxii
source

a certainty, for the facts (or alleged facts)


phraseology are the same.
If

is

we keep

in

battle of Moira,

and pursued

mind that

and that

his

popularly supposed

Isidore died the year before the

after that event

studies

and the

Cenn Faelad began

such success that

with

to forget nothing (so

one

may

he was

interpret the

words), and if we remember further that there was a constant


coming and going of learned men, and a steady exchange

the continent and

of books between

Ireland, there

is

no

inherent improbability in the supposition that Cenn Faelad


assimilated some of his material from the Origines published
perhaps some twenty years before. True, the name of Isidore
the Auraicept, but no more does that of

does not occur

in

Eusebius from

whom

he probably

of Luccreth

Mocu Chiara

from whose

poem

made

extracts, nor that

irisclie

(sElteste
Dichtung, p. 51),
the passage about the seventy-two races
(Aur. 215-227) was certainly taken.
There being no difficulty as to date or the omission of

name,

full

siderations

weight

tending

be allowed to any other con


to connect the two authors.
The

may

following quotations from many books of the Origines show


how much the Auraicept was indebted to that source both
in general structure

Some

and

in detail.

references demonstrate that the Irish and Ireland

were not unfamiliar to Isidore,

Horrent

et

male

tecti

Origg. xix. 23,

at least as

cum

an author

latratoribus linguis Scotti.-

6.

Scotia idem

et Hibernia proximae Brittianiae insula,


terrarum
angustior, sed situ fecundior.
spatio
Haec ab Africo in Boream porrigitur.
Cujus
et Cantabricum Oceanum
Hiberiam
priores
partes
intendunt, unde et Hibernia dicta: Scotia autem,

quod ab Scotorum
Origg. xiv.

6, 6.

gentibus colitur, appellata.

INTRODUCTION

xxxiii

Time, place, person, and cause of writing (Aur. 63, 735,


1029), define the general plan and treatment of a subject,
and are usually found in the introduction to any serious

work

in

Irish.

lam vero

6,

i.

cradle of letters was in Achaia, or

of d from

Ubi

ii.

uti oportebit, ut res,


audientis efflagitat

illud

persona

tempus,

Origg.

The

elocutionibus

in

locus,

art.,

fuit

by projection
Dacia, or by early French pronunciation, Asia.

Athenae

Apud Eotenam

civitas.

Origg. xiv.

4, 10.

Athena) civitatem.

(uel

Aur. 214.

Fuit autem

Isis regina Aegyptiorum, Inachis regis filia,


quae de Graecia veniens Aegyptios litteras docuit.

Origg.

viii.

84.

1,

These sentences show

Accad was
introduced from some other source, Achaia (251) was pro
that, unless the Biblical

bably the original reading but the possibility that Achaia


lay in Maeotidis Paludibus (CZ. x. 126) must not be over
;

looked.

Namque omnium
.

ferocissumi ad hoc tempus Achaei


atque Tauri sunt, quod, quantum conjicio, locorum
Glossae Juvenalis
egestate rapto vivere coacti.

(Sail.

Fragmenta).

Authority, written authority, ugdaracht (131), perhaps


includes the following authors of whom, however, only two,
Moses and Hieronymus (q.v.), are mentioned by name
:

Moyses, Dares Phrygius, Herodotus, Pherecydes.


ex historia, Livius, Eusebius et
Sallustius
ex
annalibus tt historia constant.
Hieronymus

Vnde

Origg.

What
the

i.

are the

42

44, 4.

names of the seventy-two

races from which

many languages were learnt? (215, 263):


Geates autem a quibus divisa est terra, quindecim sunt
de Japhet, triginta et una de Cham, viginti et
c

INTRODUCTION

xxxiv

septem de Sem, quae

fiunt

septuaginta

tres,

vel

totideclarat, septuaginta duae


linguae, quae per terras esse coeperunt>

ratio

potius, ut

demque

quaeque crescendo provincias


Origg.

et insulas impleverunt.

ix. 2, 2.

In definition a bias existed towards the heptad or the


octave, Aur. 639, 739.

De septem

liberalibus

lectica, etc.,

Aur.

Grammatica

disciplinis.

51.

Origg.

i.

2,

dia-

I.

Occasionally individual words are closely defined

Materia inde dicitur omne lignum quod ex ea aliquid


efficiatur.
Fid, Aur. 943, cf.
Origg. xix. 19, 4.
later the use of adbar.

The importance
Ilia

of

Hebrew

insisted

is

lingua quae ante diluvium

Hebraea nuncupatur.

The Hebrew language was


remain after doomsday (190).
Item quaeritur qua lingua
Origg.

on

omnium una

Origg.
in the

fuit,

quae

xii. i, 2.

world

first

and

it

will

futurum homines loquantur.

in

ix. i, 13.

following passage explains why Gaelic was deemed


a worldly speech (46), not being one of the three sacred

The

tongues

in

which was written the superscription on the cross

(165).

Linguarum

diversitas exorta est in aedificatione turris

Nam priusquam superbia turris


post diluvium.
illius in diversos signorum sonoshumanam divideret
societatem, una omnium nationum lingua fuit, quae
Hebraea vocatur. Initio autem quot gentes, tot
Tres sunt
linguae fuerunt, deinde plures gentes.
autem linguae sacrae
Hebraea, Graeca, Latina
:

His enim tribus


excellunt.
fuit causa eius
Pilato
a
Domini
crucem
linguis super

quae toto orbe


scripta.

maxime

Origg.

ix. i, 1-3.

INTRODUCTION
The

xxxv

early Irish rhythmical alliterative poetry,

e.g.

arnin arding [d]ed,


forsail for fot fedair,

dinin disail for gair gabhaidh (1546),

extending up to and running into the eighth century, might


almost be defined by the words
:

Huic adhaeret rythmus, qui non est certo fine moderatus,


sed tamen rationabiliter ordinatis pedibus currit
qui Latine nihil aliud quam numerus dicitur.
;

Origg.

i.

39,

3.

A verse of dithyramb or metrical rhythm is to be


measured by a breath of the poet, five words to each breath
(930).

Periodos autem longior esse non debet


spiritu proferatur.

Origg.

ii.

uno

ut

quam

18, 2.

Grammatical questions as to gender and comparison of


adjectives find a like expression in Latin and Gaelic
:

Neutrum dictum quia nee hoc nee


masculinum nee femininum.

id

illud,

Origg.

i.

7,

est nee

28

Aur.

614.

Octo autem modis conparatio analogiae colligitur id


est qualitate, conparatione, genere, numero, figura,
:

casu, extremitatibus similium syllabarum, et similitudine temporum.


Aur. 639.
Origg. i. 28, I
;

Non

est

Sic et

maius

nisi

ad minus referatur.

parvum opponitur magno


cui opponitur, sit
Aur. 676.

magnum,
4, 5

Inde

Ponticus sinus

ita ut

ipsud parvum ad

parvum.

amplissimus

Origg.

tergo

ii.

31,

Maeotidis

quod mare ex multitudine fluminum


dulcius quam cetera.
Sallust, quoted by Priscian
Macrobius, Servius, and Origg. xiii. 16, 4.
paludibus

in dulci
14,

xii.6, 56; sive salsae sint sive dulces.


Aur. 730.

aqua
i

xiii.

INTRODUCTION

xxxvi
Artificial

text; vir

is

from femur

etymologies carry their influence into the Gaelic


derived from vires, mulier from mollifies, femina

Vir nuncupatus, quia maior in eo vis est quam in


feminis.
Origg. xi. 2, 17; Aur. 605.
Mulier vero a mollitie, tanquam mollier, detracta littera
vel mutata, appellata est mulier.
Origg. xi. 2, 18
cf. femina de flescda no maithchnechas, Aur. CIO.

Femora

quod ea parte a femina sexus viri


Sunt autem ab inguinibus usque ad
Femina autem per derivationem femorum

dicta sunt,

discrepet.

genua.

adhaeremus.

Origg.

Femina vero

a partibus
a viro distinguitur.

in

in

sunt, quibus

partes

equitando tergis equorum

xi. i, 106.

femorum
Origg.

dicta ubi sexus species


24 Aur. 608.

xi. 2,

Consonants, semi-vowels, and mutes are treated similarly


the Gaelic and the Latin texts
:

Et vocatae consonantes quia per


vocalibus

iunctis

se

consonant.

non sonant sed


Haec in duabus

partibus dividuntur: in semivocalibus et in mutis.

quiddam semis de

Semivocales dictas eo, quod


vocalibus habeant.

Mutae autem dictae quia


nequaquam erumpunt.
358

Vnde

et seq. ;

367

nisi

et seq. ;

subiectis sibi vocalibus

Origg.

468

i.

4,

3,

Aur.

cf.

et seq.

nominantur ilia ratione, scilicet vel


vocali incipiunt et in mutum sonum
desinunt, ut sunt consonantes, vel quod a suo sono
incipiunt et in vocalem E desinunt ut sunt mutae.
et legitimae

quod ab

Origg.

The

active

i.

4,

10

Aur. 488.

and the passive of verbs

Etargaire persainni

ngnim

(651)

cessadh (653).

In persona verbi agentis et patientis significatio


Origg.

i.

9,

i.

est.

INTRODUCTION

xxxvii

The

Origines contain well-known quotations


may be of this sort)

above

(and the

Litterae

autem

dictae

quasi legiterae, quod iter


legentibus praestent, vel quod in legendo iterentur.

Origg.

Some

3, 3

Aur. 360.

quotations are hard to find elsewhere

Nam unum
iii.

It is

i.

3,

semen numeri

esse,

non numerum.

not time that

divided but our actions (93).

is

tempus per se non intellegitur,


humanos. Origg. v. 31, 9.

These references

The

Origg.

Aur. 688.

Nam

the

have not found.

to

per actus

Aur. 464, 517, 728.

found in the portion of


They occur

foregoing quotations are

Auraicept attributed

nisi

Cenn Faelad.

not only in commentary but often in the structure of the


Hence the conclusion that Cenn Faelad had
composition.

him the Origines or a document based thereon, and


closely resembling it, is amply justified.
before

The use

of the Origines is continued in the Gaelic text,


after the portion attributed to Cenn Faelad ends.
In the
latter

of

of the book occur also

part

some few suggestions

Ogham.

What

is

known

as nihilus, Aur. 970, 8,

alicubi

Vocalis enim non est quia


vocalis, nee

quotation

Nisi

est quia

Origg.

i.

est,

sequitur

consonans

Ideoque quando nee


sine dubio nihil est.

4, 8.

nomen
i.

praecedit.

consonans

common

enim
Origg.

thus explained

littera proinde interdum


nihil est, quia
nee vocalis nee consonans est, ut quis.

quoque

non

is

7,

in the

grammarians

scieris,

cognitio

Aur. 1099.

is

rerum

perit.

INTRODUCTION

xxxviii

quotation not seen by

me

elsewhere

Lapis autem dictus quod laedat pedem.


Aur. 3396.
3, i

Origg. xvi.

Occasionally the Latin helps to decide the reading of the


Gaelic text
:

Incorporalia, quia carent corpus; unde nee videri nee


tangi possunt, ut veritas, iusticia.
Origg. i. 7, 4

Aur. 3238.

cf.

Occasionally the Gaelic


Latin

is

a running

commentary on the

Perspicuae voces sunt quae longius protrahuntur ita ut


omnem inpleant continue locum, sicut clangor
tubarum (stocaireacht no cornaireacht, Aur. 1477).
Subtiles voces (cronan no certan bee, 1474) sunt,

quibus non est spiritus, qualis est infantium vel


mulierum vel aegrotantium, sicut in nervis (intan
is cruit, 1484).
Quae enim subtilissimae cordae
subtiles
ac
tenues sonos emittunt (intan as
sunt,
bindi

is

tuiu /

is isliu

ata na a n-aill, 1484).

Pingues

sunt voces, quando spiritus multus simul egreditur,

virorum (mod -imascul 1470).


Acuta

sicut

mo

od

-i-

od ceol intan

is

vox tenuis, alta, sicut in


cordis videmus (traethait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda
Dura vox est, quae violenter emittit sonos
1477).
sicut

tonitruum, sicut incudis sonos, quotiens in


percuititur ferum (intan is torand

durum malleus

no is crand 1479, tourand no caint 4575).


Caeca vox est, quae, mox emissa fuerit, conticescit, atque
suffocata

nequaquam

in fictilibus (tae a

Origg.

iii.

longius producitur, sicut est


is fod 1479, fouta 4578).

ed intan

20, 10-13.

Occasionally the Latin determines the interpretation of


the Gaelic, the latter being an almost literal translation of
the former
:

Superflui sunt,

quorum

partes simul ductae plenitudinem

excedunt, ut puta duodenarius.

Habet enim partes

INTRODUCTION

xxxix

duodecimam, quod est


quinque
quod duo; quartam, quod tria
dimidiam, quod sex.
quattuor

unum

sextam,

quod
enim et

tertiam,

Vnum

duo, et tria, et quattuor, et sex simul ducta


xvi faciunt et longe a duodenario excedunt.
Perfectus numerus est, qui suis partibus adinpletur,
habet enim tres partes, sextam,
ut senarius
.

tertiam, dimidiam

dimidia
est

tres.

unum

et

unum

sexta eius

est, tertia

duo,

Haec partes in summam ductae, id


duo et tria simul eundem consummant

perficiuntque senarium.
1443-1453.

Origg.

iii.

5,

9-11;

Aur.

Occasionally the Gaelic gives merely the gist of the


Latin
:

Primum enim diem a Sole appellaverunt, qui princeps


est omnium siderum, sicut et idem dies caput est
cunctorum dierum. Secundum a Luna, quae Soli
et

splendore et magnitudine proxima est, et ex eo


Tertium ab Stella Martis quae
lumen.

mutuat

Quartum ab

Vesper vocatur.

Stella Mercurii,

quam

quidam candidum circulum dicunt. Ouintum ab


stella lovis, quam Phaethontem aiunt.
Sextum a
Veneris

quam Luciferum

stella,

omnia sidera plus


quae

Saturni,
fertur

lucis habet.

sexto

caelo

asserunt, quae inter

Septimus ab

locata

explere cursum suum.

stella

triginta annis

Origg.

v.

30,

5-7;

Aur. 3531-9.
Titles of chapters or sections in the Origines appear as

names of Ogham

De homine xi.
De avibus xii.

daenogam 5709.
enogam 569-!.
dinnogam 5687.

I.

7.

Oppida nobilia xv.

I, 6.

De aedificiis sacris xv. 4.


De navibus xix. I, i.
De instrumcntis ntsticis xx.
De coloribus xix. 17

ceallogam 5702.
ogam n-eathrach 6132.
14.

ogam

tirda 5724.

dathogam

5697.

INTRODUCTION

xl

names suffer change in passing into the Gaelic text


through the Latin transliteration
Bible

Nabuchodonosar,

Nebuchadnezzar,

v.

Origg

18;

39,

Nabgodon, Aur. 127.


Nimrod, Nembroth, Origg.

vii.

22

6,

Neamruad, Aur.

112.

Noah, Noe, Origg.

vii. 6,

15

Noe, Aur. 107.

the avowed purpose of

Secrecy

Ogham

is

outlined in

a simple code similar to that which finds expression in Aur.


6011.

Caesar quoque Augustus ad filium, quoniam," incfuit,


innumerabilia accidunt assidue quae scribi alterutro
oporteat et esse secreta, habeamus inter nos notas
si vis tales ut, cum aliquid notis scribendum erit,
pro unaquaque littera scribamus sequentem hoc
"

"

modo

pro a b, pro b c, et deinceps eadem ratione


pro z autem redeundum erit ad duplex
Origg. i.
"Quidam etiam versis verbis scribunt.

ceteras

a.

25,

2.

This reference

have not found

Aur. 3244-8, but

cf.

Maro

24, 10-24.

VIRGILIUS MARO, GRAMMATICUS

II.

The
list

editor,

Huemer,

in his Praefatio, p. xi., after giving a

of blunders

common

to

Atque

archetypum

all

illud

fuerit necesse est,

p
The

et f,

the

MSS.

litteris

cum a

is

irresistible.

t,

scriptum

r et

Whether the

himself perpetrating these blunders,

merely copying them from


we know him, are Irish.
in

scotticis

et u, c et

s,

s et f,

saepe permutatae videntur.

conclusion

Meyer,

of Maro, concludes

two

lists

or, as his

scribe

was

editor thinks,

others, the sources of Maro, as

(SPA

July,

December

1912), gives,

INTRODUCTION
from Maro

tract, a selection of

considers to be of Celtic origin.

Assianus

(5).

Ninus

(162).

f.

(123).

Gabr-itius (126).
Galb-arius (163).

Galb-ungus

(119).

Plastus (151).
Prass-ius (61).

(15, 30).

Fassica

(123).

(162).

Oss-ius (163).
Perrichius (163).

Bi-entius (137).

Don

Lato-mius

Lugenicus

Mart-ulis (92).
Mitterius (114).

(173).

Breg-andus

forty-two names, which he


They are as follows
:

Aemerius p. (22).
Andrianus (173).
Area rex (15).
Asp-orius

xli

Regulus (?) (133).


Rigas f. Rigadis (122).
Rithea Nini regis uxor

(10, 122, 133).

Germanus

Gal-irius (146).

Sagillius

Gall-ienus (129).
Gelb-idius (36).

Samm-inius, Virgil
Sarbon (122).

Gerg-esus (15).
Glengus(i22, 133).

Sarr-icius (123).

Gurg-ilius (173).

Sedulus (138,

luu-anus

(54).

Senenus

Lap-idus

(19).

Sulpita (24).

Saur-inus

Lassius (107).

Ursinus

Further

examination

connection with

his

Ireland,

circle

uncle

(28).

139).

(138).

(90).

shorten

may

(28).

the contention that

seriously disturbing

(119).

(17).

of

the
if

list

without

Maro had no

Irish

friends

was

unaccountably large.
Stta apte (i 16, 1 1
81, 4) has been recognised as an IrishLatin hybrid, su-apte, which later came into common use
;

in

Irish Latin.

There

is

Grammar, e.g.
Maro denies
preferring latitudo,
litera

ab

of the

sprinkling
that

Latinitas

p. 5,

ipsis

loci

is

communes of Latin

derived

from Latinus,

Aur. 355.

etiam

cerae

caracteribus

usque

quassorum compossitionem hosce ordines


p. 7,

syllabae

ad

directat,

10; Aur. 1756.

monades senas

ut scrobs,

Maro,

p.

transcendere non debent


Aur. 1229.

literas
1,

INTRODUCTION

xlii

Grama

est litteraturae peruidatio, quae quasi quaedam


totius lectionis semitula est unde et a peritis litera

interpretatur legitera
p. 19, ii

Maro,

certain

est legendi itinerarium.

resemblance

is

discernible

between

Maro,

and Aur. 3244, and between

24, 10-23,

Nee aperte

masculinum

feminum.

verbum

Maro,

31, 13

nee absolute
Aur. 614.

omne quod lingua profertur


and Aur. 1924.

device scinderatio fonormn,

was resorted to
expression, and

esse

dicitur

est

88, 6,

The

quod

Aur. 1758.

Maro

et voce.

declares

Maro,

(p. 76, /),

order to sharpen the wits, to adorn

in

ne mystica quaeque, et quae solis gnaris


pandi debent, passim ab infimis ac stultis facile

tertia (causa)

repperiantur.

The same
invention of

reason, here called tertia,

Ogham

Co mbeth

is

alleged for the

in bescna-sa ic lucht in eolais fo leth, sech

lucht na tirdachta / na buicnechta, Aur. 5472.

One

device consisted

groups of

in

breaking up a sentence into

letters, e.g.

RRR. SS. PP. MM. NT. EE. OO.


Romanorum perit. Maro, 77, 12
again

may

sicut

cf.

i.e.,

spes

Aur. 3501-3.

be broken up into syllables, and these


be strewn about in the jingle of a so-called

Also, words

sentence,

A.V.I.,
;

may

e.g.

Lucanus
a.

fee.

edidit

om.

ni.

ge. ves.

libet aeuo,

ro.

trum. quando. turn.


is thus explained,

which

quandolibet vestrum gero omni aeuo affectum.

Maro,

Or

in single

77, 6.

words,

e.g.

nodo for dono, nest for

sine,

gernicn

INTRODUCTION
for

Maro

regnum,

xliii

This process appears

78, 28.

in Irish as

delidin sillabacda, Aur. 5312.

Amans may

be transformed into vianas (Maro, 79,

into hret, is into si (78, 31)

which

meaningless syllable or disyllabic


a

heri

called delitin litterda, metathesis of letters, Aur. 5308.

is

A
into

4),

atat into tata (79, 10), a process

word,

bonum (Maro,

e.g.

naviga-be-re

for

may

be introduced

navigare, b-u-onum

78, 17); forti-osi-ter for fortiter

for

compt-os-e for

compte (Maro, p. 70, 6).


meaningless disyllable so intro
duced into Gaelic is called condall, Aur. 5317.

The unstressed

syllable following

sometimes dropped,
rogauisse
78, 10).
Still

e.g.

an accented syllable
for

rogassem, rogasse

is

rogauissem,

rogarunt rogarit for rogauerunt, rogauerit (Maro,


In Gaelic poetry this is called cotut, Aur. 5287.

more does the

influence of

Maro emerge

in

the

Trefhocul.

The name Trefhocul bears a resemblance to


De trimodo dicendi genere, Orig.

of the chapter

the heading
ii.

17 which

may have suggested it. Similarly the twelve items compos


ing the Trefhocul might have been originally suggested by
the duodecim latinitates of Maro,

p. 88, 22, e.g.

lumbrosa, hoc est perlonga, cum pro uno usitato


totus uersus scribitur, with perlonga, cf. (can) rofota,
Aur. 5060 and for the matter, cf. Aur. 5943 where
each letter besides being written is spelt.
vn. sincolla, hoc est perbreuis, uersa uice cum totus

vi.

uersus usitatus in uno continetur fono.


breuis,
cf.

vill.

cf.

With per
Aur.
and
for
the
5059,
matter,
(can) rogair,

Aur. 1326.

belsauia,

hoc est peruersa,

cum

modusque uerborum transmutat.


(can) chloen.

casus

With

nominum

peruersa,

cf.

Aur. 5057, 5086.

hoc est humillima, quae semper res terrenas


with humillima, cf. a irisel, used of an
appended syllable, a. Aur. 5079, 5346.

XI. spela,

loquitur,

INTRODUCTION

xliv

polema, hoc

XII.

tractat.

syllable,
II.

est

superna

With superna,
atf.Aur. 5078,

cf.

quae
a

de

irard,

superioribus

an appended

5341.

Assena, hoc est notaria, quae una tantum littera


pro toto sono contenta est, cf. Q for ceirt, Aur.
5816, and R for Ruis 5820.

These coincidences are too numerous

to be accidental.

Omitting other lesser similarities, to lay stress on which


might be regarded as fanciful, we come to the solid ground
of quotation. (Hereon Zimmer, not having the whole tract
before him, could find no footing.)
V.

metrofia, hoc est intellectualis, ut dictantabat, id est

principium sade, id est iustitia gno utilitas bora,


hoc est fortitude ter hoc est dualitas coniugalis
rfoph, hoc est ueneratio
brops, hoc est pietas
fkal,
rihph, hoc est hilaritas gal, hoc est regnum
hoc est religio clitps, hoc est nobilitas mymos,
fann, hoc est recognitio
ulio, hoc est
dignitas
honor gabpal, hoc est obsequium blaqth, hoc est
lux solis mere hoc est pluuia pal, dies et nox
gatrb, hoc est pax; biun, hoc est aqua et ignis;
;

spax, longeuitas.

With the exception of y and z, which may have been


added from another source, the explanation following hoc est,
id

est>

is

in

each case identical with that given

in

Aur. 4211-

4223.

Perhaps more important than all is the following


De // autem hoc dicendum est, quod semper inspirat,
nunc ad fortitudinem, nunc ad motationem tantum.
Nam cum semiuocalem praecesserit/^ solum sonum
:

pariter

uero

motabunt

mutam

ut hfascon et

c uel /

uel/>,

faciunt/"pro

suum sonum non

/if,

si

amittit

ut Jicorda, litronus, hpalanx, Maro, p. 10, 9-14.

This passage throws light on Aur. 432, 1264-1279. Bogad


there means aspiration (and apparently on finals) ut clock,

INTRODUCTION
both.

It

Ogham
is

has also another

usage, where

non-existent

in

mean ing, fortitude*

B + H = P,
pure

xlv

influenced by

P which
Semigud^ again, means

thus supplying the

Gaelic.

and apparently on initials, but on this point the


examples are inconclusive (cf. beith mo hsuidhe CZ. x. 266).
Here the aspirating H precedes the consonant it aspirates,
lenition

and thus Maro and the Auraicept are at one.

The warrantable

conclusions to be drawn from the facts

are few but very important.


Bigerro sermone defabo
8, 13) "in the speech of Bigorre," which Zimmer

(Maro

presses to

show that Maro was a native of that

district, though in the


tenth century he is called Tolosanus, proves
merely that
Maro was more or less conversant with Baskish. He was

acquainted with viro athensi, a man belonging to the town of


Ate south of Limoges (Maro 141, 28). He mentions a
Sibylla

town of Carca, in the Depart


ment of the Iberian Bastitani (p.48, 25), and he knew a great
Carginiensis, belonging to the

number of Irishmen. Except perhaps in the passage last


quoted in which h ad fortitudinem may be compared with b
cum aspiratione pro p ponitur (432, 2879), no connection is
traceable

between

belongs to a
influence of

him and

Ferchertne

whose

fill,

work

much earlier period than the Trefhocul. The


Maro s book on Irish grammar is confined to

the Trefhocul, the last stage of the


growth of prosody. The
of
which
Ferchertne
Auraicept proper,
fili was one of the
or
one
under
whose name ancient material was
authors,

incorporated, shows no trace of


Interesting questions arise

Maro s

in

influence.

the text

which need only be mentioned, e.g. :


The so-called mutes /, n, r, pronounced
le,

el,

itself,

some

of

en, er in Latin,

ne, re in Gaelic (490, 511, 2981).

The frequent absence of


omission, of f and s,
ni

aspiration,

aimser fota 1576,

or

aspiration

aiges (408,9).

by

INTRODUCTION

xlvi

The
text;

confusion owing to the distance of the gloss from

e.g.,

is

1515

glossed at

1637, 1533-5 at

its

1675, 1577 at

1686, 1579 at 1687, 1591 at 1692, 1609-14 at 1695.


The tendency of words and phrases like alt co fesear

and fogni (1336, 1871) to become technical terms.


The French pronunciation of Latin, sirqundimus (4125),

(827, 1686),

sircuim (4132), sircumplex (4784), siicuitas (2531), resulting


in

important changes in Gaelic, isinn Asia (2571)

Achaidh

for isind

(251).

sense (806), some


without metre (1546), and some in metre but obscured by

The rhymes, some apparently without

glosses (253, 4360, 5932).


The etymological reconstructions

co-fid >rcubaid (1512),

ciallabajr/tfr ceileabar (1594),


fegait>r

fichit (4735),

for

fegait,

sedhait (4737), segait

(4739),
co,

re

hogfegad/c>r

coic (1637),

huamma/tfr reim (1638),

so-fis/or seis (479),


ae

gnithi/0r aicned (501),

suad/<?r

uad

(495),

conod miait (508)/0r conid muiti

(495),

dorrae for tra (573), smitai, smit

ai

= aue)/0/-

smita

(4649).

The constant modernising


ceithri

gne

of the text

(872), ceitheora

moosomfor moam

(658),

lugam

(659),

lugusom/<?r

gnee

(3747),

cinntechsom,cinntichu son (1258) /or cinntechem (4368).

element of everything
Syllable, the ultimate
except gender (1457).

mood, are

indicated

Number,
by

in Gaelic

case, person, degree, tense,

syllables,

whereas

there

is

no

INTRODUCTION
distinction of

xlvii

gender indicated in spelling; and mod, tod,


is aurlond
(1496) or leading word

traeth,secunduin, quosdaui

that indicates gender.

The

ascription of the

same poem

Colum

to

Cille (938),

and to Cormac (1596, 3867, 5351).

The

same passages 1487, 1502; cf. 2616,


2622, shows that the present text is made up from at least
two versions which sometimes contained the same material
in

repetition of the

Hence no doubt comes the

different order.

character of

The

many

disjointed

passages.

following terms, however, are of importance in order

to understand the text

The word inrocomraircnigsioinairne gives the key to the


plan of inflection called filltigtki, prepositional cases (1515).
These eight syllables are held to form one word.

According
grammatical methods the basis or unity is the
compound word of five syllables comroircnigseniniar. It is
preceded by a relative pronoun an- and by an enclitic or
and it is followed by an emphasising pro
pre-verb
to our present

-;<?-,

nominal

suffix

-ni.

But

the

native

Irish

grammarians

regarded all these syllables as parts of one word, and the


scribes wrote the whole as one word.
In their opinion
were
not
proclitics
separate words, but rather filltigtlii,
inflections, of the

accented word.
Accordingly, they wrote
one word, an inflected form of fer, and gave it
a distinct technical name.
This also explains how is fer
(1529) comes into the scheme. Is was an unstressed pro

frissinfcr as

and as such was treated as part of the word following.


They did not observe that is fer, a thtiarascbdil, had already
been dealt with under the head
fer,a ainnmiugud ; nor

clitic,

o>l

did

they recognise identity of case and

inflection

words which they wrote


lafer^frissinfer; fofiur, iarfiur (1525).

in

the

INTRODUCTION

xlviii

of

Classification

or

any explanation of
was thus rendered unnecessary.
reim, which later means oblique case

prepositions,

infixed pronouns (653)

Another flexion

Of this

(786).

and both combined

word as

in the

is

flexion there are three kinds outward, inward,

it

outward

stands

flexion in the context,

tit

in

e.g.,

There

est,fer.

is

no flexion

the nom., but there

may

be

in the accus., Iasin (bf}fer; fir

is

an inward flexion of fer ; and


e.g., dond fair.

in fer

T&breim prosta -\- fade in (795)


external flexion of me, tn, etc.

is

capable of both,

is

the side-flexion,

i.e.,

the

Trefhocul rhymes with gle-accur (2179), and hence- has

e and

It

f.

ledge of

its

means

secret,"

"

is

very

hard,"

"three

i.e.,

words"

considering that

"

"and

(2018),

probably how

it

came

the

to be so

know
named,

already thirty-six words

have been found comprised under

its species in, Irish" (2021).


a collection of precepts for the
For each of the twelve
correction of incorrect versification.

Trefhocul -came to
faults

technical

having

mean

(anocJif],

there were

two correctives, each

technical name, one belonging to the class called

its

sciath, the other to that called

gmiis.

Thus the whole system

of correct versification would have been comprised under a


set of mnemonics, each mnemonic consisting of three heads,

and the name of its two correctives


was a three-word scheme, and accurately named
The original scheme of two correctives for each
Trefhocul.
error is commended (2010-3), and still adhered to in rudrach
But later refinements
hilar (2057).
(2047), and in uathadfri
the

name

in short,

of the fault

it

overlapping in the application of the correctives.


Hence we find in the poem that a particular fault may be
corrected or avoided by having recourse to more than one
led

to

device of each class, sciath or gnuis.


read that the 24 helps are increased to 47 (2126).
the second list
list (2035-2071) totals 48, not 47
first
The

We

INTRODUCTION

xlix

(2083-2118) totals 51; the third list (2131-2176) totals 48.


The discrepancies may be purely scribal, and due to a mis
reading of the Roman numerals, e.g., in. read as iv., ii. as v.,
a constant source of error.

What

the

is

corrective?

will

It

between

difference

be found that

artificial

purely

distortions

of

two

kinds

those called

all

of a

except lugugud, the addition

the

diminutive

of

sceith,

suffix,

are

the words; whereas those

called gnuisi, except cennfochrus tuis, airickill, deckned,

dichned, are in accordance with strict

and

grammatical usage

the use metri causa of sofer instead of fer


(soerugud]
dofer instead offer (doerugud} the addition of two proclitic
e.g.,

one syllable (dialt n-etarleme)


issed (iirlonn insce), where they
might be

syllables (lorga fuacJt], or of

the use of

omitted,

isse, issi,

e.g.

ind ala gnuis deg dil,


urlonn insci ria hairim,

issi

issi completes the number of syllables


required but
be
if
the
number were complete
might
dispensed with,

(where

without

it)

the use of singular for plural (den),


creid

"

my

quatrain,"

uaim

meaning

fein,

(all

is fi or

fhuilet (2198)

e.g.

rann,

the quatrains of)

the use of plural for singular (Idn),

meni

mo

"

my poem

"

e.g.

= meni

fuil.

There must be some distinction of ideas in the two terms.


are or were originally the natural devices, and

The gnuisi

the sceith the artificial devices for avoiding metrical


faults,
and perhaps the words were adopted on that
principle,

gnuis being the natural part of the man on the outlook to


ward off an enemy, sciath the artificial implement for the

same purpose.

similar

touch of imagination emerges

in

regarding

INTRODUCTION

head and heart as being supports of man, the male being


(1808, 4994), and the further refinements of Idnoinna and their
In the original notion
gene, mated pairs and their progeny.
doubtless the distinction was based on gender, but that fact
was forgotten, and among the examples are Idnoinna deime
(4999), mated couples (mas. and fern, in grammar), belonging
This usage is
to dem (a thing which is neuter in nature).
is
more
still
remote from
which
to
extended
even
quantity,
the original idea of gender.

The same tendency to


suggested distinction among

personification

appears

forcomet,frecomet, and

in

the

degconiet

kneecap on knee
knuckles
as
and degconiet,
of
armament
offence,
frecomet,
and
life
that which protects by supplying
vigour.
(1818)

forcoinet,

defensive armour,

as

OGHAM.

Ogham alphabet was not of Irish origin (388, 2771).


dem 2. Jahrhundert n.
Vielleicht," says Zimmer, "schon
Chr. ist der Verkehr des keltisch-romischen Westgalliens mit
"

seiner alten Kolonie,

dem

keltischen Irland, die Einfuhrung


in Irland und die Sitte, dem Dahin-

des Ogamalphabets
geschiedenen aufrechtstehende

Steinpfeiler

zu

errichten,

zuzuschreiben (SPA., 8th Dec. 1910, p. 1096).


According to MacNeill (p. 335) the origin of the

Ogham

Roman

conquest of Gaul,
of
the
continent used
Celts
Western
because prior thereto the
and Ogham is based on the Latin alphabet.
the Greek
alphabet must be placed

after the

alphabet,
In our knowledge of written Gaelic, Ogham inscription
bounds the horizon, and the identity in value of the Ogham

symbols with

later

MS.

tradition

is

clear,

with

few

exceptions.

Group.

third
Oghamists are agreed that F, the
in inscriptions.
group, must be read as

letter

of the

INTRODUCTION

li

Group.

In the Kilkenny Arch. Journal, July 1874, P- 2 3 T


r
G. M. Atkinson suggested that this group is named after the
>

first

five

Gaelic numerals,

Jiaon, do, tri, ceatliar, cnig.

This

suggestion, without touching on the origin of H, is open to


the objection that oen in O.I. is used only in composition
with a substantive but in the meantime it furnishes a useful
;

mnemonic, and, as it stands, it indicates a possible connection


between this group and nwnerosa, No. IV. of the duodeciui
latinitates of

The

Maro,

p. 89,9.

with regard to H, the

difficulty is

first

letter of the

has two powers, ad motagroup.


According to Maro
twnein and ad fortitudineni, distinctions which correspond to
the values in the text
(767),

and

(2)

B cum

(i)

H non

est litera

sed nota aspiration!s

aspiratione pro ^ ponitur

(433).

no demonstrated instance of H occurring in any


of the Ogham inscriptions, and the sign may have originally
been devised to represent a consonant value which became

There

is

rare or obsolete before the time of the extant inscriptions


and the first value of
was attracted to, and became
;

identified with, the

symbol when the

letter

became

familiar

through Latin sources.


An endeavour is here made to establish the second or

Ogham

value of

from the following considerations.

stop sibilant existed in Gaelic (cf. Fed. Gr. 51), corre


sponding to Gaulish D, which is sometimes written S, e.g.,
Lat. i-uuenc-us,

Cym.

ieu.

The

s-6, s-6u, s-o-oin.

is

Ir. 6-ac,

rendered

Cym.

That

this

Ir.
Ir.

6a,

as

sound

is represented
by Ogham
probable by the occurrence of the form

this sibilant

Tasg-os, and

c,

sibilant representing / appears also in

ihuinntis, Lat. juvenes, Erin,

But

ieu-anc ; also without

sound

probably

r,

viii. 5.

is

also written

e.g.,

do-bidc

d,

e.g.,

= -dibirc

Tadg =
(cf.

Brer

INTRODUCTION

Hi

Garad

Breg Garad

This value
g.s. of Bri
Garad).
=
the
B
P.
following
give
Ogham +
Again the three Ogham accents are represented in the
text by the letters d, s, n, (4800).
At lines 430, 2877,
are
found
the
three
however,
supplementa written h, s, n,
for

B would

except that at line 2878 for s =forsail is written the Latin sign
of length (T has a sign that may be meant for s), and a

This leaves a probability


particular sign is substituted for n.
that here
has the same value as D.

Teora fuillti ind Uraicepto (430, 2877) seem to be the


three supplementa (cf. Origg. i. 3, 6), not of the Ogham but
of the Auraicept, that is, they are additions made to the
orthographic system by the grammarians of the MS.
If this limitation be correct, examples of supple

Ogham

tradition.

menta need hardly be looked


No opinion on this point

Oghamists

obtainable

the word forbaid

for

the ancient Oghams.

for in
is

is

modern

from

hardly known, and

Oghamists have hitherto ignored it. The word, however,


with definitions and examples in the Book of

occurs

Ferchertne (810, 3633) one of the oldest parts of the text,


and some of its provisions are exemplified, e.g., n (of cenn) is
not doubled in Ogham (439) e.g. QENVENDANI, Hewo-ovi vSo?
(Fed. Gr.

On

357).

number of
While some of these,

the other hand

inscriptions contain double letters.

a large

perhaps be accents as indicated in the


Auraicept, others like cc (1358, 1825) and 11 (4788) obviously
are not.
Pedersen (Gr. 4), and others incline to think

dd and

s,

may

Rhys
them signs of lenition.

Group.

The fact that the third symbol has the effect of two
letters ng proves nothing as to that combination (4925).
In

Ogham

inscriptions

the letters,

if

different syllables, are written separately,

they belong to

Ir.

Ep.

i.

49.

INTRODUCTION
The

liii

fourth

symbol is said to represent sr or str, and the


Stru
247, 2562, Streulae 5690, Strannan 5795, seem
examples
sufficient to establish that sound.
The other examples point
sound

to a rare or obsolete

like

English

z, e.g.,

stmolach 5695,

5727, srorca 5700.

siist

sreghuindeacht 5801,
No authenticated instance of this symbol has been found
in inscriptions.

A
The simple vowels have

Group.
the

same order and value

as in

Latin.

no distinction of long and short vowels has

In epigraphy

hitherto been observed.

Ea
The

or

and the

first

Diphthong Group.
last

symbols ea and ae are inter

changed.

The doubling

of each letter in

the explanatory script


long vowels as well

(1143) shows that the symbols stand

for

as diphthongs.
and e (1285).

of e and o (2873), of e

The symbol
cf.

MacNeill,

p.

The symbol

Examples are given


for I (1369)

335,6) and

Owing

Cryptograms
But

(Ir.

to

his

Ep.

ii.

is

i.

(Ir.

is

Ep.

ii.

83

which

is

144-8) has called attention to

of Nathair im

Ceann
axiom that the Oghams were not

66),

he

is

unwilling to allow that the

groups were consciously interchanged

this interchange

(ii.

26, 140).

and
was elementary work pre
wonder is perhaps that so

contemplated (Aur.

since the study of the Oghams


scribed for junior students, the

many

y.

also used for x,

perhaps two

an excellent example

B and H

medial

for ae (1365,70)

regarded as a double c (oc).


Prof. MacAlister (Ir. Ep.

(5821).

also used for

is

for

of the epigraphs are in regular

Ogham.

p.

306, 42),

INTRODUCTION

liv

A Harmony

between the

Two

Families of Texts.

INTRODUCTION

lv

INTRODUCTION

Ivi

II.

I.

II.

I.

Passages in
227-8

446-7

300-311

806-9

Passages in

I.

only.

1962-2259

II.

only.

Passages Misplaced.
I.

789-90
T242-6
T880-92

II.

4024-4030

AURAICEPT NA N-ECES

AURAICEPT
BB. 314 a 16

Incipit
toiseach.

rotebed

E. 19)3 14

Auraicept na nEges -i- eraicept, ar er gach


Cid dianad toisseach seo ? Ni ansa. Don tebi
ed toisseach arricht

isin Gaedilg, uair is

iar tiachtain din scoil

gusna berlaib ammuich

la

Fenius

gach son

forrdorcha robae in gach bescno / in gach berlu,

doradadh
berla.

isin Gaedilg,

Ar gach

conad

toisseach

airi as foirleithiu

didiit, uair is

is

ed

quant gach

ed ba toisseach

lais-

gach son fordorcha do riachtain i tossuch -ibeithi-luis ind ogaim arbithin dorchadad.
Cest, cia tugaid
Uair 10
ara n-ebtfrar berla tobaide din Gaedilg? Ni ansa.

na

filedaib

rotebedh as gach berla / gach son fordorcha gach berla,


fo[fh]rith ined doib isin Gaedelg ara forleithi seach gach
mbescna. Cest didiu, ina raibi Gaedelg resiu rotobaidhe ?
;

Robae emh, ar
cheana.

ar

ni

cia

Cest,

na

da berla sechtmogat
Ni ansa. 15
rrugad Gaedeal ?

fagbait^r
tir

Ni ansa.
Ocus cia airm sonnrud?
nEgipt.
rraind iartharaig descertaig Egipti.
mmaigh Ucca
Gsedel
Cia diw scoil dus-cuaid gu suidhe ? Ni ansa.
mac Etheoir mic Toe mic Barachaim do Grecaib Scitie
Ni ansa. 20
Cest, cia met don-uc di ?
(no Scithie) (col. /S).
I

huiledeto

fordorchadh
Araicept andso
1

sis

genmotha

inni

rothormachtatar

torrachtain gu Fenius.

iar

berla

L.[305]
5

ur E.

roboi,

bescnu E.
7

Goedelg, ar gach mberla E.

13

ar

lasin filid E.

10

ar a n-eiper, teipide E.

16

remrade E.

ls

dacuaidh E.

a)

L. dunuch B.

21

rotormactar E.

tria

filid

Cest, cia

in

MSS.,

asin

cest written out

15
ana rugad E.
E.
Barrcaimh, Sgeithegda E.
dotormachtadar L.

rotopad

ae

19

{quani)

THE PRIMER
Incipit

Primer of the Poets, that

of lessons, for every beginning

Not

beginning?

hard.

is

To

selected in Gaelic since this

is,

the

eraicept,

beginning
is this a

To what

er.

selection

that

was

the beginning which was


invented by Fenius after the coming of the school with
the languages from abroad,
obscure sound that
is

every

existed

in

obscure

sound should come

every speech and in every language was


into
Gaelic so that for this reason it is more
put
compre
hensive than any language. Er then is
every beginning,
for this was the
beginning with the poets, that every
the Beithe Luis of the

in

Ogham

the beginning,

to

wit,

on account of obscurity.

Query, what is the reason why select language should


be said of Gaelic? Not hard. Because it was selected
from every language; and for
every obscure sound of
every language a place was found in Gaelic owing to
its

comprehensiveness

beyond

then, did not Gaelic exist before

every
it

speech.

was selected

Query,
?

It

did

indeed, for the seventy-two languages are not found other


wise.
Query, in what land was Gaedel born ? Not hard.

In Egypt.
the plain

Egypt.

And what
of Ucca

Who

in

of the

Not hard.
particular place?
the South-Western division
school went to

it

thither?

In

of

Not

Gaedel son of Ether, son of Toe, son of Baracham,


a Scythian Greek.
Query, how much did he bring
of it? Not hard.
The whole of it except what poets
added by way of obscuration after it had reached Fenius.
hard.

AURAICEPT

BB. 314/318

duna

.19/333

scchtmogat rotaisealbad do Fenius


ar is e ba tochu lais
Ni ansa. Berla Feni
ba soom din scoil 7 25
is
e
oetid
asa
is e rodn-alt
7

di berlaibh

tossuch?

dia scoil 7

gach mbeascna 7 is e berla toisseach


Eabra J Greic 7 Laitin la Fenius

ar a forleithi seach

rugad on

Et

tur.

robae

riasu tissad on Scithia 7 ni rainig a leas a

icon

tur,

nach

ndeimniughudh

conidh aire sin toisseach rotaissealbad.

raibi

berlaib

isna

ilib

bad

ni

uaisli

quam (-i- inas) in Gsedelg?


a cuibdi, ar a edruma, ar a mine

tossuch

Ar

Cid ar nad

Uair

ansa.

co

mbad

bad

lethiu

is

Caide

tossach.

forleithiu.

quam (-i- inas) gach mbescna? Ni


cetna bescno rugad on tur, ba mede

quam gach mbescna, conid

leithiu

Cest,

du riachtain 30
Ni ansa em.

loc

aen dia taiseal- 35

aimsear 7 perso 7 tugait

Loc di in tor Neamrua[i]d,


Aimsear di aimser chumar is aga arricht i tossuch.
Persu di Sachab mac
Adaimh.
claind
taigh in tuir la
Rochemhurcos 7 Gsedel mac Etheoir mic Thoe mic 40
din

Ni ansa.

Gsedelg?

Ni
Caidhe tugaid ?
Barachaim do Grecaib Scithia.
araile
Asberait
di
cumtuch.
Tor Nemrua[i]dh
ansa.
conid tugait Gae-(3i5)-del du dul ism tir
rrugad, conidh
i

he toissech roscrib

taiblibh 7

rud dianad ainm Calcanensis.

llegaibh isin lug sondIs and roscrib Gaedel in 45


i

Cid ar a n-abar bescna domunda din Gaedhilg


Ni ansa.
briathar lasna hegnadu eolcha ?
di
ata
nach
7
domundaibh
Arinni aisnedes du ceastaib J du chaingnib
comad borb fiadh
Cid ara
eter tuaith J eglais.

Gaedealg.

n-ep<?r

Dia

inti legas in

23

dib,

Fenius ar E.

Gaedhelg

Ni

di ata briathar

and eter 50

omitted, cf. YBL. 2308, which puts Gcedel.


w rothaiselb E.
w Something
nanraibe E.
tidecht E.
^ forlethne E. 37 don E.
arricht tosaig E.

24

25

7 ire rodnalt B.

31

quam MS. ar.


nAdaim E. mac Roceimbruigemicos E.

39
44

IT

table,

and

;8

41

a thuccait E.

to be wearied, marginal gloss, probably in.tended for


Deut. iv. 13, etc.
referring to tables of stone, Ex. xxiv. 12

fb,

b,

margin glosses 3148.


(1) doseadad ambi logos,
(2) beascna

-i-

urlabra

cf.

alogii,

Origg.

viii. 5,

Lower

26
44

sunraig E.

THE PRIMER

Query, what language of the seventy-two was published


by Fenius first? Not hard. The Irish Language ... for

whom

he preferred of his school, and whom he


had reared from his youth, and it is he that was the
it

is

he

youngest of the school, and on account of

beyond every speech, and

siveness

it

its

was the

comprehen

first

language

was brought from the Tower. Fenius had Hebrew,


Greek, and Latin before he came from Scythia, and he
had no need to establish them at the Tower, wherefore
on that account it was published first. Query, was there
that

not

among

the

nobler to take

many languages something

precedence of Gaelic

No

Not hard.

indeed, on account
and comprehensive
Wherefore is it -more comprehensive than any
ness.
Not hard.
Because it was the first speech
speech?
that was brought from the Tower, it was of such extent
that it was more comprehensive than any speech so

of

its

that

aptness, lightness, smoothness,

was the one

hard.

What

be published at first.
place, time, person, and cause of Gaelic?

it

are the

Its

to

place, the

was invented
the Tower by
of

at

first.

Adam

Rochemhurcos

and

Tower

of

Nimrod,

for

Not

there

it

time the time of building


children.
Its person Sachab son
Its

Gaedel

son

of

Ether, son

of

Toe, son of Baracham, a Scythian Greek. What is its


cause?
Not hard. The building of Nimrod s Tower.

Others say the cause was that Gaedel went into the
land in which he was born so that he was the first that
wrote

which

it

is

on tablets and stones

named

\Vherefore

is

Calcanensis.

in

the particular place

There Gaedel wrote

Gaelic.

said of Gaelic, since

it is
worldly speech
not referred to by the learned sages? Not hard.
On
account of what it relates of worldly questions and cases

both of laity and clergy.


Wherefore
who reads Gaelic is rude before God ?

is

it

Not

said that he
to

it is

refer-

BB.

AURAICEPT

I5a8

E.20a6

acht do uilideataid na feallsamnachta eter gramadaigh 7


dileachtaigh 7 rim, amal atbert in

filz:

Foglaim, feallsamnacht is fas,


Legeand, gramadach, z s gluas,
Litirdheacht leir ocus rim
Is beg a mbrig for nimh thuas.

55

Ni ansa em, acht


Cest, nach fellsamnacht in Gaedhealg?
na ndenaid mi-ughdair fri dereadh in domain ar thucait
a nderscnaighthi seach na n-ughd^r/Y toisseacha, no is ed
as bescna

domunda and
ind

is

fhellsamnacht dimhain

ind 60

dorigni neach i n-aigidh na


daeiWa 7 is ed sin is borb fiad Dia and.
Caidi log 7 aimser J perso J tugait scribind in Urai-

eire[te]acht
firin<afi

diadha

aibres

cepta? Ni oenlog tra lasna cethri


a n-as tuiseach,

ed

is

is

amal atbert

libro,

in

filz

deghenach, a n-as dedhenach,

is

65

a n-as toisseach iar n-urd lebhurda, is


ed as dedhenacho arricht -i- lebor Cindfaeladh mic Oilella.

ed as toisseach

Log

aimser

-i-

perso

tucait

scribind in libhuir

sin

Cindfaeladh, log do Daire Luran, aimser do aimser Domnaill mic ^Eda mic Ainmireach.
Perso do Cendfaeladh 70

mac

Oilella, tugait a scribind a

a cind Chindfaelad
in

Maidm

catha sin:

ina firindi; et Suibni


laidib duroni

in fear

hiwchind dermait du beim

cath Muighi Rath.

for
i

Conghal ina

ngealtacht, acht

buadha
nDomnall

Ceithri
gaei re
is

ar a

d Albanachaib do breith

in

mhed du
Erennaich 75

na chois dar muir gen airiugudh -i- Dubhdiadh a ainm


inchind dermaid du bhem a cind Cindfaeladh ar a mhed

eta.

do

do bhriathraibh

7 do legeand rothaisigh.
Asberat tra augdair na nGaideal
Cid ara n-ebairtasberat
na
robadar
remi
?
uair
is e Cendfrelad 80
seom,
hughtair

fhilideacht 7

53
36
11

67

CZ. ix. 470.


gun rigfuas E.

fi

5:i

amaires dogni E.

54
feallsamlachta E.
gramatagda gluas E. gluais B.
60
toisechu E.
Origg. viii. 5, 28 6, i, 19 et sey.
6:!
w iar n-urd leabur Ailella
persa E.
E.
:

59

mac Aodha R[ig] E[renn] A.D. 642, marginal note by


6!)
Charles O Connor & 70 persu E.
Luran Cuili Dremnigh T. 71
beiw E.
7:i
72 MR.
74
rian Domnall E.
279, note e
ngeilt re geltacht E.
75
airfite
caich
o
sin
a
leith.
Et
an fer do .feraibh Albun .
slicht
ag
76
liubair aile seo T.
do Albancaibh E.
gen artrach E.
ecc Domnaill

"

THE PRIMER
ence made here at

but to the whole of philosophy, both


grammar, dialectic, and metrics as the poet said
all,

Learning and philosophy are vain,


Reading, grammar and gloss,
Diligent literature and metrics,
Small their avail in heaven above.

Query, is Gaelic not philosophy ? Not hard. (No)


indeed save that which minor authors towards the end

make

as a means for distinguishing them


or this is what are
the
authors
former
beyond
vain
and
worldly speech
philosophy, viz., the heresy and

of the world
selves

the unbelief which any one has shown against the truth,
human, and that is the meaning of rude

divine and

before God.

What

are the place, time, person, and cause of writing


Not one place have the four books, as the poet

the Primer?
says

What

last

is first is

what

is

last is first, to wit,

what

according to book order was invented last to


book of Cennfaeladh, son of Oilill. As regards
the
wit,
place, time, person, and cause of writing that book of
is

first

Cennfaeladh its place Derry Luran, its time the time


of Domnall, son of Aed, son of Ainmire.
Its person
:

Cennfaeladh son of

Oilill;

cause of writing

that his

it,

brain of oblivion was dashed out of Cennfaeladh

head

in

Four glorious events of that battle


Rout of Conghal in his lie before Domnall in his truth
and Suibne in madness, but it is owing to the quantity
of poems he had made the Scotsman bearing the Irish
the battle of Moira.

along with him over sea without being noticed, Dubh


Diadh was his name and his brain of oblivion being
dashed out of Cennfaeladh s head, owing to the extent of

man

poetry, words, and reading that he amassed.

Now

the authors of the

say that the authors

who were

Gael say
before

him

Why
say

did
?

he

since

AURAICEPT

BB. 315*39

arairrig in lebar-sa

md

brollach

E. 20 a 29

Ocus na

Auraicepta.

ugdair na nGaedheal, roba he sein Fenius Farsaigh 7 la.r


na n-ilberla rn^c Nema. Ni ansa. Ar uaisli na haimsiri
asrubairt

-i- aimsiri frecnairci uair


gebidh in aimsir frecnairc
arna huilib aimseraib, ut dicitur : Prescens tempus pro omnibus temporibus ponitur -i- sam(l)aigther in aimsir frecnairc

Cinnas on

forna huilib aimseraib.


fhocul

mbit

dicitur lego

-i-

-go [quando

leghaim, quando dicis


dicis

int s\\\\\aib toisich

radh

7 se ig a

da shill^ nach cantar

in

int aen-

n-aenaimsir ut

(col. /3)

\e-,futuruni est

-iintan raide
preteritum
todachaiche chugut int shill^ dedenach

est le-

-go],

85

90

Defir on
7 seachmadhato seachat int shillab thoisenach.
amal asbert in Laidneoir Tempus non diuiditur sed opera
:

nostra diuiditur

nochon

-i-

aimsear fhogailter and

in

Ni hi dno is frecra dona


ngnimradh-ne.
robadar
i
n-aenaimsir
ris fen tuc Ceannfaelad
haugdaraib
acht

ar

intan roraidh, asberait auctair na nGaedeal.

tuc-somh a ar tus sum/a?


7

is uaisli

uair

-i-

is

i[s]

Cidh ara

sruithiu

si

tu ait in berla Peni

gnim n-ingnad n-indligtheach

is

-i-

(-i-

and

Forcaemnacair

in[a]

mic

Noe.

In

haimsir

gu

toisig

gnim n-ingnadh

cumtach

-i-

triall

Dia.

NeamAdaimh

105

Da comhairlidh
domun isin aimsir

110

in

tuir

Neamruadh sin tra trenfhear sil


Neamruadh mic Cuis mic Caimh
e,
Ni bai iaramh asnrigh for in doman
Nin mic Bel acht mad comhairlidhe 7

nama badar and go

81

ocus an L. E.

86

E.

93

93

-i-

fri

-i-

aimsir

sin

sechtmogat iaramh robadar

106

fedaibh

berla Feniusa) 100

ingnath ara ainmenci, indlightheach ara uaibrigi


for neam ina corpaib collaidib gan comairlechudh

uile

ngMihaigib.

Co ml)a(i

ruaidh.

95

samaigt/w
NihiB. noisE.
ina aimsir he L.

10

anall.

isin

-5

robathesein E.
cf.

Origg.

v. 31,

94

tucait airic E.

<s

108

;)

cf. Gr. Lat. iii. 191, 2


diuiduntur, fodlait^r E.

Nemruad

E.

comairlig L.

Nemruaidh

B.

comairlede E.

THE PRIMER
Cennfaeladh

is

it

invented

that

this book, viz., the


the authors of the Gael,

And

of the Primer.

Prologue

was Fenius Farsaidh, and

that

lar of the

Not hard [2nd

son of Nema.

nobility of the time he said

it,

Ans.].

many languages,
Owing to the

the present time, for


times ut dixit : Praesens

that

is,

he puts the present time for all


tempus pro omnibus temporibus ponitur,
time is put for all times. How is that
:

one word

of the

not spoken

are

diets

quando
est

le-

i.e.,

the

first

nostra

ut

time,

he says

since

syllables, that
dicitur,

lego,

they
read,

and [when you say the last]


That is natural
preterite to you.

to you,
is

syllable

Latin ist

the

as

one

\Q-futurum est-go \quando dicis-go\ praeteritum


when you say the first syllable, the last
future

is

syllable

which are two

in

at

the present

i.e.,

said:

dividuntur,

i.e.,

there but our actions.

who

to the authors

Tenipus non dividitur


is
it
not time that

This however,

lived at the

is

sed opera
divided

is

not a reference

same time with himself

which Cennfaeladh gave when he said the authors of


the Gael say.
Why has he placed a first here ? Because
it

is

the

eldest

among

and the noblest among

letters

vowels.

That
(that

is

this is

Fenius

reason for the Irish Language


a deed wonderful, unlawful,
speech)
the

an unusual deed, unusual for its infrequency,


unlawful for its pride, an attempt on heaven in their
fleshly bodies without permission of God.
that

is,

Which happened

there,

i.e.,

the building of Nimrod s

Adam s

Tower.

Now

seed

time, Nimrod, son of Cush, son of Ham,


There was not then any king over
Noah.

son

in

of

Nimrod was champion

of

all

his

the world

till

the

and

time of Nin, son

were

of Bel,

but only

up till that
Seventy-two counsellors accordingly were in the

counsellors
time.

that

chiefs

in

existence

io

AURAICEPT

BB. 315/322

ndernad

Ba he dno

E. 20/31

dara comairlib sechtmogat


Trenfear sidhe dno / fer an i selg -i- for

in tor.

Neamruad.

in

aigibh / fiadhuch

-ifor mila muige / arrcheasaib -i- for


mucaib alltaib / fornelaib -i- for enaib, co mbidis sochaidi
do dhainibh ica leanmain samlaidh co mba lia -i- hi sloghaib 115
Conid
7 co mba nertmairi oldas couihairlid samhlaidh.
he dorimtas (-i- rotimairg) na da comairlib sechtmogat sin

dhenum in tuir la hua brathar a athar


hiarmo der[b]brathar a shenathar -i- la Fallec mac
Ragua mic Arfaxat mic Sem mic Noe 7 ba he sen in 120
dara comairlib sechtmogat cena go sin. Et asberatsomh
iarum co mad aencomairlib 7 inann tuismidh doib uile
i

n-aencomairli do

i-

la

imchomarc sun^ anmandtf na da fhear


ndernad in tor, acht chena ni airmed
sechtmogat
scribenda acht anmanda na seacht fear ndeg ba haireg[d]u 125
in

Faillec.

Is

lais a

dib

-i-

Riab^

Neamruad, Eber, Latinus,

Faillec,

Scot,

Nabgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus,


Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius, Bardanius, Sardain.
Acht chena is e in cetri iar ndilind iar n-aicniud -i- Neamruadh.
Is e

Is e sin in cetri iar

n-eladhain in Fallec remraite. 130


Nin mac Bel mic Ploisc mic

dono

iar n-ugdaracht -imic Agomolis mic Fronosis mic Gitlis mic Tiris
mic Assuir mic Semh mic Noe. Atcotaidhi-seom dno

Pluliris

anni

sin.

forbeith in

anni

sin.

cumdach
in,

17,

118
i

120

22

Et asberat Neamruadh co mbad a ainm-seomh


gnima sin. Adrodamas (-i- rodaimed) dno dosom 135
Tredhe d\diu ar a ndernad la claind nAdaim
in tuir sin

comairlidh E.

Ragu

12ti

Eiber

131

ugdaras E.

133

Adcotaitise E.

-i-

mac

Adrodmus

corrupt,

"

cf.

imuamhan na

123

Salai E.

seilg E.

E.

oentusidh E.

ar

119

n-aencomairlid E.

122

135

-i-

St.

Luke

iii.

E.

-i

12S

is

oldas

cac/&

E.

hiarmuadh E.
}

r>

na

xiiii fer

E.

Sgarath, Sgithus, Gotus, Sardanius E.

vii. 2, 13
rotechtaid-sium L.

Androdamas

2418,9, which

2i
comairligh, conaigi sin E.
Fallecc sin.
anmand E.

Orosius
:

35

dileand duridhisi

cf.

translated.

Origg.

I3 2
1;!(i

vii. 6,

Pjliris, Ithlis E.

ndamaimh
22

B.

xvi. 15, 8

passage

THE PRIMER

Now

world at the time in which the Tower was made.

one of the 72 was


and a man famous
in

A mighty man was he

Nimrod.
in

hunting, to

coursing, to wit, for hares

and

for

wit,

in

stags

and

trappings, to wit,

So that thus
multitudes of men were following him so that he was
more numerous, to wit, in armies and so that he was
thus more powerful than a counsellor. So that it was he
wild pigs

who
the

and

in snarings, to wit, for birds.

united those 72 counsellors to one counsel to make


Tower with the grandson of his father s brother,

grandson of his grandfather s


Ragau, son of Arphaxad,
son of Shem, son of Noah. And he was one of the

to

with

wit,

the

great

brother, to wit, with Peleg son of

to

72 counsellors, too, up

that

time.

And

they say

Peleg was the one counsellor and the


same parent of them all. A question here is, the names
of the 72 counsellors by whom the Tower was made,
only that writings do not enumerate but the names
that

therefore

of the
to

17

wit,

men who were most

Peleg,

Nimrod, Eber,

illustrious

Latinus,

among them,
Rabiath

Scot,

Nabgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus,


Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius, Bardanius, and
Sardain. But at any rate after the flood the first king
That was the first
according to nature was Nimrod.
king according to
to

art,

however,

authority,

the Peleg aforesaid.


According
Nin son of Bel, son of
it was

of Agomolis, son of Fronosis,


son of Tiras, son of Assur, son of Shem,

Plosc, son of Pluliris, son

son of

Gitlis,

He

Nimrod
it was his name that should be on that work
Adrodamas, i.e., that thing also was granted

son of Noah.
said that
for ever.

him.

Three

things,

that

obtains, then, that

thing.

on

of

then,

account

which

the

Tower was accomplished by Adam

building

of

children,

to wit, for dread

of the flood again, and that

12

BB. 315

do dul

E.

30/323

neamh doib na

for

urdairciugud a
righ nimhi

AURAICEPT

49

corpaib don talmain / d


dia n-eis, conid de sin asbert

n-anmandh

muintir nimi (316): Uenite ut uideamus J 140


confundamus lingas eorum -i- tait co rofegam / g u romelachtnaighem bcrla innani sin. Ba mor tra cumachta sil

Adaimh
festais

fri

/ a nneart isin aimsir sin

ammes(

>sen

fri

denum

in tuir co

[in] robhae cumachta righ nimhi uaso, conru-iconremesc impu.


In tan asberad neach 145

(/1<}

dib

ic

iaramh

aroili

damh

tuc

ba crand doberead

cloch

lecca forsa suaitea in chre / na forchai dia suaitea,


sin croin^/ 7 clocha

asin

f[\id

Scithia

na

is

iat

no-imluaighdis eturru. Dolodar tra


cianaib iarsna gnimaib-sea du

riab

cuingidh fogluma na n-ilberla icon


rotoiwtnigedar

(i-

-i-

tur, air

dorum^^adar 150

dodochusaigeder)

-i-

asa

magen

[n-]arnechta na hilberla do shil Adhaimh,


romeartis and iarna comlani. Dolodar iaramh gu mag
fordailte J

Seannair dochum

in tuir

rrinafi forsata in tor.

fear

gach berla

-i-

mag n-Ucna no mag nDoraimh

maigi Sennair ainm son^/rudach na 155


Coigiurar sechtmoga[i]t a lin na filed

n-iartharthuascert

na

saidhi

-i- sai
gach primhberla
Greic
J
7 Laidean. Ceit^rz
primberlaibh
berla sechtmogat as gach berla dib-sen, is ed rofadlad and.
Fenius Farrsaid, is ed ba hainm a tuislgh J ba sai 160
i-

dona

sen

tri

isna

-i-

tri

Eabra

primberlaibh (cid

siu

na.-tisad a

tuaid

asin

Is e fath ara cuirt/ier primhdhacht i lleith na


mberla sin ara med do eladhnaibh dorighnedh estib

Scithia).
tri

w
:S

147
148
150
l3

141
conad E.
ticidh E.
Vulgate, Gen. xi. 7
144
no is inbaid E.
rodbe, conamessosen -i- conromesc impu E.
do cria suaite 7 do mitmui na clocha ^ na farcaidh dia suaitigh T.

149
reib E.
ree, fili T.
152
airecta B.
airdechta E.
brethnag) H. T.
154
5
romerdais E.
n-Iuchna, iart^r-tuaisciurt E.
raindi, a llin E.
sechtmogat B. E. na fili T.
159
tri suidh
suidh E.
rofor/odlad E.
ba suid sen E. The parenthesis follows in B. E. 1. 165. notisis E.

no-imluaidis E.

ar doruimnetar (!

>

136
157

IBO,

THE PRIMER

13

go to heaven in their bodies from the


and to render their names illustrious after them,

they should
earth,

so

that

on that account said

the

King of heaven

to

the people of heaven (316): Venite ut videamus et confundamus linguas eoruni, that is, come that we may see
s speech.
Now great was the
seed and their strength at that time in
making the Tower, that they might know thus whether
the power of heaven s King was over them, He con

and confound those men

power of

Adam s

founded them, that is, He confused them. When one


of them would say to another fetch me a stone it was
a stick he would bring, to wit, the slabs on

mortar was mixed

and

the

poets

came from Scythia

which the

mallets by which it was


mixed, these are the sticks and stones which they were
talking about.

Now

after these doings

at the

Tower

to seek to learn the

little

time

many languages

since

they thought i.e. they supposed i.e.


of
a
they expected,
place from which were dispersed
and in which had been invented the many languages

Adam s

children that they would remain there in per


They went therefore to the plain of Shinar unto
the Tower, that is, the plain of Ucna or the plain of

by

fection.

Doraimh

in the North West of the plain of Shinar, a special


of the point on which is the Tower.
The poets
numbered seventy-five, that is, one for each language, and

name

the three sages, to wit, a sage for each of the three principal
languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.
Seventy - four

languages, which

is

what was dispersed

every one of these languages, that was


there.

Fenius Farsaidh was the

name

of their chief, and he

was a sage in the principal languages even before he came


from the North out of Scythia. The reason why superiority
claimed on behalf of these three languages is owing to
the amount of compositions that were made out of them,
is

AURAICEPT

BB. 316 a 23

14

cumasc rocumaiscit

arin

arin

roscribad

titul

gach mberla, no dno is


clar na croiche. 165
triur

tri

na

estib

.20/344

na fuair Fenius comhlainius na mberladh icon


scoil / a

forfodhail a

chaithrecha / fo cen-

fo

desciplu

tur

du fhoghlaim na mberla
cen
biathadh 7 etghudh

nadcha in talman ar gach leath


7

Fenius

rosn-othrastar

badar oca fhoghlaim


tur

secht mberla J anais Fenius icon 170

dochum

adrotreb co torracht a scol ina

ic

forcedul

sin.

Conad

bai

aird

inn

ead

and

is

-i-

etir

de

Fenius

roan

asbert

sin

ni

auetair

aroili

tur

icon

fadesin

Asberat

adrothreabh.

domain

in

hilchenel

each

di

tur

icon

libair

curp
7

raibi

and

is

neach 175

mic lafeth mic Noe dia roghenedar


Greic J dia rochin Fenius ic cumtuch in tuir.
Debthir on, ar ni raibi eland etir ic lonau no ni raibi
lonan

cloind

di

fen

in

mac

sin

oc

lafeth

ut

Hieronymus

dixit.

Cest,

mac 180
Ni ansa.
No Fenius
Baath mic Magogh mic lafeth mic Noe.
mic
Laimfind
mic
Glunfind
mic
Farsaidh mac (Eogain
L)
mic
Semh
Etheoir mic Agno[ma]in mic Toe mic Boinb

caite genelach

Farrsaidh Aidiu

Feniusa?

mic Mair mic Ethecht mic Aurtecht mic Abodh mic


mic Sru mic Esru mic Boath mic 185
mic
Aoi mic

Am

lar<7

Riafath mic Corner mic lafeth mic Noe 7rl. Et dno i[s]
Fenius 7 cuga berthar Scithi 7 Gothi

Sgithegdha

iarna ngenek&z#.

nEbraidi

dach

IBS

168

in

Et robadar

na tengtha robai
tuir

[-i-

Qrigg. ix. I, 3
na n-ilberlad E.

isin

domun
7

Gorthigernd L.]
167

cricha E.

1B9

do biud

Nae ar ceana.

sil

conad iarsin doroeipe doib in Gaidealg T.

176

dia rogenetar E.
183
Magoth E.

18

b^Vair E.

189

nEbraide immorro is ed E. nEbruidh -imac De


Gorthigernd ainm in berla robui ac

Origg.
:

ix. I,

araile

-i-

iar 190

dia fine) T.
172 ic forcetar E.

roaitreb,

nach

raibi E.

ut Mzctr(tne) dixit E.

185
lair E.
Abbo, Aoi E.
ceana
13[a]con tur E.
nEber a bruinnip T.
Deigerna 7 ac sil Adaimh L. T.

184

187

190

17S

179

rogein E. T.
Adnow, Boidb E.
177

ri

ed dno bhias

(do an fine
d etach T.

173

181

is

Berla

cumh-

THE PRIMER
and owing

to the

15

mingling wherewith they mingled with

every language, or again it was owing to the superscription


that was written out of the three of them upon the board
Since Fenius did not get a perfection of the
Tower, he dispersed his school and his

of the Cross.

at the

languages
disciples abroad throughout the

cities

and

territories of

the earth on every side to learn the languages, and Fenius


supported them with both food and clothing whilst they

were so learning, to wit, seven languages [1. years], and


Fenius stayed at the Tower and dwelt till his school came
unto him from every direction, and he kept instructing the
many races of the world at the Tower during that space
of time.

Hence he

said in the

Fenius himself remained there at

body of the book that


the Tower and there he

Other authors say that of the children of lonan


son of Japheth son of Noah from whom the Greeks
originated and from whom Fenius sprung, there were
dwelt.

none

at the building of the

That
or

is

natural

Japheth had

dixit.

Query,

for

is

Farsaidh, then, son of

Japheth,

son

of

Jonan had no children

not that

What

Noah.

Tower.
son

Fenius

at

all,

himself, ut Hieronyinus

genealogy?

Baath, son

Or Fenius

of

Not hard.

Magog, son of

Farsaidh,

son

of

Eogan, son of White-knee, son of White-hand, son of


Ether, son of Agnoman, son of Toe, son of Bonb, son
of Semh, son of Mar, son of Ethecht, son of Aurtecht,
son of Abodh, son of Aoi, son of Ara, son of lara, son
of Sru, son of Esru, son of Boath, son of Riafath, son of
And besides
Corner, son of Japheth, son of Noah, etc.
a Scythian, and up to him are carried Scythians
and Goths according to their genealogies. And they were

Fenius

is

The Hebrew language is the


before any building of the
world
tongue that was in the
Tower, and it is it too that will be after doomsday, and
all

the seed

of

Noah.

16

AURAICEPT

BB. 316049

mbrath
nimhe.

tiachtain

lar

/3)

gresa

(-i-

a n-imdeachta) / a

is

andsin conaitchitar

a foghluma)

(-i-

muintir

la

dona desciplaib co Fenius o

tra

taispenad a cuarta

iar

foglaim 7
n- (col.

mbad eadh nobeth

asberat araile co

.21 a 12

do 195
gusin saidh -i- gu Fenius berla na beth oc neach eliu
thebiu doibh asna hilberlaib acht comad acco a n-aenur
nobeth, conad

conairneacht doib in berla tobaidhi

airi sin

cona fortormaigib

-i-

berla Feni 7 iarmberla 7 a mberla

amal duiruirmi

n-edarscartha eier na fedhaib airegdhaibh

Duil Feadha Mair 7 berla na

isin

dib

aroile

Goedeal mac
dara

in

asa n-acaillzV each 200

filed

a ngnathberla fogni do each o ilcenela.


Etheoir mic Toe mic Baracaimh di Grecaib

sai

robai

coemtect

rohainmnigead Gaedealg

ealg airdirc in sin

-i-

uadh

conad

Feniusa,

Gaedheal

-i-

Gaedeal dno glas mac Agnoz w no Aingiw 205


ros-irdarcaistar.
mac senbrathar athar do Fenius 7 ba sai sen dno cid he.

gu Gaedheal mac

esside dorothlaigestar a mberla-sa

Is

nEitheoir conid Gaedealg o Gaedel

mac

Et

Etheoir.

Gaedil

o Goedhel mac Agnon no Aingin. Berla Feni tra arricht


sund 7 iarmberla 7 berla n-edarscartha etir na feadhaib 7 210
berla na filed a ceathramad 7 an gnathberla fogni do chach
Fenius Farsaidh tra mac Eogein 7 Iar mac
saidh doreipsead na
7 Gsedel mac Etheoir na tri

a coiced.

Nema

Athena] civitatem arrictha.


215
Cest, caidhead a n-anman^/z na da chenel sechtmogat

apud Eotenam

berlu-sa 7

(uel

Ni ansa.
Beithin, Scithi,
o rofoghlaimet na hilberlse?
Scuit, Germain, Meid (no Moid), Sicil, Hircain, Guit,
192 201

J9!

alaile

196

tebeth, acu sin E.

E.

so 5
*"

247~
iy

rosirdharcaigestair,

dorothothlaigestair E.

214

215

anmand

21B

na berla E.

iii.

19S

nach beth E.

teibidhi cona fortormaidibh E.

aicillidh T.
n-aicillit E.
doruirmisim T.
203 dara
-- Barathaim E.
ri, caemthucht E.
fognw5, olcena E.
*
mace Angin E.
pr-ur T.

doruirmig E.
201

Arch. C. P.

D. Gr. xxix.

Boitt E.

Orosius

2n in cethramad E.
i.

2,

58

212

Keat. Hist.

ii.

80

co coitcend E.
arricta E.

E.
Beithin, Goilli,
217

Lugoil,
Guitt L.

Creitt

Recir

Morain

THE PRIMER
some say

that

it

was

it

which the people of heaven had


to Fenius from learning, and

Now

after the disciples

after

showing their journeys,

their works, to

17

came

to wit, their
wanderings,

and

wit, their

studies, then they asked the


to
Fenius
to
select
for them out of the
wit,
sage,
many
languages, a language that no one else should have but

which might belong to them alone. Wherefore on that


account for them was invented the Select
Language with
superadditions, the Language of the Irish, and the
Additional Language, and the Language Parted
among
the principal letters as he has related in the Great Book of
its

Woods, and the Language of the Poets whereby each


one of them converses with another, and the Common
Language which serves for every one from many races.
Gaedel, son of Ether, son of Toe, son of Baracham,
a

Greek, was one of the two

pany, so that from him was

means

sages

named

noble, to wit, Gaedel ennobled

also, son of

Agnon

or

in

Fenius

com

Gaelic, to wit, ealg


it.

Gaedeal Glas

Aingin, son of Fenius

father s

elder brother; and he too was a


It is he
sage, even he.
that claimed this language for Gaedel, son of Ether
;

wherefore Gaedealg is from Gaedel, son of Ether. And


Gaedil from Gaedel, son of Agnon or
Aingin. Now
the Language of the Irish was invented here, and the
Additional Language, and Language Parted among the
trees,

and
the
lar

and
the

fifth.

the

Language of the

son of Nema, and

three sages

Poets

Common Language that


Now Fenius Farsaidh son

is

the

serves

fourth,

everyone,

of Eugenius, and
Gaedel son of Ether are the

who

selected these languages, and they were


invented in the city of Eotenam, or Athena.

Query, what are the names of the 72 races from


which the many languages were learnt? Not hard.
Bithynians, Scythians, Scots, Germans,

Medes,

Sicilians,

i8

AURAICEPT

BB. 316/325

E. 21 a 33

Point, Morain, Lugoil, Circir, Gailli, Paimpil, Luidi, Oigii,


Corsic, Sardain,

Ciclaid, Creit,

Romain,
Narmais,

Narboin,

Reit,

Sicil,

Roid,

Reicil,

220
Maigidon, Morcain, Nairn,

Inair, Massail, Mair,

Nobith,

Norith,

Bretain, Boid, Maguich, Armoin,

Bethain,

Barais,

Amuis, Goircc, Galaid,

Achid, Athain, Taeasail, Ardair, Alain, Albain, Hircain,


Esbain, Goith, Guith, Gruind, Sarain, Frainc, Freisin,

Itail,

Longbaird, Lacdemoin, Lodain,


Dordain,
Innecdai.

Dacia,

Dalmait,
It

e sin tra

Essill,

Tracdai, Troiannai, 225

cenel sechtmogat
Fer gach berla tra

mbadar na da berla sechtmogat


dona berlaibh-sea, ba he lin na scoile
lasa

/ tri suidh / rofaided

fear dib fria berla / ni each comceniuil

gach

Bramain,

Egept,

Ethioip,

anmanda na da

dochuaidh and 230

a comcrichi dun fhoghlaim sin acht is each


comberlaidh amal rogab Cai Cainbrethach dalta Feniusa
Ba do Ebraib a
in dara descipul sechtmogat na scoli.
bunadhus 7 ba co hEgeftagda rofaidhedh fobith is and

dochum

robatar a tusdidhe 7 ba hand rodn-alt 7 tuargabat fodesin 235


iIs each
as
aetidh, conid desin asb>-som i curp libair[a]

comberlaib dochuaid and 7 ni each comcheneoil dochum a


chriche.
Seacht mbliadna tra robatar na descipuil forsin
taispenad a ngresa i fus iar
tiachtain comdar a deich samlaidh, conid desin asbr-som 240
cuairt 7 teora bliadna doib

ic

A cind (317) deich mbli&dan


curp libhair
scailiud doib on tur for gach leath durebeadh doib
this

berla-sa.
217-23

muaid

Bai tra cuigiur ar

219

223
226

CZ. x. 131
Sardan L.
Ardain E. L.

Amuius, gairc

Daicia E.

235
237

E. om.

= Gruind,
with Origg.
Circir, goirg, Alain L.

Goirc, aird

See, however, Origg.


218

228-44

It e

Ir. Dichtung, p. 30.

xiv. 3-5

huaisliu dib.

to denote nations:
Descriptive adjj. are supposed by the scribe
= Luid, nair = Niair, mair - Mair, brais
Moid, oig
Oigii, luind

Barais, amuis

slt.

xx ba

iar

am

Sicir E.

Maigidoin L.

- 24

Guit, Fresin L.
Dardain, Bragmain L.
230

comchinel T.

ix.

- 21

Ardair, grinni
2,

Nombith

cf.

L.

Tracda, Troianda L.
Nectae E. Origg. ix. 2, 2

Tricdai E.

w
^

which

do Eabraidhibh T.

B. na descipuil forsin cuairt 7 teora bliadna, repeated 238


comceiwel, amal rogabad lem a ndeismiracht T.

THE PRIMER
Goths,

Hyrcanians,
rians,

Gauls,

Cretans,

Morini,

Lydians,

Sardinians,

Corsicans,

Macedonians,

Morcain,

bonians, Noricans, Nubians, brais,

Boeotians,
Galatians,

Albanians,

Alanians,
Goths,

Getae

Brahmans,

names

of

the

Now

languages.

72

Nar-

mais,

Britons,

amuis,

gairg,

Thessalians,
Italians,

aird,

Spaniards,

Franks,
Frisians,
Elisaeans (?), Thracians,

Saracens,

whose were the 72


each of these languages,

races

man

one

Massilians,

nair

Dalmatians, Dacians, Ethiopians,


Those then are
and Indians.

Dardanians,

Egyptians,
the

Hyrcanians,

grinn,

(?),

Lacedemonians,

Langobards,
Trojans,

Athenians,

Aquitanians,

Rhetians,

Bithynians,

Armenians,

Magogians,

Cycladians,

mair,

nair,

Cyp

Lyonese,
oig,

Sicilians,

Romans,

Rhodians,

Rheginians,

Moors,

Pontians,

Pamphylians,

19

for

that was the

complement of the school, and three sages,


and each one of them was sent to his own language,
and unto their common district unto that learning went
not every one of the same race but every one of the
as for example, Cai Cainbrethach, Fenius*

same language,
foster-son,

one

of

the 72

disciples

of the

He

school.

was a Hebrew by extraction, and it was to Egyptians


he was sent because his parents had lived there, and
there he was brought up and reared from his youth, so
that

hence he

says

in

the

body of the book

Every

one of the same speech went there, but not every one
of the same race, unto his own district.
Now seven
years were the pupils on the course, and they were three
years in displaying their studies after coming home, so
that they were ten [years] accordingly, wherefore
this he says below in the body of the book

it

is

of

At the
their dispersion from the Tower
language was selected for them
:

end of ten years


in

after

every direction this

Now

there were

25

persons

that

were the noblest of

20

BB. 317 a

AURAICEPT

foratait feadha

E. 21 a 36

tjebomna

in

ogaim.

e and-

It

245
Babel, Loth, Foraind, Saliath, Nab-

seo a n-anmand-i-

gadon, Hiruad, Dabhid, Talamon, Cae, Kaliap, Muiriath,


GotH, Corners, Stru, Ruben, Achab, Oise, Urith, Essu,
lachim, Ethrocius, Uimelicus, ludonius, Affrim, Ordines.

anmand

Iss iat sin

Asberait

Feniusa.

scoil

Achaidh

isind

arricht

Amairgin mac Miled


Cia

litir,

xx ba

in choigir ar

ic

sin in aipgitir 250


dno is
Tochur Inbir Moir arranig

araili

huaisliu bai

in mbeithi-luis in

cia nin, cia

oghaim.
son In nach forbaider focol?

(-i-

son ger fogabar O nach fuach


fern).
tren tin^/scanar ? (-1 ernin getal). Na coic feadha aireghdai 255

d min

disoil

no

Is cia

immorro inn oghaim, ba hon choiciur ba huaisliamh dib


rohainmnighthea

Asberat

feadha aireghdha filet and


ba huaisleam and rohainmnigthea 7

dno

it

vii

duformaighet frisna cuic feda ugut

on morshesiur

is

it

in

dana

fidh

>XQ

260

Nemruaidh ?

Cest, caidet [airme L.] cinnteacha tuir

araile

>^ff^f?Hffffffj^-<.

Ni

da comairlibh sechtmogat, da descipul


sechtmogat, da chenel sechtmogat na ndsene, da berla
sechtmogat du berlaibh ina scoil, da thuaith sechtmogat
lasa m[b]atar na berla sin J na cenela, da saer sechtmogat 265
fria gnim, da aic[dh]i sechtmogat eter ael J bitumain 7 tal-

ansa.

main

viii

-i-

7 tathluib ina

comhegur, da cheim

i#na leitheat amal asbert

for

sechtmoga[i]t

Airimh in tuir togaidhi


Nemruaidh, ba din do dhainib,

270

cemeand sechtmogat,
Coic cemend ar choic milib.

Ceithri

Da

chomairlib sechtmogat
for sluaighedh
Da berla for sechtmoga[i]t
Rothidhnaic Dia fria mbuaidhred.

Tugsat saithiu

245
247

248
249
251

_.4))

45 -*
O D. Gr. xxxi.
Goth, Cx L.
Goth, Corner, Maisse E. lesu T.
L. Afrimp T.
Umelcus
Reichim, Etrocus, Orineis,
annvinda E. xx doairmiur-sum, bai ag lacht isin Aisia T.
252
in oguim E.
sinn oghaim B.
ara rainic E.
<

Salamon E.

aibgidir E.

inni nach, forbiter, fotren tindsgnamar E.


261
oireme E.
huaisliu, in da fidh doformaigitar E.
266
danib B.
in laid-sea E.
ael 7 bhi E.
253
259

273

comairlio- L. E.

274

d shadhu

fri

E.

55

27 2
276

las B.

berlada E.

ceimenda T.
Daudnaic L.

THE PRIMER

These are the names of them after whom are


Ogham vowels and consonants. Here are their

them.

named
names

21

the
:

Babel,

Herod, David,

Pharaoh, Saliath, Nebuchadnezzar,

Lot,

Talamon, Cae, Kaliap,

Muiriath, Gotli,

Corners, Stru, Ruben, Achab, Oise, Urith, Essu, lachim,


Ethrocius, Uimelicus, ludonius, Affrim, Ordines.

These are the names of the 25 persons, the noblest


that were in Fenius school.
Others again say that that
is

the alphabet which was invented in Achaidh, and at


Causeway of the Great Estuary that Amergen, son

the

of Mil, invented, the Beithe Luis of the

What

Ogham.

what character, what sound is that with


which no word is ended? dinin disail, or f. And what sharp
sound is found with which no strong word is begun ? ng.

The

letter,

five principal

from the

vowels of the

Ogham

however,

it

was

who were

noblest of them that they


Others again say that seven prin
cipal vowels are there, and that it is from the seven persons
that were noblest there that they are named, and the two
five

were named,

persons

a, o, u, e,

i.

vowels that were added to those

five

vowels are ea,

oi.

Query, what are the definite numbers of Nimrod

Tower ?

Not

hard.

Eight of them, to wit, 72 counsellors,


races
of
72 pupils, 72
men, 72 languages, the languages
in his school, 72 peoples whose were those
languages, and
the races, 72 artificers to work at it, 72 building materials

including lime, bitumen, earth, and cement in equal layers,


72 paces in width, as he said
The number of the chosen Tower
:

Of Nimrod,

it was a shelter to
men,
Four and seventy paces,
Five paces, and five thousand.

Two and seventy counsellors,


They took companies on an expedition,
Two and
God gave

seventy languages
to

confound them.

22

BB. 317

AURAICEPT

34

Da

ba dodhraing

dainib,

fri

280

foghlaim.

thuaith saera sechtmogal

Forofoglaid,

Da

descipw/ sechtmogat

Faete Fenius

Da

/3

cenel saer sechtmogat

Dona

Da

E. 21

talmaw

fir

primshaer ar sechtmogait

Fri heladhain na n-adhbar.

Da

285

aicde for sechtmoga[i]t,

Inwa cumhat, roghnathaigh,


Eter c\ ts bitumain

Ocus talmhain

tathluibh.

is

Seacht cumat deg demnighthi

Ag nim

suas im gasth ngairigh,

290

da cheim ar sechtmoga[i]t
Inna leitheat fria airim.

Is

Asberat
isin tur

-i-

araili

immorro

ere 7 uisgi,

is

oland /

7 bitumain, de quibus dicitur


Cre, uisgi, oland

Ross

Airim

nama badar

noi n-adhbair
fuil,

ros 7

ael

in tuir.

sechim

J lin

is ael is lin

is fuil,

lanchuir,

Sechim, bitumain go mbuaidh


Nai n-adhbair in tuir Nemruaidh.
i-

ainm

pronomen

comfhocul

anmanda-seo

reimshuidhiughudh

Nomen, pronomen,

partidpium, coniunctio, prepositio,


cetpearsu uathaid
persa tanaisti huathaid
treas persa uzkhaid
cetfear (col. /3) illda
persa tanaisti

aduerbium,

uerbum,

interiectio

-\-

sum

-i-

es

-i-

est

-i-

ata tu
ata se

sumus

-i-

atamait

estis

-i-

ata sibsi

sunt

-i-

atait.

....
.

tres persa

ranngabthach 300
intmacht a n-

7 briathar 7 doibriathar 7

ataim

SUM, es, est, a uath^.


Sumus, estis, sunt, a illda.
2

283

<278

286

ina adbur E.
289
cubait L. E
300-n E. om
a illrad L.
:t

310

2S 2
forafodlait E.
heladnaib L. dia fadhnad E.
ws
talum is tathlaimh E;
na had bur co zadgnatha//$ T.
29 9 RC. xii.
re ngaith E.
466
qubuit T.
sor. 26,28, 29 in ra jd L.
302
Gr. Lat. iv. 355, 2

fria dodraing
gn B.
da primsasra sechtmogat E.

E.

doghraing B.
284

305

THE PRIMER
Two and

23

seventy free races

Of the men,

it

was hard

Two and

seventy pupils,
Fenius sends them to learn.

Two and seventy free peoples


He subdivided, men of the earth
Two and seventy chief artificers
For the

skilful

Two and

working of the materials.

seventy building materials,

In equal quantity, he used,


Including lime and pitch

And

earth and cement.

Seventeen cubits

certified,

Near heaven upwards with a roaring wind,


And two and seventy paces
In breadth to reckon

it.

Others say, however, that only nine materials were in


the Tower, to wit, clay and water, wool and blood, wood and
lime, acacias, flax thread,

and bitumen, de quibus

Clay, water, wool, and blood,


Wood, lime, and flax thread of a

Acacias, bitumen with virtue,


The nine materials of Nimrod

dicitur

full twist,

Tower.

to wit, noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, participle, conjunction,

and interjection are their names: Nomen,pronomen, verbum, adv erbium, partidpium, conjunctio, interjectio^

preposition,

to wit

person singular

2
3
1

person plural

2
3

sum

atdim

es

atd tu

est

atdst

sumus

atdmaid

estis

atd sibse

sunt

atdit

Sum, es est, its singular.


Sumus, estis sunt its plural.
t

AURAICEPT

BB. 3.7/34

24

Attaat da
guttai
tinda

sein

in

dobeir sund.
itat

and

insci

aduerbium, participiunii

n-anmand

pronom^

brethir?
7

air

tri

uathaid

sum;

in huathaid,
estis ; tres

amh

itait

Cetperso

uathrtr/

sunt

estis,

demin eimh

seadh cia ball


-i-

sum,

-i-

est ;

es,

cetperso
;

tres

sumus ; perso

in \\\da,

in

in

perso 325

thanaisti,

ae

n-ait

ata

-i-

no attaat

ae

atai

-i-

ae

n-ait

dligzV//*

uait,

ar

in

frisin maigistir.

descipul

\\\da, sunt.

ata

o\\aman a inne

in

tri

Is

ma

briathar,

perso thanaisti in uathaid, es

est.

-i-

sunt J

sumus,

-i-

perso in

Attaat

is

It

remshuidhiugud, 320

ocon Gaed^/.

in focul

n-\\\da

ainm,

randghab///<7<:^,

interiacht

conidh briathar

na haibgitrech 315
is sunt? ar

focwl

in

nomen, pronomen, uerbum,

-i-

Laitneoir

lasin

-i-

bunadh ruidleasa

totus a

conitinctto, prepositio, interiectio.

7 doibriathar,

comhfhocwl

n-aibgiteir Laitindai

freagra du thoit

-i

21/318

simt a frithindleadach La-

-i-

Coich raind indsce

randa

viii

forsin

Atait

bunadh forleathan

-i-

dearbadh

i-

earnail

consain.

E.

330

beos attaat

inne

dotiagat.

consaini.

Dotuitead

airbert

-i-

atat
litrib

tuitead
i

doaitneat doaigbead

n-aigniudh na guttaighi 7 na
tinntuit asinn aicniud sin i

-i-

Doaitnead -i- taitnit asna litrib sin


faclaib.
Doaidhbead -i- du-aispenait do eolchaib eistib -i- a cialla 335
7 a caireachtaire -i- fuatha na lit^r. Dotiaghat asna toclaib

llitrib.

sin

;;i3

comighib

sreathaibh roscaigh J fasaigh 7 airchetail.

314

a fnthindlech T.

sl5

ruighlesta T.

haibitleach dobeirsiumh E.

Examples of parsing, Gr. Lat. iii. 459 in fhocuil E.


317
:12
Gr. Lat. iv. 355, 2
rangabtach E.
:

:12:i

don

326 7

32J

breithir E.

in ilair E.

doaidbead L.: doaidhbhet E.

335

eisib E.

:a5

comfoccumhul E.
thanaisi E.

"

3:11

336 7

n-illradh E.

frisin in B.

^^ina aicned

isna, coibigib E.

-i:!:i7

na guttai 7naconsaine E.
aireactail B.

aircetail E.

THE PRIMER

25

There are two divisions in the Latin Alphabet, to


There are, atait, to wit,
wit, vowels and consonants.
sunt,

its

Latin equivalent, to wit,

its

very general origin

particular origin, to wit, a proof there, to wit, a

totus, its

reference

the whole

to

alphabet he gives here.


the word sunt? For there are

of the

What

part

eight

parts of speech, to wit, nomen, pronomen, uerbuni,

of

aduerbiuui,

Those are

is

speech

participium,
their

coniunctio,

names with the

interiectio.

prepositio,

Latinist

noun and verb,

pronoun and adverb, participle and preposition, conjunc


tion and interjection with the Gael.
It is certain in truth

word sunt

what part of the


verb? for there are in fact three of them in the singular,
to wit, sum, cs, est ; and three of them in the plural, to
that the

is

a verb

wit, sunuis, cstis, sunt, to wit


1st

person singular

and

2nd
3 rd
1st

if so,

sum

es
est

,,

person plural

2nd

...
.

3rd

Attaat,

i.e.,

there

is

science in place,

i.e.,

sunius

sunt

estis

there

is

science

of law in the chief poet s place is its meaning


or attaat,
that is, there is science out of thee, quoth the disciple
:

to the master.
Its

meaning

further, attaat,

who

shine, show, come.

fall,

of ataat, in the nature of the vowel and the

Its use, that

is,

consonant.

They

fall

into letters,

i.e.,

they are converted

out of that primary nature into letters. They shine, i.e.,


out of these letters into words. They show to the learned

out of them, to wit, their meanings and their characters,


letters.
i.e., the forms of the
They come out of those

words into

texts,

and

poetic composition.

series of proverb,

commentary, and

26

AURAICEPT

BB.3I7/33I

Da email

-i-

da

E.2i/J 4 o

no da

fhirin^ell,

fhir-inaill,

no da

fhir-dhual, no da erdhul, no da erdhail, no da erdhual,


no da orru-dhul, no da orru-dhedhail, no da orru-dhail. 340
Iss

iat

sin

Cadiad da dual

fir

tri

nUraiceapta.
coic duail

cethri duail J

duail 7

tri

/ a tri er, 7

tri or,

Auraiceapta?
Lanfogur 7 defogur da
na nguta
leathgutta ocus mudi 7 tinfeadhaighthe tri dual na consow -i- intan is a ceathair immorro 345

Ni

in

dual

ansa.

da dual na nguta
is muit

i-

na nguta

da dual na consow

e 7 muiti, air

Intan

h.

a coic dno

is

leathguta
da dual

-i-

-i-

na consan.

7 tri dual

Porsin n-aibgitir -i- forsind epe audair no forsind epe ic


duar -i- ic focW$ no forsin cpi ic tur no ondi as apigitorium 350
:

in

i-

no
a

tinscedul

aipgitir

no

abcor

-i-

ed aibgiges a mbescna do chach


no is ed ^\^giges a Gaedhelg, incipit

is
:

apix a Greic, a be ce de dybum a Ebra.


Latindai -i- luaidit inni -i- inna ioclu no a Laidinta

LaitzVz,

on Latindacht

a latitudine

-i-

-i-

on

leithet in

bescna

-i-

no 355

o Latin mac Puin.

Edun
Gutta
fuiti

ed a oen erniud no ed a oen an eolaig.

-i-

-i-

guth fotha

iarsani

fuidhit

-i-

fotha in ghota in sein no guth

gotha treothu

(318)

iarsinni at seta gotha, ut Priscianus dixit

legittima eo

legend

338

da

342

347

quod

iter legendi preheat

iarsinni fuires set in legind

fhirindeal

no da

349
:ljl

a53

361

etait

Virg.

Maro

guth a n-aenur L.

legentibus praebet E.

am/ intech

aite

-i-

doghniat

344
tri

dual na conson E. adds


K0 -i- foclaib E.
i

35 2

aipgidhes L. a -ibis do each E.


a Laiten E.
ailit- B.

:m lethe E.

Lztera quassi 360

in litir

-i-

no guth

:154

360

no guth-seta

:m ind
Auraicepta E.
tinfedaigh trindual E.

firanail E.

tri, a ceithr/, a cuic E.


e 7 L. om.
-i- dual na
ngutta 7
auctair L. E.

is

o\^gitir E.

1.

Latima

B.

Origg.

3, 3

abcdr (?)

Latine E.

Gr.
:

4, 23
Gr. Lat.

ii.

6,

12

;!6 2

i.

leigind, fhuirges E.

THE PRIMER
Two

27

two true arrangements, or two true


other things, or two true folds, or two intensive goings, or
two intensive divisions, or two supreme folds, or two
divisions,

goings on

i.e.,

two

or

them,

distributions

on them.

on

divisions

These are

the three er and the three

the

them, or

two

or

and

What

are

three

of the Primer.

fir

the two, three, four, and five folds of the Primer

Not

tone and diphthong, the two folds of the


semivowels, mutes, and aspirates are the three

Full

hard.

vowels

folds of the consonants, to wit

when

there are four of

them, however, two folds of the vowels and two of the


consonants, i.e., semivowels and mutes, for h is a mute.

When

two

folds

selection,"

or for

there are five of them, however, that

is,

of the vowels and three of the consonants.

On the alphabet,
"

selecting of

Tower
or

it

"

is

i.e.,

words," i.e.,

or from the

that which

or alphabet, that

for

an

"

author

of vocables

de

"

ripens

is,

in

i.e.,

"

selection at

the beginning

placing a b: or

it

is

one

which

"that

apix in Greek, a be ce

Hebrew.

Latinda, that
or Laitinda,

on the

their speech for every

in Gaelic, incipit in Latin,

dybum

or

word abecedarium,

"

"

ripens

they speak the thing, i.e., the words


from Laitindacht, i.e., a latitudinc, i.e.,

is,

i.e.,

from the extent of the speech


Faunus.

Edon, that

"it"

is,

its

or from Latinus, son of

one explanation: or

is

it

the

one [!] of the learned man.

Gutta (vowel),
of

the

voice

voice

i.e.,

that

or

foundation,
voice

i.e.,

foundation

respect that
voices are sent through them
or voice ways, in respect
that they are ways of voices, ut Priscianus dixit :
is

sent,

in

Dicitur

autein

vel quasi legitera quod legendi


the
letter is as a road for reading
is,
or a
prepares a way for the reading
litera

iter praebeat, that

inasmuch as

it

28

AURAICEPT

BB. 318 a 4

.21/359

i n-aitt
no guthetait -i- iarsinni doetait guth treothu
a n-aenur, ut Donatus dixit : Uocales sunt quequidem profertur et per se sillabam faciunt -i- atat na guthacha is iat- 365

guth

dourgbad treothu fein / dogniat s\\\aib a n-aenur.


Consain -i- cainsuin -i- suin taitnw/cha, no consain onni

side

is

consonants comhfhograightheacha

fograigit malle

-i-

fri

guthacha: no consai;/ -i- com a sain -i- t^rcfograightheacha ar bee a fogair a n-aenar. Cid ara n-eibert-sium 370
guta

-7

ansa.

guta uatlwzV/ J consain \\daJ Ni


Guttai 7 consain is maith and. Cidh ara n-ebairt
consain, uair

guta guth fotha no guta guth fuidhit, ar ni fotha in guth


do fein, J ni fuigheand guth trit fein. Cid ara nd-ebairt-

sium consain comfograighthid, uair ni comhfhogur


consain fria fein no fria guth ? Cest, caite in condelg
etechtu

in

is fer[r]

cheternail ind Auraicept[a]

fis is

edechta

Ni ansa.

sain, ar ni maith anfhis.

-iguth shet, ar ni set is fen.


Caide ruidhles 7 dileas 7 coitchind 7 indies

n-eabairt guta

in

Fors

Cid ara

in focail is

380

Ni ansa.

guta?
a

in 375

Ruidhles di guth shet, uair etaidh guth


Diles di guth fuiit, uair nos - foidend fein.

haenur.

Coitchind di

-i-

guth fotha, uair

is

fotha hi isna toclaib.

fota hi inti
di immorro guth fotha, uair ni
Cid ara n-ebairt aibgitir epe ic tur, ar ni tindscain- 385
tea na h-aibgitrz amal asbert Fenius ba sai isna tri

Indies

fein.

berlaibh

363
364

cid

tisad a

siu

tuaid

no guthetait L. om. doedait E.


a n-senur L. om.
Gr. Lat. iv. 367, II

saithi

ni

cen

aipgitri.

Sg. 4 4
:!67
taitnemacha E.
guthaigthi E.
369
comma sain L.: comsain E.: cuma thonn no cain[sh]oin
37
ndubairt L.
-i- fo ead a ainm Ed. 1. cain a suin
:

365, 9

guthaigi L.
guthaigib E.

fid

375
379
381

385

ilar

E.

comfongthig uair na comfogr E.

guth
is

ni

ni

fhuideand E.

877

Mulc. 578, 9

:18 2

guth, edaidh E.
rotinscainte.i E.

374

:!80

seta, dissi fein E.

hand

:!86

neach

coitcend E.
fuitz

ba, trib E.

nosfuiend E.
:)87

suthi E.

THE PRIMER
voice

i.e.,

i.e..

they

Donatus

ut

alone,

voice in place
or
in respect that voice comes through

place,

vocalise,

make

29

dixit :

sunt

Vocales

them

per

quae

se

the vowels are

se

et

they

syllabam faciunt, i.e.,


per
proferuntur
those that are pronounced by themselves and alone form a
syllable.

Consonants, i.e., beautiful sounds, i.e., bright sounds


or consonants from the word
consonantes, sounding
:

together,

sonants,

they sound along with vowels

i.e.,

con

or

delicate their sounds,

i.e., scantily sounding


sound
owing
by itself.
Why
did he say vowel and consonants, since vowel is singular
and consonants plural ?
Not hard.
Vowels and
consonants is proper there. Why did he say a vowel is
i.e.,

the

to

smallness of

its

a voice foundation, or a vowel


for the voice

is

is

no foundation

a voice which they utter,

to itself,

and

it

does not

through
Why did he say a consonant
is sounding along with, since the consonant does not
sound with itself or with its vowel ?
Query, what is

find a voice

itself.

the comparison of the unallowable of the first part of


the Primer?
Not hard.
Fors, chance, knowledge of
is better, that is
it
unallowable, for ignorance is not

Why

good.

it itself is

What
of

the

path,

it,

i.e.,

words.

when

are

peculiar,

it

voice,

voice

is

proper,

Not

finds voice
for

it

i.e.,

a voice path, for

to

it,

common, and improper

hard.

by

Peculiar

itself.

expresses

foundation, for

Improper
it

say a vowel,
?

word vowel?

since

express

did he

not a path

however,

not a foundation in

Proper
itself.

is

it

to

is

itself.

voice

it,

to

it,

they

Common

foundation

in

to

the

voice

foundation,

Why

did he say

alphabet was a selecting at Tower ? for the alphabets were


not begun, as Fenius said, who was a sage in the three
principal tongues even before he

came from the North,

AURAICEPT

BB. 318 a 28

3O

22 a 17

ndAchia immorro

arrichta aibgitrz in domu[i]n.


cet-dichnedh ind Auraicept[a] sund -idoichnedh for -i- ar in focul A chet-dichneadh dno
I

doichnedh

tepe in focul fadesin.


Atat dano di email forsin beithi-luis-nin in

augdair

-i-

epe 390

-i-

feadha
in

Cet-

A cet-

taebomnai.

caingean

Dano

da n-ui

forsin beithi-luis-nin in

in sein

ogaim

-i-

oghaim

-i-

uea caingen

-i-

inn

oguamma

no forsin bitheolus litterdha inn oghaim. Fedha fidh 395


immorro, dorimter da gne for suidiu -i- fidh saerdha 7
:

Fid sserda

fid in
oghaim 7 fid aicenta fid
immorro
na caille.
feghthair da gne do bunad
Fidh didm ondi as funo
oca.
fograigim no ondi
is fundatnentum -i- fotha 7 is coitchend do fhid saerda 7 do 400
fidh aicenta in bunad sin -i-fundamentum. Fid dono fo edh
a inde oker saerda 7 aicenta. Fotha dno a airbert tier sserda
7 aicenta.
Ingnad cidh fodera na da bunadh icon fid

fidh aicenta.

-i-

Fid sserda

[<J>(aveui],

saerda 7

aenbunadh icon

fid aicenta -\-funo


fundamentum ?
Funo a dualus foghair fundamentum a dualus 405
caitchend do fidh saerda 7 do fidh aicenta -i- fotha.
~J

Ni ansa.
fotha 7

Fidh
7 ae

mbis

389
:!<J:i

39 5

ssw
409

~[

-i-

fedh

aiges 7
ior

se

ae

uair itat coic

mides

mewmam,

ae

7 ae

7 7, auraicept B.

as

and

suides.

-i-

AL

as ailes

ailes

391

teibe \n fccail E. inw B. 392,

aga fhaghbail L.

-i-

cein

chanas ica gabail 7 ^i aighes

ic

oguim E.

nae caingen -i- in caingen remund 7 i[n] nai inar ndiaid -i- L.
:!M
398
fectair E.
dorimthar E.
forsin mbethi luis E.
408
402 6
ceim B.
sxr E.
c ia dichned B.
fora,

chanas

7 as

dno

ind ui E.

THE PRIMER

31

and there are no sages without alphabets.


In Achaia,
were
the
invented
of
the
then,
world.
The
alphabets
first doichned and the first dichned of the Primer
here,
to wit

Its first

doichned

Its first dichned, again,


is

the word

There

is

i.e.

for, that

epe,

ar

is,

is

the word

cutting of author,

i.e.

tepe

itself.

two

are, then,

divisions in the Beithe

Luis

Nin of the Ogham, i.e., vowels and consonants. Dano


ida n-ui, two of them, that is, da n-ui, two questions
are there.
N-ae is question, that is, the question on
the Beithe Luis Nin of the

of the

perfect

Ogham,

alliteration,

As

knowledge of the Ogham.


moreover, two kinds are
tree

artificial

and

Ogham

As

regards

the forest.

tree.

artificial

wood

of them,
Artificial

and natural

ind oguamma

is,

to fedha,

reckoned

natural

the tree of the

that

on the undying literary

or

tree,

vowels,
to

wit,

tree,

i.e.,

the tree of

wood, moreover, they

are regarded as having two sorts of origin. Fidh,


wood,
then, is from the word funo [0i/o], I sound, or from

the word fundamentum,


tion, to

wit,

fundamentum^

natural wood.

meaning, both
its

is

ever,

use,

as

Now,

artificial

both

foundation, and that deriva

i.e.,

is

common

to fid,

and

artificial

natural.

and

to

is

Foundation,

natural.

and

artificial

wood, good law


It is

its

how

strange

what makes the artificial wood have the two derivations,


and the natural wood one, to \\~\\., funo, and fundamentum.

Not
in

Funo in respect of sound, and


of
foundation
and common to
respect
hard.

to natural

wood

is

fundamentum
artificial

and

foundation.

Fid, wood, that \s,fedh ae, extent of them, since five


forms of ae are in existence, ae that nourishes, ae that
sings,

Now

ae that sues, ae that judges, and ae that sits.


that nourishes, i.e., while it is on the mind,

ae

and ae that sings

at

giving

it,

and ae that sues while

BB.

32

AURAICEPT

a 48

3 i8

E. 22 a 35

cuinchidh a lloige 7 * midheas ima


iar n-icc a loigi.
laighedh 7 ae suidheas
Tsetoomnai

omnadh

bit

na

fidh n-aireghdha biit

do thaebaib na

omnai

taeb-(col. /3)

toba

-i-

damna

iarsinni teipiter

-i-

Cid dia n-ebairt tsebuaim n-ui

focul eistib.

ni

n-airchedail,?air

na feadha,

ar ni

-i-

no

damna

taebuaim 415

int airchetul inna n-ecmais na

fil

n-omnadh

Cid ara n-ebarthar do tsebhaib na

tebomna.

410

taebuaim n-ai; no do thaebhaib na n-

-i-

-i-

imma

no

meit

bit acht

do taebhaib

rempu no na ndhiaidh

Toba ndamna immorro,

isna foclrftf bit na tzebomna.

-i-

is

420
Freagra du breithir tug
a ruidhles in foc**7 sin.
intan roraidh -i- Itat da email forsin
aibgitir Latindai
tuc intan
Fregra du aicniud immorro
aitogitir Latinda.
isin

roraidh

Cuin

toeithi-luis in

Atait da email forsin


is

aen^a in beithi

ogaim.

Niansa. [A]huile. Cuin

Cuin 425

as deda-i-feda/taebomna.

as ceathair
fedha J forfedha 7 taebomna. Cuin
feadha
na x
airegdha. Cuin as
i- tri aiccmi na te&omna 7
aicmi na taebomna. Cuin
choicdi -i- fedha 7 forfedha 7 tri

as treda

-i-

PrC

"

sedha

a[s]

Cuin

-i-

na

a[s] seachta

7 forsail 7

foilcheasta in

tri

[!] teora

samhaighthir

to

is

ind Auraicepta

ed fhuilleas

cum

to

-i-

huath 430

co ngeib greim p amal

to

aspiratione pro

^
^

cu indgidh a loigi E.
teibigter L.

toba namma E.
bid L.
*
** frecra duaichnigh E.
4i

>///^

p ponitur -iis p
cu tinfiudh ar p conid faille h, ar

asbert in Laitneoir

-i-

arnw.

Huath cetumus

4io

fuilti

ogaim

nama

413

n-ui L.
focol,

bid L.

ndubairt L.

B. L.

centar E.

foceurta F.

>

p amair

E.

THE PRIMER

and ae that considers about


smallness, and ae that sits after being

asking the reward for


its

greatness or

33

its

it,

paid his reward.

Taebomnai, consonants, that is, taebuaim n-ai, side


seam of them; or to the sides of the oaks they are,
that
or

to

is,

taebomnai,

that

material

of

cutting
for the words
i.e.,

uaim

he say taeb

did

wood they

the sides of the chieftain

n-ui,

material,

is

from

the

cut out of them.

that

is,

are

fact

Why

harmony of

side

poetry r for there is no poetry without the consonants?


Why is it said of the sides of the oaks, i.e., the vowels,
not at the sides they are, but before or behind
in the words that the consonants are?
Cutting of
material, however, that is the peculiar meaning of that
for

it

is

them

expression.

he gave

There

is

word which

a correspondence to a

Latin alphabet when he said There are


divisions in the Latin alphabet.
It was a corres

two

in the

pondence to nature, however, which he gave when he


said
There are two divisions in the Beithe Luis of the
:

Ogham.

When

is the Beithe Luis one ?


Not hard. The whole of it. When
Vowels and consonants.
When is
Vowels, diphthongs, and consonants.

is
it

it

two things

three

When

is

things ?
it
four

The

three groups of the consonants and the ten


things?
vowels.
When is it five things ? Vowels,
principal
diphthongs, and the three groups of the consonants.

When is it six things? The three


the Ogham ng, sr, qu.
When is it

composite letters of
seven things ? The

three additions to the Primer, h, forsail, and arnin.


first.
It increases b till it acquires the force of p,

as the Latin ist


i.e.,

b with

for

is

said

b cum aspiration* pro p ponitur


is

for p, so that

aspiration
put
the aspiration of the Gael.

Forsail

h
is

increases

it,

the second

AURAICEPT

BB. 318/320

34

Forsail

tinfedh in Gaedhil.

[is

E. 22 a 55

e L.] in

fuilW

fedha forin son dia fot amal ata

cumang

Dobet r 435

eile.

sron, slog

/rl.

In baile a rreagar a leas da


thaebomna geibidh greim indala n-ai arnm, ut est ceand
eamhnad in n-ogam. Tri foilcheasta inn
7rl., ar ni bhi

oghaim
n-u

is

baili

e in tres fuilled.

is

ArnzVz,

ceirt /

-i-

queirt

mbi n

7 cuing 7 cingit

Da

ria

as scribtha and

In baile

gedal 7 straiph.

mbi

scribhtha and, ut est cuileand

is

c ria 440

In

~]*\.

gedul i[s] scribtha and, ut est uingi


In baile i mbia s ria d [is] straiph

is

7rl.

amal ata

st an stial,

7rl.

earnail forsna consainib laisin Laitneoir

-i-

lethgu- 445

Inna lethgutai ceatamus, a tuistidi rempu.


In muite immorro, a tuistidi ina ndiaid do suidib.
Da email dno -i- da firdedail &\diu forsna consaimb
tai 7 mutti.

cumaidhi

lasin

legtreoraid no

Laitneoir
lasin

muitti; lethgutai

-i-

no

lasin litertreoraidh

-i-

lasin

lethguttai 7 450
leat[h]anthoirnidh
no
leth gotha focertad dia fograigud
-i-

luithguith no lethguthait no lethguth[sh]et no lethguth


fotha 7 ni hiarsan[n]i co mbad leath gotha co cert nobeith
intibh acht nad roichet lanfoghur wide Priscianus dixit :
;

duas partes diuiduntur altera pars dicitur 455


ndibh randaib, raiter in
secip ni fodhlaidir
in

Quicquid
semis

-i-

dara rand gu rub leath, ut Priscianus dixit: Non qui


demediam partem Jiabent deorum uel uiuorum scd qui
iarum lethfir
pleni dii uel uiri non sunt -i- cia raidhiter
7 lethtii ni arsinni bhatis [dii] leithfir

acht

na^

at cornlana.
//,

Is

sin na leathghuta nida[t]


Semiuocales sunt que per se

44

cenannan, in oguim E.

437

arragar E.

442

ninriangortisngiaddr E.

448

frisna soinib E.

452

luthguth E. lufti T. leathgutaid no lethguitedh E.


46
nocon
cen col cert leth T. Gr. Lat. ii. 9, 19

457
461

449

^riatE.

is

straiph L. E.
451

Laitneoiraid E.

at L.

na-

ic B.

46 2

Gr. Lat.

iv.

368, 5

Sg.

444

ngetar E.
stan 7 E.

fodoceardad diar E.

nach

lethfir dii

amlaid

ut Donatus dixit

438 9

no batis

a
5

fodladir E.

iarsindi batis E.

nida comlana E.

460

THE PRIMER
addition.

35

adds a vowel power to the sound to make

It

Arnin

long, as srdn, slog, etc.

is

it

Where

the third addition.

two consonants are required, arnin takes the force of


one of them, e.g. ceann, etc. for there is no doubling [of
letters] in Ogham. Three composite letters of the Ogham
;

exist, qu, ng,

queirt

that

and

Where

sr.

be written

to

is

Where n

stands before g,

there, ut

est,

step, etc.

uingi,

Where

it is

stands before u,

there,

e.g.

gedul that

to be written there, such

is

it

is

is

etc.

to be written

is

an ounce, cuing, a yoke,

s stands before d,

it

cuileand,

cingit,

they

straipli that

is

st in stial, the belt, etc.

There are two divisions in the consonants according


semivowels and mutes. The
semivowels first, their parent vowels before them. The

to the Latinist, to wit,

mutes, however, have their parent vowels following them.


Two divisions, then, to wit, two true separations

common consonants according to the Latinist to


according to the letter guide, or the reading guide, or
the broad marker
that is, semivowels and mutes
in

the

wit,

semivowels, that is, half the voice is thrown out in


order to sound them or stammering voice or half-voice
;

place

or half-voice

way

or half-voice foundation

and

it

is not because it would be half a voice


exactly that would
stand in them, but that they do not reach a full tone unde
;

Prisdanus dixit

Quicquid in duas paries dividitur, altera


pars dicitur semis, i.e., whatever thing it be that is divided
into two parts, one of the parts is said to be a half
ut Prisdanus

non

qui

dixit

Semideos

dimidiam partcm

et

Jiabent

semiviros

appellamus

deorum vel virorum

sed qui pleni dii vel viri non sunt, i.e., though they are
thus called half-men and half-gods, it is not because the
gods might be half-men, or half-men gods, but that they
are not complete.
Similarly the semivowels are not full
ut
Donatus dixit: Semivocales sunt quae per se
sounds,

AURAICEPT

BB. 318/349

36

quidem proferuntur
nahi

leathghutai

et

per

non faciunt

se sillabam

-i-

atat na

treothu

dourgabtar

dicitur auditus expellit

asperum

.22/317

-i-

fen.
Qui\c\quid
imiarbaid int eisteacht 465

(319) secib ni raiter co hagarb.


Muiti -i- mifothai no maitha no maidthi

-i-

bee caithte

a foghur no mette, no moite na gotha a mbeith marsew


friu no onni as mutus -i- amlabar 7 ni airsinni batis amlab^r
;

di raith, air itat a fhoghuir intib cidh diat becca, utPriscianus 470

Informix umlier dicitur non quia caret forma sed


male formata est -i- atberar in bannscal dodheilb J ni iar-

dixit

sinni seachmallas o dheilbh acht midhealb

amlaidh

sin

nama.

fui-rri

Is

iarum na muiti nidat nemfograigh acht is terc


Unde mute -i- mifhot//a dicuntur ut 475

fogur intibh tantum.

Donatus

dixit

Mute sunt que per

se nee

proferuntur
it e na denat

per se sillabam non faciunt -i- atat na muiti 7


sillaib treothu fen 7 noco turcbait^r treothu

et

in

Na

~[t\.

leathgutai chetamus -i- in cetna ae for seis -i- iar fofis no in


cetna fis no in cetna amus forsin n-asneis. A tustidi 480

remibh [-i- in lucht ota a tusmiud -i- na feada


immorro a tustidi ina ndiaidh i suidhibh -i-

-i-

ni
ail

gnath

dosum sund

mad
i

in

na ndiaidh maso

in tindscedul

?e

tosuch

leathguta

dlig^ consonata

fil

ti/mscedul

airisim

intib

fo

tiwnscital,

uair 485

Ni hedh eimh as

ina menmain
do

Cid ara n-ebairt

thustidhi

dheoidh.

ar ma[d] tustidi in

roscichestar

na

fo

isna feadhaibh

in lucht ota a teasar-

tustighthidi
dlightheachaib.
gain no a tinscital -i- a nguthaidhe.

a tustidhe

Na muiti

L.].

-i-

leis

etir,

acht

dlig^ gotha
dheoidh

fo

fil

deoidh do chur uad 490

prius.
464
467
469
470

475
481
4q(i

489

466

465
inarbanait E.
daurgabadar E.
asperuntur T.
468 morsen B.
a focus E.
maithia E.
amlabur -i- ainm do mnai bailb T. Cor. a 937

hacarb E.

a
Lat. Gr. ii. 9, 25
cid dat, ut dicitur E.
Sg. 5 7
479 iar
477 -i- tait L.
Gr. Lat. iv. 368, 5
fofis, only L. sup. lin. \. sofhis
na feda di suidib ! dona haibedhaibh 7 dona caingnib T.
488
487 ar ma B.
roseachastar L.: roseichestar E.
ni gnath L. om.
4M ar tus E,
49
consonacta E. indti L. E. do churu T.
airisin B.

cid beacca L.

THE PRIMER
quidem proferuntur sea per
the semivowels are those
themselves.
i.e.,

37

syllabam non faciunt,


are pronounced

se

i.e.,

that

anditns

dicitur

Qidcqiiid aspenim

by

expellit^

the hearing rejects whatever thing is spoken roughly.


Mutes, i.e., bad foundations, or feeble ones, or sonorous,

spent is its sound; or weighty, or the greater


the vowels when they are along with them or from the

i.e.,

little

and not because they would be


i.e., speechless,
in them even
speechless altogether, for their sounds are

word mntus,

when they

are small, ut Priscianus dixit : Infonnis diciinr


non
mutter
quae caret forma sed quae male est fonnata, i.e.,
a woman is called unshapely not because she is devoid of

ill
Thus,
shape.
shape, but only because she has an
sound
a
but
soundless
scanty
therefore, the mutes are not

is

in

Whence they

them tantnm.

foundationless, ut Donatus dixit

are called mutae,

Mutae sunt quae

i.e.,

nee per

proferuntur nee per se syllabam faciunf, i.e., the mutes


are these letters which do not make a syllable by them
se

and are not pronounced by themselves, etc. The


semivowels first, i.e. the first science for learning i.e.

selves,

according to good knowledge or the first knowledge or


Their parent vowels
the first hit upon the mention.
;

The mutes on the other hand have their

before them.

parent vowels after them,


Their parent vowels,
ance or their origin,
the

i.e.,

in

it

is

proper vowels.

the

those whence
their vowels.

parent vowels are after them,

parents, since

That

i.e.,

i.e.,

is

their

Why
if

deliver

did he say

beginning be

not usual that the beginning


not his intention here, that

is

last

is
parent
science
that
but
at
be
the
vowels should
all,
beginning
of voice
will be perceived in his mind, i.e., the law
which is at the beginning of the semivowels should

certainly

remain with
is

in

them

it

to the last,

and the consonantal law that

to the last should

be uttered forth

first.

BB. 319

38

AURAICEPT

a 24

E. 22

Nir bu immaircidi son lasin nGsedel, ar

mbad

/3

4i

aicnead

doib dib linaib a nguth remib / ina ndiaid air is ed


rob imaircidi la suidi co mbadh an toseach doairesedar

an dedhinach du chur uadh conid muiti uili 495


oghaim acht feadha nama -i- nir bo
im(airgidi seon) -i- nir bu em ae aireic son; no nir bo eim

lais

beithi-luis-nin in

aireachtain suad son

no

bo imuca urasa soon no nir


no nochor bo reim

nir

bo uca immorro soon lasin nGaedel

im gothaidhi
dul gseth
diblinaib

remibh

ar
-i-

lasin ngaeth dul

-i-

mad

duna

aicneadh

-i-

remib

lasin fear iga raibi in 500

no ar mad

\&\.\\gut/iaibh

/ ina ndiaid

-i-

ae

gnithi doibh

dona muitibh a ngotha


ina ndhiaid -i- remib dona

~J

learn
lethgurtwz ^ 7 ina ndiaidh dona muitib acht ata acht
mbad
sen
co
la
suad
505
and cheana 7 is ed robo em airechtain
:

menmain -i- in guth fil isin leathfo


no-airis^
lais
dheoidh, J a ndeidenach fuach do
guthaibh
chor ae int shuadh -i- in taebomnai do chor ar tus conod mi\nd

rosechastar ina

ae

labartha in bitheolais litterda in ogaim

ait

acht feadha

nama per imstrofen a ainm sin -i- traide den impsoud -i- 510
amal ata 1 co mbadh le nobeith and, 7 n co mbad
ne nobeth and. Cid ar mad fearr leis-sium a mbith
mbeith leathgz/to
Ar
Ni ansa.
7 muiti amal robatar icon Laitneoir ?
do 515
roba
la
suidibh
ni
filet
ar
sechem Grec,
7
lethgwtoz
ut
nGrec
na
Grecaib do Feinius no dno is ar uaisli uird

comtis

muiti

huili

quam

inas)

(!

Omne

dicitur:

492
497
i-

air nir

nir

nirbem

ae

onme bonum postponitur

uile priusponitur,

494

bud L.

ba heimdei airig son


aircdi son E.

robo, and toisech doairisetar E.


-i-

nir

ba hurusa denam na coingne sin Ed.

504

acht ata E. om.

505

la saine

50 -

deidenfuach E.

508

conad imatt E.

510

E.

perinistrophen
E.
impodh T.

impoud

per anastrophcn
treded L.

b
Sg. 4 8

509
:

guthaidi L.
litt-

Gr.

sleisim L.

514

B. has ata before robatar

lethguth- E.

516

fobi th soi re ceneiuil

"

5|

50G

E.

B.

Lat.

v.

lit-

da L.

309,

innangrec Sg. 40*4

6.

THE PRIMER

39

The Gael did not think that appropriate that the


nature of them both should be to have their vowel
before them and after them, for this he thought
appropriate that it should be the beginning of them
that should remain firm with him and that their

vowel should be put


Ogham Beithe Luis Nin were

away, so that the


all mutes save vowels
only, to wit, that was not appropriate, to wit, that was
not indeed a cause of finding or that was not indeed a
sage s finding or that was not an easy choice or that
closing

choice, however, in the opinion of the Gael or


there was not a course with respect to a vowel, to wit, with
the wise satirist, to wit, with the man who had the wise

was not a

course

that

should

it

be

nature

that

or

might

it

be a matter to be done to them both, i.e., to the semi


vowels and to the mutes, their vowels before them and
after

them,

i.e.,

before them and after them, before

in the case of semivowels and


mutes but there is a doubt with
:

after

them

them

in the case of

me there still, and

this

was

sage finding with him so that it was the course


which he followed in his mind, i.e., the vowel which exists

in truth a

semivowels should remain firm with him to the

in the

and as

word should be put the sage

their last

to wit, the consonants should be put

first

last,

knowledge,
it may not

so that

be a misplace of speech of the undying knowledge of the


Ogham save vowels only, per anastrophen is the name for
:

that, to wit, a quickness of the turning, as e.g.

there

it

prefer

becomes

them

le,

to be all

and n becomes

ne.

Why

1,

so that

should he

mutes to their being semivowels and

In
mutes, as they were with the Latinist ? Not hard.
order to follow the Greeks, for there are no semivowels
with them, and Fenius was a Greek
or again it is on
account of the nobility of the order of the Greeks, nt
;

dicitnr

Oinnc

ui/e priusponitur,

oume bonum postponitnr

40

BB.

AURAICEPT

a 5l

3 I9

isamaigthir gach ndereoil


co forbu.

Innsci tra cis

Ni ansa.

tri

lasin nG-aidel

-i-

lir

(col. {3}

urluimi

tri

n-innisin

i-

ifiw

che). 520

ferinnsci J baninnsci 7 demhinsce

mascul

femen

indsce

neodar lasin Laitneoir.

Ni ansa.

hie hec hoc

-i-

ise in fear, isi in bhean, ised in

Cest, cuin

ar tus 7 gach sainemail

innsci dochuisin la Peni

-i-

Cest, caide deochair eturru?

E. 23 a

Nosdeochratar

-i-

ise isi ised

-i-

neam.

525

immairigh eter in innsci

in

duil

dia

Ni ansa.
Intan feadair a hinsci choir fuirri
Ni imaircidi immorro eturru intan feadair

iar n-aicniudh.

innsci for a n-aill

ferinsci for baninnsci

i-

for ferinsci no deiminsci for neachtar

n-aei.

no baninsci
Feadair em 530

ferinsce for baninnsce intan asberar ise in


sa, ut dixit poeta

banmhac-

Dia mbadh missi in banmacan,


Nocechrainn each faelmacan
Fer nad fintar gu gcluinnter,
;

535

Slancheill chein duib, a muindter.

Pedair
isi in

dno

gabur

baninnsci

for

fearinnsci intan

asberar

Isi in

gabuir uair is each,


gabur cid meighleach,
Isi in chorr cid reil
nos-rel,
Ise in mintan cid banen.
Ise in

<

Pedair dno deiminnsci for ferinnsci no baninsci intan


is ed a cheann sechis ceann fir on no
mna,

asberar

ut dicitur :

545

Ceand mna romannair mo mod,


Doi-far[r]aidh don, ni deilm ndil,
ed ceand is grannium sain

Is

Do

neoch

for

fil

muin

nim.

fo

***
Gaidelc (c added later) B. : lasin nGoidel, neumtur E.
urland E.
imaric E. eter indoi T. dia n-indis L. F
n
ni himaircidh T.
cechtair n-ce, cechthuir n-ai T.
cechtar L. E
Da ba misi E.
4
No ceachlaind each fealmacan L. E. ni charfhuinn nach felmaccham T
a
^9-42 c f.
gluinnter B. : cluindter L. : gluindtear E.
Q Mollov Gr 116

520.

inscni E.

urlamd L.

gabar E.
1

*
18

-i-

fo feghthair B.

firoinE.

S48-9

mo mogh

E.
graindiu L.

me idlech

HM.

romaimair B.

granum

L. E.

nos-reil B.

margin,

sin E.

135 a

nos-raeil E.

542

mindtan

romandair E.
r 41

o muin L.

THE PRIMER
i.e.,

mean

every

is

thing

placed

41

every distinguished

first,

thing to conclude.

Now

genders, how many are there with


the Irish? (that is, gooseberry (i) way).
Not hard.
Three of them, i.e., masculine, feminine, and neuter
gender with the Gael, to wit, masculine, feminine, and

as

to

neuter -with the Latinist.

among them?

Not hard.

Query, what is the difference


Their three leading words

of gender differ, to wit, hie, haec, hoc i.e., he, she,


he, the man she, the woman it, the heaven.
;

it

Query, when is there harmony between the gender


and the element to describe them ? Not hard. When
proper gender by nature is applicable to it. There
no harmony, however, between them when one
gender may be applied for another, i.e., masc. for fern.,

its
is

or fern, for masc., or neuter for either of them.

be used for

may

masc.

when

fern,

Now

a female child

is

called he, ut dixit poeta:


If

were a female child,

should love every young student


A man that is not discovered till he
I

Perfect sense for a while to you,

may

Also fern,
called she

gabur

is

she,

gabur
heron

is

he,

is

she,

titmouse

is

neuter gender

gender when

when
if it

heard

of,

people.

when

the horse

is

a horse,

it

reveals

though a female

may

is

it is

be bleating,

though clearly

he,

said

is

it

whether that one


die itiir

is

The
The
The
The
Also

be used for masc.

itself,

bird.

be used for masc. or

"it

man s

is

his

head,"

head, or a

woman s,

A woman s
It

head that has destroyed my work,


has gained ground, no dear sound,

It is

a head that which

Of any

that

is

fern,

no matter

is the most horrible


on a neck beneath heaven.

///

E. 23 a 23

baninnsce for deiminnsce intan asberar 550

dno

Pedair
is

AURAICEPT

BB. 319/327

42

in ehloch, nt dicitur:

Is

he

in

lia, lith

rolas,

lar srethaib suadh in senchas


Is

ed onn

Is

in

iar

n-aicneadh

ail,

cloch iar sserdataid.

daigh derg dighdi dath


Frisna geibthi cath na cith
Is ed ceand is chaemu cruth
Is e in

gu mbruth forsmbroeniu
Samail a dealba can chleith
Ealbha ingine Idhaidh

Fail

bith.

560

Fri goir ngreni glaine ar gurt,


Is fris samlaim a caemtucht.

Mad

n-urd choir na ndula, immorro, ni ainm

iar

ferinnsci no baninsci acht

du neoch dufuisium

o 565

ba deme chena aicneadh na huile.


7
deminnsci a ferinnsci no a baiiinnsci.
dno
Duepenar
Doepenar dno ferinnsci 7 baninnsci a deiminnsci, amal
ata isna /rannaibli, 7 it he sin na deime tebede 7 na
tuisimar;

lanamna deme
Insci

-i-

inn
7

a bunadh Laitne.
Scothegna
(-i- ecna)
Innische a irme -i- innisiu iar caei iar conair

ceangar tra
no tra -i- a
-i-

asneis;

baninsci

no

no

no

tri

-i-

na

tri

Perinnsci

no fo[f]herinsce no
na mmna

hinnsci

nama

-i-

immorro

Baninnsci dno

bis.

uaini

ferinsci

forinnsci 575

fir

baninnsci

-i-

-i-

no ferdha

in
[bis indsci

lerr inda innsci

ferinsci
fir

deiminsci.

dome cucunn no durx

firenninnsci

firinnsci

innsci

ba

-i-

570

a ngem-se.

scientia

a airbert.

conar

no buan innsci no bonenmnnsci no bona

L.]
-i-

scientia

RC. xx. 264


lithar rolass E. : HM. 135, b, I
Cor. Tr. 12
557
E.: gaphur si T.
sencas E. 556 derg daigi E.
gaibthi L.: gabthai
gan clith E.
E. forsm B. L. E. in bith T.
fil, braenu
581
560-s HM.
Fhidhuigh T.
ingeine Idaig E.
135 a 42
06:t
Gr. Lat. v. 159, 22
160, 8
caemchucht L. : caemucht E.
*
566,624 tusimther L.
tuisimter E.
Doepenar L.
571 indscid oracio no sciencia T.
r 2
a airbert -i- airlapra no radh T.
Indis ex E.
57:!
uand L. dorre uaind E. trath -i- dorroi -i- d iarr^/V/ indsci cugumn T.
ban fir B. -i- ba fir L.
fo erindsci L.

552 5
-

553

>

15

>~

r>;!

THE PRIMER
Also

a stone

may

gender

fern,

43

be used for neuter gender -when

is called she, ut dicitur :

The

A
A

is

flagstone

According
block

is

stone

is

The

it,

she according to

red flame

head

"

is

is

the history

according to nature, a rock,

"

is

Against which

A
A

he, a feast that has flamed,

to the threads of sages

"

it

will

he,"

artificiality.

a prayer of colours,

not prevail battle or shower

of fairest form,

place whereon with a glow the world

distills.

The likeness of her form, without concealment,


Of Elba, daughter of Idad,
To a bright sun s fire on a field
Thereto
If it

liken her beauteous shape.

be according to the proper use of the elements,

however, there is no term of masc. or fern, gender


save for what generates or for what is generated
from and neuter were else the nature of the whole.
;

On the one hand neuter gender is derived from


masc. and fern.; on the other, masc. and fern, are
derived from neuter, as it is in the -verses, and these
are the derived neuters and the neuter couples and
their pairs.

Speech that

Word-wisdom,

is

its

sciciitia,

use.

knowledge, from a Latin

Speech-way,

its

meaning,

root.
i.e.,

narration along the way, along the path conar, that which
is trodden
tra, that is, let it come unto us, or let it go
:

from

that

us,

them,
gender.

i.e.,

the saying
three genders,

is,

the

Masculine gender

is,

or tra,
masc.,

i.e.,

fern.,

the

three

of

and neuter

however, added gender, or

true gender, or

goodman gender, or male gender, or manly


gender, or better than the woman gender, or man gender
only that
gender,

it

i.e., it

is.

were

Feminine gender, again,


true, or lasting gender, or

i.e.,

woman

female gender,

44
i-

BB. 319/3

AURAICEPT

5i

no (320) fo
-i- deim

dagfis

innsci

Demindsci dno
fuirri

no in

dibeo

insci

du

dem

onni as dein\o\

insce dimbeoaighthi

-i-

nt

n-aill,

is

erlun

est, is

7 masc;/l insin

no

em

erlomz

Is

e in fear

nama gen

Oratio

est

ita

no

hinnsce sluinnes

maille

n-epert

is

Ferinnsci aicnid,

neam.

deminnsci

perfectam 590

dictionnni
\n

innsci

ordugud

faillsiges

ceil[l]

foirbthi.

is

it

inund

-i-

se

fri

no

remshuidiugud.

is

Deminnsci

chloch.

Innsci intan asberar

in

e in fer

is

Baninnsci aicnid,
in

sed,

neach"

ata

-i-

Erlonn inund eter da erlonn nach


sed, air ni erlond

fri

nt Priscianus dixit

fris,

congruo\ui\

demostrans

a 585

fri

dno eter fhenvw

etargaire intan deifriche

is

eraill

na

comimaircide

dosb^re

intan

Is etargaire

Jr\.

oi\di\natio

sententiam

\que\

is

na mna. 580
no deiminsci

dighbaim

ni

-i-

23 a 42

innsci

insci,

-i-

co n-anmai/// a athar senrud.

n-aili

fri

bis

fir

no deme

insci,

biu.

Cuin

is

is

in

in

ferinnsci saerda,

bean

baninnsci saerda,

is

aicnid,

an 595

is

neam

an

ed

Aicneadh caem and 7


saerda,
aicned etigh. Aicned caemh cetumus
is
a sron no a
suil na mna.
Aicned n-eitigh immorro, is
a fhiacail 600
no a bhel na mna J is cail gotha fodera sin -i- ni ni acht
is

ed in ceand.

neamgnathugudh amal
i-

nit

atat

na

focail berlai

binde lenn uair nis-gnathaigem.

neodwr

mas

na athgenwmar

Mascol

femm

no
comet
comfhiscol -i- moo a fis 7 a col quam col na mna no is onni 605
is masculinus -i- masculini.
Femen dno -i- femder -i- feme
lasin

Laitneoir

-i-

fear

cul

"

l:i

Demindscean L. doem insgi furri E.


dimbeo L. dabse E. urdibad fuirri in dede reomuin^ T.
:

"

rs

"

dobere L.
dosbere L.
589
cen L. Gr.
Erland, da
no fn sedh T.

asbere E.
is eterscarad E.
dosbi H.
deiferge E.
59
Lat. ii. 53, 28 Sg. 26
orat5 B. L.
erlaind nach at inunda -i- si fri fri si no fri sed E.
594
595, 6,
earlond acht is remsuigugud E. L.
nat athgenmar L.
na haichnemair E. nad athgenam T.
lin)
cal coimet L.
cail E.
nignathE.
mo fis col L. E. Origg. xi. 2, 17
-imasculiiia, femer -i- feme Grece, largo (
og) Latine E.
"

l87

:;

13

isi fri

S3er

se
_

15

{i

lonium masculdo T.

masco-

THE PRIMER

45

or bona scientia, to wit, good knowledge, or inferior to the

gender of the man that the woman s gender is. Neuter


gender, again, that is, dark gender or darkness gender or
dark gender on her, or the dem is from the word demo
t

digbaim,

i.e.,

inanimate,

When
when

it

erlonn, leading

masc. there

or

from any one


Speech, when

word

to another thing, ut

is

it

else,

with

said

is

it

a comparison

it

his
is

he

est,

when

father

it

Well,

then a comparison between the

is

i.e.

it

refers

it

There

etc.

i.e.,

is

or unliving gender,

deprive
gender
is not a gender that applies to
quick.

it

is

is

erlonn

the man,

fern,

and the

differentiates

name

especially.

he only, with no other along

with him, ut Priscianus dixit : Oratio est ordinatio congrna


dictionum perfectamqne sententiam demonstrate, i.e., speech

an appropriate order of the words that shows the


Erlonn is the same between two erlonn
perfect sense.
is

that are not the same, to wit, fri se or fri sed ; for
is

not erlonn

it is

Natural masc.

masculine speech,
speech,

"she"

is

"she"

heaven
is

sed

is
the man: artificial
speech,
he is the heavens. Natural feminine
"he"

"

the

is

is

an anteposition.

the stone.

"

woman:

feminine speech,
Natural neuter speech,
is the
artificial

"it"

neuter speech, it is the head. There


beautiful nature and ugly nature.
Beautiful nature
It

first:

"

artificial

is

her nose or her eye

nature on the other hand

woman s

It

is

"

the

woman s.

his tooth or his

Ugly
mouth

and quality of voice causes that, that


is,
nothing but want of use, as are the words of a
language which we do not know, i.e., we do not think
them sweet because we do not use them. Masculine,
the

feminine, and neuter with the


male, and
i.e.,

cul,

major ejus

luxuria

or

it is

keeping

Latinist, that is, mas, a


or com-fis-col knowledge, lust,

scientia, et major ejus


quam feminac
from the word masculinns, i.e., masculine.

AURAICEPT

BB. 320 a 26

46

E. 23 a 63

Femdeir didiu -i: ander gach slan.


a
-ienter
no
femen
feinore -i- femur -\quasi f
ogh-ingen
sliasat, air is and is ben-si intan fognaithir dia sliasait
no femen -i- flesc no maitnechas unde femina de flescda no 610
Graece, uirgo Latine
;

maithchnechas dicitur ; no

onni as feminina, femina

is

-i-

banda no banecoscda no bangnethach no bangnimach.


Neudur -i- ni fetur cia cenel, uair nach si no se no neutur
onni as neutrum neimhneachtardha -i- nee Jioc nee illud -\;

nee masculinum

Cest, onni

nee femininum.

Caite deochair eturru

com[a]ircim.
defrigidar a tri urlundinnsci

rempu

-i-

riasna hinscibh

-i-

-i-

iii

a[s]

remslonnudh

ise isi ised

sciscor,

Ni ansa.

-i-

615

Nasslointi

acht ata urlaind

nd-edargnu remsluind dona foclaib ina


mascwl / neutur tuicthear trethu. 620
ndiaidh / insce femen
Etardheilighther dno eter na tri cenelaibh. Cest, cuin

sin a tindscedul a

~]

imaric

cuin

(-i-

aenairectain suad) eter in insci 7

as

Ni ansa.

duil dia n-innisen?

choir

fuirri.

Intan fogabhar a hinnsci

Acht do neoch dofuisim


aicenta

thuismiudh and, tuismiudh

/ o tuisimar atat

da

/ tuismiudh saerda. 625

aicenta geine -i- mac sceo ingean o mnai


fer o thalwazVz, amal asbeir Uraicept
-ieasba in talman mewi tusmedh clanda. Cetheora

Tusmiudh

tusmiud saerda

mor

fodhla saerdhatadh

-i-

rainde / tugait bmdiusa J

deifir

Deifir rainni, ut
illugud labartha / cuimri raid.
banmac-sa -i- din raind oigi fil and isin ingin

607

filia

is

xi. 2,

617

a se remhsloindidh roslointi

ndeadarg

-i-

62:i

indesend E.

629

defir inde E.

631

(col. /3)

thach no maethcnesach E. flescach no mothcnesach T. Origg.


6U
613
Gr. Lat. viii. 82, 25.
se nozi;/atr E.
Origg. i. 7, 28
616
615 1. Cesc
nodefrigthar E.
019

e in 630

der Gm:ia, id est,


der Graece for Ian, Ian femder didiu -i- og- ingen E.
609
608
2, 21, 24
foghnus T. dia shliasait B.
Origg. xi. I, 106
maithnechas B. maitcnechas L. maithcneas unde femina \- deidecasc-

Latine^.

610

est, is

Origg.

xi. 2,

L.

a tetargnu

fogabair E.
6:i

24

illud,

rompo E.
*i-

G- 2

sser

cumra E.

E.

remsluindte T.

E.

625 7

21

iscistcoir

feur E.

628

Deithbir L.

immricc E.

mana

tuistimis T.

Defir a indi E.

THE PRIMER

47

Next feminine,

to wit, fem-der, to v?\t,feine in Greek,


uirgo
ainder every intact one.
Femdeir, then, is a
pure virgin or femen quasi fewer, i.e., a femore, i.e., femur,
thigh, for it is then she is a woman quum femori ejus serviin

Latin

atur ; or femen,

a root of fighting, or
contentiousness,

i.e.,

unde femina dicitur de, a sheltered one, or tender skinned


.one; or it is from the \voYO.sfemenina,femma, i.e., womanly,
or of

is

form, or

womanly

deeds.

not she or he

one nor other,

femininum.

womanly

is, I

nee hoc nee illud, id est, nee masculinum nee

i.e.,

Cesc,

What

enquire.

activities, or

womanly

do not know what gender, since it


or neuter from the word neutrum, neither

Neuter, that

is

query, is from
the difference

the

word

sciscor,

among them?

Not

Their three leading words of gender


distinguish
them, i.e., their three antedenotations, i.e., denotations
hard.

before them,

i.e., before the genders, i.e., he, she, it


but
these leading words stand at the commencement to
indicate the antedenotation of the words
following them
:

and masculine, feminine, and neuter gender

is

understood

through them.

There

is

distinction, then,

Query, when
philosopher

element

gender

is

the three genders.

(i.e.,

when

is

there a

one invention) between the gender, and the

for telling
is

among

there agreement

them?

found upon

it.

Not hard.
But of

all

When

its

proper

that generates

and

generated from, there are two generations, a natural


and an artificial generation. A natural
generation of
birth, to wit, son and daughter out of woman
an
is

artificial

generation,

Primer says

Great

is

grass, out of the

earth, as

the
the uselessness of the earth unless

i.e.,

bring forth progeny. There are four subdivisions of


artificiality, to wit, Difference of Part, Cause of
it

Euphony,

Amplifying Speech, and Brevity of Terminology. Differ


ence of Part, ut est, he is this female
child, that is, the
"

"

AURAICEPT

BB. 32o/3r

48
ai;nn

ban

Tucait bindiusa, ut

is

ainm

-i-

goar

nais) co tuc in

labartha, ut

Cuimri

raid,

emilt ruse im

modh

file

be

est>

labartha

ruse

immi

/ criathar

and

fil

ghabair / d eoch

in

ar tucait mbinniusa

fris

ed a cend /

imim

23/318

solus isin Fenic[h]us (no isin Breat-

-i-

est, is
tit

est, is

E.

-i-

ls

Hilugud

Hate in da urlabra

/ criathar

arba

im arbor do

rad.

modh n-aicenta

635

uair ropad

Air

it

e da

modh sserdatadh.

Secht n-eatargaire tra dochuisneat -i- a ngrad condeilg


Etar- 640
lasin Laitneoir is eatargoiri a n-ainm lasin Slid.
goiri in incoisc

etargoire

persainn, etargaire n-inchoisc persainni,

persainni

ngnim,

etargoire

persainne

cessadh.

Etargaire derscaigti i nderscugud -i- possit /


comparait 7 superlait lasin Laitneoir -i- fothugudh 7
forran 7 formoladh lasin filid maith J fearr 7 fearrson 645
:

lasin nGaedeal

etargoire meite

goire lughaghthe

mmetughudh, etar

Etargoire n-inchoisc hi
in fer) unnsi (-i- in ben)

lugugud.

persaind cetumus unnse (-ionnar (-i- i[n] nem) etargoire in inchoisc persainni, me
faden, tu faden, he faden, sinni fadesin, sibsi fadesin, 650
:

siat-som fadesin.

Etargaire persainni

ngnim

darig-

nius, darignis, darigne, darignisam, darignesaib, darig-

ensad.

Etargaire persainni

rot-char-su,

cessadh:

rom-char-sa,

rocharsom, roinchar-ne, rom-charabair-si,

Etargaire derscaigthi i nderscugud -i- maith 655


ferrsom (-i- lasin nGsedel coitchend a n-ecmais in

roscarsad.
7

ferr 7

filed,

mmetugud
haighthi
633

IM
647

653
ti34

immorro

fothugad
i

mor

llugh[ug]udh

Feineachus L.
Hillugud L.

la

moo
:

bee

solus
gobur
cuimredh T.

Etargaire mete

sidhe).

isin

moosom.

lugum

lugusomh.

Fhenacus E.

^ emilta, Air

Etargaire lug-

Cor.- 675

642
persainde E.
651
648
uindsi E.
uindse, uindse L.
dorignius E.
lugaide E.
cf. 335^, rom-charthar, etc., which is translated
darignetar siat E.
romcaraisiu,
rornrarni,
rom-car-ne, robar-carabar-si, rocarsom L.
6:!6

it

e E.

robarcarsi, roduscarsum, rodomcarsum E.


658
655 i
luguthi E.
ndersgnaigac/^ E.

639

lugum-son L.

THE PRIMER
name
steed,

that

from the part of virginity which

arises

in the girl

and

Cause of Euphony, ut

name

the poet put b to


of Speech, ut est,

it

est,

is

is

there

the gabair,

it

for a

for the
is

the

sake of euphony

Amplifying

her head, and the two expressions

more lengthy
a bark of butter, and a
are

she

white horse, that is, goar,


the Femechus, or in the Welsh, so that

is

it

solus in

is,

49

Brevity of Terminology, ut esf,


sieve of corn for it were tedious
;

round about butter, and a sieve round about


corn.
For these are two modes of speaking that exist,
the natural mode and the artificial.
to say a bark

Now

there are seven inflections, to wit, the compara


named inflection by the

tive degree of the Latinist is


Inflection of

poet.

in a person, inflection of

meaning

of a person, inflection of person in active,

meaning

Inflection of distinction

inflection of person in passive.

comparative, and
with
the
Latinist
superlative
foundation, aggravation,
belaudation with the poet good, better, and best with

in

to

distinguishing,

wit,

positive,
:

the Gael

inflection of greatness in increasing, inflection

of diminution in diminishing.

a person

woman

first

unnse, here

onnar, here

a person

is

is

Inflection of

the

the thing

man

meaning

unnsi, here

inflection of

myself, thou thyself, he himself,

is

in

the

meaning of

we ourselves,

ye yourselves, they themselves. Inflection of person in


active I did, thou didst, he did, we did, ye did, they
did.
Inflection of person in passive I am loved, thou
:

art loved, he is loved,

are loved.

that

is,

good, better, best

ever, with

are loved, ye are loved, they

Inflection of distinction in distinguishing,

contradistinction

great,

we

him).

greater, greatest.

diminishing

(i.e.,

with the

common Gael

in

is
it
the poet
foundation, how
Inflection of increase in increasing

to

small, less,

Inflection of

and

diminution in

least.

AURAICEPT

BB. 320/328

50

E. 23/543

Secht n-etargoire

-i660
i[s] soighthi dia mbe inna eolus
dia
i
mbe
n-aineolus.
saighthi
Etargoire -i- isinn
etechtu ata -i- isin sechtmad email in sechta ita in
condelg

no

is

uile ut est

na

eis

Pars pro

toiti

tota J tola

dar

in toiti

etardheilighthi

treidhib

-igair guth
no etargleodh -i-

etargairi

ghotha andsin

in

etarghnugh[ud]

pro parte -i- in rand dar


na rainni. Etargoire -i-

eis

-i-

6G5

iar

ngleodh a fheassa etarru.


In chondealg lasin Laitneoir is etargoiri lasin
filidh

-i-

molais

fialsaighi

no

fili

no fialshuighi

onni

no

ani aerais,

fi

filid
li

fellsamh ar dliged in 670


Cidh ar nach treidhi lasin Laitneoir

is

philosophus

-i-

guru fellsumh.
condelg amal as treidhi lasin nGsedel in edarghoiri
meid 7 inni 7 inchosc? Dedhe immorro lasin Laitneoir
filed

in

meid

minus

et

na;^ma

7 inni
is

in

olc \mmalle.

mbeg

fhilid, ni

Is

bonus

-i-

meid.

Is

a meid

coneilg in neich

et

mains

is

in indi

ed a inni lasin nGaedel

mor

-i-

is

beg

J is

mor

-i-

-i-

-i-

magnus
maith

675

lais-.rium//

Inchosc immorro agon


Laitneoir, acht pronomen

lughu.

eszV/e etir lasin

condelg

ani

et uerbuin.

Cidh fodera dosumh a radh a ngradh conde[i]lg lasin 680


Laitneoir is edargoiri a ainm laisin

filid

J ni fuil acht

graidh condeilg lasin Laitneoir, J atat secht n-etargoire


icon filid ?
Ni dia chutrumugud eim dosum dno, acht
tri

condelg lasin (321) Laitneoir


nderscugud. Ni each etargoire

ita etargoire lasin filid is

etargoire derscaigthi

condeilg 7

is

each condealg

condelg las-[s]ium posit?

is

Ar

is

is

Cidh ar madh

etargoire.

Ni ansa.

-i-

as fotha, J ata

660

661
inna eolus B. E.
soigthidi ambae E.
saigithi E.
662
ism ectu E. instechta ita in congaelg- B.
6(53
Origg. i. 37, 13. tar es no toidi 7 in toit tar es na rainde E.
14
comprait dombeir-sium arin coinneilg uile T.
665
667
etardheilighi B.
etardeiligthi i treib E.
etergleod -i- iar ngles
669
-i
felsai -i- foglaim 7 sai fogluma hesium iarsani bid foglum aici
671
673 L.
i felsui E.
fel fogluim T.
go rob L.
foglaim L.
Deighi
675
inninneE. 677 in beac L. 678 esen L. ^ in grad L. 682 i condeilg
685
B.
Ni each etargoire
repeats,
etardersgugud inderscnaigtech,
fotta E.
gach E.
:

E.

H.

ic

E.
In

685

THE PRIMER
Seven
is

inflections, that

in his

it is

knowledge

in ignorance.

or

comparison, ut est

whole and the whole

for the

to be separated into three,

i.e.,

i.e.,

stands in the unlawful,

part of the heptad

Pars pro

tota et tota

interpretation of the voice

the whole

is

pro parte^ the part

for the part.

and

whence
whence he

to be sought out

to be sought out

i.e., it

Inflection,

to wit, in the seventh

is

is, it is
it is

51

etargaire,

Etargaire,
\.e. y

gdir

is

i.e., it

voice,

there; or interdecision,

is

knowledge between them.


is inflection with the

after the deciding of his

The comparison of the Latinist


poet

filidk, poet, that

sitting

or

fi,

is,

that which

generous seeking, or generous


// that which
satirises, and

the word philosoplms, philosopher,


owing to the duty of the poet to be a philosopher.
Why is not comparison a triad with the Latinist, as
praises

or fill from

inflection

is

with

the

Gael, to wit, quantity,


Well, with the Latinist it is two

triad

and meaning?
things, quantity and quality only, to wit, good and bad,
that is the quality
great and less, that is the quantity.
quality,

With the

Gael, however, this

is

quality, to wit,

its

and bad together. This is its quantity, to


and with him the small is great
small
:

with that which

in

is

pronomen

et verbuni.

What makes
with the Latinist

him
is

say

named

that

good
and

comparison

inc/iosc, signification,

with the Latinist not comparison at

however,

there

The poet

less.

is

wit, great

comparative

inflection

by the

all,

but

degree

poet, seeing

but three degrees of comparison with the


and
the poet has seven inflections?
It is not
Latinist,
indeed to equate them does he do so now, but that which
is

are

inflection with the poet

i.e.,

is

comparison with the Latinist,

inflection of distinction in distinguishing.

inflection

Why

is

comparison, but every comparison


positive with him a comparison?
is

Not every
is

inflection.

Not

hard.

BB.

52

3 2ia

AURAICEPT

.23/363

derscughudh di, ut dicitur, airim fri unair, ut est : Unus non


est numents sed fundauientiun nuineri -i- nochon fhil int a;n

mbad

co

airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, 7

amal

ita alt

690

icon Ga^dhel, / ni dech fadesin, cidh la deochu adrimt/^r, 7


tria saerdataid insin

-i-

immorro de

int alt aicenta

posit.

Cid arnid ainm comparaiti doberat-somh forin condelg

Ni ansa.

uili?

Sufierla.it

derscaighidh

ainm

Poisit

dno, ni
di

cetumus

derscaigt/z<?r

di.

Ni derscaigh do ni
Comparait immorro

neoch, derscaigther

conid airisin

di,

695-

is

foriata in condelg.

Caite condelg ceilli cen son, / condelg suin cen cheill, 7


condelg suin 7 ceilli molle ? Condelg ceilli cen son, ut esl :
bonus,

inelior,

optinins.

bonus, bonior, boniinus ;

Condelg suin

ceill.

Condelg suin cen ceill, ut est: 700


nobhiadh iar sun sain 7 ni fil iar

7 ceilli malle, ut est

magnus, maior,
condelg techta. Bid dno maith, 7
ni bi derrscugud de, ut est Deus.
Caite deochair eter se J uinse ? Uindse cetumus sluind 705
inaxiinus

is

in sin in

persainni [sainjraidchi insin, ut dicitur : unse uait in fer-sa


saindriud cona anmaim, ut dixit pocta:

Unse chugut

in gillgugan,

Wac

r[e]arrgugan
Bid each maith lat ar cingugan,
A ceallgugan.

Sluind
fes

688

immorro amal ata

ceniuil

cia sainriudh, acht

is

fer

is

tantuiu.

710
in

fear,

ni

Cidh fodera ind

numair E. Origg. iii. 3, i


airmi L. : comad airem E.
691
Gseidiul, cid la deachu airmither L. : gid la deecu arimt/kr iter sserda69 2 t-alt aicenta
amal aia prois E. do L.
taib insin E.
694
Prois cetamus, inderscnaidchi do ni E.
695
Superlait didiu ni derscnaigth*?;- di E.
701
65)6
bonisimus L.
bonissimus E.
sech derscnaigit, derscnaigther E.
704 Gr. Lat. v.
deochairt^/- B.
158, 30
Virg. Gr. 91, 20
706
7os-n
Cormac, Anec. iv. 1103
persainraice E.
TOO
errgugain E. raragain T.
710
a
a
ar
E.
breib T.
bid can B.
agad
cinngucan -i- longa brab inn H.
711
ara cindagain, a cenagain
cellcucan a ceanngucan -i- a cinn gegain H.
712
=
6
viii.
Sluinde
B.
CZ.
coitcend
T.
ceiwniuil
T. ( Cenn Gecain)
316,
689

dersgnugud E.
nocho full E.

huimif L.

fri

69

70r>

THE PRIMER
Because

that which

is

it

distinction for

nt

unit,

wuncri,

cst

is

is

opposed to a

nnincrns sed fnndaincntmn


not a number, but it is a basis of

is

est

number, and as the Gael has


metrical foot

number

nt dicitur, a

it,

one

i.e.,

the foundation, and there

is

Units non

53

though

itself,

it

alt, joint,

and

it

numbered with

is

not a

is

feet,

and

that through artificiality, to wit, the natural alt stands for


positive.

Why
to

all

not the

is it

name

of comparative that they apply


Positive first: Now it
hard.

Not

comparison?

The

does not surpass anything.

The

surpassed.

What

is

is

however,

comparative,

something, so

by

surpassed

comparison

superlative, again,

that

it

is

is

surpasses,

not
is

that reason

for

an inclusive name.
of

comparison

sound and sense together


sound, nt cst:

bonus,

without sound, and

sense

comparison of sound without

sense,

and comparison of

Comparison of sense without

melior,

optiinns.

Comparison of
boninins ; which

sound without sense, nt est bonus, bonior,


might be according to sound, though it does not exist
:

it

to

according
together,

Comparison of sound and sense

sense.

ut est:

niagnns,

niaior,

Yet there

proper comparison.
surpass it, ut est, Dens.

What

is

is

good, and nothing

the difference between

here he is?

that

nia.viuins,

is

se, it

is

he,

and

the
to

ninse,

the denotation of a particular


there, nt ditititr: here he is, this man in particular,

Uindse

first:

person is
with his name, nt dixit pocta

Here comes to thee the dear little fellow,


Son of a dear little black-bird [Mac Lonain].

Have thou every good prepared


Dear
[Se]

is

and

it

little

for

him,

Cellach.

a denotation of gender, however, as he


is not known who in
particular, but

is
it

the
is

man
a man

BB.

54

3 2I a

AURAICEPT

26

E. 24 a 14

irlond conidh inwsci 7 conidh etargoire


is

ac sluind

in

fer uair is erlond

asberar

inchoisc i persaind
co n-aichniter trit
~J

amal

persaind fein

e 715

cetpersainde

na hetargaire

me

leor leis-[s]ium a rad

a hinchosc

ita

tres persainde atat

Cidh ar nar ba

is

etargoire intan
ata in etargairi
is

sluind

ic

innsci

is

atberat

ann

Is

ceneoil

isin

-i-

oen

isa

suidhiu.

Sluind

unse.

tanaisti

bw, acht

innsci

intan

-i-

persainde

720

uili.

n-etargaire

Ni ansa.

Etargaire deifrighudh na
persainde tria hinchosc di fadein -i- in chetpersu uathaid,
conar bo leor a radh me co n-abair me fadein, air is

inchoisc persainne?

demniti 7
dicitur

is

deligidi

fri

persaind a radh

ca.ck

me

fadein, ut 725

iuiponendo egomet \ipse enim ego fed J non alius cum


is me fein 7 ni neach eli intan asberar

dicitur egomet L.] uair

Quicquid iteratur ut firmus fiat

egoniet.

demnite gach

ni athairrigthir.

cen phosit, ut

est :

maria
7

-i-

i[s]

condelc in

Dulcius

est

Fogabar dno in comparait


mare Ponti\c\uni quam cetera 730

muir Point andat na muiri ar chena,


Condelc in etechta dawtf in
etechta in sin.

somillsi

cetna email in Auraicepta


insin

-i-

ar ni maith int anfis.

fors -i- ferr a fhis.


Finit primus liber.

Loc don

Incipit do lebur Ferc/^rtne.

Mhacha.

-U^

^7

"-

71

isberar E.

"

7 --

nar bo lor K.

demnidhi

fid

-i-

deach, reim
740

indsci 7 etargoiri.

"

is aen,

oir is reimsluinne

T.

etardethbriugud E.

7 is deiligthidi E.

in pronotnine

"-

7IT

uindsi E.

7 - :i

uathad E.

T.

cf.

ata E.

"-"

Gr. Lat.

ii.

590, 26

"

-"

deimnigthi, deligthi, a tairgiotar L.


co

mba

poisit

T.

Origg.

xiii.

16,

aitirgidir E.

4: Gr. Lat.

ii.

7:i:!

fors

isechta E.

7:;1

-i-

is
7:!4

ferr a

tis

ni ar B.

:y

Pointt anait E.

do

fit/ /

Finit

(/.

Amen

fir)

L.

rotit/r

aithrigthir T.

iv. 374, 29;


92, 15
indecta E.
;

"

viii. clxxxiii.

735

Persu do

/3).

forba[i]dh, alt

721

Emain

libur-sa

breith assa faind 7 boirb

Seachta frisa toimsiter Gaedhelg

^
iJofr

denma du

Tucait a

fil/.

for seis (col.

rC

Is etecta

n-aimsir Conchobair mic Neassa.

Ferchertne

biaid corob

-i-

inas

borb L.

don

fir
7:;!J

na

fit//

T.

toimister E.

THE PRIMER
What makes

tantuui.
insci,

gender, and

55

the trlond, leading word,

etargaire, inflection

When

become
is

it

indsci^

stands as denoting gender, but of which it is


and
one;
they say "he is the man" when it is erlond,
It is inflection there when it is said
leading word, there.

gender,

it

he

denotation of gender such as is the


meaning in a person, i.e., it is in the person
wherein is its meaning, so that it is known thereby

unse, there

is.

inflection of
itself

as denoting
all

first,

second, and third person, wherein are

the inflections.

Why

deem

did he not

inflection

denoting person

sufficient

it

Not

to

hard.

"

"

say

Inflection

is

in

differentiating of the person through its own defining of


the first person singular it was not
itself, to wit, in
so he says
I myself"
to
for it is more
say
enough
"

"

I,"

definite,

and

nt dicitnr

distinct

from every person to say

iinponendo egoviet, since

another person when


nt firnius fiat
reiterated

is

i.e., it

is

it

will

tive without a positive,

lit

myself,"

myself and not

said egomet.

Qnicquid iteratur
so be that everything which is

There

confirmed.

it is I

"

est:

is

found also the compara

Dulcius

est

mare Ponticum

quain cetera inarm, i.e., sweeter is the sea of Pontus than


all the seas, and that is an improper comparison.
An

improper comparison,
wit, fors, chance,

proper; for

i.e.,

ignorance

too,

is

the

first

part of the Primer, to

its knowledge.
That is not
not good. Finit primus liber.

better
is

The place of this book,


Incipit to Ferchertne s book.
Emain Macha. In the time of Conchobar MacNessa.
The person to it, Ferchertne, the poet. Reason for making
it, to bring weak and rude folk to science.
Seven things according to which Gaelic is measured,
letter and. verse-foot, declension and accent, syllable and
gender, and inflection.

Seachta
n-aeahinni
airimh

no

AURAICEPT

BB. 321/3 4

56

vii

E. 24 a 36

Seacht
septim a bunadh lasin Laitneoir.
seachta da seib doimiter and.
airbert -i- a

-i-

-i-

primeillge na filideachta no brosnacha bairdne


n[d]eich na filidheachta i n-ecmais dialta, ar ni fil in
vii

-i-

seachta annside

is

seachta

fris

a nd-ebradh

745

Coitchend do each

-i-

/ diles /

fri

Ruidhles do in

seacht laithib na

Innleas a tabairt for airimh n-aili acht for a

seachtmaine.

Tomus

Toimes

foe/// is

Diles do a seacht diuidib.

airimh seachta
cetairimh sechta

seacht.

Coitcheand

aire rofacbadh.

don

ruidhles conadar

mensura a

-i-

Toimhes a

bunad

lasin

Laitneoir. 750

meas
meas doghnither o theangaidh.
In gne
no in cenel tomhus?
Is
cenel eimh.
Cest, caitet
a gnee? Ni ansa. Tomus filideachta
tomus bairdni
dileas 7 coitchend 755
Cade ruidhleas
7 tomus prosta.
Ni ansa.
Ruidhleas do filid7 indies hi tomus?
a hinni.

fen

airi

airbert

-i-

to tenga J

-i-

~J

~J

eacht

-i-

tomus

fri

breith

cluais

seacht.

ria

fri

de prois o dhialt immach.


Indies do sew immorro,
vii for

sechta inso

Diles

air ni

fil

do bairdni

-i-

Coitchend immorro

n-anala.

alt

and.

Seachta

fo

760

sis.

Pidh -\-fundamentum a bunad Lait;^: Fo edh a hinni


no fidh ae a airbert. Ruidhles 7 diles 7 coitckend
indiky do fedhaib -i- ruidhles do fhedhaib aireghdhaibh,
Coitchend immorro do thsbomnaib 765
diles do forf/iedhaib.
:

fotha,

acht huath.
est:
To.

co

h non
mbad

Indies do sen immorro, air ni

litir

743

airem, no a

747

diles

748

vii

primeilge, no

vii

T46 7

brosnacha E.

760
766

1.

768

nt

hinnles T.

"

755

etir,

dona vii ndechaiph na filidheachta T. atecht diuiti E. ndiuiti


749 airem
fris a ndubrad L.
nd-ebrad E.
E.
733 no in
do thenga 7 me is airi fein E.
gnim do tomus ? is gnim emh E.
7 )7
coint B. = coitchend
am briatha;- seachta E. 75!) do E. L.
7*
taeboimwa B.
do sein e, Secta fo vii-a andso sis E.
767
seJ est E.
ni a toebomnaib E.
Gr. Lat. ii. 35, 24 8, 22
12, 20
nod tinfid L.
:

7Sl

taebom;/<7

sed nota aspirationis -i- nocho n[fh]uil


acht ata conidh noit tinfidh. Tinfedh -i-

est litera

THE PRIMER
Seachta, heptad,

i.e.,

septein its root

Seven sciences

Latinist.

57

according to the

meaning of

the

is

i.e.,

it,

heptad of sciences are measured there. Its use, to wit, its


number, that is, seven prime metres of the poetic art or
incitements of bard poetry or seven metrical feet of the
;

poetic art

from monosyllable, for the heptad is


on that account it was left out. Common,

apart

not therein

proper, and

peculiar

asked for the word

are

heptad

Common

to it is each number of seven.


Proper to it
seven simples. Peculiar to it is the first number of
seven to which it might be applied, to wit, the seven days

are

its

of the week.

Improper,

than seven.

Measure,

to the Latinist.

its

i.e.,

number other

application to a

mensura

is

root according

its

its meaning.
Tomus, measure,
and
estimate
itself, i.e.,
tongue,
mcas,
an estimate which is made by tongue.
Is measure a
its

use,

i.e.,

Measure,

to,

<$ij

species or a genus?

what are

its

species

It
?

is

Not

to

poetry, that

is,

its

Proper to bard poetry,

in

measure

is

peculiar, proper,

Not

being referred to
i.e., its

Query,

Measure of poetry, of

What

bard poetry, and of prose.

common, and improper

genus certainly.

hard.

measure to

Peculiar

hard.
its

seven kinds.

suit the ear,

and

proper adjustment of breathing.


Common, however, to
from
a
prose
monosyllable onward.

Improper thereto, however,


exist there.

for alt, juncture,

does not

Scptas, seven times for a heptad from this

time forward.
Fid, letter, that
law,

its

meaning

Peculiar,
i.e.,

proper,

peculiar

to

however;

for

fundainentum

it

its

common, and

of science

improper

its

to

use.

vowels,

vowels, proper to diphthongs.

to consonants except h.
is

Under

Latin root.

wood

foundation, or

principal

Common, however,
it,

is

not a consonant at

fst litcra sed nota


aspirationis,

is

all,

Improper
ut est

not a letter but

to

h non
it is

tiniudh feadh

ed

AURAICEPT

BB. 321/330

58

ruidhles

is

Deach
Degfuach

.24*5$

nemnigudh feadha do radh

-i-

is

~J

diles J

is

Is

friu sin uili.

770

choitc/iend doib.

dno troich (no ar frithindlidhach) a bunadh Laitne.


no defuach daw a hinni dibh uaighthir immorro
:

[a] airbert intan

i[s] sreath.

Caite ruidhles 7 diles / coit-

Ruidhles doib a n-anmand

chend indies isna deac[h]aibh ?


fein do rad friu amal ata dialt.

Diles doib dialt do radh

fri

775

duformaidh gach n-ae dib for


each n-ai dibh, air
araili.
Coitchend doib deich do radh fri each dib. Indleas
do dhialt \mmorro deach duna seacht ndeachaib ele do radh
is

fris,

air ni

dialt

alt and.

fil

re hua;;/ma ai a hinni intan is filideacht,


Reim daw
ni huaim tomais dlig//.
re huam intan is bairdni
Reim daw a
raid uaim intan is phrois.
Reim daw
no reim onni as
airbert, diall no tm sea.1 a bunadh
-i-

780

-i-

-i-

comhshuidhiughud a bunadh. Ruidles do reim


diles do taebreim ceatharcubaid 785
for fid i filideacht

robamns

do

fid

-i-

filideachta J bairdne.

cen cheill
prois

Cid

Co \tchend immorro do reim

do reim suin

immorro do reim
dosum nar bo lor

indies

co nn-earbairt

me

immaille

cheilli

suin

namma,
radh

lais

suin

diles

uair ni

do

filltzr.

me nawma
79

fadein, ut supra ?

Ceithri gnei immorro for prois o (322) reim -ireim suin, amal ata fer. Is as remnigther. Reim ceilli,
Ni airicar a reim suin, air is aendealb
amal ata Yatraic.

7(i J

ninugud

(?)

771

E.

ar

"

7 2 3
-

77li

780

dibuaidthir, a airbert E.

each ni dib, f araile E.


uamwa L. rzcim, huama E.

774>

ruidlesta E.

7S5

ceithrecubait E.

it

indledach L.

deechaib E.

777 8
>

deeich, deech E.

781

re

leor L.

784

"

tomus L.

huaim E.
7yo

co n-abair L.

THE PRIMER
mark

of aspiration.

of letters,

TinfedJi, aspiration,

of a

annihilation

i.e.,

is

Then deach,

letter

then,

its
it

all

metrical foot, -or--beea^4seJ44s~syTiOTiy7rroTr57

Good word

when

a vanishing

to

apply to
peculiar, proper, and common to them.

i.e.,

That

these.

59

meaning

from them

is

linked

or double word,

its

use,

however.

What

a series.

are peculiar, proper, common,


and improper in the metrical feet? Peculiar to them to
apply their own names to them, such as dialt, monosyllable.
is

Proper to them, to apply monosyllable to each of them,


it is a
monosyllable that each one of them adds to

for

Common

another.

them.
it

to

them

is

to apply feet to each of

to monosyllable, however,

[the

is to apply to
Improper
name of] one of the other seven metrical feet, for

no juncture is contained in it.


Reim, course, that is, time of composition of
is

its

when
a

meaning when

is

poetry

ae, sciences,

time of alliterations,

bard poetry, that is, it is not composition of


legitimate measure. Reim, then, that is, raid-uaitii,
it

is

e/i,{//,

when

it is
Reim, then, its use ;
prose.
or
or reiiu from
declension,
tuiseal, case, its root

speech-stitching

the word robauws,


to

it

i.e.,

its

root

is

a compound.

Peculiar

alliteration, of letter by letter in poetry


proper
to a side [or end] reiin through the
quatrain of poetry

raw,

and bard poetry.


Common, however, to declension of
sound without sense and to declension of sound and
sense together proper to prose
improper, however, to
declension of sound only, for they are not inflected.
:

What
only,

caused him to

and to say

Four species
to

deem

"

myself,"

in prose,

it

however, out of

reiin,

as fer.

is

not found, for there

is

declension

Thence

Declension of sense such as Patraic.

sion of sound

"

"

say

ut supra ?

wit, declension of sound such

declined.

insufficient to

Its

one form

it

is

declen
for its

60

BB. 322 a

ainmnid

fora

Fland

AURAICEPT

reim suin 7

J fora geiiitil:

Taebreim

Flaind.

.24/39

amal ata

ceilli

me

ar is 795
prosta
taebreim each ni nach lanreim. Treda ara togarar reim -ireim as, ut est, fer, air is as remnigther. Reim ind, nt
est,

air

fir,

malle, ut

ann

ind

is

in

est,

-i-

-i-

ainmniugud

Reim dawo ceim

malle.

Reim

reimnigther.

fer

fadein,

a airbert

Bellat mathair Niu[i]l

as
J

ind

inchosc

800

neimnigh

Do

chloind Laitin langeimligh


Fuair bas i llo grene glain,

Cele Feniusa Farsaidh.


i-

reim do fidh

for fidh nt est

Sian

805

sleibi szVlata serind

Senshaili senim snechta snac


Slisiu slice

samad

saball

Snaithe snithe saland sacc.

Forbaid dno

-i-

aiccentus lasin Laitneoir, a

bunad onni 810

no for
finnarius
(-iilghnuiseach
fut no for cumair.
Forbaid no forbeoidh no forbaid a inne.

is

-i-

Forbeoidh intan

is

forsail

-i-

forbid

forin focul)

sail fair

no

forsail

no dinin

dishail

Forbaidh dno

-i-

-i-

fair

Forbaidh dno

nin.

do

dinin dishail

is

forsail

diles

disein

do

forbaid
dul

7i

:;

"

8W
"

for

an ainmnig L.

inles

-i-

for fut

forbaid E.
E.

-i-

uadh

30

**

815

acht duir

ernid nin, no fair-

no

ruidhleas

for gair.

immorro

do

do da forbaid na

forbaid

8m Belaid L.
801-9
E. ow.
seiscend T.
Sian sleibi slata seiscind L.
*w
-i- aiceant E.
L. saland B. om.
816 17
acht is E.
nemfuilledh, arnin E.
S1!)
disel L.
forbaigibh B.
na nguth E.
a tuebrem E.

"

815

no dona huile forbaidibh 820

INdles
-i-

for

nemhfhuilliudh.

iii.

Texte,

erned,

7!l5

* mi

n Formarius T.

si?, is

disail,

friu.

araili

gloine T.
/;-.

ernin

do ernin a beith

radh
llocc

is

-i-

sail

for [fhjidhbait a airbert

Coitchend do dinin
dib

di-fuilliud

bidh intan
-i-

sech nin ni

-i-

is

Forbaidh dno

fuilliudh, iarsanni fothaighes in focul for fut.

forbaidh intan

-i-

THE PRIMER
nominative and

its

genitive

61

and

of sound

declension

Side declension in prose, that is,


everything that is not full declension is side

sense as Fland, Flaind.


"

for

myself,"

Three things

declension.
called

Declension out

declension
it

is it

i.e., its

As

together.

nt est,fer, for

of,

Declension

declined.

declined.

in fer,

est,

is

which reim, declension

after

it is

into, ut

out of

is

that

it

est^fir, for into

Declension out of and into together, ut


its accusative are there

nominative and

to ren/t, too,

use

its

is

ceim, pace

Bellat

mother of envenomed Nel

Of the

children of full-fettered Latinus

Died on the bright day of the sun,


Spouse of Fenius Farsaidh.
to wit, alliteration from letter to letter,

Now

as to forbaid,

i.e.,

(to wit,

vivifies

that

when

is, it is

"

or

it vivifies,"

that

it

is

adding

to,

because

after

is,

it

"

thereon

i.e.,

when

is

short.

is

upon

meaning.

when
;

it

is

It

it; or forsail,

establishes the

perfects

s but

its

perfects

"

n comes not

from that unadding,

it

"

it

forsail, that

Forbatdh, then,
is

"

i.e.,

"

"

long.

many-faced
on the word) either on a long or on a

"

Accent, either

cst

accentus with the Latinist, from

the root of the word fonuarius,

upon

///

word

as a

dinin disail,

or dinin disail, to wit,

not adding.
ernin, that

Forbaidk, then, to

gives n, or on
use
i.e.,
peculiar to
forsail : proper to erm n, its being on a long or on a short.
Common to dinin disail, or to all the accents to say
wit,

it is

n.

it

is,"

Forbaid then,

"

forbaid, accent, of them.

accent of

them

to

go

it is

on

is, it

wood," is its

Inappropriate, however, for any


i.e., for the two

in place of another,

62

AURAICEPT

BB. 322 a 36

na taebomn

7 d aenforbaid

no

ilair

forbaidh uatfiaid 7 forbaidh

no forbazd

for uaihad,

ilair

-i-

E. 24/322

fuit

cumair

for

gan a fuath do sgribeand.


Alt onni as altus -i- uasal a bunad lasin Laitneoir

no

825

indies

menmain

da.no onni alteir ina

a airbert

-i-

alt

Alt co feser \imnorro

a inne.

co feser cia halt aircetail bera.

fri

sechta

-i-

i[n]

nath, inn anair, inn anamain, in laidh, in setrad, in sainemain.


Alt in anma prosta in re n-aimsire bis eter in da sh\\\aib a 830
inni

co feser a airbert.

[alt L.]

Caite ruidhles 7 diles 7

Ni ansa. Ruidhles -i- do aiste do


immorro do alt bairdne -i- do aiste.
Coitchend indies do fhoclaibh na proise -i- coitchend do each
focul mbiat alta indies immorro do dialt, ar ni bi alt and. 835

coitchend, indies alta?


alt filideachta

diles

Indsce da.no
inne
i-

-i-

s\c\ientia a

scothecna a airbert

co feser in

si

is e in nath, is

no
i

don
i-

na hinsce

no

Iiv/sci in

in laid.

in describe a

insci, co feser in aisti urdalta

in se in aisti bera.

sechta amal roghabh

fri

anma

prosta

ferin^sci

-i-

7 diles 7 coitchend, 840

Gate ruidles

7 baninafeci 7 deminsci.
indies,

bunad Laitne

Ruidles don insci aicenta csemh

insci aicenta ecaem

diles

coitchend indies don insci saerda

coitchend ara gnathugud, indies immorro ara aindilsi.


Etargaire dno onni is etargradimus -i- foruaslaigeach

823

^
835
8
844

taobomnad

8- 4

L.
x

gac/tafuatB.
inde dono -i-

ceim E.
etargreim

-i-

ail fuit

fhili

T.

immorro E.

SJ6

indischse L.

842

acasim E.

foruaisligtech (?) E.

8:!4

L.

S:iv

do

no

ilair

focz<!B.:

B. om.

focul

na proise E.

scoitecda E.

indsci L.

urdala L.

indscni E.

THE PRIMER

63

of the vowels, and for the one accent of the


consonants, i.e., the accent of the singular [on the plural]
accents

and the accent of plural on the singular, or the accent of a


long upon a short

or

not to write

inappropriate

its

form.

Alt from the word


to the Latinist

mind

his
i.e.,

to

is its

i.e., noble, its root according


that which is nurtured in
from
alt, then,
meaning. Alt co feser, however, is its use,

altus,

that thou mayest know what alt, limb, of poetry applies


seven, that is the nath, the anair, the anauiain, the

As to alt an anina, joint


of the name, in prose, the space of time that is between
the two syllables is its meaning
alt co feser its use.
laidh, the setrad, the sainemain.

What

are peculiar, proper,

alt?

Not hard.

of poetry

to metre.

that

intervals

no

to

of

metre of

to each

word

in

which there are

alta,

inappropriate, however, to a monosyllable, for

alt, joint,

Now

Peculiar, that

is,
alt, limb,
proper, however, to alt of bard poetry, that is,
Common, inappropriate to the words of prose,

common

is,

common, and inappropriate

exists there.

indsce, gender, that

is,

scientia,

from a Latin root

way, is its meaning word-wisdom its


use: or, indsce, that thou mayest know the definite metre,
or
is
i.e., that thou
mayest know whether
in deschae, the right

"she"

"he"

the metre that applies to seven, as for example the natJi


is
the laid is
Indsce, gender, of the prose
What
name, that is masculine, feminine, and neuter.
"she."

"he,"

proper, common, and


inappropriate of
to
Peculiar
natural
indsce, gender?
kindly gender:
common, inappro
proper to natural unkindly gender
are

peculiar,

priate

to

artificial

gender,

i.e.,

common owing

being used, inappropriate, however, owing

to

its

to

its

inappro-

priateness.

Now

etargaire, inflection, from the word intergradimus

64

BB.

AURAICEPT

32 2,45

.24?

34

845
etardeliugud a airbert. Gate
Ruidles
7 coitchend / indies etargaire?

etargnaghudh gotha a inne


ruidles / diles

do etargaire derscighthigi i nderscughud, air


Diles immcrro do etarg^Vr
in condelc.

is

frecras

inchoisc

sloinniudh persainnisaindredaigi. Coit


-i- coitchend 850
chend indies immorro donaetarg^W ar chena
na frecair
uird comairme indies immorro do neoch dib
persaind, uair

i[s]

in

condelg.
Cest, in

gne

(col. /3)

in cenel in fidh

no

chenel, cadet a gnee


aicenta -i- fid scerda fid inn
7

masa

ogaim

7 fid

aicenta immorro 855

fid

emh

Fid sa^rda

Ni ansa.

Is cenel

Is
inn ogaim, in gne no in cenel ?
forfidh,
cenel ecin, ar techtaid gne -i- fid aireagda, 7
cenelach
cenel
in
gneach -i- fid.
Is e insin
tsebomna.
cenel
Is
emh, ar
in deach ?
Cest, in gne no in cenel
Is e sin in 860
techtaidh gne -i- secht ndeich na filideachta.
fid

na

Et

cailli.

fid

cenel gneach baghabhat ocht n-ernaili c[e]ac//tar

ngne na

filideachta.

Cest, in

da

erne

-i-

gne no

rem

in cenel in

filideacht 7 bairdne

-i-

Is cenel

-i-

techtaid

reim do fidh for fidh

fc>

tsebreim do fidh for fidh, ut est:


Coluim caid cumachtach

Tsebreim immorro ut

est

[Fh]laind

Co Maistin

7
8-57

luam

in gaiscidh

garg do

glan, at gaeth,

At

laech, a [Fhjlaind.

Metrics, p. 19
garg E. T.
gart B. L.
c f. /risk

grinn

maill.

At

derscaigthi L.
feda forfeda L.
B. om.
techtaig L.

868-72
"

at

7rl.

861

86G
:

is

rind,

an urd L.
sandradaigi L.
dara gne L.
bangabat, cacha
RC. xx. 146 // Texte, 56
:

Ir. Texte,

iii.

9,

4.

^9

THE PRIMER
dominating

i.e.,

interpreting of voice

its

is

distinguishing

65

What

use.

common, and inappropriate

its

is

are

meaning

peculiar,

proper,
Peculiar to

of etargaire?

etargaire of distinguishing in distinction, for

it
corresponds
to
however,
Proper,
etargaire of meaning

to comparison.

in a person, since

the denoting of a particular person.


and inappropriate, however, to all the etargaire,

Common
that

is,

common

to

the ordinal

any of

to

however,

it is

them

numbers

inappropriate,

do not correspond

that

to

comparison.

wood, a species or a genus? It is a


genus certainly and if it be a genus, what are its species ?
Xot hard.
Artificial wood and natural wood, to wit,
Query,

is fid/i,
;

artificial
is

wood

wood

Ogham,

the

is

of the
is

Ogham letter
And as
forest.

natural wood, however,


to wood, letter, of the

a species or a genus?

it

a genus neces

It is

has species, to wit, principal wood, vowels;


cross wood, diphthongs
and side-woods, consonants.
That is the genus generic and specific, i.e., wood. Query,
sarily, for

it

is

deach, verse-foot, a species or a

certainly,

for

it

of poetry.
eight sorts of each
feet

It

genus?

is

a genus

has species, to wit, the seven verseThat is the specific genus which the
of the two

of poetry have

species

got.

Query, is reiin, run, a species or a genus? A genus,


i.e., it has two species, to wit, poetry and bard poetry, i.e.
reim, alliteration

of letter

alliteration of letter

by

Columba,

by

letter,

letter, ut est

and

taebreim, side

pious, powerful, etc.

Taebreiin, side alliteration, however, nt est

Fland, thou art the pilot of pleasant valour

Unto gentle Mullaghmast

Art pure, art wise, rough is thy point,


Thou art a hero, Fland.

66

AURAICEPT

BB. 322/^12

Ceithri

for prois o reim

reim suin cen

cheill,

7 ceilli, 7

Fland Flaind

i-

-i-

taebreim prosta, 7 reim suin namma.


reim suin 7 cheilli
suin cen cheill cetumus -i- fer fir

reim suin

Reim

gne

.24/352

reim suin tantuin Patraic Patrati:

7875

Tri gne ara togarar reim -i- reim


reim ass ut estfer;
reim
ind
reim
7 ass malle
ass, 7
ind, 7
reim
ind 7 ass -i /;/
reim ind ut est fir isin reimniugud

taebreim prosta

-i-

fadein.

fear -i- [ind L.] teit 7 ass teit a lanreim ind ndual?/j- fogur
Reim ind 7 a ss 880
huathaid 7 ina dualgus foghar ilair.
maille -i- ind a dualgus foghur uathaid 7 Mair immalle
i

inna dualus
ind

iar

ceill

ceilli

no reim

ind

P strati, ar ni fil
-iFland Flaind,

-i-

reim ind 7 ass malle

ar ita ind iar ceill 7 ita ass iar suin.


Is e sin in cenel

cenelach gneach cenel^ch rochumadh 885

sund forsna secht remendaib

in

Cest,

Jr\.

cenel ind forbaidh? .Is cenel, ar techtaidh

fai

gne no
-i-

Is cenel

in cenel int alt?

alt soerda 7 alt

tri

in
Is

gnee.

gnee na Gaedelge.

e sin in cenel for a tarrasa tri


in

no

gne

Cest,

ecin, ar itat tri

gnee

Int alt co feser 890

aicenta 7 alt co feser.

techtaid coic ngne 7 coic cenela.


Cest, in gne no in cenel
na tri indsce. Is
techtaid
Is derb conid cenel J
indsci ?
~y

saincenel deochraides in doman.


Is cenel

in etargoiri?

e in cenel etardefriges

Cest, in cenel

no

in

eim, uair dianairmidi a gnei.

na

gne
Iss

huili Jr\.

Cest, caide QSSQ in sechtu frisa tomsigt/^r in Goe[de]lg

875
879

*sl
s 2
"

pat- pat- E.

S7(i

cf. 3751
lanreim ind
fogair uathaid L.
a dualus fogus E.
:

reim ass
ni fil ass iar sun
genelan rocumad E.
:

*
1-90

(x E.

{iy3

isin

Vli

gntech deochraiges E.
gnee L.

-i-

fear
l8

gnee E.

fadein L.

ina dualus focus E.

fir

ar ni

indi E.

L.

fil

forsa tarasa L.

no

doine
S!MJ

me

-i-

7 ass

in

gneech E.

ndomun

toimister L.

L.
:

daine in domain E,

frisi

toimistear E.

THE PRIMER

67

Four species in prose arise out of reim, flexion, reim of


sound without sense, and reim of sound and sense, and
prose taebreim, side flexion, and reim of sound only. Reim
of

sound without sense

Flann Flainn

\ferfir: reim of sound

and sense,

tantum, Patraic Patraic

of sound

reim

first

and prose taebreim, side flexion, I myself.


by which reim is called, reim in, reim out

Three species
of, reim in and

out of together reim out of, ut est,fer, man: reim in, ut


reim in and out of, in
cst,fir, of a man, in the declining
and
out of which comes
fer, the man, i.e., into which goes
;

its full

inflection in respect of singular

Reim

sounds and of plural

and out of together, that is, in, with


in, as
respect to sounds singular and plural together

sounds.

in

regards meaning

or reim

Patraic, for there

in,

not

is

in,

meaning reim in and out of together, Flann,


Flainn, for it is in, according to meaning and it is out of,
according to sound.
according to

That

is

the genus, generic and

formed here on the seven

which was

specific

flexions, etc.

is

Query,

ind

genus, for it
forbaid, the accent, a species or a genus?
That is the genus in which were
has three species.

found the three species of Gaelic.


species or a

genus?

species underlie
alt

co fcscr.

It is
is

int alt

alt co feser

has

five

three

certainly, for

species and

and
five

a genus ?
has the three genders.
a different genus that differentiates the world.
Query,

Query,

genera.
It is

a genus

is

is

to wit, artificial alt, natural alt,

it,

The

It

Query,

clear that

it

is

indsce, gender, a species or

a genus and

is

ctargaire, inflection, a
for

species
genus that differentiates among

certainly,

Query, what
Gaelic

is

of letter,

is

measured
first

that

innumerable.
all

Not
is

the

hard.

It

genus
is

the

things.

essence, of the

esse,

genus or a species?
are

its

it

seven by which

Esse, essence, feda,

fragment

of

cut

off

air

68

AURAICEPT

BB. 322/335

ESSQ feda cetamus

Ni ansa.
in fid

-i-

\n

E. 25 a 7

blog aoir tebide gebhes

n-elluch focail, unde poeta dixit

Ewe

feda

fretede

is

Ferr duib a aicne occaib

900

In blog aeoir thepide


Techtas i n-elluch focail.

Caite

e^e deich?

Ni ansa.

In

no inn uaite son

n-

oe^congbalach airimther o dialt co bricht cona n-athghabail


diblinaib.
Caide e^e remme? Ni ansa. In bruudh fillti 905
fogurda forbriste

otha

foil

in

ainmiudh n-uathaid co foxlaid

Ni ansa. In tormach no in
digbtf// n-aimsire airighes a.\cnedi comhshiniudh fri fogwr.
Gate esse alta? Ni ansa. In toe tengadh fil don filid
Caite

n-ilair.

e^e fuirbhthe?

ceimniughud don

a[c]

don sillaib for araili mad


Ni ansa. In foludh firen
laibh.

Gate

mete no

for araili

litir

alt aicenta.

etardelighthi

alt

srcrda,

no 910

Gate esse insce?

fozVbthe fegthair isna

Ni ansa.

esse

laiget

mad

tri

cene-

Int

athfegadh
etargairi?
no inde no incho[i]sc no edardeifrighi no
no edarderscaigthe rodealbh Dia eter 915

duilib.

Gate tomhus

sechta

fri

bis isin rand (323)

Ni ansa.

In

fid

tuisseach

taebomna tuissecha do thabairt

/ in

ar aird, / co festar na feda bes isin taebchubaidh in raind,


7 gu robe in fidh cetna bes isind imrecru na tarmthort- 920

cheand, 7 gu rub inund a lin do thaebomnaib bes impu,


7 co festar cia deach dona ocht ndeachaib daroigh i n-aisti,
7 co festar in tsebreim no in reim
897

900
903
905

908
909
914
918

920

bolgoir E.
aithne L.

898
:

melluch B.

do

n-ealluch L.

aichne E.
904

son n-asn congbalalach L.


reme, filti E.

comsinead, focus L.
Caite oenalta E.

comsuigudh

906
fri

fid for fidh, 7

"

esse, is freitigi L.: fretide

iocur E.
912

E.

bolg oir teipidhe E.


airmit^r, don athgagabail E.
focurtha E. fil L. E.

cf.

meidi, laghad L.
laigeat, etardeifrigihe E.
taoboim- B. isin dara huad E.

Origg.

i.

28, I

916

dainibh E.

919

ina raind E.

na da tarmorcend E.

co festar

cia

deech E.

THE PRIMER
which the vowel takes
di.vit

69

composing a word, unde poeta

in

Esse jeda, essence of a vowel, it is to be studied,


Better for you to have the knowledge of it,

The fragment cut off of air


Which it possesses in composing

What

is esse

of verse-foot

Not

a word.

The whole

hard.

or

one of the individual self-sustaining sounds which are


reckoned from one to eight syllables, both included. What
is

esse reime,

essence of flection

voiced, articulate

inflected,

change which obtains from the nom.

What

Not

hard.

increase or diminution of time which an accent

marks

sing, to the abl. pi.

The

The

Not hard.

in co-extension

What is
The tongue
from one

is

esse of

accent?

with a sound.

esse

alia,

silence

letter to

essence of interval

which

another

one syllable to another

Not hard.

on the poet in passing


it be alt saorda, or from

rests
if

if it

be

alt aicenta.

What

is

esse

of gender?
Not hard. The just and perfect essential
which is seen in the three kinds. What is esse etargaire ?

Not hard.

The

consideration of

size,

smallness, quality,

denotation, difference, variety or distinction which


hath fashioned among created things.

What
To

God

measure with respect to heptad ?


Not
bring under notice the leading vowel that is
in the verse, and the leading consonants, and that the
vowels that stand in the caesura rhyme of the verse
is

hard.

may be known, and

that the

same vowel may stand

in

the corresponding part of the endings, and that the


number of consonants about them may be the same, and
that it may be known which of the eight verse-feet enters
into the metre,

and that

it

may

be known whether

side alliteration, or alliteration of letter

by

letter,

it

is

and that

AURAICEPT

BB. 323 a 6

70

E.

25028

cia forbaidh bes for son ceneoit ind imfrecrai, 7 co festar

dona seacht n-altaibh ind

cia halt

Insce

co feasar

co feser

-i-

Et

sechta.

fri

cia

in se

fo

in

gne

aircetail

in

inw

si

na

-i-

aisti.

Etargaire

thomus

do

do gne

aircetail

filideachta. 925

intan ba roscadh na tomaiste and, cindas

nothomhsidhe ? ar ni bidh lancubaidh no taebchubhaid and.


Ni ansa. Do focul forba anaile no-taispenta don choiceadh 930

romesadh

focul, uair is coic foctf/1

Ni ansa.

sechta in ochta ind Auraicepta?


ndialta

mbricht

is

and

is

n-anail in

secht n-alta.

Gate

filed.

Intan

Gate

is

in

ocht
focul

oenchongbhalach dechongbalach treconngbalach ? Ai[n]mnigther o trian 7 ni ruidhilsi do in trian o n-ainmnig- 935


:

ther nadat na da trian o n-ainmnighther iarcomarc.

na da taebomna gabhait greim guthazge?


r ar essi a, nt est : Coluim Cille cecinit ;

Caitiat

c 7

Im ba
Im ba

Caite tomus
n-uaite, a

neart
i-

met

sessach im ba seng,

Christ

thi

forbad E.

"-

aircetaib B.

a laiget, a

!ni9

Is
7

It e

congebha

na toimsidi L.

cf.

lin

a n-airdi

coic aicmi

conda-

se,

ba(d) E.

!):!1

Origg.
<J33

Translated in Ancient Ir. Poetry, p. 94


cona dheligt^r E.
7 cuiger E.
cojger L.
;

cf.

ii.

1 8,

on triun E.

937 42

939-42

deasdruim, tuath-

"*

1687
notomhaisde, ni bad E.

ogaim 945

forin focul in imrecra E.

line

!W Cade iad L.

llin

& n-ecumung, a

oen co a coic each

K secht n-alta L. ndialta B.

<J46

Co feisear a

cumung
ed a

for focal in imfregraid L.


"

lind

Ni ansa.

coicfear cacha aicmi,

!n24

in

co tzacht ar lind long

a n-aimneart.

deligitar a n-airdi.

940

tresach, tuirme glonn,

fri fid
7

-i-

E. om.

Zeitschr. x. p. 46,

THE PRIMER
it

may be known what

corresponding

sort,

trisyllabic poetry,

Etargaire,

that thou mayest

i.e.,

when dithyramb
measured
in

rhyme
x,

of poetry.

i.e.,

it.

gender,
is
he

metre

know what

is

Not

i.e.,

that

or

she.

the species

And

how was

or metrical

rhythm was-present,
not couplet rhyme or caesura
By a word completing a breath

for there

Insce,

the

measure with respect to seven.

of poetry as regards

it

accent stands upon a word of the


it is of the seven alta of

and which

mayest know whether

thou

71

is

hard.

which was indicated by the fifth word, for five words are
adjudged to be a breath of the poet. What is a heptad

When

of the octave of the Auraicept?

Not

eight syllables in briclit that are

present there are seven

What

alta, intervals.

and three syllables?


not more peculiar to

named than

it

is

the word containing one, two,

is

It is
is

it

hard.

named from

one-third:

the one-third from which

and
it is

are the two-thirds from which iarcomarc

is

.named.

What
vowel
cccii

nt

are the

To

wit

two consonants that take_the force of a


c and r after a, ut csf, Coluim Cille

Whether
Whether

Christ

When

What

it

it

it
!

will

be

firm,

whether

it

will

be yielding,

be warlike with numbers of deeds,


wilt thou keep with us
will

will

come

to fare

on a sea of ships

measure with regard to fid, Ogham letter ?


Not hard. That thou mayest know their number and
their singleness, their size and their smallness, their
power and their want of power, their strength and their
weakness. This is their number five Ogmic groups,
i.e., five men for each group, and one up to five for
is

each of them, that their signs may be distinguished.


These are their signs
right of stem, left of stem,
:

BB. 323

72

druim,

AURAICEPT

27

a.

leasdruim,

imdreangair crand
7 do lam dess reut

Is
amlaid
tredruim, imdruim.
sal trad fora freim in croind ar tus

du lam

as trit

leis 7 is fris 7
7

-i-

forfheda ut

est

E. 251143

Is iarsin is 950

cle fo deoid.

as immi.

a ndeiligte feada

It e

^*

Wtt )(

>14f3fl-ffl-

Ni ansa,

Cest, cid ara n-ebertar feda fri suidiu ?

fobith domiter friu

co n-uaigiter condaib,

~J

lit

dicitur luis

Cindas domiter frisna taebomna 955


Ni ansa.
Cach da thaebomna ar fid hi

ailme, beithi ailme.

amal fidu?

da

each

cubaid,

cobfld

cubaid

ed

is

cubaid

is

iarum co robe an fid cetna beas isna foclaib in imfrerob inund a

ccrai, 7 co

bas

est,

corn

as

dond

bras

lin

fri

gras

fid ?

aicmib

coic

llaiget

-i-

co fesser a

-i-

a n-uaiti

met

cumang cetamus

no o no

coic

hi

u.

primshuidhiugud

[A
i

rogab

"

)0

Is

amlaid imdrenguir

lj:

romut E.
fontaib ut,

lin

a n-uaiti

flescaib

cumang

)8

!I7

1171

960

-i-

met

llaiget

gabaid guth a n-ctnur -iL.] nert immorro intan dos-bere

amal ata bais

sillaib,

lais.

~J

n-ai;//nert

aite

Ni ansa.

(col. /3) fo

ogum amal imdrengair


imme E.

iw as rut
7 ass
domiditer E.

gu rupeadh E.
a llin L.

7 a neart? 965

"

!l68

bid fo inillius, na nguth- L.


ni thucatar, deidenaca E.

a llin

aimnert

crand K.
!ir :!

>r

Origg. xix. 19, 4


a cubut E.

"

w-

dorn

nihilus ina guthrt/^ amal 970


Fir em, air ni thuicter na feda dedhencha filet

intan bithi

"

n-senaicmi

isna deghfoghraibh sin triana cantain fochetoir

<J

intib, nt

leand

Intan

deochair eter a n-egumang


find.

ceand

Caite deochair eter a

n-aenflescaib.

Ecumang

du taebomna beas

cond.

Caite tomus
a

lin

do taebomnaib E.

bas 7 las L. E.
bit fo nilnius ina nguth- E.
deorcaib H.

THE PRIMER

73

athwart of stem, through stem, about stem. Thus is a


-wit, treading on the root of the tree
first with thy right hand first and thy left hand
tree climbed, to

Then with the stem, and against it, and


through it, and about it. These are their various vowels
after.

and diphthongs,

nt cst

fr^

>34fJflf-ffl-1tt1t)(0

Query, why are those called woods, vowels? Not


Because they are measured by them and sewed
with them, ut dicitur, la, ba. How are they, as vowels,
hard.

Not hard.
measured with the consonants ?
Every
two consonants for a vowel in rhyme, every two corre
sponding letters in rhyme that is rhyme, therefore,
that it should be the same vowel that stands in the
:

corresponding words, and that the number of consonants


that may stand in them should be the same, /// est, bas

and las bras and gras


dond and cond.
:

What

To

wit, that

their size

single

number

their

in

is

syllable,

such

between

their

Not hard.

Want

nullifying, as for
last

letters

bais,

want

lais.

of

their

smallness

in

between their

Their power first: when


or u
Their strength,

a, o,

brings

What

power

of power

their

groups and their


and their smallness,

and

prime position

as

letter?

number and

the difference

strength?
they utter voice alone, that is,

Ogham

five

their size

their

however, when

to fid,

their

in

strokes

five

What

strokes.

power and

know

thou mayest

i.e.,

singleness in one group


i.e.,

ceand and Icand : dorn and corn

measure with respect

is

singleness,

and

is

them
the

their

into

difference

weakness?

when the vowels are under

True indeed, for the


that stand in these double sounds are not

example

understood, through

weakness, however,

their

fi[o]nd.

being

pronounced at once
in combinations

when they stand

AURAICEPT

BB. 323/33

74

immorro

intan bit

comsuidigthib cutrumaib na defogair

amal ata

7 isna forfedaib

Coic feadha

car//

fer

aicmi

renfleisc co coic flescaib, ut

no dno gne
tri

quoniam
a

guihaig/te

~]

ben.

oen co a coic each

7 is

Ecumang cetamus

intan bite

no intan bite

quidein lasin Laitneoir,

nGaedhel, ut Briain,

lasin

n-aenshillaib

975

-i-

beithi a zenur, nin a coicur

est,

Ni ansa.

elet^

fo nialus ut

.25/34

Aimnert immorro

gliaidh, feoil, beoir, lasin nGredel.

in-

980

tan bite fo consonacht, ut seruus, uulgus lasin Laitneoir,


nt iarum cian J ceir 7 mill 7 aball lasin nGaedhel ~l\\.

Lanchumang dano
urba

uath.

Deasdruim

Tuaithdruim

Lesdruim
druim

-i-

Imdruim

-i-

don

leas uait

[7

-i-

andiu 7

fris]

cucut,

Tredruim,
anall aic;//z na

bz>

aicw uatha

985

no leatarsna darin
ed aicmi ailmi

is

n-airde

ed aicmi beithi

is

atuaidh din druim

leith

n-

tria

(-i-

It

bethi do deas in droma,

aicmi muine

bis

n-aradu.

caindeifriges

-i-

n-airde

tria

Conda-delighetar

is

-i-

ecosc)

taebhomna co nd-

intib etir fedha 7

forfidh.

Is

amlaid 990

imdrengar -i- is amhlaidh eimh ceimnighthir isinn ogam


amal cemnigther isin crand -i- do lamh dess reut -i- aicmi
beithi: J

do lamh chle

aicmi

leis 7 is fris

aicmi a:

tairis

-i-

diudh

foi

les uait 7

imnwrro

cucut

fris

immi

aicmi h: 7 iarsin

-i-

trit

na

aic;/vz

is

\mmorro
Is

forfidh.

amhlaid sin imdheilighter na fedha 7 na forfeda / na


taibomna. Cid ara n-eparar fedha fri saidhiu? Ni ansa.
Fobith domiter na taebomna friu 7 cainuaighter na focazt

cf. Gr. Lat.


cutrumait na defhoguir isna E.
fear 7 bean L.
7 (isna) B. om. 7
:

1174

v. 104,

16

viii.

189,

il7

no

977 -83

gacha haicmi E.

flesca

co coic L.

978 81

gu

coic gacha hae E.

Amnert B.
367, 18; 19
s4
con tur uath L.
cona-deiligetar E.
conda-deligther L.
* tara hinwdruim E.
caindeidfriges anaraduite a n-airde E.
E. om.

Gr. Lat.

iv.

!lsr>

989,94

M2

jn B.

muine E.

crund, reout E.
mi friusaide E.

sni:5

!n 8

fo

assiu 7 anall L.

deoid L.

fa

caenfuaigter L.

aindiu (no all) 7 anall E.


m tridruim aicwt- a E.

deoid E.
:

domidigt^r, cainfuaigt.fr E.

995

THE PRIMER
the

to

equivalent

75

and

diphthongs,

the

in

diphthongs such as fer and ben.


Five letters for each group and there

one up to

is

Ogham

each of them, that is, one stroke up to five


or again
strokes, ut esf, b one only, n five of them
when
another kind ? Not hard. Want of power first
for

five

they stand under nullity, ut quoniam quidem with the


Latinist, or when three vowels stand in one syllable
with the Gael, as Briain, of Brian, gliaid, a fight, feoil,
flesh, beoir, beer with the Gael.
Weakness, however,

when they
ut

Latinist,

uulgus with

the

iarum, therefore, cian, far, cetr, wax,


and aball, appletree, with the Gael.

null

are consonised, ut serutis,

(ubull], apple,

Full power, too,

in

is

them, both vowels and consonants,

So

with the exception of h.


their

through

wit, clearly

signs
that

signs,

i.e.,

that they are distinguished


through their appearance, to

do their conditions

Right of stem, that

is

the b group

These are

differ.

to

Tb

is,

their

of the ridge,

right

Left of stem, to wit, to the

left

side

is the h group
Athwart of stem, to wit,
from thee, and against is to thee, or half athwart
the stem, which is the
group Through stem, that is the

of the stem, which

athwart

is

a group

About stem,

that

the diphthongs group.


it

is

even thus

graduated
that

group h

the

in

group b

is,
:

is

it

and

is

on

graduated

tree,

to

wit,

and, thy
after that it
:

it

in

is

the

that,

climbed, to wit,

Ogham

thy right

left
is

and on

this side

thus

It is

hand

athwart

as

hand

after,

and

it

is

first,

that

is,

against,

group m, to wit, athwart is from thee, and against is


towards thee.
over,
Through, however, is group a
however, and about is the diphthong group. Thus are
:

distinguished
consonants.

Because

the

the

Why

vowels,

the

are those

consonants

are

diphthongs, and the


vowels? Not hard.

called

measured

against

them,

AURAICEPT

BB. 323/326

76

dibh, ut est luis ailme, beithe ailme

.25/320

Am^r/ iarait^r
sic iaraither

fidh,

ica breith

fri

sechtu

tsebhomna bhis and, each da taebomna

in

dicitnr

///

Ni ansa. 1000

remraite^

nama

fidh aire[gh]dha

Is e sin in

la, foa.

-i-

sealbhadh saerdha cen reim acht reim

ar

Marcach atchonnac anne,


Etach uaime co ndath

dath

Uan

Deda

las

~]

da o

co

aentugud

iar

is

1005

cro,

gilithear geis,

tuinni dath a

and

airegar

ata bas /

is

comardadh

inand fidh aireghdha


degheanach. Sain \rs\morro
air is

inand taebomna 1010

intib, / is

fil

amal

ndeliugud

n-airchetail [ata L.],

taebomna taeseach -i- el.


Cindas toimsiter na taebomna imna fedaibh ? Ni ansa.
Cach da taebomna dib imon fidh. Is e in comfhot coir (-iin

lancubaid insin), ut est, bas / las.


Is e sin
co n-inannus, / int aentugud cen inannus
:

ardugud

n-airchetail ata, uair

intibh, 7

is

int

aentughud

7 is iar

comh- 1015

inund fidh aireghdha fil


J is ed a choir n-

is

comlin do thaebomnaib;

airchetail.

Conagar dno

isin aip[g]itir

7 a cor a tredhe, 7 a

dhluthadh

fri

cuict[h]i,

bunad o

riagail
int njn

thuas

-i-

1000

in tres

am- B. L.

ni-

line

cf.

"

Arch. C. P.

JO"-1

loos

.j.

is

1019-27

101 -

las 71! L.
J015

ar

i.

n-aigid

1001

3945
1004

481

bas

in

las

tomaistr, taebomnai E.
lft22

in

in

sesedh Ferchertne

anma

L.

a fasdad L.

1001 -

u E. om.

1003

in
is

coir a n-aircetal E.

lancubaid insin.
101:!

1017
-4

1(>

edach imbe L.
Taebcubaid bras 7
comad coir L. in comfat E.

atchondarc ane L.

comardad L.

E. om.

Is e

dedha -i- mac Etheoir


ceathramadh Cse in coiced

Fenius Farrsaidh

mac Amgen in
Naende mic Nenuail
mac
Amairgen
;

o deda,

ochta, a incosc a naede, a asdadh a ndeich///^.

fri

fris

aen, 7 airic

comhuaim fri ceathardu, 7 a com- 1020


a moradh a seda, a fogail a sechta, a

Aingin T.

1025

THE PRIMER

77

woven out of them, ut est 1 a,


That is the artificial possessive
b a, to wit, la, ba.
without rhyme save rhyme of vowels only. Not hard
and the words are

As

[2nd Ans.].
refer

it

fairly

a principal

vowel only

is

required

to

to seven, so the consonants that exist are required,

every two consonants for a vowel, ut dicitur :

rider

saw yesterday,

Round him

a cloak with hue of blood,

White as a swan his colour is,


Foam of wave his two ears hue.

Two

things are found there


difference, as bas and /as, and it

is

consonant.

is

identity

combined with

according to the corre


spondence of trisyllabic poetry, for the principal vowel that
stands in them is the same, and it is an identical final
to

wit,

Different, however,

[and

How

b].

the vowels measured

of

Not

are

the initial consonant,


the consonants about

hard.

them are about the vowel.

proportion,

to

wit, that

That

is

the

las.

is

perfect

Each two consonants


That is the proper
rhyme, ut

unity with identity, and

est,

bas,

the

unity
without identity
and it is according to poetic corre
spondence, for the principal vowel that stands in them
is the same, and there is an equal number of consonants
:

and

that

the

is

proper

of

arrangement

trisyllabic

poetry.

Now

alphabet there is required origin from one,


invention from two, its placing by three, its confir
in the

and its
mation with

four,

and

binding together with five, its


division from seven, its rule with

its

amplifying from six, its


eight, its demonstration in nine, its establishment in ten.
The one is above, to wit, Fenius Farsaidh the two, Mac
;

Etheoir with him


the

fifth

the third

Mac Aingin

the fourth Cae

Amirgen son of Naende son of Nenual

the

AURAICEPT

BB. 323/3 47

73

sechtmad a dalta

in

a dhalta; in

nGlungeal.
crich
m<7C

ochtmad Ceandfaelad in nomad


asdadh n-sen -i- in trefocal.

hit

dechmad

seo a thosach in

Is

don

Locc

.25/327

[i]ar nAmairgein
Tochur Inbhir Moir
Et aimser do aimsear 1030

Uraiceapta

libur-sa

hUa

nEnechglais Cualand
Miled (324). Perso do Amairgein
:

Tucaid a denma mzc Miled dia

Miled.

Glungm/ mac
to\.\\lugud fair

amal ata nar ndiaidh:


Cia arranic a mberla-sa / cia airm

aimser

n-arnecht

Ni ansa.

n-arneacht 7

cissi

Arranic Fenius. Farrsaidh 1035

oc tur Nemrua[i]d i cind dech m\Aia.dan iar scailiudh on


tur for each leath, 7 is each comberlaid dochuaidh and

dochum

a crichi J ni each comcheniu[i]l amal rogab Cai


Cainbreathach, dalta Feniusa Farr[s]aidh, in dara descipul

Ba do Ebraibh

sechtniogat na scoili.

Ocus

Eigipt rofuidhedh.

is

a bhunadhus J co 1040

and roan Fenius fodhesin ocon

and roaitreabh, conid andsin conaitchetar chuice


berla tobaidi do theipu doib asna hilberlaibh tucsat

is

tur, 7

in scol

muich conna beith oc

leo di

r\&ch [ajiliu a

mberla sain acht

occaib-seomh a n-aenur, no ic neoch no-foglaindfedh leithiu 1045


Is andsain dorepedh a mbelra asna hilberlaibh, 7
dorisi.
rotaiselbad do aenfir dib, conid a ainm-sew fo;ta a mbelra-

Goedel mac Angein, conid


GaedzY de-side o Gaedel mac Angin mic Glunfind mic

Ba he

sa.

in

hisin

fer

-i-

Laimfhindh mic Agnumain do Gregaibh.


Gaedel

1027
ll>29

1030

:0:e
i":;.}

1IU -

mac

Aimergin 7 Gaedel

fasdad, int aen L.


Indbir L. Origg.

YM.

anno 3501

do
tothlugad L.
i nd-ernacht E.
conna decatar E.
:

]044

cona robeth E.

W4S

no-foglaimed L.

mac Etheoir

1028
ii.

16,

iar

Inan[d] tra 1050

da ainm

-i-

n-Amairgin L.

D.Gr.
A.D. 915, 1154, 1170
Onomast [641]
10:!4 67
E.
Written as text in L.
:

tiac/;/ fair
10:!8

comcenel E.

oc nech ele

am

1041

hEigepta, bodesin L.

104:i

theibi L.

berla sin L.
in46

oc neach

doridisi E.

aile in E.

Iv.

THE PRIMER

79

the eighth
the seventh his pupil
the ninth his pupil the tenth its establish
ment in one, to wit, the Trefocal.
This is the beginning of the Primer according to
Place of this book, Tochur
Amairgen Whiteknee.

Ferchertne

sixth

Ceandfaelad

the territory of
period the period of

Inbir

Moir

And

its

in

Enechglais Cualann
sons of Milesius

Hy

the

Amairgen White-Knee, son of Milesius.


making it that the sons of Milesius
of him as is after us.
Who invented this speech, and in what place was
Not hard.
it invented, and at what time was it invented ?
Fenius Farsaidh invented it at the Tower of Nimrod
the person of

The reason
demanded it

at

the end

it

for

of ten years after the dispersion in every

was every one speaking


the same language that went there unto its territory and
not every one of the same stock, as e.g., Cai Cainbreathach,
pupil of Fenius Farsaidh, one of the 72 scholars of
direction from the Tower,

He was
And

the school.

and

it

Hebrew by

and he was

origin

there Fenius himself remained, at


the Tower, and there he dwelt so that there the school
sent to Egypt.

them a select language


o
o
which
many languages
they had brought
with them from abroad so that that speech might not
asked
out

be

of

of

him

to

select

for

the

the possession of anyone else


alone, or of anyone who should learn
in

Then was

selected

languages, and
so

that

it

is

it

his

their

language

was attributed

name which

to

is

but of themselves
it

with them again.

out of

one

upon

the

man
this

of

many
them

language.

That man was Gaedel, son of Angen, so that Gaedil,


Gaels, is derived from him, from Gaedel son of Angen
son

of

Whiteknee son

Agriumon.
as Gaedel

Now
son

of

Whitehand

son

Gaedel son of Aimergen


of

Ether,

to

wit,

his

is

of
the

father

Greek

same
bore

8o

AURAICEPT

BB. 324 a 20

robadar fora athair


\n

doriaghladh
berla 7 a

nba

Goedt/c;

mberla-sa.

iarum do each

fearr

ed darepedh isinn

is

csemu,

25^43

and iaramh

Is

Etheoir.

mba

mba

leithiu 7 a

do na airnecht cairechtaire isna 1055


chena arrichta carechtom? leosumh

each son
ol

ailibh

aip<ntribh

Aingin

-i-

E.

flea

doibh

beithi-luis-nin in ogaim, ut cst:

isin

>

Rolatha iarumh a fedha for leith 7 a taebomna dno


Ni fail
for leith, co fil each ae dibh fo leth o rlaile (sic).
amal na fail la Grego acht na muite namma. 1060

leathgwtez

do na rabha ainmniugud isna berlaib


ut est
airichta ainmnighthi doibh (isin Gaed/7^),

Cach

duil

ailib

grus

7 cloch 7 linn.

Atconnac

in

lis

Seach a teged

1065

glas,

Inarb imda a grus

Gen gurb imda

nba

nba

ferr 7 a

as.

nba caimiu each

leithiu 7 a

berla,

is

nba socair caimiu

fri

radh

av

fri

buga

ed dora[ta]d aco isinn Gaedelg -imuiti oca and inat leathgutta 1070
-i- socarcaine leosum gutta 7
atat icon LaibwwV.
7 muiti 7 guttai amal
i

Ferr

ceill

leosum

-i-

a v

fri

fat 7 a

fri

gair, 7

anda a
lanfogur 7 a v fri deghfogur,
7 a v fri
asbr
ed
is
Laitneoir
7
haen-choicfothibhuili amal ata icon
cruas, 7 a v

Gabaidh a chuic guthaige-sium an greim sin 1075


utest Latine he omnes nocales product J corripi pos\s\unt

in Laitneoir
uili,
-i-

fri

itat

na huili guthaige Laitinda


Leithiu

7 co timairceUr.

Is

1054

cainiu E.

KW

105:!

inlaid L.

io.-,2

wor>

arriachta E.

1062

gj-uis

E.

W70 leosum
low

fri

defogur L.

10(i0
i

-i-

llitrib

co caemnachtar co regdar
-i-

ar ni

fil

a fhregra sin

roriadlad in berlasa doib, an ba E.


do na airnechtair L. donernacht E.

Goidelg E.

10fil
ainmnigttt E.
lethguthaige, fuil L.
1W9 socharcaimiu L. : socharcantu E.
cainiu E.
1072 leosum -i. ailm E.
ataat L.

rad guta amal


1074

futhaib L.

W77 co
L.
regthar 7 co timairgtir

107(i

Gr. Lat.

iv.

367, 20

E.
ragdar, timairct^

hee E.
8
i

kat

llethet E.

THE PRIMER
two names, Aingen and Ether.
that this language was regulated.

It

Si

was there accordingly

What was

best accord

ingly of every language and what was widest and finest


was selected for Gaelic and for every sound for which
;

no characters were found

in

the

all

other

alphabets,
characters were by them found for these in the Beithe
Luis Nin of the Ogham, ut est :

Therefore

vowels were placed apart and its consonants


them stands apart from
Semivowels do not exist, as they do not exist

its

also apart, so that every one of

the other.

with the Greeks, but only the mutes. For every element,
for which there was no name in the other languages, names

were found

in Gaelic, ut est, grits,

curds;

clock,

stone; and

/inn, pool.
I

beheld the Us

Past which would come a stream,


In which its curds were many

Though milk was

What was
\vas put

best, widest,

by them

not abundant.

and

finest of

into Gaelic, to wit,

every language

what was easier and

pleasanter to say, to wit, they thought having vowels and

mutes in it
and vowels

easier

and pleasanter than semi-vowels, mutes,

as the Latinist has.

Better in reason with them, to wit, five^of them for a


long and five of them for a short, and five of them for soft

sounds and
five for a

them

as

five for

a hard, and

five for

diphthong than the one


it

is

with the

Latinist,

Latinist says: His five vowels

Latina vacates omnes

all

five

and

full

sound and

underlying
this

take that

is

all

of

what the

effect,

nt est

et product et corripi possunt, that

is,

all

the Latin vowels are such that


they can be lengthened or
shortened. Broader in letters, to wit, for there is nothing

82

BB.

AURAICEPT

a 42

3 24

lasin Laitneoir

leithiu a ciallaibh 7 foclaib 7 Htrib

Xir^^~

a litribh

E.2 5 /3y

Ni

lethe

-i-

a frecra lasin Laitneoir

leithi

1080

grus 7 cloch 7 lind, ni fil a fregra sin lasin


Laitneoir grus -i- tanach galmula lasin Laitneoir, gruth
lasin nGoedel
dia frecra galmarium lasin Laitneoir faiscre
i

foclaid

-i-

lasin nGaedel

nGeedel

grus lasin nGaedel, ni

Laitneoir

lasin Laitneoir,

galmalam

lasin Laitneoir, ail lasin nGsedel

(col.

/3),

freacarthaich

icon

lasin nGaedel

iat

lasin Laitneoir,

Is

asin

uathadh

amal asbert
reruni periit

lasin nGaedel

nGaedel

frecra

foclaibh J

ic

foe?//

lasin

fil

raet,

tic

icon Laitneoir.
:

Nisi

linn,

Laitneoir.

anda

llitribh desin

ciallaibh

na

sluing

in Laitneoir fein

ar

foclaib 1095

cia
in

Ni

bet

chiall
fir

on,

sciris nonien, cognitio

atbail int aichnius inna raet

-i-

ailcne

ed asbet r in Laitneoir cid leithiu

ilanmann icon Gaedel


relait

aband

lasin

ni fhil

Gaede!c, ni leithe

in

llitrib

iachlinn

Laitneoir,

immorro, lasin nGsedel,


Leithiu d\diu in Gaedel
in Laitneoir.

onn

ael)

cenela cloch do na fuilet

sin

Laitneoir: aqua lasin Laitneoir, usce 1090

anmis

lasin

piscina

is

petra,

sropula lasin Laitneoir,

Cloch (no

carrach lasin nGaedel.

immorro

a fregarthach-side lasin 1085-

fil

lapis lasin Laitneoir, cloch lasin nGaedel

lasin

gruthra<://

meni aichnigther 1100

int ainm.
Is

nlair

seo a thossach in libhair-sea iar Fenius 7

mac Nema

J iar

nGaedel

mac

Ethiuir.

ar

Is iat sin

7 is i a aimser -i- aimser tancatar rmV


persainn
Israel uili a hEigipht.
I nDacia arricht ci asberatar alii 1105
co mbad i mmaigh Sennair.
Tucait a scribind -i- a

10711

ciallaib
14

tanach galmula lasin Laitneoir (iiacaf) with puncta del: o


1081
1082
gruth T.
galmu E.
1086
no galgalam T. galmath, gruthran E. gruthrach T.
/apis, lia E.
1088
L.
carracc E.
ail 7 ond L.
stroputa
Origg. xvi. 3, 5
94
E.
iasc
in
piscina,
Gaedelg L. E. ina L. ana E.
1097
10!
sluind L.
relait,? E.
ge beth a Ian inand E.
^ r g&- i- J sciueris E. nomen L. om.
110:5
nil prodit with (s) over d E.
L.
iar
nEr E.
aichniged
1105
asberait L.
asberat E.
persanda E. tancatar L. om.
grus
B.

-i-

1087

10

16
19

7>

1100
1104

THE PRIMER
the
in

has

Latinist

of

respect

to

correspond

meanings,

with

words,

broader in letters

The

>^^IP

to correspond with

curds

clock,

stone

83
that

and

broader

to

letters,

wit,

Latinist has nothing

broader in words, to wit, gnts,


lind, pool, the Latinist has nothing

it

to correspond with those curd, that is a cheese


galmula
with the Latinist, curds with the Gael to
correspond with
the Latinist s galmarium is the Gael s cheese
galmalam
with the Latinist, gruthrach with the Gael
stirabout
:

"

"

with the Gael, there is nothing


answering to that with the
Latinist lapis with the Latinist, stone with the Gael
petra
with the Latinist, rock with the Gael:
scopulus with the
:

Latinist, sharp pebble with the Gael.


Clock, cnn, and ailcne,
however, these are kinds of stones to which the Latinist has

nothing corresponding aqua with the Latinist, water with


the Gael amnis with the Latinist, river with the Gael
;
piscina with the Latinist, fish-pool with the Gael to the
:

Gael

ing.

pool, however, the Latinist has nothing correspond


Hence then, the Gael is wider in words and letters

than the Latinist.

What

Gael/V

words and

is

wider

meanings;

for

in

though

the Latinist says


the

letters,

it

Gael has

is

that though

is

not wider in

many names

in

denoting the things, the relative meaning emerges out


of the paucity of words which the Latinist does
have.
That is not true, as the Latinist himself
Nisi scieris
says
the knowledge of the
:

notncn, cognitio

rerum

periit,

things perishes, unless the

This

i.e.,

name

is

known.

the beginning of this book


according to Fenius,
and according to lar mac Nema, and Gael son of Ether.
These are its persons; and this is its
period, to wit,
when all the children of Israel came out of
Egypt. In

Dacia

it

is

was invented, though others


say

plain of Shinar.

The reason

for writing

it
it,

was

in

the

because

it

AURAICEPT

BB. 324/215

84

E. 26 a 17

thoilugud do scoil mhoir co Fenius / co lar / go


mac nEitheoir a thepe doibh inna nUraicept iarna
idnacul do Maissi / iar foglaim do Chae Cainbreathach
occa; conad iarsin arriachta n[a] aip[g]itri a n-aentabaill, 1110
amal asbm-: Cat iat aib[g]itri /rl. Aur each toisseach
:

aicceacht dano icht aicce (! gnim), air iss i n-aicci bzs


in descip&l icon aidi: no aiccept -i- acceptus -i- airite;/
i-

chucut neach nar/*

cen cheass

na

-i-

agut: na nd-egeas

fil

-i-

na nd a-i

fileadh.

1115

Se primthaisigh lasi ndernad in tor -i- Eper mac Saile


7 Gregus mac Gomer otait Greic, 7 Laitin mac Puin
otait Laitinda, Riabad Scot mac Gomer, 7 Nemruadh mac
Cuis, 7 Fenius

Farrsaidh.

bliadhna deac ar

Da

bliadain

coecat o scailed

Nin mic

in tuir co flaithius

Bel, a do coecat [a] righi ccitJiir 1120


fichtib ar secht cetaib o fhlaithius

tri

Nin mic Bel co deredh


Is re linn

Tutaines righ

flaithiusa

dheoidh

in Trae fo

in

domain.

secht mbliadna

rotoghladh
conad tri bliadna cethorchat
ingen Laitin mic Puin
ar not cetaibh o scaileadh in tuir co tuc tineas Lauina 7 1125
Laitin fen donwze a caingen fris.
Is follus as sin co nach
:

lucht

certtiaghait

ainmniugud

na

Aipgitre
charechtair ?

e Laidin in

in tuir.

caiteat

Cest,

mbad

Uraicepta-sa co

in

sechtmadh primthuiseach

Ni

tri

primberla eter
em. Aipgitir 1130

ansa,

Ebraidi cetamus.

1107

1109

1112
1113

thothlugud E.
iar-fodl- B.

icht

(-i-

accepta

Gome

gnim) E.
-i-

air is aicci

acceptus E.

na n-egeas
ainces in mor) E.

*i-

n08

B.
E.

airigthi L. :
nanai L.: na n-eices
1116 - 28

E. om.

Uaraicepta L. E.
aur L. aur- B.
Cor. Tr. 14.
airite E.

im

iarna foglaim L.

-i-

1122

nanas cen cess

d ingin L.

1129

cateatt aibgidri na tri primberlad ainmnigt^z 7 E.

ll27

(-i-

cess in becc

Origg. viii. II, 23 ; ix. 2, 134, 135


conad bad B. co mad he L.

1124

113

chairechtaire L.

THE PRIMER

85

was by the great school requested of Fenius, lar, and


Gaedel son of Ether that it should be selected for

them as their Primer after it had been given by Moses


and learned with him by Cae Cainbreathach so that
after that the alphabets were invented on one table, as
;

he says

What

beginning
i.e.,

a deed, for

fosterer

are the

it is

Aur

alphabets, etc.

also aicce-acJit, lesson,

is

in nurture that the disciple

or aiccept that

to wit, unto thee of

is

is

every

icht aicce, child nurture,

acceptus, that

is,

is

with his

of acceptance,

something that thou hast not

nd-egeas of the sages, of the


the poets.
t

men

na

without doubt, to wit,

Six principal chiefs by whom the Tower was made, to


.vit, Eber Mac Saile, Grecus Mac Corner whence are the
Greeks, and Latinus son of Faunus whence are the Latins,
Riabad Scot son of Gomer, Nimrod son of Cush, and

Fenius Farsaidh.
the

Tower

till

of fifty-two.

the reign of

Fifty-two years from the dispersion of


the reign of Nin son of Bel with his reign

Seven hundred and seventy-four years from


Nin son of Bel to the end of the reign of

Tothmes king

of the world in whose time

Troy was at
Seven years old was the daughter of
Latinus son of Faunus so that there are nine hundred
and forty-three years from the dispersion of the Tower
length

sacked.

till

/Eneas married Lavinia, and Latinus himself made his

covenant with him.

From

that

it

is

evident that the

people of this Primer do not advance accurately, that


Latinus was one of the seven chief rulers of the Tower.

Query, what are the alphabets of the three principal


languages, both name and character ? Not hard indeed.

The alphabet of the Hebrews


Heloraeorum.

first,

that

is,

Aleph

86
i-

BB. 324/335

AURAICEPT

Aleph Elbreorum.

Graecorum.

E. 26 a 24

Latinoru;;z.

4
t>

c
11

deled)

Ul)ce

ee
cjnScro

Sera

14

"heat

torn

TV capd

tr turn

U)

mem

mwi

t)01

If

arpe

P
it

Tt

tfjau

U1UH

O
1
ft

y
ill

oo

ermacosse.

THE PRIMER
Aleph of the Hebrews, Alpha of the Greeks and
the Latins.

(Sampi) 900,

87

of

BB. 32 4

AURAICEPT

37

/?

E. 26 a 24

fercetna tra Fenius Farsaidh arainig inna ceithri


aipgitri-sea -i- aipgitir Ebraidi 7 Grecda 7 Laitinda 7
Is e in

beithi-luis-nin in

beith^ air

in

ba

isin scoil

ogaim

is airi

deoidh

fo

is

dib 7

huaislz/^

it

beithi-luis-nin eter fedha 7

^J&U

ti

na

ainmnighthea

conadh
Asberat

araili

it

ba

do

huaisliu

fedha

seacht

suidhibh

for

leith

^1

doformagat

T?

nn

ee[aajoo

ee[aatod

HIBX
it

e indso

u^..

^^e

thuas

secht

frisna

ran-

ogaim, 1140

ffn

ann
.

im Timx o

sen

"HIT]

filet

inn

aireghdha

deich feda airegda

tri

taebomna

WarayMl

"

rolaithi

>t

for- (325) ta in

ao U

oin

-i-

fichit 1135

V"

morshesser

bai

n-anmand

e a

dedenach

Bai coiciur ar

a 9 u e 1 tttot
ifintn 5ti5.$!
HIM
/////s////M iyh Tit tin mny n

-tin

iiiniiiiniiin) b-

certiu in

is

arricht.

m
^ aaee

V^ 11 ^
1>

conid aire sin rolatha a fedha 7 a taebomna for leith 1145


7 it e a n-anmand soin fordotait iarumh.

Asberat

immorro

araile

nach

co

dhainibh

itz>

ainmnighter fedha inn n-ogaim isin Gaedhelg acht o


chrandaibh gen gu haichinter anniu araile crand dibh.
Air atat ceithri hernaile

for

crandaib

airigh fedha 7 1150

-i-

athaig fedha 7 lossa fedha 7 fodhla fedha 7 is uaithibh sin


a ceathrur ainmnighter fedha in oghaim.
Airigh fedha
;

quidem

Athaig

-i-

dur, coll, cuileand,

fedha

caerthand.

1133
11:!6

m4

fern,

doformagat
E. om.

airidh B.

sail,

Fodla fedha andso

in aipgidir E.
huaisliu, fotha E.

1U7-97
]13

-i-

abhull, uindsiu, ibur, gius.


bethi, lemh,
-i-

oguim L. E.

1141

rolaiti hi for leith L.


1146

n49

foratait

L.

certidi L.

int

ibuur B.

11:

""

bae E.

roforletha E.

anmand-somh fordorca

gen gu bad aithnig T.

n53 dair L.

crithach,

draighen, trom, feorus, 1155

n:i4

sin, fuas E.

see,

pat aichinti H.

E.

THE PRIMER
Now

Fenius Farsaidh

is

the

89

same man

that discovered

these four alphabets, to wit, the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin


alphabets, and the Beithe Luis Nin of the Ogham, and it
is

for this

because

it

reason the

the Beithe

last, to wit,

was discovered

is

There were

last.

more exact

in the school

were noblest among them, and these


are their names, which are upon the Beithe Luis Nin both
vowels and consonants
twenty-five that

:"

g?
And
from

Ztr

there were seven that were most noble

among

these,

whom

the seven principal vowels of the Ogham


have been named, so for that reason they have been
placed apart

mmU
a

>

tin

eefaajoo

nmx-3

Others say that ten principal vowels stand in

names

these are their

a o

these

are

their

vowels

and these are

to

the

ee[aajoo

nmxfr

the three that

above seven, to

and

>iTnfltm

And

it

wit,

VflH jV
O /j

increase

t-

so

on

those

account

that

and

consonants

their

names which are thus upon them.

have

been

set

apart,

Others, however, say that it is not from men at all that


the Ogham vowels are named in Gaelic but from trees,

though some of these trees are not known to-day.


there are

four

classes

of trees,

to

chieftain

wit,

peasant trees, herb trees, and shrub trees and


these four that the Ogham vowels are named.
;

trees, qnidein

it

is

For
trees,

from

Chieftain

to wit, oak, hazel, holly, apple, ash,

yew, fir.
wit, aider, willow, birch, elm, white
mountain-ash.
The shrub trees here, to wit,
thorn, aspen,

Peasant

trees,

to

AURAICEPT

BB. 325 a 18

90
crand

Lossa fedha

fedlend, fidhat, fi/mcholl.

fir,

fraech, gilcach, raid, lecla

-i-

luachair

Jr\.

beithe rohainmnigheadh ar cosmaillius

aitean,

cois in bheithe

fri

dicitur :

tit

Feocos foltchain
7

-i-

Beithe dno on

sin is

airi

is

(i-

berthair do bean

-i-

mine derna

uait

tu a ccimet L. om.}.

beithi a tosach

rohainmniged

1160

mbeithi roscribadh in cetainm ogaim


-isecht mbeithi tugad do Lugh mac

tucadh a nErind
Rth\enn

in beithi,

nisi eain
Is aire sin

custodi\e\ris

beos scribthar

ogaim. Luis dno, is o chrand 1165


o cairtheand -i- uair luis ainm caerthaind

&\<pgitre

-i-

in

shenGaedelg ut dicitur: Li sula luis -i- caertheand


cser.
Fernd dono, o chrand rohainmniged
ut dicitur: Airenach Fianw -i- fernd, air is di na sgeith.
isint

ar ailleacht a

Sail dano,
i-

nemli
is

dno,

is

lais

o chrand roh ainmniged ut dicitur: Li ambi 1170


-iar cosmaillius a datha fri marb.
Nin

o chrand rohainmniged

cosdad sida nin

-i-

uiwnius, ar

is

o uindsind ut dicitur:

-i-

di doniter craind gse triasa

no cosdudh sidha

uindis.
Nin -igarmna dognither do uindsind -i- isin aimsir 1175
sidha togaibt^r garmna.
Huath dono, is o chrand

coscairther

sidh

in

ginol

rohainmniged
i-

see L. om^\

see

-i-

no ar

\iit

dicitur:

uathmar

is

comdal cuan

huath

Duir

hi ara deilghibh.

o chrand rohainmniged, ut dicitur airde dossdono,


aib duir.
Tinne dono, is o chrand rohainmniged -i- ]180
is

cuileann [trian roith tindi L]

^
1183
9

ethleand, idat T.

aibgidreach L.
fiada fearn fear

"

na sgeith B. L.

RC.

117:!

aliter

1174

coscraidthea L.

xxvi. 24,

is

-i-

ar

is

cuileand in tres

Feochas L.

116

sata T.

"8

-^

cf.

A nee.

iii.

43, 45

datha a caer II.


di dognithear na sgiatha lasna Fianaib T.
U7 Li ambi mairb soil T.
coscrach sida T.
72.
:

im

trian a rothenne B.

is

di

THE PRIMER
black-thorn,

elder,

bird-cherry,

test -tree,

spindle-tree,

Herb

white-hazel.

91

honeysuckle,

to

trees,

wit,

furze,

broom, bog-myrtle, lecla, to wit, rushes, etc.


Now beitJie has been named from the birch owing to its
resemblance to the trunk of the birch, ut dititur :
heather,

Of withered trunk

fairhaired the birch,

and therefore on the birch was written the

was brought into Ireland,

that

inscription

first

Ogham

to wit, seven

birches were brought to Lugh son of Ethleann, to wit, thy


wife will be taken from thee nisi eain custodieris, to wit,
unless thou watch her.

It

is

on that account b

is

still

written at the beginning of the Ogham alphabet.


Then
as to luis, it is named from a tree, to wit, from mountainash,

i.e.,

because luis

is

name

the

of mountain-ash in old

Gaelic, ntdicitur: Delight of eye is mountain-ash, i.e., rowan,


Fern, alder, again,
owing to the beauty of its berries.
is

named from

bands, that

a tree, ut dicitur

is,

named from

willow, again,

is

i.e., it

lifeless one,

blance of
a tree,

ash, for of
is

broken

maw
in
is

has no colour,

i.e.,

made

are

or,

to the

owing

Nin

too

Sail,

The colour of

is

resem

named from

check on peace is nin, viz.,


the spear-shafts by which the peace

ash, ut dicitur

it

of the Warrior-

a tree, ut dicitur :

hue to a dead person.

its

viz.,

The van

thereof are the shields.

alder, for

check on peace
s beam which

is

of a weaver

is

uindis.

Nin, that

made

of ash, that

is

a
is,

time of peace weavers beams are raised. Huath, again,


named from a tree, viz., white-thorn, ut dicitur : A meet

of hounds

is

hnath,

viz.

white-thorn

or because

it

is

formidable owing to its thorns.


Duir, oak, again, is
named from a tree, ut dicitur : Higher than bushes is an
oak.

Thine, again,

of a wheel

is

is

named from

holly, that

is,

a tree,

i.e.,

because holly

three timbers of the chariot-wheel.

Coll,

holly, a third

is

one of the

again,

is

named

BB.

92

AURAICEPT

a 39

32S

fidh roith in carbait.

Coll dono,

ed ut dicitur cainfidh
Oueirt dano,
dicitur:

Mum

is

clithar

coll

-i-

is
-i-

E. 26 a 43

o chrand rohainmnigeach ac ithi a chno,

o chrand rohainmnighead
boaiscille

-i-

abhull

ut

elit

gelt quert -i- aball. 1185


finemhain, ut dicitur, airdi masi muiri -ifhasas a n-airde -i- finemhain.
Gort dono -i-

dono

iarsinni

-i-

-i-

edeand
Glaisiu geltaibh gort

Ngetal dono

edind.

i-

luth

lega

draighen,

getal
ut dicitur:

Ruis dono

-i-

Ailm dono

-i-

Idho

-i-

no

srabha

aire

Straiph dono

raith.

sraibh

-i-

-i-

ibhar.

no edind.

1190

-i-

draighin.

trom, ut dicitur, ruamna ruice ruis -i- trom.


crand giuis -i- ochtach. Onn -i- aiten. Ur

Edhadh -i- ed uath


crand fir no
Ebhadh -i- crithach (col. /3). Oir

fraech.

i-

gilcach no raith ut dicitur

-i-

cilcach

-i-

Uilleand

edleand.

-i-

Iphin

-i-

crithach. 1195
-i-

feorus

spinan no ispin

7rl.

Anmand
Fedha

amal fogabar isna Duilibh

fidh tra sin uile

inn ogaim 7 ni ho dainib ut alii dicunt.

Cest, cis

lir

cumang?

Ni ansa.

1200

Lanchumang

intibh

taebomna co ncl-aurba huath -i- conasfirbade uath -i- amal bes a n-aic;/^cidh mor
gidh beg e. Is
amhlaidh innister isin Cin Ollaman -i- cethirs[h]licht feghuilibh eter fedha 7

thair for fedhaibh

lenchumang.

egumang

cumang
Lanchumang
-i-

egumang, lanchumang

J
i

fedaib,

cumang

7 1205

a forfed-

mutzM, lethchumang a leathgutaibh.


Atberat araile is treshlicht as choir and -i- lanchumang a
fedaibh, 7 cumang a forfedaibh, 7 ecumang a muitibh ar ni
aibh,

13

1192
111)4

ceirt

dono

1203-10

-i-

E om
.

1305

lls

L.

Eithieand L.

sreabhudh sdraibh T.
aitenn, onn -i- ochtach T.

draigean L.

1204
,

taebomnaib L.

am
1

>oti

sraibh B.

raid, Straif L.
11!IU

ruisc T.

120
dainib L. Finit f.
a idh so Yutaih, cethir slicht L.
gach slicht B.
ia 8
tre licht L.
lencumang L.
:

THE PRIMER

93

tree, tit dicittir : Fair wood, that is, hazel, i.e.,


is eating of its nuts.
one
Queirt, again, is named
every
from a tree, i.e., an apple tree, ut dicitur : Shelter of a

from a

that

boiscill,

a wild hind

is,

Muin, again, that

is,

that

mum,

is

beauty

is

queirt,

because

is,

it

grows

Gort, again, that is, ivy


Greener than pastures

vine-tree.

an apple

i.e.,

a vine-tree, ut dicitur

tree.

Highest of

aloft,

that

is,

"

Ngetal,

physician

is,

broom

or fern,

strength

is

broom,

to

Straiph, again, that

of a stream
that

is

is,

elder.

At/in, again,

is,

ut

dicitur:

black-thorn.

Ruts, again,

The redness of shame

i.e.,

fir

is

yew.

or ivy.

Ebhadh

that

gooseberry, or thorn,
Now all these are

aspen.

is,

Uilleand, that

is,

mis,

i.e.,

wit, a

tree, to

pine tree.
Ed/iadh, that is,

Ur, that is, heath.


Onn, that is, furze.
ed uath, horrible grief, to wit, test-tree or aspen.
is,

broom or fern.
dicitur : The hedge

wit,

black-thorn, ut

sraibh, that

elder, ut dicittir

is,

ivy."

that

again,
s

is

Oir, that

honeysuckle.

is,

Ido, that

spindle-tree,

Iphin, that

is

etc.

wood names such

as are found in the

Ogham Books of Woods, and are not derived from men, ut


alii dicunt.

Query, how

many

them

are their powers?

Not hard.

Full

both vowels and consonants, with the


power
exception of h, that .is, that h might be truly sunk, that is,
as their nature may be, whether it be great or small. It is
is in

so set

down

all

in the

Book of Ollams,

to wit, four divisions

that are seen on vowels,

viz., power and want of power,


and
Full power in vowels, power
power
half-power.
diphthongs, want of power in mutes, and half-power in

full

in

semivowels.

Others say that three divisions are proper

power in vowels, power in diphtho ngs, and


want of power in mutes for no semivowel exists with the
Gael.
Query, what is long in vowels and diphthongs, and
there, viz., full

AURAICEPT

BB. 325/313

94

.260145

fil
leathguta la Gaedel. Cest, cate fot i fedhaibh 7
aibh / gair hi taebomnaib -i- gair suidigud, air

forfedh- 1210

leath-

is

aimser for taebomnaifr do gres a corus forfed.


Ni ansa. A ocht
Cest, cis lir dech docussin?

recomrac

dialt

iarcomrac,
J cloenre 7 luibenchosach 7
claideamnas 7 bricht. Oenfidh airegda i ndialt, a da
1215
7

felis

recomrac, a

tri

hi clsenre, a se

n-iarcomrac, a

ceithri

luibenchosach, a secht

a coic

fih s,

claidemnas, a

mbricht, cenmota taebomna.


Cest, cia roig
mmeit 7
llaig^ -i- dialt co ceill coic litri and a
n-as mode: rosaigh
llaiget co oenlitir 7 is focal son, ut
a
est a, o, i, amal ata
slebhi.
Amal ita Ard
(-i- ard)
Ard
a
Slebh
Luachra -iCuis,
7
(A) Cartaind,
(A)

ocht

dialt

anmand

slebhe saindriudh ut dixit

Damh

Mac Da

conngair eter da

Cerd[a]

a,

1225

Fon-gluaisi gaeth gulbanda,


Is uallach int

Re
7

(-i-

d\diu

arganda

trichait sed

cluas) for cind J

mmeit co a

coic

lurganda
inis Coluini

[i]

ut

littri,

Scriu//^z>7nihairimther

scalp.

aib arna

litrib,

acht nod tinfid.

est,

C\\\e.

Rosaigh

bracht tract druct

uathisna foclaibdedenach- 1230


Cach ndialt iarum na

tormaig fri araili co;//cumung each as iocail. Deich co a


ocht a mbricht 7 is e met 7 laigett cacha Gaeidelgi o dealt

1211

gair(de)

taobomnaib E.

Gr. Lat.

v.

1213

112, 28

deich dochusin L.

Margin, pp. 325, 326: Aspiratio H, dassiew [Sao-etac] \- scilew [t/ iXjjj ] _{.
cf. Thes. ii. 51, 68
Gr. Lat. iii. 520, 14
v. 33, 33
viii. 230,
132, 28
15
1216
recomarc, iarcomarc, felis L.
Origg. i. 19, 9
,

1220, a

1231

ros

E.

isna litrib L.

1----J-V
l

1220

~ ~
-

E. om.
for araili L.

12ao

serin E.

iwtormaig E.

THE PRIMER
short in consonants? that

law of

Ogham

short

is

by

position, for

half-time

is

diphthongs

95

on

the

consonants

always.

Query, how

Eight of

them

many

verse-feet

one syllable

dtalt,

are

Not

there?

hard.

recomrac, two syllables;

iarcomrac, three; felis, four; cloenre, five; luibenchossach,


six ; daideumas, seven
and bricht eight syllables. One
;

vowel

>

two

them in recomrac,
them in iarcomrac, four of them in feles,
five of them in doenre, six of them in
luibenchossach,
seven of them in claidemnas, eight of them in
bricht,
principal

three

in

dtalt,

of

of

consonants.
Query, how far does a syllable
extend to in greatest and least ? To wit, a
syllable with
a meaning, five letters are in it, which is the
greatest
it reaches an inferior limit at one
letter, and that a word, ut

besides

est,

are

o,

a,,

such as

viz.

i,

(Ard)

Luachra, to

A
A

is,

names of

wit,

Mac Da Cerda

a, that

and

Cuis,

mountain height.
in

(Ard) Cartaind,

Such
Sleeve

particular mountains, ut dixit

stag bells between two heights,


piercing wind tosses us,

Proud

is

the stalker

(?)

Before thirty long-shanked deer.

and

o,

on a head, to

Then

Island.
letters,
scalp,

ut

gap.

est,

it

an ear

reaches

brcicht,
is

wit,

fat

a
;

and

Colum

(I)

tracht, strand

written and

letters in the last words, but

superior limit

is

it is

up

Cille s

to

druc/it,

not counted

five

dew

the

among
mark of aspiration. As

to every syllable, therefore, that does not

add to another,
the equivalent of a word. Verse-feet
up to
And that is the superior and
eight of them are in bricht.
inferior limit of all Gaelic from
dialt, one, to bricht,
each of them

is

eight,

syllables,

both included, to

wit, that there

may

be power

AURAICEPT

BB. 325/333

96

E. 2

co cumangar du
Is bricht a mbith ocht
1235

co bric[h]t cona n-athgabail diblinaib


dialt iarna tinol deach.

gach

edbunad cacha Gaedel^

Is

Domiditer
n-indsci.

alta

uad

mod

7 to/// / traeth.

amal domiditer

domiditer

Cest, cindus

-i-

si\\al>a.

dialt acht

alta duine

fri

fri

7 a

Ni

each n-indsci?

Corop each dialt friscara di araili, ut est,


tiar tes tuaid
gu rub recomarc friscara di

cubaid a comfid

is

each

fri

ansa.
tair

6ay

tis

tuas

araili,

ar 1240

comdeich.

Coig airmi cintecha in tuir -i- da tuaith sechtmogat /


da comairlig sechtmogat acco / da berla sechtmogat for
fodailt

do

doib 7 da deiscip?// sechtmogat tancadar

na mberla

foglrt/V/z

sin 7

la

Feinius

da ceimend sechtmogat

in 1245

airdi in tuir.

Cest, caidi deifir eter indeall / tindell


int

imcomurc

Ni ansa.

Innell

7 tinnell int eirwiud.

mac
Seacht primtoisigh lasi ndernad in tor -iSaili, Grecus mac Corner a quo Grea\ Laitin mac Puin 1250
Eb<?r

a quo Laitini, Riabath Scot a quo Scoiti, ^enmiadh mac


Cuis mic Caim mic Noi, 7 Faillech mac Ragau mic
Arafaxat mic Seim.
deochraigt^r eter cinniud

Cest, cate

cinntichu son?
ceirtiu

quam

immon-o

in

Cinniud

Ni ansa.

in aipgitir

cintech[u] 7
Grecda, ar is 1255

Cinntichu

ind aipgitir (326) Aspin EbrazV&.


aipgitir

Cinntichu son
Laitianta uair

-i-

~La.\\\anda

na

beithi-luis-nin in

is fo

deoidh

in

aipgitir

ogaim na

Grecda.

in aipgitir

arricht.

Cia hsenfoc^l gebes forna ceit[h]ri ernaili ind Aurai- 1260


no tarmfor/cind no feda no focail
cepta cen deifir tomuis
vy& todh L.

troeth E.

12:t7

domiter L.

dodomiditer E.

1233

E. om.

1-239

a aile E.

1245

na n-ilberla L. na mberlad E.
imcomarc, int erned E.
1252
]2f)1
Nas, Reu L. ix. B.
Latini, Riabath Scott, Scoti E.
Grecaig E.
1254
cindead L. Caite a meit a dechraigUr E.
mz c ix. E. adds
Grecda E. Cindtichu L. Aspin is written out.
ar B. E. j nas L.

1250

1253
1256

fodluim E.

124

toth

tuaid L. om.

1244

fodail L.

forfodailtea E.

124S

almost opposite. The glossator thought


gloss (v. p. 94 note) is
1257
nas L.I
Eabraide should be aspirated to Hebraide.
i^i tarmsce leam forcind no fedha E.
iias
nas L

The marginal
j

THE PRIMER

97

to every syllable, after they are gathered into verse-feet.

which are eight

is briclit in

foundation of
Alta, joints,

Dialt, syllable,

syllables.

except mod, totJi, and


of science are measured with a man
Gaelic

all

as they are measured with every speech.

they measured with every speech?

each syllable

is

traetJi.
s

joints

Query, how

Not

hard.

It

the

are

That

correspond to another, ut est, down, up,


that one dissyllable may corre
east, west, south, north

may

vowels and the like versethem rhyme.


Five certain numbers of the Tower, to wit, 72 peoples,
for the like

spond to another,
feet of

and 72 counsellors with

them, 72

divided

languages

came with Fenius

among them, and 72

pupils

learn those languages,

and 72 paces was the height of

that

to

the Tower.

Query, what

and

and

tindell,

is

the difference between

unyoking?

Not

hard.

indell,

Indell the

yoking,

question,

tindell the solution.

Seven chief leaders by whom the Tower was made, to


Grecus son of Corner, a quo Graeci ;
wit, Eber son of Saile
;

Latinus

son of Faunus, a quo Latini ; Riabath Scot,


a quo Scotti ; Nimrod son of Cush, son of Ham, son of
Noah; and Peleg son of Ragau, son of Arphaxad, son of

Shem.
Query, what are the different significations between
Not hard.
definite, more definite, and most definite?
Definite

is

the Greek alphabet, for

it

is

more exact than

Hebrew

More definite, however, the Latin


alphabet.
alphabet than the Greek alphabet. More definite than
the Latin alphabet is this, to wit, the Beithe Luis Nin
the

of the

Ogham

What

was invented last.


word comprehends the four

for

single

it

of the Primer without regard

termination, letter,

word,

or

to

divisions

difference of measure,

form

Not hard.

The

BB. 326 a

98

AURAICEPT

E. 26/319

na forgnuisi ? Ni ansa. In focul is aipgitir, ar gebid ar


aipgitir Ebraide 7 Grecda 7 Laitianda.
Treidi doghni uath

bogad 7 semigudh 7 airdibdad.


Bocad cetumus for &Q)oovinaib J is na ndiaidh doeag- 1265
maing doib -i- do p J do c [7] do t ut cloch, both. larsin
Laitneoir bidh tinfid iar each
isin Gaed//V.
Semi
immorro
forna
tddoomnaib
chena
is
7
gudh
rempo doec-i-

\.

taeb<?;;/<2

tzebomnazd

for coic

maingdo \b -i-

cetamus

-i-

for

Bogad

c, d, t, g.

Tb,

amal ata B[h]atraig. Uath 1270


in
beithi
fil and, ar ni bi p isin Gaedz
bogas
Semigud
amal ata a Batraig, uath and i[s] semiu nas i n-aill.
Bocad cuill -i- clach 7 ach bocad d -i- sodh odh. Bocad
beithi

-i-

sop 7 lop

-i-

/i:.

~J

for

tinni

Bocad

tath 7 ath.

-i-

for gort

magh

-i-

agh.

Seimigud b immorro -i- a bhen, a bhan, a bhe binn. 1275


Seimiugud c dono -i- o chiun, do chein, o chianaibh, o

Semigud d

chetoir.
i-

thir,

d[h]amsa, d[h]uitsiu. Semigud t


thuaigh. Semiugud g -i- a ghradh / a

-i-

ogha.

Airdibdad immorro forta [da] taebomna -i- for sailig 7 1280


taebomna amal fedaib) -i- orro dibdudh -i(-i-

for ferna

a mbricht ass di raith amal ata ardibdad

Airdibdad ferna

s[h]al, a s[h]uil.

sailer//

a fhind, a

-i-

-i-

f[h]ir,

ind

f[h]eda.

sain

Is

edadh

so

cingit 7 cuing

consani
264
12ti3

1270

cubaid

frisna

)>

THt

7 1285

-i-

doni E.

is

tabair esemplair) gur uinge 7


(-iecen di littz r L.a.tz anda ica scribing na

7 g.
seimiugad

Ni hecen acht
7

airdibad L.

Ebra L.
roc, sop, lot,

bocud

yK.
7

semed
1268

tinfeadh L.

O Molloy

Gr.

a oenur ar son

12

xvii. p.

airdibudugv^ E.

che(t)na E.
-2
E. om.

163
a be find, Ir. Texte, i. 132, 34
abhind E.
a thuath L.: a tuath, guirt ! agda ogda E.

1272

a Phatraig T.

1276

on chiuin L.: o chind E.

1278

1279

1*0

forda, for sail 7 for fearnd L.

1281

oir o

12 2

a mbrat E.

1285

Sain.sow frisnad cub- E.


ica B. : i L.
is i n-oen di

12S7

euad

-i-

<r-

dorusa uerbi

in

ogh L.
dibad E.

128ti

littzr,

in dorsa uerbi E.

na son sin

E-

airdibad E.

uing L.

THE PRIMER

99

word alphabet, for it comprehends the Hebrew, Greek,


and Latin alphabets.

causes three things, to wit, bogad, lenition of final (?),


semigud, lenition of initial (?), and airdibdud, extinction.

Bogad

first

and

p, c,

t,

it

on consonants and follows them,

falls

ut clock, stone

booth.

both,

viz.

According to

usual after every consonant in


Gaelic.
Semigud, lenition of initial, however, falls upon
the consonants in general and precedes them, that is, on

the Latinist, aspiration

five

consonants, b,

d,

c,

is

t,

Bogadk of

g.

first, viz.

Tb

sop

such as Pdtraig. It is h that softens the b that


stands in it, for p does not exist in Gaelic.
Semtgudh,
such as a Phdtraig, h is there, which is softer than

and

lop,

the other example.


Bogad of c, viz. clacJi, stone, and
alas
of
of t, viz.
viz.
ach,
d,
sodh, turning, and odh, music
!

tdtJi,

dissolution,

agh, cow.

and

dth, ford

of g,

viz.

magh,

Semigud

blank space, a bhe binn, O sweet woman of c also, viz.


chiunn, since, do chein, from afar, o chianaibh, just now,

its

and

plain,

of b, however, a bhen, his wife, a bJidn


:

o chetoir,

to thee

of g,

viz.

immediately of d, viz. dhamsa, to me, dhuitsiu,


of t, viz. a thir, his land, a tJmaigh, [to] his axe
a ghrddJi, his love, and a ogha, his virgins.
:

Airdibdud, extinction, however, comes upon two con


sonants (i.e., consonants -become like vowels), that is, the
letters a

and

f,

that

is,

extinction

on them, that

is

their

is,

being deleted altogether, such as the extinction of


a shuil, his eye. Extinction of
wit, a shdl, his heel
;

wit,

fhind,

his hair; a fhir,

O man;

s,

to

f,

to

ind fheda, of the

letter.

This is different from the rhymes


)(
TH1 C- enad,
and edadh of the beginning of a word (give examples)
that in uinge, cingit, and
cuing there is need for two
>

Latin letters to write the consonants n,

need but of

>

^<

only for these

two

g.

>

There

letters

in

is

no

Gaelic,

/\

ioo

da

in

AURAICEPT

BB. 326025

^*

"inge,

sin

litter

isin
-i-

^<

sum

dat inunna dno

nad

in

a scribind

min

Nemh

and.

Air

(-i-

dib-seo

3e

a scribind.

>Tfflt

Neim nathrach

beic) iphi and

min arba

-i-

Ni 1290

^^n< cingit.

tria

conar tria -}- a scribind.

(-i-)

? Tft.-t-

cvfoazd each

teinid,

*>
>

Seit

est,

>Hllfl}ft7

fris

see it

nt es

ut

Gsedilc,

cuing,

.26/334

-i-

-fflj-

MfflK

-i-

im talmain, neamh im usce -^- andsen. 1295

trega ar a tugad forfeda eter isin aib[g]itir in


do fregra do defoghur amal adberar isna
-i-

i[t]

ogaim

nemedh -i- genmota forfeda a fail defoghur


dono do sainigedh fogh?/r forsna fedhaibh, air

breathaibh

na nguta

buga fogair bis isna forfedhaibh, ut


and naemh ^^ and nem
and.
is

neamh

cst,

>-X~<

1300

-|Jf}<

It

coic

fasaige na

gne

tobaidi

berla

in

berla

-i-

Fene

berla etarsgarta 7 berla forttide na file^/


7
triasa n-agaill?V each dib a chele 7 iarmberla amal rogab
filed 7

Cuic
aicce

-i-

ruin.

no

is

n-aill

immorro

tra 7

caidat J ni ansa

esna

fona

lasin

filid.

1211

frisna

J-

anus

"

i-,6.i30i

1:W3
1:!03

):w

E.

ballorb

do chawaid

Gne

miruine.

Et

n-aill

n-aill

dano

decubaid L.
E.

chanaig L.

-i-

dno

-i-

miruz n no

dno

7 atat 7

forsna

(-i-

feraib) 7

na lorga fuach in sin 1310


he es em co tre tair do o fo

12i)2

seit

Airi trega B.

129-

L.

asberar L.
aigill

-i-

It e

1304

forbu L.

iarum

129

WM>

dorb T.

-i-

hlideachta. 1305

7 iar 7 ar 7 cest J cair 7 cisne 7

Gne

fortchide L.
bal

Et muirne

ainm.

7 tresna, sec[h]na.

Gne

do forbau na

ball

do iarmberla

edon

~Jr\.

is

-i-

L.

re iarmberla v.

RC.

xiii.

267

forban E.
1307

miridi L.

tra B.

item L,

THE PRIMER
nt

est,

yoke, yilll tTflf

rhyme

^fff?? ^
1

ut es ^

;>X*ffnK)

^Y,

>~flft<.

*-

->

seeit,

Min, meal of corn,

they blow the

i.e.,

VflflK-

Nemh>

three things for

is

is,

poison of a

small,

is I

there.

heaven round earth

there.

is

written

alphabet,

said in the

to

viz.

For there are

which diphthongs were introduced

Ogham

as

-^-

fire, is

Neii/i,

Min, that

flff-.

neamh, with reference to water


into the

of these does not

a road, by writing -).

written by

is

serpent,

^*^///( i.e., cuing,


Now sounds
ring**) they step.

uingi, ounce,

i.e.,

same with which each one

are not the

by

?W.//)(

101

at all

correspond to a diph

mined judgments, that

is, except
diphthongs in which there are two sounds of
the vowels
and also to differentiate sounds upon the

thong

Ogham

Ogham vowels, for it is a


the Ogham diphthongs,
is

there

naeinh, saint,

softness of sound that exists in

nt

est,

ae

is

ffi|

neamh, heaven,

there,

poison,

neiii^

ea

y-^.

i is
-fff}<

there.

These are the

five species of the Selected Language,


of the Irish, Commentaries of the Poets,
Parted Language, Obscure Language of the Poets through

viz.

Language

which each of them addresses his


such as

member
cano.

There

Cuic,

for

secret.

spears, to

fellow,

ballorb, to

completing poetry

Et muirne,
is

Et

or

it

is

wit,

the

he has a

name

or of

for a

ill

will.

wit, therefore,

now,

wit, ill-will,

another kind of iannberla, to

and iannberla

there are, indeed, moreover, even, after, on, query, pray,


how many, what are, not hard, etc. Another kind also,

on the (men), under, out of, through, past them. The^e


are the staves of words with the poet.
Another kind too,
to wit, he

under, on.

that,

indeed, unto, through, over,

That

is

an

interloping

syllable

to,

from,

with the

AURAICEPT

102

BB. 326 a 44

fair.

Dialt n-etarlemmi in sin lasin

.26/344

cosin annuas.

de

amal iarunn, da fedtar a thaithmeach

mac Nema

berla ranig lar

ara se[c]dacht
no iarmberla -i-i-

7 ni fetar a thaith- 1315

dheoidh

fo

larmberla tra

filid.

Is aire raiter iarmberla

meach.

i-

Ocus berla n-edarsgarta


berla tresa fuil deliugud na

fid

triana n-inde taithmeach, ut


oiss

quando

as ros usce
ass

mad

amal rogabh ros

marbusce no

for

Ocus am

ruamanta inna

berla

fordorcha
in

inis

-i-

roidh

(col. /3)

-i-

amal asrubairt

fttideac/ita,

roi

ar a luas 7 ar a

-i-

forteidi

Feniusa: Etaill aro ni anfem de

-i-

7 rass iar lind intan 1320

caelli

for sruth 7 ro as intan as ros lin

asas.

thigi
O

mad

rofhos

n-aire[gh]da isin aenfhocul

est,

intan) as rois

(-i-

-i-

na fedaibh aireghdaibh

eter

file

etall

no

hi scuil

uasal 1325

-i-

in innsi
7 aro -i- imramh -i- ni awfem de imram co risam
n-uasail -i- Eiri no Espain, no is Espain eicin amal rogab

n-Imagallaim na Da Thuar: Brimon smetrac[h]. Berla


na filed so -i- in gne deidinach i[s] sund -i- bri -i- briathar,
mon -i- cleas, 7 smit -i- cluas, 7 forrach -i- rigi no bri -i- 1330
i

mon

briathar, 7

cleas, 7

-i-

smetrach

smit forrach

-i-

-i-

co forrgidis neach. Cleas brath^rda sin donidis na filid


oc ecnuch -i- smit a cluaisi do gabail ina laimh -i- amal
nac[h]
in

cnaim sund

fil

eneach iconti egnaigeas

raib

ni

1335

fili.

Iss e in coic(ed)

1313

seanacht L.

131

iar- B.

->

1319
1321

gne

in gnat[h]berla fogni

1313 - 16

L.

iar;

fedthar B.

trian an idi, ross -i- roi oss L.


roidh L.
rofois, no rooidais E.

13 - 2

1323
1:!2

1328
i:!:;

fhasas L. E.

anfam,

1334

-i- i

inis Etaill L.

RC. xxvi. 8
j sm it r ach
na

fil

1324

fortchidi L.

24, 78

-i-

1317 23
-

rofhas L.

na

fil-

rigi E.

1331
13; 6 - 8

iii.

248

ros cailli L.

roais quando as ross lin E.


KS5 inaill aro E.

amal E.

anfam de corraisem

cnaimh hisuidhiu E.

Arch. C. P.
132

roiss E.

Bri amain E.

cac[h],

E. om.

fegthar L.
ross

do

in indsi uasal

1329 - 34

L. om.

E. om.

Cor. 2 149

1333

-i-

hEriu E.

Cor. Tr. 22

egnach L.

THE PRIMER

103

Unaccented Language, then, down to this point.


this reason that Unaccented Language, iann-

poet.

It is for

berla, is said

of

iron, iarunn, if

on account of

its

possible to analyse

it

to wit,

it,

is

it

is, the speech which lar Mac


and it is not possible to analyse it.

that

And Language

Parted

among

Nema

hardness like
;

or iarmberla,

discovered

last,

the principal vowels,

is, language through which there is distinction of the


principal vowels in the individual word through analysing

that

their

meaning, ut

est,

for

of deer, quando (when)

example

it is

ros,

rois caelli,

that

is,

roi oz ss, plain

copses of wood, and


is ross of water, duck

duck meat, along a pool when it


weed, rofhos, great rest, if it be on stagnant water, or roidh
out of it if it be on a stream, and ro as when it is
ass,
rass,

ros

tin, flax

seed,

on account of the swiftness and

i.e.,

density wherewith it grows. And the Berla Fortchide,


Obscure Language, fortchide, that is, the great darkness
or obscurity of poetry, as said the poet in the school of
Fenius Etaill aro ni anfenide, to wit, i, island ; Etall,
:

that

is,

noble

and

aro, that

not cease from rowing


that
is

is

we

to wit,

the noble

shall

Island,

Spain or it is definitely Spain, as


the Conversation of the Two Sages. Brimon

Ireland, or

found in

This

sjnetrach.

is

kind here, to

last

rowing

is,

we reach

till

the
wit,

Language of the Poets that is, the


mon, feat and smit, ear,
brt, word
;

and forrach, that is, stretching or, bri, word, and mon,
feat, and sinetrach, that is, ear-lobe compression, that is,
;

that

they might injure some one.

that which the poets used to

do

the lobe of his ear in his hand, that


there, the individual

whom

brotherly trick

in satirising, viz., to
is,

is

take

as no bone exists

the poet satirises could have

no honour-price.

The

fifth

every one

kind

is

the Usual

for others

Language which

serves for

say of the B^rla Ftine that

it is

the

asberad

(ar)

AURAICEPT

BB. 326/315

104

comad

araili

conach berla

e in berla Feini fasaigi na

Cest, caide fot 7 gair intib

-i-

filed,

fid

and

fil

is

inunda

1340

buigi

gair n-aicwzV/ 7 fot suidig////


forfedaib 7 fot n-aicw/V; no

Na

for-

IN defhoghur

na deofhoghair.

fil

is

a fedaib J gair suidig[th]i i


dono na feda fileat sund it inunda 7 na guthtf/V/.
it

ata

in fid aire[gh]cla

airegh[d]a

&\diu

Amal

Ni ansa.

Jr\, ?

Nem immorro

neam; no

feda immorro

/s

fo leith etit:

neam, forfid fil and.


and 7 is cruaidiu in
in forfhid

E. 26

1345

amal ata bean, bein dogenta de meni beith


Cindus on / ebad
deofhoghur. Is amlaid na forfeda.
a forfidh ind anma intan asberar fer? Ni codarsna anni
fil

intib iarum,

sin arin defoghur.

co

tantum

leith

morro

forsin

defoghur
conicc

Is

(-i-

cumair sin

\~\gu\haige

remunn

aimsir im- 1350

Cia bad gairit iarum in

Ceinmota &\diu

inrathaigte.

comardugud

Da

nama) a n-as modhe.


fota.

aimsear

7 ni bi fair acht

fuit J gair indib,

amal asbert

in

fid

in Lait-

[circumplex] forsna s\\\a.batb fotta amal ata do, si ;


amtf/ adberat acuit forsna silla&?$ cuimri nt est pax

neoir

-i-

1355

indus [s]in dobeir in Gaedel forshail for fot


amal rogab sron 7 slog 7 1 et ernin arding dead amal
rogab leacc 7 ceand Jrl. Cid timarta iarum ebad isinni
Is fon

bacc.

"!-

Cid fotera in
is fer ni la Greco as defoghur in sain.
~
na 1360
codarsna sin 7 na coic fedha 7 n(a secht) fedha
deich fedha iar fuilliuc[h]t aili? Ni ansa. Na coic fedha

cetamus

J:MI

1345
i;!5o
1:

""
>

1354
1:553

32,

1:i57

1359

ic

frecra

duna

gaj^de) E. ata L. om.


1:u
na defogair L.
tr j mar n . an as mode E.

coic guthaigib tug

1:V4:i

"

inraigthe E.
circumplex L. E.

fil

intib L. om.

Gr. Lat.

defect in

acuit, in a late scrawl,

521,6; iv. 371, 9


arding dedhacho E.

v. 28,

na secht fedha

suigigi B.

K!4T

euad E.

13W

comardud L.

27

MS. BB.

cumri, becc fex E.

atbera L.

Gr. Lat.

\.

iii.

as deogur E.

1358

iarsani

136

(a secht) in margin B.

is

fearr L.

THE PRIMER
Commentaries of the Poets, and that
language at

What

it

not a separate

is

all.

short and long

is

such

In

105

as

neain,

in

heaven,

it

them,
a
is

etc. ?

Not

hard.
that

diphthong

In nem, poison, however, it is the principal


vowel that stands there, and the principal vowel that
stands there is harder and the diphthong is softer, to wit,
main ; or, again, it is short by nature and long by position

stands there.

and short by position

in vowels,

diphthongs and long


vowels that stand there

in

by nature or, again, the Ogham


The
same as the vowels.
;

are the
are, in

same

the

fact,

diphthong that stands


bein would be made of
are the

Ogham

as

Ogham

diphthongs

As

the diphthongs.

to

the

them, therefore, such as bean,


were it not a diphthong. Thus

in
it

diphthongs.
the name

How

is

that, since

ebad

is

the

when fer is spoken? That


not contrary to the diphthong. That is a
short, and there is not upon it save a time and a half only
at the most.
There are two times, however, on the long
of

diphthong
instance

is

That the foregoing diphthong was short there


fore must be perceived.
Besides,- too, the vowel is able to
itself
to
in them as the Latinist said
and
short
adjust
long
vowel.

circumflex

si, if;

and

is

on the long syllables such as do, I give


same way they say an acute accent is
;

in the

upon the short syllables, ut est,pax, a kiss. Thus the Gael


puts forsail on a long, such as sroti, nose, slog, host, etc.
and ernin which compresses a final such as leacc, stone,
;

Therefore, although e is short in the


not according to the Greeks that it is a

ceand, head, etc.

word fer

diphthong.
five

the

it

is

What

causes the contrary of that, and the


vowels, and the seven Ogham vowels, and

Ogham
Ogham

ten

Not hard.

The

vowels, according
five

Ogham

vowels

the five vowels he gave the seven

to

another version

first

Ogham

answering

to

vowels, however.

106

Na

immorro.
ata

AURAICEPT

BB. 326/339

deich fedha immorro

Pin immorro ar p ata J amancoll ar

a seacht samlaid.

Gne

aili

asberait araili ebad / oir

medontaig.

is

and

is

Iphin

ar

is

ata,

aire raiter

eamancoll

is airi

coll

is

taisechu coll \n

greim taebomna

ris,

ar

ina

ar

intan bis fo

ata

-i-

is

for

isinn Gaidelg, J

indarna taQbomna

Caidi [in

Is e in fidh

no

7rl.,

no

fidh teit a
-i-

fid

gabus greim

consanacht

taeb

-i-

nach consoini

iat)

(mar adubramar).
Conadar dono

1364

ar n-emnaidi L.

1:11B

emhancholl L.

Fid

focail

-i-

Fidh na
v\ihe\sa

isin

ar ax E.

taebomna

beithi-luis-nin

136<i

gabus

inunn E.

1;w Defect in
1382

L.
27, 14

ut 1385

nach gutai
no fidh bhis a ndiaid araile ut diximus
(-i-

ar a n-eemendi, contat E.

E. om.

u.

tomus do
each da taebomna ar fidh.

nee uocales nee consonantes habentur

gabus] 1375

aenfidh fregras in

ghabhand greim tsebomna na fedha na

in

fil

ar

a ndiaid araile J fidh bis for primfhid


araen re defhoghur a n-sensillaib, tit est, 1380

1373

gabus greim da taebomna / in


(327) ~] in fid na geibh greim

dhib taebomnaibh, ut dicitur


Fid gabus greim focail -i- fidh labhras a aenur.

]36-i409

sail

fid

gabus greim da taebomna

is

fid

-i-

beoir feoil Briain

dicitur.

iphin

foimdin 1370

sail.

gabus greim focail


taebomna nafeda na focail

focail

is coll

is[in] bethi-luis-nin

meodontacht, no
is

ata conid 1365

adberar d emnad and, / ni

fid

omna quidem

ar

in so.

ar fedaib [fod]a

is

7 is

nGrecda no Laitinda do thabairt

focul

Conadar d\diu

ar h-i fo

Emuncoll d\diu

ar p.

ind x, /
is

Muman

lar nAuraiccept

Uilleann immorro

itat.

na

iphin ar defoghur

-i-

emoncoll ar a n-emnaidi ata intan sin condat a deich

samlaid.

coir

E. 27 a 15

1SS

MS. BB.

greim do B.

"

consain L.

fodaib L.

THE PRIMER

Ogham vowels, that is, iphin, which stands

Moreover the ten


for a

diphthong

107

emancoll

doubled then, so that there

is

Pin, moreover, stands for p, and


emancoll for x, so that there are seven of them thus.
This is according to the Auraicept of Munster.
Some say there is another kind, ebad and oir that
are thus ten of them.

Uilleann, moreover, stands

stand for simple long vowels.

and

u when

it is medial.
Iphin stands for i
the proper symbol there for p. Emancoll,
again, stands for x, that is, to allow of Greek or Latin
words being introduced into Gaelic, and on that account it is

for y,

for

medially, or

it is

called Emancoll, twin

c, for

is

one of the two consonants

that stand in x, and therefore c


there,

and not s

It is

demanded,

is

said

for in x, c is earlier

too, in the Beithe

be doubled

to

than

Luis Nin

s.

What is

the

vowel that takes the force of a consonant, and the vowel that
takes the effect of two consonants, and the vowel that takes
the effect of a word, and the vowel that does not take the
word. It is the vowel that

effect of a consonant, vowel, or

takes effect of a consonant, quidem, to wit, a vowel after


another, and a vowel that usually stands on the primary

word, or along with a diphthong in one


Briain, of Brian, etc.
syllable, ut est, beoir, beer;feoi7, flesh

vowel of

its

becomes consonised, to wit, u. A vowel


that takes the effect of two consonants, to wit, one vowel
that answers the measure of two consonants, ut dicitur:
or a vowel that

Every two consonants

for a vowel.

vowel that takes

A
is, a vowel that speaks alone.
vowel that does not take the effect of a consonant, vowel,
the effect of a word, that

of nullity, ut dicitur:
consonantes habcntur, that is, which are
or word,

viz.,

Nee

vocales

nee

not vowels and

which are not consonants, or a vowel which stands after


another, ut diximns, as we have said.

There

is

asked

for, too, in

the Bcitlie Luis

Nin

108

AURAICEPT

BB. 327 a 10

greim

fedha,

taebomna

gabus

Et taebomna gabus greim da

feda.

Et da taebomna gabus greim


coic

gabus greim

fidh

fidh

tri

gabus greim

gabus greim focail.


tasbomna no feda no

da

feda

greim
7

feda
-i-

-i-

-i-

ceithri

na coic

taebomna gabhus
gabhus greim taebomna
Et taebomna gabus greim
Is

fidh 7

in

(nz/telsa).

gach da taebomna ar

n-inad dine

Et taebhomna
Et taebomna
taebomna. Et taebomna
fedha.

In taebomna ghabhus greim

Is

Taebomna gabus greim


i

greim taebomna 7 1390


no da taebomna.

fid

Et taebomna na gebhend greim 1395


focail.

queirt.

al8

taebomna.

se

no da taebomna ng.

fid

fedha

E. 2 7

fid

1400

tomus.

coic fed 7 se

taebomna

-i-

dui.r

Ni machtad intan ghabhus greim


taebomna ge gabhaidh greim da fidh

disoil.

na se

Taebomna gabus greim tri fidh J ceithri


Taebomna gabus greim 1405
taebomna
sail a n-inad forsail.
Taebomna
focail -i- taebomna congeb greim forbaidhe.
7

da taebomna.
-i-

na geb greim taebomna na


togaib uath ceand doraith.

feda.

na

focail

taebomna dia

-i-

Ni ansa. In traigh lasin


nt
Donatns dixit pes cst 1410
filid,
Laitneoir,
sillabarum et tcinporum certa dinunieratio -i- ata in traigh
sillab 7 i tna n-aimser.
Ata
conid <7rmidetu demin
Cest, cislir deich dochuisin?
in

dech

lasin

i;<ma

dono airmidetu derb

sillab

dibh

di

arailiu

isin

traighed

Gaidhiul o dhialt co bricht

sillab

conid

Gaed/Yr

aimser

ioirbthe

hocht

samlaidh 1415

"

]:)!i3

1401

ga
tri

t>and

L.

taebomna L.

1409

traidh L.

:414

sillab for

141

"

Gr. Lat.

each ndeich E.

iv.

1:!M

no da taebomna L.

unt;

congeib forbaidi L.

369, 17

dicit

L.

ocon

each deach

ofi.

denuntiacio E.

THE PRIMER
consonant that takes the

109

and a consonant

effect of a vowel,

that takes the effect of a consonant and a vowel.

consonant that takes the

And two

consonants.
vowel.

And

effect

consonants that take the effect of a

consonant that takes the

And

of two vowels or of two

And

vowels and six consonants.

effect

the effect of three vowels and four consonants.

consonant that takes the

of five

a consonant that takes

And

effect of a word.

And

a con

sonant that does not take the effect o f a consonant, vowel,


or word.
The consonant that takes the effect of two
vowels or two consonants

is

This

ng.

the consonant

is

that takes the effect of a vowel, to wit,

q.

It

takes the

consonant and a vowel, to wit, c, and u of nullity.


a consonant that takes the effect of a vowel, to wit,

effect of a

And

every two consonants for a vowel in a measure.


A consonant that takes the effect of five vo\vels and
six consonants, that

wonder, when

is

takes the effect of the five vowels and

it

the six consonants, thoughvowels and two consonants.


the
s

No

in the place of dinin disail.

it

takes the effect of two

consonant

that

takes

of three vowels and four consonants, to wit,


consonant that takes the
place of forsail.

effect

in

effect of a

effect of

word, that

an accent.

effect of a

is,

a consonant that sustains

the

consonant that does not take the

consonant, vowel or word, that

is,

a consonant

along with which h constantly appears.

Query, how many verse-feet are there? Not hard.


foot with the Latinist the verse-foot with the poet,

The

nt Donatus dixit

Pes

dimuneratio, the foot

and the times.


syllables, feet,

syllables
is

is

The

est

et

syllabarum

tcinporum certa

a definite counting of the syllables


Gael also has a sure counting of

and times from

dialf,

one, to brickt, eight

each verse-foot of them from one to another

perfect

syllable

in

Gaelic,

so

that

thus

there

no
i

Dialt

ocht.

immon

ndedenach

Feleas

lesin

-i-

filid,

claen a rind)

coic

meoir

manus
e in

is

-i-

fi

a dho

na lama no

sechtmad

fo lais

cibeadh dib

Claenre, uair ar a re

cona luibnibh

in choss

-i-

Claidemnas

-i-

bri ocht

-i-

na

-i-

claidebh 1425

-i-

claidebh na laimi in slindean

Bricht

dialt.

and, no bricht

~]

each

iar

ar indara leith / a tri forin leth

J in traigh in sessed.

manus lamh

-i-

di
-i-

alt

fil

shilk/7;

forsna da s\\\abaib 1420

sillab

cudruma.

is

nach

comhraiget na
iarum comraigit
tri

les

uair

Luibenchossach

n-aili.

-i-

comrac na

tuiseacha.

b^ras

re

-i-

o oensillaib co
co

dhiultadh

fo

larcomrac

alt.
-i-

(i-

di

-i-

Recomhrac

and.

.27022

airmidetu dearb sain

conid

mbricht

AURAICEPT

BB. 327 a 30

is

ocht mbriathra

Cest,
brigtair ocht sillaba and.
Ni ansa. In trath is
cate deochair eter dialt 7 a dheach?
iarsinni

Intan immorro

forfhidh in dialt alt eter defhogur and.

taebomna

alt eter in

taebomna

J in fid and.

is

1430

In-

/ primfidh
tan immorro is senguthtfz^ amal ata a, o, alt eter da aimsir
^Enfid i ndialt, a do i recomarc /rl. -i- primfid no
and.
Is

forfid.

Ocht
Pj4flrt-tfJ

aid sin ni talla in trefoghur

sillaba isan focul

mo isan

is

n-aendialt.

Gaed//c, utest,

ailcecheterdarai / anrocomrai[rc]nicsiumairne,

Tri sillaba deg immorro isin focul

is

mo

fiannam- 1435

Jr\.

isin

Laitin

ut est tinerificabilitudinetaitibus.

1418
1419

i
comraigend L. foecomarc
iarcomraicet E.
iarcomrag

rae

-i-

comraiced na di

sillaib

im enalt E.

1422

ua

1425

meir E.

1428

bridhthair L.

isindara rag

is

a dho air indara leith E.

claidem L. E.
]4:!:)

n-oendialt

viii. u. tri

142:!

ar L. om.

1427

in vii. dialt B.

L.

1435 8 E. om.
fianamailecharadardae Cor. 2 447 : T.
Loves Labour s lost, Act v. Sc. I : Dr Murray of
Gr. Lat. viii. 164, 17
The Oxford Dictionary is said to have got this transmitted as one word through
1435
14:18

the Postal Telegraph Office.

THE PRIMER
are

bricht, so that that

in

eight

in
a

is

from one syllable to eight of them.


that

di,

is,

deny that any

to

Recomrac, dissyllable, that

meet

syllables

about

afterwards

i.e.,

is re,

the

Diall, a
joint,

syllable,

exists

there.

the course in which the two

alt.

meet,

they

alt,

definite counting

larcomrac,

i.e.,

after

each

trisyllable,
last,

i.e.,

a meeting of the three syllables with the two previous


Feleas, tetrasyllable, that is, bad profit of the
syllables.

hand
he

will

(that
its

or

he,
give,

the poet,
for

uneven

even.

is

it

whichever of them

satisfied

is

Claenre,
for

its

pentasyllable
with respect to

termination),
course two of them are on one half and three on the
is,

other.

Luibenchossaehi hexasyllable, that is, the foot with


the five toes the foot being the sixth.
Claide-

its digits,

mnas, heptasyllable, that


hand, and the sword of the
it is
i.e.,

is,

sword-vtanus, to wit, manus,


is the shoulder-blade: and

hand

the seventh syllable. Bricht, octosyllable, i.e., bri ocht,


eight words are there, or bricht because eight syllables

shown

Query, what is the difference between


and
a dheach, its verse-foot ? Not hard.
syllable,
When the syllable is an Ogham diphthong, there is alt
between (the vowels of the) diphthong in that case. But
when it is a consonant and a primary vowel, there is alt
between the consonant and the vowel. When, however,

are

there.

dialt>

it is

a single vowel such as a,

times.

One vowel

in dialt,

o,

there

is

two of them

alt

between two

in recomarc, etc.,

that is, a primary vowel, or a


It is on that
diphthong.
account the triphthong is not contained in one
syllable.
Eight syllables are in the biggest word in Gaelic, tif

Fiann - like - every -.Sficond-oneand


of-them,
anrocomraircnicsiumaime, all-the-mistakeswhich- zw-have-committed, etc.
est,fiannamailcecheterdarai,

Thirteen syllables, however, are in the


biggest word
ab his honorificabilitudinitatibus.

in Latin, nt est

112

BB. 327/3
Iss e int

AURAICEPT

ainm airmi

-i-

tri

no

E. 27 a 39

It

[a] ceithir.

na hanmanda uird airmi immorro primus


tercius

-i-

anmand

et

eat

(col. /3)

sequndus

n-anmand

a n-airmi iar prois 7 a

uird

airmi immorro iar n-aicned.


ata a
Is i sin an deochair, airim anforbthe amal

no a

nocho

ar

v,

forbthe, ut

est,

in

Airim forbthi

a aen fo se,

se,

uair airiss/V/ o

sin,

Airim ollforbthe ut est a do dec


a do a sessed, a

tri

tri

a se sin

rogabh

dec samhlaid.

fuilliu

is

randaidhi, 7 ni each randaigi

Dialt co

roaig dialt

ceill

-i-

immorro a n-as
amal ata o no

mod

Conid airimh

coit tria taithmet a lethe.

is

Cest, cia

i.

a haile dec,

a deich sin
7 a ceithri iarsin conid

se
7 a se iarsin conid a

anda

co coir.

choitibh

a haen

-i-

fo do. 1445

tri

a ceathramthu, a cethri a trian, a


a do dec -i- a aen /
amal

se a ceirtleath samlaidh,

a do 7 a

thri, a

iii

Airim

nfuillt^r (fogailter) o choitibh.

a do fo

et

coic

is

sluinw

ic

-i-

Dialt A\diu

Ni

cheilli

ansa.

aenlitir 1455

comlaine

bunad cacha Gaedelge acht

Cid fodera

tod 7 troth.

7rl.

Haiget

and a n-as mode:

litri

lughude

1450

each coitidi

Is

choitide,

mmeit

in sain

nac/t

buriadh doibh-sein

ai dhibh, 7 ni

bunad

in

net

Ni ansa. Ar is dialt each


dialt acht mod 7 1460
do fen, no dono is bunadh each GxAelge
chena ni dat bunad
tod 7 troth. Acht is momo lem and
Caite in cenel dianad
ceilli.
GxAelge acht is bunad

-igach ball ferda


bunadh? Ni ansa -i- mod each ferda
each ball
-imbanda
ferda
7 todh each
7 each comna
-i- 1465
neoturda
each
banda 7 each comna banda 7 troth
;

i** airim B.

1*1 a n-airmi L. on,.

i. am al
"-

ata

uair iss

is

"**

e L.

Origg.

ed o coitib E.
1454

randaidh T.

Sg. 26

a h,eli E.

Haidet E.

iii.

5-

9-1

airim L.
J

^oicth.b, a.rem L.
a

da choit E.

E.
an is lugha de L. lugu dhe -i- ic sluind
60
GMt/ge dialt E.
amal ata alt E.
is bunad gn^6i iss ed momo lem anu cheana ciasa bunad Gaidelg
1465 each
congaib banda L.

i*"

mod

E.

THE PRIMER
This

a cardinal

is

113

These

wit, three or four.

number, to

are the ordinal numbers, however, primus et secundus et


and
tertius, to wit, the names of their number in prose
their ordinal names, moreover, according to nature.
;

That

an imperfect number, such


as three or five for they are not multiplied from factors.
A perfect number, such as six, contains one of it six
A perfect number
times, two three times, three twice.
their

is

difference,

A quite
properly consists of factors.
ut
to
one
is
its
est, twelve,
wit,
perfect number,
twelfth,
two its sixth, three its fourth, four its third, six exactly
is

for

that,

its

thus,

half,

two, and

make
that

as

for

and six

telling its halves.

a factor,

is

part

Query, how

and
is,

least?

letter,

dialt,

and
for

sense,

syllable,

those?

does

are in

such
is

Not

syllable,

or again dialt

factor

one,

wit,

after that, these

its

So

that

factors through

a part, but not every

is

etc.

far

What

trod.

dialt,

Every

however, which

perfect

greater than

is

dialt, syllable,

Not hard.

five letters

twelve, to

and four

after that are thus sixteen.

number which

in

example

three, these are six

ten

is

it

which

is

its

o,

its

is

superior limit

one

inferior limit, to wit,


ear,

the origin of
is the reason
hard.

in greatest

syllable with a meaning, that

it,

as

extend

or

is

the origin of

island.

denoting
Therefore

Gaelic save mod, tod,


why it is not an origin

all

Because

and a thing

i,

not

each

of them

an origin

for

is

itself,

Gaelic save mod, tod,


and troth. But I much prefer there certainly that they
are not an origin of Gaelic but that it is an origin of
meaning. What is the gender to which it is an origin ?
is

all

Not hard, to wit, mod is everything male, viz.


every ma/e
member and every male condition and todh is everything
female, to wit, every female member and every female
:

condition

and

troth

is

every thing neuter, to

wit,

which

AURAICEPT

BB. 327 p 23

ii4

nach neachtardae

E. 37 a 54

each co;;ma nemeguscda

-i-

no dano

nidat dialta etir 7 nidat bunad G^delge iarum mod


ceniuil ut dicitur acht
7 dod 7 traet acht ad bunada
atat arae sin araile Gxde/ge dianad bunad amal roghabh

mod

mo

-i-

intan

is

a ed

masor/

n-airde

-i-

moo

mod

no

mo

od

od ceol 1470

-i-

moo quam

Is

in ceol.

-i-

in ceol

is

i
nDruim Ceata -i- tood
lughu amal roghabh ind aidbsi
no to od, tae a ed intan as kmen no tod -i- to od -itod in ceol -i- in ceol bee -i- cronan no certan bee i n:

Traeth -i- treith 1475


in ceol is mo).
aith[fh]egad in moir (-ino traeth
femm
a ed no a odh fri fedhadh mascail 7
iarsinni trrcthait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda -i- stocairecht
:

Gne

no cornairecht.
intan

is

... son

torand no
aile

is

inni

eli

fet

is

traet.

is

innas in

taitiu

a thraethas intan

Todh

crand.

is

is

Caidi a ndemnigud?
Tod -i- tai a od
cruit.

is

isliu

trzeth

is

band[a]

neachtarda

i*

diana L.

"!

w
1479

moa

n-ai,

it

is

mo

taitiu

is

Is
-i-

focail

147:!

L.

airi

fod

...

asbert

membri

Grecda

sin

a fheadh

tsen,

ciuliu
is,

L<

sedh L.

"

naile

taispenu

(ia

modern bad hand) B.


L. om.

"!

is fet

"*

is airdi

inas ni

a fhseidh L.

aili is
14S7

traeth aspaidh L.

anmand na mball

:>

E.

1489

14a5

is

nemeguseda B.

ar E.

taiuu)

eili

anmunda

nomen

u
(or

dis

in

mo
:

intan
tuiu

is

amal

sin

seadh L.

fodronaile

a od

a [fhjaidh.
7 tod 7 traeth

nemeimhidhuseda L.

nas in ceol L.

treith

Mo

vel

fod,

anmand aidmi

airdi

uiri

is

cruaidhi inas

trsethaid

neudarda

n-airdi

traethait, 1480

-i-

bindi

as

-i-

nomen membri
nomen membri neutri ;

14titi

Traeth

intan

Laitneoir:

umileiris vel

a ed

a ed intan

Ni ansa.

No dono mod

doib.

ferda

ball
in

stocc, fo bith

i[s]

tae

mo

cseli 7 is

is

Traeth

n-aill.

-i-

araili corfidis

ciuil.

intan

-i-

aill.

fo bith

Asperaid

ata na a

mod

no

n-aile

indus

eli

membri

L.

uili

L.

1490

THE PRIMER
one

neither

are

nor

other,

viz.,

115

every

impersonal

or again they are not dialta, syllables, at all,


and mod, tod, and traeth are not therefore an origin of

condition

Gaelic but they are origins of gender, ut dicitur, but there


all that other Gaelic matters to which
they are an

are for

origin, such as mod, to wit, greater its distance

upwards

or

mo, greater, is od, i.e., od, music when it is


It is greater than the
masculine, i.e., greater the music.

mod, that

is,

music which

Drum
when

it is

crooning
is

in

or tod, that

to od,

is,

the small music, that

is,

aidbsi, choral song, in

example,

food: or to od, tae a ed, silent

is,

feminine

music, that

for

is less, as,

Ceat, that

is,

comparison with the great,

greater.

Traeth, that

weak

is,

its

that

is,

tod

humming,

its

law

(is)

the

or a

little

the music which

i.e.,

extent or

its

music in

comparison with masculine and feminine or traeth from


the fact that the loud kinds of music, trumpeting or
horn-blowing, overpower the low kinds. /Another genus \
:

or mod, that
or
is

when

it is

is, greater its distance up when it is thunder,


a tree. Tod, that is, tae, silent its law when it

a foetus, and

it is

than the other.

whelms when

... another

is

is

more

silent

they overwhelm, which over


a whistle
because it is shriller and

Traeth,
it

sound which

i.e.,

harder than the other thing it is tract (tre fet\ Others


say that they might be names of instruments of music.

What
it is
it is

is

their proof?

a harp.

sweetest,

Traeth, that

Not

Tod, that
it is

is, it

more

is,

hard.
tai

silent

Greater

its

od, silent its

music when

music

and lower than the

overwhelms the other two when

when
other.
it

is

trumpet, because higher is its mournful cry. On that


account it is traeth to them. Or again mod and tod
and traeth, to wit, those are names of masculine, feminine,

and neuter members, as the Latin ist says Nomen membri


vt n vcl nomen membri mulieris vel nomen membri neutri
;
and those are Greek words although it is in Latin that
:

<4>

^i

ii6

AURAICEPT

BB. 327/346

E. 270.61

ciasu Laitine ata deismireacht dib 7 nac[h]

dad

dialta, ar nis-

o neoch 7 ni fuilter uaitib acht mine derntar mod


Secundum
for mod J tod for tod 7 traeth for traeth.
filet

Isse, issi, issed, iar


quosdam cumad etarscarad indsci
Macaib Miled uindius, uindsi, ondor, iar Feraib Bolg 1495
e so tra
mod, tod, traeth, iar Tuathaib De Danand. Iss
:

a cumair (328) -irecomrac co bricht

mod
aire

7 tod 7 traeth

bunad gach G&delge -i- dialt -i- o


ni bunad he d aensillaib amal (rogab)
e

is

7 iar

rotathmetaid-side

menma

each dialt tucad-side sund,

sech

gach

comtis recomraig

friu

dialt,

fogabar a condaill

air

is

dochuaidh 1500

ar

-i-

No dno mod 7 tod 7 traeth a


caindeligud, ut diximus.
n-anmand na mball ferda 7 banda 7 neoturda amal asbert
Nomen membri uirilis et nomen membri muliein Laitneoir
:

bris 7

nomen membri

Laitin ata desmireacht dibh


ni fil[et] o
for

uad

mod
-i-

fri

7 is

tod 7 traeth

fri

nach

airi

sin cidh

meni derntar mod


Domiditer alta
haltaibh na ndaewi

fri

1510

each indsce.

fri

corop each dialt


Cindas toimsiter fri
ata tis tuas, air is ed a chubhaidh
frecras-[s]a di araili amal
intan is cobfhidh, 7 is cobfhid in focal ind imfrecra 7 is
each insci?

comdeach

1493 fria
1494-1508

troth, fria traeth E.

E.

Otn.

1495

uindsi insi ondur L.

1498

recomarcc L.
recomairc L.

1501

1505

1508

-i-

tarmfortcend.

in

gid

i l

1499

150

"

ndialt L.

150 2

Laitin, is aire

nach

at, ni filet

caindeliugud L.
L. E.

domiter L.

formod B.

1509,

tomaist*?;-

1513

coibidh L.

1514

intairemforcend E.

tucait T.

E.
coimfidh

1505

at dialta, ar

traeth.

toimsiter aisti inn aircetail

amal toims[i]ter

Grecda

focail

ni filter uaidibh acht

neoch 7

7 tod

it

neutri, 7

1512

freagras L.
E.
7 as coibidh, inimfrecra

THE PRIMER

117

an example of them occurs, and they are not syllables, for


they are not derived from anything, arid nothing is derived
out of them save that there might be formed mod, upon
mod ; tod, upon tod ; and tractJi, upon traetJi. Secimdum
it is

quosdam,

the sons

to

ing

a distinction of speech

of

Milesius

"

He, she,

it,"

accord

Uindius, uindsi, ondar,

according to the Fir Bolg Mod, tod, traeth, according to


This is, then, the short of it
the Tuatha de Danann.
:

this

the origin of

is

all

Gaelic, to wit, dialt, syllable, that

from recomrac, two, to briclit, eight syllables and it is


not the origin of an individual syllable as, for example,
mod, tod, and traeth ; and after every dialt, syllable, they
is,

have been

set

down

here,

and

it is

been mentioned beyond every

was

directed to

condaill

them

that they are dissyllabic

attention
:

for their

Or
names of the masculine,

found, to wit, their fair division ut diximus.

is

again mod,

tod,

and

traeth are the

feminine, and neuter

Nomen membri
membri

on that account they have

dialt, syllable, for

members

uirilis et

as the Latinist has said

nomen membri muliebris

et

nomen

and those are Greek words though it


Latin that an example of them occurs and it is on
neutri,

is in

this

account that they are not dialta, syllables, for they are not
derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them

mod for mod, tod fri tod and


Alta uad, joints of science, are measured,
the metres of the airchctal, trisyllabic poetry, are

unless there might be formed


traeth fri traeth.

to wit,

measured with the

joints of

men

as they are

measured

with any part of speech.

How
To

are

they measured with any part of speech?

that

every dialt, syllable,


another such as down, up, for that is
the
the

wit,

same
same

feet.

in vowel,
in vowel,

may
its

correspond

rhyme when

it

to
is

and the word made to correspond is


is the same in verse-

and the ending

Il8

Coic
so

AURAICEPT

BB. 328 a 16

sis

remim

hi

fichet

filltigthi

E. 27

amal ros-gabh and- 1515

Fir a sealbad.

Fer a ainmniugud.
Co

Ar

aitreib.

fer a ascnam.

A fir

fear a airicheall.

In fer a inchosc.

Hi fer a innothacht.

a togairm.

Sech fer a sechmall.

Oc

For fer a

fhir a foxaul.

Fri fer a

freslige.

Fo flur a fothud.
De fhiur a digbhail.
La fer a thaebtu.
Ar fiur a fresgabhail.

\\-\\\ar

1520

a furmiud.

In

fir

Do

fiur a

Im

fortud.

a tustidhi.

dhanad.

Dar

fir

[a]

ascbhail, ac feraib a inchosc

fer a thairsce.

ainmnigud, na

(sic),

a tuar- 1530

fir

na fer a shealbad, dona

feraib a danadh, sic in sequentibns.


Fear didiu ebadh a fhidh in anma asberar fer

diach

dialt a

Dichongbail and

-i-

son oencongbalach cen

no iphin a

io

1525

fer a imthimcheall.

Tre fer a thregdhadh.


Ri fiur a remiudh.

Is fer a thuarasgbhail.

Fedar dno a

fir

lar fiur a thiarmoracht.

Frisin fer a thormach.

I fiur

guta

/3

shealbhadh intan asberar

fir

-i-

fidh ina

alt

remim no

e a
etir.

ina 1535

ar bit in dis ina reim io

and amal ata fir iphin and amal ata do fir io amal ata a
fir
iphin amal ata o fhir. Is aire nach airimh ebhadh ina
reim ce beith n-araileib and amal ata co fer, /rl., air ni fil
mmairend in fhidh 1540
acht reim ceilli namma in gach baile
as
io
no
Isna
filltib
a
mmnid.
isin
bis
iphin bhis intib
;

1515

hi

lil8

airchill L.

1521

seachis T.

1525

a dingbhail B.
taebthu L.

1326

rem L.

Li:il

ac feraib B.

l:

gutta L.

hi

rreimim amail E.
132

iy
:

out.

"

a dighbhail T.
1529

na

indotacht L.
-*

frerlige B.

fir

sic in sequentibus

L.
15:1(i -

a adnad L.

iarmoracht L.

13

E. om.

T.

THE PRIMER

119
flections in declen

There are twenty-five prepositional


sion, as is exemplified here below
:

Fir

its

I fiur its locative.

Ar

fear

Co fer

In fer

Per

nominative.

its

fir its

vocative.

Seen fer

fhir

advancive.

its

its

its

Pri fer

neglective.

desidative.

Po fiur its fundative.


De fhiur its privative.
La fer its comitative.
Ar fiur its ascensive.
Prisin fer

its

may be

Also their plural


Fir

its

its

Now
noun

alt,

or iphin,

division, at

e.g.

Ogham

when

two are there


do

Do

fiur

its

lar fiur

its

invocative.

parentative.
dative.

progenitive.

circumdative.

its

fer

its

tresjasslve..

Tre fer

its

trajective.

Ri fiur

its

a4yer3ative.

/?

its
its

descriptive.

possessive.

sic in segitentibus.

is

the

Ogham

vowel of the

pronounced fer; e its vowel; dialt,


verse-foot, to wit, one constituent sound

its

possessive,

fir its

is

its

syllable,

its

In

Nafer

dative.

as to fear, chad, ea

which

without

its

depositive.

No, fir

depositive.

Dona feraib

ingressive.

fir its

nominative.

Ac feraib

fir its

Oc

Dar

Is fer its descriptive.

accusative.

Hi

Ira fer

augmentative.

defensive.

its

its

For fer

ablative.

its

possessive.

it

all.

Two

vowel, in

is

its

declension

or

in

its

fir, to wit, because the

pronounced

in its declension, io

fir, io; e.g. a fir, iphin

constituents are in io

e.g.

e.g. fir, iphin, is there,

o fhir.

It

is

on that

account that he does not reckon ebhadh, ea, as a declension,

though it might be present in some cases such as co fer, etc.


For there is but declension of meaning only in every posi
tion where there remains the Ogham vowel which stands
in the

nominative.

In the inflections

it is

io or ipJiin that

every place where the nominative does


not remain, so that on that account io or iphin is declared
stands in

them

in

120

AURAICEPT

BB. 328 a 38

E. 27

gach baile nach mairend conid aire


iphin a fhidh ina reim no na shealbhad

in

Dinin
it

disail a

forbaidh

gabhaidh

scribthar

uasu

sea

er

tor

mor

ainm ogaiw

is

realadh fuid

nt,

arna cuimribh, ut

res,

sic

est,

fer

no

ilfoclaig la acuit

and

air

fair

sin ar

forin sail
sail

no

furail

-i-

forna fodaib amal

7 for[sh]ail

bis graib in

forsail

ri

sail

forsail

is

gach amebert
arnin arsen re

n-aenfocul ut ceann 7 sron.

no airnin

fair nin, air is

-i-

-i-

scribt[h]ar

-i-

7 co nach

nin 1560

nin ain/w coitcheand


Forsail

iwcosc

ig

dano

na forbaide

simud na haimsire do
conad foda

foruillid in focul

seach in cumair.

and co nach nin

na forbaide-

fri

feadaib J taebomnaib.

eter
i[sj

fer

Intan 1550

pax 7rl., 7 circumplex forsna


dobeir in Gaedel di;/e dishoil 1555

for fut bis forsail, J i[s]

is

est,

chena.

ar

la circumplex, sech

Airnin iarum ernid nin

litir

nt

disoil,

no

forsail,

est,

scribthar ag fuacra na forbaidi sin

do gach

glenn

scribtar

gair

amal

diwe disail no araen

sail

air

tennad, ar ni
uair amal dobeir in Laitneoir acuit

lamh

(col. /3)

dinin

timarta

fri

fota,

crann

each

forsna s\\\abaib cuimre, ut

rogab

arnin J dinin dishail / 1545

-i-

donn

int

tuigfidhea cheana

s\\\abaib

/rl.

Arnin, nt est glonn /


ut est, sron 7 slog /
7

no

arnin arding [djed, forsail for fot fedair, dinin

-i-

disail for gair

cor

io

a aicnid lasin Laitneoir

-i-

e teora fuirbhthe dochuisnet

forsail

adberar

sin

21

/3

no

for- 1565

Dini[n] disail -i- di fo diultad


acht is duir scribthar ac

sail

-i- ar is
digbail na haimsire toirnes
duir amal as tormach tormaiges sail
no dine disail de

inchosc na forbaidi sin

dofuillzW

sin

scrib//z<?r

U4li

1335

""

i:i

"""

1570

E.

amal

Asberait

nemfuillzW.

duir ar dine disoil, air

ardinged L.

1550-76

-i-

om>

ut,

dinin L.

air is nin,

duir

is

ardig dead diarmachd E.


i.2 teandad L.

ag inchosc

1338

(sup.

//>/.)

L.

forfuilliud in focail conid L.


lva ar duir
atberait L.

>

Gr. Lat.

iii.

lear L.

521,

6,

dinin L.

iwcosc B.
ir G
"

fil

153

dishail L.

1554 5
135n

sech bis L.

aire 15,70

is

ar d[t]us an dine

fil
1549

araile

dinin L.

ar tus L.

I5t;s

didbail B.

THE PRIMER
vowel

Ogham

its

in its declension

121

or

in

its

possessive,

etc.

Dinin

disail, its accent, to wit, accentus

for these are the three accents

and forsail, to

disail,

a long

is

borne

glenn,

great

exist, to wit, arnin, dinin

arnin compresses a final forsail on


dinin disail on a short takes (effect).

E.g. arnin, ut

wit,

glonn, deed, donn, dun, crann, tree,


ut
est, sron, nose, slog, host, mor,
forsail,
est,

glen
dinin disail, ut
:

which

with the Latinist

est,

fer, cor,

ler,

When the Ogham

words whatsoever.

there are written these accents above

tor,

and

inscription

them

to

all
is

short

written

make

clear

long and short or to express tension, for they would not be


understood otherwise
because as the Latinist puts an
:

acute on the short syllables, ut est, pax, etc., and a


circumflex on the long syllables, nt est, res, so the Gael
puts dinin disail on the short, nt est, fer ; and forsail on
the long, e.g. lamh, hand and as there is a grave in every
;

single dictum of

that

many words with an acute or a circumflex,

to say arnin

is

forsail in

one word,

therefore,

it

it is

that

common
too,

to

means

is

along with dinin disail or along with

nt,

ceann, head,

purchases n
is

written to

and sron nose.

or air nin, that

mark

is,

that accent.

upon

Nin

all letters

either vowels or consonants.

sail

it,

that accent, for

upon
it is

for

it is

s that

is

Airnin,

it is

is

n, for

name

Forsatl,

written to denote

upon a long that forsail rests, and there

a lengthening of the time by


is, it magnifies the word till
is

upon the a:
forsail, that
it becomes
long: or forsail,
that is, furail, qyerflow, beyond the short. Dinin disail,
that is, di, for negation therein, inasmuch as it is neither
n nor s that is written but d to denote that accent, i.e.,
it

because
is

it is a diminution of the time that d


denotes, as it
an addition that s adds or dinin disail, de sin from that,

i.e.,

unadding, that

why d

is

is,

non-addition.

written for dinin disail

is

Others say the reason


that d stands at the

122

AURAICEPT

BB. 328/314

nin air nin ar

disoil, 7 is aire scrib///rtr

and, 7
inte

-i-

aire

no ut

Dine

is

-i-

scrib///<7r

-i-

ni aimsir fota

ni nin

no

-i-

is

ar forsail ar

sail

alii dicnnt ail

dinin

E.

aims^r

-i-

ni fid acht

is sail

fil

seach

furail
is

fil

forbaid.

nemhf \\\\\\lcd no

-i-

di[sh]ail

nin

27/328

deoidh

fo

medon

in

cumair.

Di[sh]ail 1575

nemfurail.

Alt co fesear cia halt huad dona secht n-altaib

-i-

anamain, nath, anair, eamain, laid, setrud, soinemain,


diaw cona nduan#/$. O sein inund is o dheachaib sluin-

huad ar na rob indsci cumascda.


Nath -i- 1580
noaid anair. Anamain -i- an somain. Laed -i- laitir no
no leoaid intan is air no is onni as laiis -iiuaitir

tir

alta na;z

Sedradh

moladh.

main

-i-

sain a

no dian

-i-

sed raid

maine

risin aisti

adbol an no ni

-i-

no raith

reamaind.

ain.

sin

air set.

Saine-

Dian -i- di air:


anund -i- ota na 1585

seacht primaisti amach is o deacaib is ni de na deachaibh


foricfa 7 is uaidibh ainmniugud doib a forba gacha

rainde a nduain, 7 recomrac a forduain, 7 iarcomarc


bairdne, ar na rop indsce cumaisci ar na ro[b] prois amal
1590
aisti na ndrerbard.

Lorga fuach

-i-

lorg

ua

foe?//

amal

-i-

bite lorga

duine for portaibh sesga og immtheacht o


do
phurt ar na torchrad inna lighi, imtha is amlaidh
purt
it he in so na lorga biti a ciallabair no
ngenaib na filed
Lorca fuach iarum -i- rem- 1595
ic fosugud o focul co focul.

llamaib

u ~ 4 aimser L.

K 7r

10711

ir 7!

):>s "

na-

1580-90

1582
1585
"

B.

in

huad L. B.

nanhuad

E. om.

7
s|

nemfurail L.
Di[sh]ail
is fo decaid E.
.

na rob E.
noidh an aor T.

1383
lecaidh (?), aeir L.
Sedraidh, sed L.
adbal in domain L.
.j. ab/ fln no ni aon no adbal an T.
:

recomarcc L.

I5!f-

daiwe E.

1594

no a n-ingenaib L.

1595- KiOS

1589

na ro prois L.

rm
is L. om.
laigi E.
ciallabair E. T. om.

on;.

THE PRIMER
beginning of dinin
for nin is that

why
of

it

it

is

vel ut alii dicunt,

Dine, that

an

not

is

at the

written for/orsatfis that 8 stands in the middle


ail, that is, time excess past the

short.

and the reason why n is written


end in it, and the reason

disail,

n stands

123

is,

vowel

Ogham

Di\sh~\ail, that

is,

not a

but

it

dinin, that

letter, that

an

is

is,

accent.

not a long time or di\sk\ail, that

is,

is,

non-addition or non-overflowing.
Alt co fesear that thou mayest know what alt huad, limb

of science,

the seven alta, to wit, anamain, nath,


eamain, laid, setrud, soinemain, dian with their duans.

From

it

is

of-

from verse-feet that alta na huad,


the limbs of science, are named, that it might not be
mixed speech.
Nath, i.e., it praises from the front.
that onward,

Anamain,

i.e.,

or hastened

from the word

an

it is

sojnain, glorious profit.

or leoaid,

it

Lded,

wounds when

it

Sedradh,

or dian, huge and splendid

From

metres forth

is

is

satire

sent
or

or
i.e., path of saying
its
treasures
Sainemain, i.e., special

laus, praise.

surety on a valuable.
with respect to the foregoing measure.

splendour.

i.e., it

that onward,

or
i.e.,

from verse-feet,
verse-feet that thou wilt find and it

Dian, two satires


ni din, something of
from the seven principal
:

is something of the
from them they have
their name at the close of every part of their duan, and
recomarc of their forduan, and iarconiarc of bard poetry,

that

it

may

like the

it

is

it

is

not be mixed diction, that

it

may

not be prose

measure of the Daerbards.

Lorgafuach, staves of words, i.e., a staff out of a word,


i.e., as there are staves in the hands of a man on barren
places as he goes from place to place that he might not fall
prostrate, even so are these here the staves that are in the

reasonable speech (?) or in the mouths of the poets halting


from word to word. Lorgafuach, staves of words, therefore,
that

is

the interposition of two syllables between the two

AURAICEPT

BB. 328,336

124

suigeadad da
bard cecinit :

Im ba
i-

in

ba

eter

silleeibh

da comuaim, ut Cormac

in

seasach, im ba seang

jr\.

in lorga fuach.

dialt n-etarleme

ut est

.27/335

da comuaim, 1600

aensillab eter in

-i-

Cia leth gu

iar cuairt cros

br<zt[h]

Cosluidfea mo coblach creas


In ba sair ba siar ri suail,
In ba tuaid no in bodes ?

1605

Cia eter lond / leath in dialt n-etarleme


J ata lorga
fuach 7 dialt n-etarleme isin rand ar medon -i- in
;

ba

ba.

is

Fertot a thelgud noe

ndawa

duine, ut est dia

cessad

fair, teit

don bruch

a telgud

duine, ar

for

duleice in duine 1610

tir

-i-

iarum dia fothrugud din

isin

sis

-i-

nae

usce, tot ol in tond

a ainm in foghair sin doghni in tond

rise

uisciu, dolece

fse

dno
dano a

fa tot

-i-

tott

is

tott

ainm forcmachta (no forcumascda) di sun, ut est, bu bo


go ged no in guth trom dogni m dae oca lecon forsin 1615
:

usce.

no bu bo

fogur,

immi o
ferdo
i-

fodhar na

-i-)

tot

no dano arfoem

du chele

feartot ar

feartot ar a chele (329)

Aurlond dno ainm d

mon

urlandaib-sea

-i-

se

da

imtha

-i-

ise

tri

cethre

remsuidiuchad, da sillaebaib L.

1002

ar cuairt L.

IMS

g Usa i ua
i

ised

isi

^-s

-i-

-p.

1618
1620

bis

no dona deich

urlanda ferinsci sin

n-i-

remsuigecad B.
p.

94

n- uisciu doleiced on bruch sis isin usce dobert o lin tond, fothrath
1614
forcumachta L. formachta di suind E.
:

1617

fhogar L.
i

1620

dub

amlaid arsisidar in

Translated, Ancient /;-. Poetry,


lew dulceiche in duine
gesat E.

dano a ainm E.
I iic

is

(-i-

briathar chesta sin

oreill gae

1596

1611

frit,

duine a etach

suidi fertom

briathar gni;/m so.


-iind adarc

fris,

gai, is di arsisidar in gai,

indsce don trediu-sa

in

ed asb^r-sum

Is

ailiu.

nac[h]

dam

-i-

genemna rohainmnigthea go go

suidiu L. E.

E.

oin.

ferthoi

arfoen B.

fertoth ar
1(i

du

~ mon
gx

arfaen L.

ceiliu E.

ar

is,

arfoem E.

16iri

I.ferte

imtha samlaid L.

dam, give me

THE PRIMER

125

Cormac the bard cecinit : hn ba


i.e., im ba is the lorgafuach.

alliterations, as

ba seang,

etc.,

dialt

seasacJi

is

its

interloping syllable,
ut est ;
syllable between the two alliterations
n-eterleme,

side for ever after a course of crosses

To what

beat

my

narrow

fleet ?

Shall

Sli

bt-

it

be north, or shall

il!

Shall

one

east or shall

it

west for a short while,

lie
it

be south

Cia between lond and letk

is

the dialt n-etarleme, the

of words, and
interloping syllable and lorga fuach, staves
dialt n-etarleme occur in the middle of the stanza, viz., in
;

ba,

and

ba.

Per
nae

man

telgud

nt

man,

is

the

its

tot,

est,

of

flinging

man

on

suffer

man,
land,

for
i.e.

suffering on him, he goes afterwards to

allows

the water, he

himself in

bathe

its

noe,
if

himself

lets

down

the

wave under him, i.e., tot


that sound which the wave makes tott ;
onomatopoetic name, or mixed name

into the water, tot saith the

bank
was the name
is

then,

tott,

of
its

the bu of cows, the go of geese or the


heavy voice the man utters dropping himself on the water.
From the sounds of birth have been named go go in

from sound, ut

est,

sound, or bu bo, i.e.,


garment about him

then says

fertom

is

some one

from

give ye to

(i.e.

man

again, the

or

tot:

else.

me,

i.e.)

takes his

What he
it

serves

it serves thee, quoth thy companion to thee,


a passive verb, feartot quoth his companion to

me, feartot
that

is

him, this

Now

is

an active verb.

urland, haft,

is

the

name

for

round the spear,

spear-bed, to
it is that on

horn that
which the spear rests, even as gender rests on these three,
or on these ten urlaind, to wit,
he, da two, tri
he, she, it
wit, the black

is

s<?

three, cethir four

men.

That

is,

these are urlanda, prefixes,

126
ise

-i-

in fear,

da

no urlonn

da

-i-

fear, tri

indsci slondud

-i-

.27/345

tri fir,

reimmi

-i-

ceithri

amach.

Is aire

-i-

cethri

di mnai, teora

-i-

ceitheora mna.

1625

baninsce o

-i-

Is

-i-

teora mna, ceitheora

-i-

1630

immorro urlanna coitcheanda


ed immorro urlann demind-

It e 7 at iat

eter banindsci 7 ferindsci.

Is

ed a cheann.

sci tit dicitur is

nach indister seach a ceathair.

Si di teora cetheora urlanna baninsce andsin.


in bean, di

fir

ferinsci 7 baninsci 7

Inunda immorro urlann ferinsce

deiminsci.
sin

AURAICEPT

BB. 329

Fri hurlainn ferindsci

nem

aentaigis demindsci a n-urlandaib ilair -i- da


da fear 7rl. No urland indsce -i- ferindsce

dow

ut dicitur

banindsce

1635

demindsce.

Conige seo corp ind Auraicepta.


i
reim -i- a coic gu hogfegad na
ffilliud
re uawma na hai 7 fiche gne saerda

Coic h\\tigthi fichet


filed

Et

olchena.

Im

[it]

n-ilar

deimin

dibh dochum a ndilis fen

ae

dealba

uair
tri

filltech^.

e so a n-araide, a

is

oen dibh

forgnuis tob^rtada

mnedha
a
i-

tri

ed a

Is

conad a se amlaid.

7 ainsida, a
i

gne saerda catead a n-araide foraib?

in fiche

berat each

In

lin

tri

?
i

Berait ecin, 1640

n-uathad

7 a

saerda prosta

fichi

is
gne
do dec dibh i forgnuis ainmneda

forgnuis genzWz J togartada, a secht


foxlan no aon dec dibh a ndelb ain- 1645

a ndelbh genid/i 7 togar/W^ J


a ndelb tobartacha J foxlacha -i- tri fil[l]ti a n-uathad

fer,

7 ainsida 7 a

fir,

ic fir

tri

a n-il^r

tri

1626

slondud L. E.

1627

Inund ainm L.

na

fer,

reime L.

27-

1637

uama

less

re

1639

o ilchenela B.

1642

illar,

1&

1643

foxlan E.

"^-s

1646
1647

olchena L.

samlaid L.

viii.

E.

E. om.

genidi-, togorwz L.
foxlaii, a ndeilb L.

na

fir,

reimhe E.
E. om.

na

firu..

In

THE PRIMER
of masculine gender, to wit, is /,
tri three men, cethri four

two men,

a sign of declension, masc.,

is

127

fern.,

man, da

he, the

is

it

men

or urlond indsci

and neuter.

Masc.

however, the same from that onward.


Therefore they are not mentioned beyond four.
Si she, di two, teora three, cetheora four women, are

and fem. urland

are,

feminine ttrlanna, leading words, there. Is /, it is she,


woman, di two women, teora three women, ceitheora

the

women.

four

common

neuter urlann, ut dicitur,

is

ever,

It e and it tat, they


urlanna both fem. and masc.
it

are,

to wit,

two heavens, ut

indsci, that

is,

dicitur,

is,

how
With

in plural nrlanda^

two men,

etc.

and neuter gender.

masc., fem.,

it

his head.

is

masculine urland, again, neuter coincides

however, are

Is ed

Or urlann
Thus far

the body of the Primer.

is,

Twenty-five prepositional flexions in declension, that


consideration of the poets in flexion while

five for full

composing the

And

besides.

characteristic of
to

their

<?/,

and twenty
twenty artificial

poem

the

them

Do

own proper form

them

in

kinds,

species

what

is

they each of them conform


They do necessarily, for

This

they are inflected forms.


of

artificial

them

As

that thus there are six of them.

their

is

the singular, three of

number, three

in the plural,

to the

twenty

so

artificial

prose sorts, it is certain that this is their characteristic that


there are twelve of them in the form of nominative and
accusative,

one of them

in

the form

of genitive

and

vocative, seven of them in the form of dative and ablative


or eleven of them in the form of nominative and accusa

and three of them

tive,

in

vocative, and three of them


ablative,

three

As

to

i.e.,

the form
in the

of genitive

and

form of dative and

three flexions in the singular fer, fir, ic flur ;


in the plural na fer, na flr, na firu.

of them

the twelve flexions of

them

that pass into the

128

AURAICEPT

a2 7

29

deg dibh tiaghait


e andseo a n-anmand -i-

da
it

BB.

ainmneda

forgnuis

filliud

E. 27

7 ainseda

co fer [a] ascnamh


[fh]er [a] airceall;
for fer a fortudh
sechmall
a
inotacht seach fher

Ar

a freislige

la fer a thaebtu

fer a thairrsci

frisin fer a

im fer a imthimcheall dar


thermal tre fer a tregdad
;

is fer a thuarascbail, ut dixit poeta

da nlltech deg,
nocho lanbhrec,

Is iat sain

Anndar

fer a
fri fer

054

learn

Tiaghait

forgnuis feda
ainseda.

Ainmneda ocus

Na

secht filltigh
i

foxlada,

fothudh

immorro

tiaghait

fiur a aitreibh

do

flur a digbail

fiur a fresgabhail

forgnuis tobartadha 7 1660


fo fiur a

oc fiur a furmidh
;

iar fiur a thiarmoracht

ria fiur a remid, ut dixit poeta

na seacht

Is iad so

ar

fillti,

1665

Nit ernaili admillti,


Tiagait

ngnuisibh glana

Tobarta ocus foxlada.

Oenfilltech
///

immorro

dixit poeta

teit

forgnuis togarthada 7 gen////,

1670

In fhir a thustidhi thiar thair

Do

sealbhadh do thogartaidh

Ocus doibh ar
Acht mad

1<K:!

ltl58

11157

Andar L.

:GGO

filUigthi E.

1<i61

1663

sin L.

1668

te id L.

1871

doselba E.

1674

co n-aradnaib E.

om

don

fichit.

gne saerda cona n-aradnaibh

Is iad sin in fiche

indotacht L.

sen ni ric

int sen

in fer B. L.

a timchell E.
lta9

seda E.
foxlan E.

Ni

1666

167
1C72

sin L. E.

aiwsera B.
166:J

fuirmiud L.

hernaili L.

togartacha L.
thogartaig L.

1C5G

decc E.

ismera E.

remidh L.

forgnuis L.
a tuisdui E.
i

7rl.

remud T.
16G7

is

doib archena ni r[i]c E.

E.

THE PRIMER
form

ar fer
i

fer

and

nominative

of

names here

these

accusative,

are

their

for fer

its

advancive.
its

neglective.

fri fer its desidative.

invocative.

im

comitative.

its

its

seach fer

ingressive.
its

dar fer

co fer

defensive.

its

its

la fer

129

fer

its

frisin fer

trespassive.

tri fer its perforative.

circumdative.
its

augmentative.

is fer its descriptive.

ut dixit poeta:

Twelve

flexions are these

Which methinks

are not quite deceiving,

pass into the letter

They
Of nominative and

The seven
of dative
i

flexions, however,

and ablative are

fiur

its

fo fiur

fundative.

iar fiur

its

progenitive.

ria flur

its

precessive.

ut dixit poeta

that

pass into the form

locative.

its

form

accusative.

oc flur

its

do fiur

its

ar fiur

its

depositive.
privative.

ascensive.

These are the seven

Which

flexions

are not kinds to be destroyed,

They pass into pure forms


Of dative and ablative.

One
and

flexion,

however, goes into the form of vocative

genitive, ut dixit poeta

Infhir its parentative to all time


For possessive, for vocative,

And
Save

These

are

the

to
it

them alone there comes not


be the one form from the score.

score

of

artificial

forms

with

characteristics, etc.
I

their

BB. 329

I3O

AURAICEPT

44

Fer didi u, ebadh a


shealbad

is

-i-

Jr\.

fid,

io

E. 28 a

no iphin ina reimim no na 1675


i na
thoghairm. Is

idad inna selbad /

immorro ina thobartaid / na


immorro ina n-ainmnidh J na ainsid.
iphin

Gate diles fedha


fidh

fedhaibh?

Diles fedha

feda

dilis

fedhaibh, J

Euad

foxlaid.

~
i

fidh,

fedhaibh cetamus

dilis
-i-

a 1680

riasna ceithri guthaig-ib, ar is i cetlabrad each bi 7 iachtad


gach mairb. Dilis fed i fidh dno -i- is dilis in forfidh ogaitn
fid

secepe

amal ata

Dilis

scribthar.

fidh

forfidh as defogur

in

-i-

fedhaibh

-i-

(col.

/3)

ed as diles and in

is

1685
foghur tuisech, ar ni airimhtear in fogur dedhenachT
Alt co fesear -i- co festar in n-aisti dona seacht prim-

ghne do thomhus. O sein inunn is


alta uad ar na badh insce chumascda

ellgibh na hlideachta do

du deachaibh sluinter
i-

o sin inunn isna degfhuachaib

aisti airchetail ar

na rabi

-i-

in indsci

is do dadfocW^ sluinter
cumascda amal dogniat 1690

na daerbam/.

Lorga fuach

lairce lorchaine

-i-

remshuidigthi de-

-i-

s\\\cbaig biith riasna foclaib ica saerad ar

rogair J claenre (no claen


Ferthot a thelgud noe.
sin tria eladain
i-

fer rothoit

on geimim nobeth

1675
,

1676
1678

LL. i88 a

filid

tierbo

do

boo no buo

ged go mbadh on

go ged

-i-

reir a fogair
-i-

anmand
-i-

fertot

fograigim

-i-

geig gotha dob^r

17

O g e_

1685

a i rm zirmither E.

1689

na re

1682

1688

Et bu bo

togarmaig L.
ainmnig, ainsed L.

i 680 - 1

1686

bo a

-i-

celle).

rancadar na

and

da n-ernail

.j.

s echephe

E.

co fe j ser L.

ar na bad E.

(ja, is da dagfhoclaib E.
1G96
!
lairci no lorcaime T.
el-ad E.
lorghame, do si\\abaib biit E.
1697 b o .j. cumudh on buo T.
Gr. Lat. ii. 6, 5
rathoith, fogrugaim E.
1698
239, 6
ged ge mbad on geim nobeth, nob^r as E. nobeiredh T.
js

1692

v.

1695

THE PRIMER
Now

as to fer,

io

or iphin

to

wit, idad,

in

man, ebadh, ea,

its

i,

is

declension,

131

is

or in

Ogham

its

possessive,

possessive and

in its

and

in its dative

vocative.

ablative.

however,
however, in its nominative and accusative.
iphin, io,

vowel

its

etc.,

It

is

Ebad, ea,

What is proper of fedha in fedaibh, of fedha i fidh,


and rffidh i fedaib ? Proper of fedha i fedhaibh, a vowel
among

vowels,
is

the

whatever

be

first,

to

wit,

a before the four vowels

expression of all living and the last


of
all
Dilis fed i fidh, proper of vowels
deceased.
sigh
in a vowel, that is, proper is the
Ogham diphthong

for

it

Dilis

first

the fid,
in

fidJi

fedhaibh,

vowels, to wit, such

two vowels,
for the last

Alt

to wit,
is

vowel,

is

what

in

proper

the
is

Ogham

which
is

is

it

written.

vowel

among

diphthong which has

proper there

is

the

first

vowel,

not reckoned.

i.e., that it may be known whether it is a


metre of the seven primary combinations of poetry as
regards measure. From that onward it is by verse-feet

co fesear,

that alta, limbs

of science, are expressed that it might


mixed speech, that is, from that onward in the
good words, that is, by good words the metres of airchetal
are expressed that it could not be the mixed speech

not be

such as the Daerbaird use.

Lorgafuach, staves of words, that

is, Idirce lorchaine, full


to
comely legs,
wit.disyllabic interpositions that stand before

the (alliterating) words, saving


rogair,

overshortness, and

Fertot a telgud noe,


gcd,

its

them from two

kinds, to wit,

claenre or perversion of sense.

man-throwing.

names these which through

And

bu bo and go

science the poets have

invented according to their sound. Fertot, that is, a man


has fallen there; and bo, cow, from the word boo or buo
[/3oto], I sound, that is, it would be from the gtim, roar
;

and gtd, goose, would be from the goose - voice which

AURAICEPT

BB. 329/314

132

E. 28 a 24

nobeth, amal asbert in Laitneoir

ass

factinn est

No[ine\n de sono
forcaemnacair int ainm don fogur ut est 1700

connall stip

ed a fogur ica loscudh.

is

do anmaim do

stipula

de sin ranic

Is

icon Laitneoir.

r^urlond no insce dno d oreill in gai

ainm.

is

Caidi

erlonn saerda fogabar conad aicniud ? Ni ansa. Erlonn


in gas.
Gate int aurlonn indsci do nach asand insci acht 1705

int

insce bais

urlonn 7 int urlonn

is

conid he sin int urlonn


is

remlonn

urlainn urlainni

nemurlonn
i-

nem no

si, di,

Is

cena urlanna
saerda

ceand

air is

focul as

i99
1702

1703

1704

fogaba E.

1708

doteis L. E.

1713

in

nem no
1720

fir

nem no
ind

if-

Gate urlonn 1710

urlunna a ndis

femen

in

so sis

Inunna

teora, cetheora.

n-urlaind

se,

insci

da,

airme 1715

andsain fogabar comrorco ilair neodair


oca acht i n-uathad tantuui. Gate

fris

iarna buaiw de.

recomhracach

1720-

isna

remendaib

tregdad

gebes
-i-

in

7 as aitreib

conall scip scip E.

18

3,
:

is

1701

Gr. Lat. v. 308, 10

Origg. xvii.
oireiH E.
^>

each ndedenach

greim na ceithre n-ernaili du remendaib

in

urlonn int urlonn

airiall.

treghdad ar geibit arin iocul

Sg. 3o

-i-

ilair

haentocul
-i-

iarlonn J

Is ed in
fogabar co n-aicned? Ni ansa.
Is aicenta
saerda a radh J se for in duine.

immorro a radh

ingrecus

is

urlonn

urlonn ferurlonn banurlonn

-i-

mascu!

ilair

o sin imach.

insce

iar

is

-i-

n-ifern.

thri, cet[h]ri

Cia

n-urlonn

is

iarlonn J

is

urlainni ben in

Aurlunna

i-

remlonn

rosaig Iar ind

intan

-i-

aurlonn

int
is

urlonn fadesin iarlonn dotess, ar

-i-

gai

Gate

graini in gae.

-i-

int iarlonn

QO

ureill

T.

Molloy Gr.

xvii. p.

170

no E. om.

17W

17n
int iffern E.

L.

iarnasbuai;/ E.

graindi L. E.
ferurlonn L.

nem

1712

fer

E.

with punct. del. under t, B.


17W comrorcai T.
ilair ondair E.
andsin L,
i

no

intif-,

17

"

duna E.

THE PRIMER
it

factuui
ut

esf,

est,

that

connall, stubble, slip,

Thence

come

stipula has

said

Nomen

name has happened

the

i.e.,

has

Latinist

the

as

utters,

133

to

name

to be the

the

sound as

its

is

for

de

it

sono

sound,
burns.

it

with the

Latinist.

Then
for the

which

is

as to aurlond, haft, or insce, speech,

What is the artificial


spear-bed.
found to be nature? Not hard.

name

erlonn,

haft,

it is

The

spearof speech, from


The
which groweth no speech, but speech of death ?
is the aurlonn, haft, which is iar lonn,
What
spear-point.

What

haft.

the aurlonn

is

which

after blade, the after-blade

which
is,

is

itself
final

everything

which

nrlonn, haft,

the haft which

is

word, mas.,

fern.,

that
so

come

will

that that

after

What

are urlonn,

urlnnna, the two

in

haft,

when

nrlainn,

is, urlonn haft, leading


urlainni, the wife of the

Urlonn, that

and neut.

the

is

remlonn, before blade, to wit,

is

nrlainni in urlond?

and the haft

haft,

blade, and the urlonn,

after

the airiall reaches ground.

man

is

rewlonn, before blade, to wit, urlonn, haft, that

is

the spear, to wit, haft

blade, for iar

is

indsci, haft

urlond,

i.e.,

in

heaven or

in

hell.

The

nrlutina, indices of gender, mas.

are as follows:

(mas.) se

From

teora, cetheora.

are the same.

It is

neuter, to wit,

its

singular tantnin.

with nature
to say

"

"

it

to apply

What

Not

while
"

"

it

to

da,

tri,

cctliri

and
:

fern, plural

(fern.)

si:

di,

that onward the genders of number

there

is

found an error of the plural

not having urlanna plural but in the


What is artificial speech which is found
hard.

it is

it

"

"

It

is

the head, for

on the man.

It is

it is

artificial

natural, however,

after striking cenn off him.

single disyllabic

word

in the declensions will

take

the place, to wit, the effect of the four parts of declensions ?


The word perforative, for it includes the words perforative,

BB.

134
7

is

AURAICEPT

329/337

innuttacht / as ascnam

aitreib, ni bia inn atreib

ar ni bia in tregdad cen (ind}

cen

E. 28 a 45

in innotaf/z/, ni bia int

inutacht 1725

cen inn ascnam, conid tregdad o thuind co tuind teachtas.


Cia bricht i mbit ocht feda ocon filid co ngeb int aenguta

greim a leithi ut est sliac/tta. J is ogleith in sin ni certleath


ia haenar a n-agaid na secht lit/r.
Cia baili inn
Auraiccepta ata in sealbadh saerda cen reim acht reim 1730
remraiti, ut

JT alme

est,

-+- forin 77 J for

Cia

Ni ansa.

Cia

na n-ocht
i

alme

-i-

selbhad ata do

in

~j~-

fogabar comtoth consan cen tinfed treothu ?


In baili i mbi n ria g cen gutaigi eturu, nt est

baili

uinge.

f"

baili

fagabar in fidh forthormaigh iar forbu 1735


Ni ansa. In baili

sillab isin focul is bricht?

mbia defogur

ochtmad

isin

dialt

fidh

is

forthormaigh

indara fogur.

Ocht

dno

s\\\aba

isin

focul

mo

is

tre

Gaedz

isin

sillaba

/",

ut

est,

dec immorro in 1740

fiannamaile-(33o)-chardaai
focul is mo isin Laitin, ut est, tenerificabilitudinitatibus.
Cia taebomna gebes greim feda J focail 7 taebomna?
:

Ni ansa.
focail 7

Cia taibomna na geib greim feda no


Ni ansa. Uath.

Oueirt.

taebomna

Cate bunad ruidles[t]a

Abecedibon
aipgitir

1725

cen in intitacht B.

]72

in sin in B. L.

"

17L>0

174 5

ruidlesta L.

1747

1743

is

cona

viii.

cf.

Quinct.
littr?ch E.

bodesin L.

Ni ansa. 1745

aipgitir?

per

se

-i-

ata isin

fialus.

bunad o

fil?

Ni ansa.

17 - 7!

indotocht L.

/;-. Texte,
oglet L.
1T ;s
indara
L.

iii.

E. om.

174

xii sill-

164, 17

ruidlesto E.

ix. 4, 59.

full

E.

Gr. Lat.

ii.

6, 15.

Onni

66, 23

foc?<I

Gr. Lat.

ni bia in

7 is

adaid B.

1741

174(i

litir

fodesein, cia

littir

foc/7

copulatio literaruin

-i-

comhthinol na

Ocus

in

ata in L.

ita in

E.

L.

THE PRIMER
and advancive

locative, ingressive,

135

the perforative

for

and the locative

will
not exist without the locative,
not exist without the ingressive, the ingressive will not
exist without the advancive, so that it is perforative
will

What

which holds from end to end.

bricht

is

it

which

in

stand eight Ogham letters according to the poet wherein


the one letter will contain the force of half of it? ut
est,

sliachta,

and that

a virtual half, not an exact half,

is

In what
against the seven letters.
place of the Primer stands the artificial possessive without
rhyme save rhyme of vowels only, ut est, la ba ? That
to wit,

is,

it

alone

is

the possession which a has over the 1 and over b.


In what place is found a couple of consonants without

a breath through them ?


Not hard. Where n stands
before g, with no vowel between them, ut est, uinge,
In what place is found the augmenting Ogham
ounce.

vowel after the completion of the eight syllables

word

Where a diphthong
stand
one of the vowel is an augmenting

Not hard.

bricht ?

in the eighth syllable,

in the

will

vowel.

There

are

ut

Gaelic,

however,

estt

form

eight

in

syllables

biggest word in
Thirteen syllables,

the

fiannamailechardaai.
the biggest word

in

ut

Latin,

est,

tencrificabilitudinitatibus.

\Vhat consonant

and consonant

will take the force of

Not

hard.

Q.

What

a vowel, word

consonant

not take the force of vowel, word or consonant


hard.

will

Not

H.

What

the peculiar origin of the


Not hard. A be ce, dibon,

is

alphabet?

word

aipgitir,

i.e.,

copulatio

litcrarum per sc, to wit, there exists in the alphabet a


collection of letters with their relationship.

And
it

is?

as to letter

Not

hard.

itself,

From

the origin from which


for
legitera, to wit, a name

what

is

BB. 330 a

136
as

ligitera.

AURAICEPT

ainm

-i-

tighi araili

F. 28 a 62

anmand

aitrebas

traigh

mara dianadh ainm Molosus / gibeadh neach atchi tegh- 1750


dhais in anma sin foillsigter do fis cen eledain. Am<?/i[s] set
iarum

faillsighthi eolais 7 fessa

amlaidh sin as

sin, is

do neoch

set faillsighthi eolais

aiscin in tighi

do

fis

7 faiscin

littri, conid airesain tugadh int ainm is littera o ainm


No 1755
tighi in anma remraiti for littz r in gach baili ita.

littera

a litura

-i-

on

-i-

foillgiud

on chomailt doberdis na

harsata forsna claro ciartha, ar intib nacetscribtha leo


no litera -i- inteach legind -i- set legind.

Do

bhunadhaibh na remend andseo

Injliasca

fedaibh

di

deachaibh

sis.

remendaibh

1760

furbhthi J altaibh J inscibh 7 etargairib arnal rosuidigthi


la filedu ina scuili cetna robhadar J la Fenius Farsaidh iar
tebiu na Gaedelge asna di berlaibh sechtmogat. Co taiselbad
do Goediul mac Angein ar is e sen dorothlaigh tepe na

GzQ&elge -\- int aenberla ba aill/w 7 ba cain/ w each berla 1765


conid aire fognith J conid iarum dotaiselbad conidh aire
dogairther Gxdek J Gaidhil. Nel (no Nin) mac Fenius
dothuc Scotai ingen Foraind conidh dia ainm-sie dogairther
Scuit.

Fer a ainmnid

uathaid.

Fir a shealbad uathaid.


Do fir a radh n-uathaid.
In fer a inchosc uathaid.
A fhir a thoghairm uathaid.

O fir a oxail uathaid.


Og fir a thurmeadh uathaid.

Fir a ainmnid ilair.


fer a shealbad ilair.
Do feraibh a rad n-ilair.
Inna firu a inchosc ilair.
A fhiru a thoghairm ilair.
O feraibh a oxlaid ilair.
Oc feraib a fhuirmed ilair.

173
nolusus T. cibed L. : gibe nech E.
cech ealadan L.
ind anwzano a E.
2
fessa L. E. om.
faicsin L E.
faillsiges eolus E.
13
17
do fhiss 7 do aicsin E.
o anmaim L.
on ainmnigthi E.
1755 t
n anman da L. E.
jgj L_
1756 a literatura
-\- on
foillsiugud (no on fholliudug) E. : Virg. Gr. p. 7, 10
1737 ar is intib L.
1758
rosgribtha T.
legitera E.
leang -i- set leai^ L.
17fil
]762
forbhaibh T. fuirbtib L. E.
i rrabatar E.
76:5
na nGaedel B. tebi na Goed- L. : teipiu naGoed- E. tairillfed E.
7W
1765
na nGaedel B. ba haillemh, caimem L.
dorathaigh E. Gaedel L.
766
1767
doaiselbad L.
rotaiselbao do E.
Goedelg 7 Goedil L.
i8
]7 9
dia hanmaim-sein L. E.
friu E. adds
dofuc, Scota L.
770
mo-iso?
c f. Stokes,
ainmniugud, na fir L.
Goidelica, 72-4
771
Do fir a selbad ilair L.

1731

E.
pndi ailigtin

anmanna

sin,

17 70

Na

nr>

"

>4

"

1775

THE PRIMER
a certain animal lair that dwells

on the seashore

named Molossus, and whosoever


him

to

animal,

is

137

sees

the

lair

[in litore]

of

that

revealed knowledge without study.

revealing wisdom and


knowledge for anyone to see that lair, so the knowledge
and sight of letters is a way for revealing knowledge

Therefore

as

to him, so

that

name

the

is

it

for

way

on that account the name


the

of

lair

animal

the

of

littera

from

aforesaid

is

every place where it occurs. Or


applied to letter
littera is
from litura, rubbing, i.e., from the smearing,
in

from the rubbing which the ancients used to apply


to the waxen tablets, for thereon they (the letters) were
i.e.,

i.e.,

by them.

written

first

way

Or

/if era,

i.e.,

path of reading,

of reading.

Of the origins
The beginning

of the declensions here below.

of

letters,

verse-feet,

declensions,

accents, intervals, genders, and comparisons as they were


established by poets of the same school in which they

and

dwelt,

by Fenius

Farsaidh after the selection of

Hence it was attributed


he that desired
it was

Gaelic out of the 72 languages.


to Goedel son of Angen, for
the

selection

was more

of Gaelic, to

beautiful

wit,

the one

language that

and excellent than any language,


it used to serve, and therefore it

so that for this reason

was

Gaelic and the

attributed, so that hence

Xel, or Nin, son of Fenius

named.

Scota, daughter of Pharaoh, so that

it

it is

Gael are

was who married

from her name they

are called Scots.

Fer

its

Fir

its

Do

fer

In fer

nominative sing.

Fir

its

possessive sing.

Na

fer

its
its

fhir

fir its

Og

its

dative sing.

its possessive plur.


feraibh its dative plur.

accusative sing.

lima firu

vocative sing.

A fhiru

ablative sing.

fir its

Do

nominative plur.

deposit! ve sing.

its

accusative plur.

vocative plur.
feraibh its ablative plur.
its

Oc feraib

its

deposit! ve plur.

I3 8

Co

AURAICEPT

BB. 330041

fer a

ascnam uathaid.

E. 28/3 24

Co feraib (no co firu) a ascnam

Sech fer a shechmall uathaid.

Sech

feraib

seachmall

Tre fer a thregdad uathaid.

sech

(no

ilair.

flru)

ilair.

Tre feraib (no tre

firu) a

thregdad 1780

ilair.

fer a inotacht uathaid.

I flru (no

I fir

a aitreb uathaid.

I flru (no

For

fer a fhortud uathaid.

For

flru

a feraib) a inotacht ilair.


a feraib) a aitreb ilair.

no for feraib a fhortud

1785

ilair.

Fo

fhir a fhotudh uathaid

Tar fer a

Fo fhiru no

ilair.

Tar

thairrsci uathaid.

fo feraib a fhotud

no tar feraib a

flru

ilair.

tharrsci

ilair.

Ar

fir

Ar

a fhrescbail uathaid.

firu

no ar feraib a fhrescbail

1790

ilair.

Pri fer a fhreslighi uathaid.

Pri

Peron a formoladh.
Peer a mhallrughudh.

Fer a chodad.

Ser a chendfhochrus

Pel a chendfhochrus deidh.

flri

no

fri

feraibh a fhreslighi

ilair.

Refer a delidhmi.

tuis.

Ni airghear a dhiabhul

-i-

1795

Firini a ludhughudh.

ferfer.

Sofer a shaerughudh.
Ni airecar a urard -i- fera.

Dofer a dhasrughudh.
Peraib a aurisel.

.fiVforsna firu J fona firu <?/tresna


firu et isna firu et seach na
firu (col.

E,

es, in, co,

(8)

1800
Pefrier a chonnail.

a lorga fuach.

tre,

sech fer a

tar,

dialt n-etai-leime.

Pe

Pertot a thelgad noe.

Ni

airicar (a) arichill fuit

no

dechnead, Pe a dichneadh.

onnar a urlunn

Ceand
fiacail

cridi fulang

illraig

E.

1794

deilidnim (?) E.
17%
b^rfer, firim- E.
1808

a deimhi E.

feir a airchill fuit,

Ise, issi,

issed

Perr a 1805

uinnse, unnse,

indsci.

lanamain

1792

a airchill calaid.

in

a^ihe demi tebidhi


chiwd.

17!

Srebann

cru

Suil /

lanamain

cotut E.

171(3

ceimfocrus

1799

forna E.

1809

in fhir.

tar,

deid E.
1804

thshelgad B.

THE PRIMER
Co

fer

Co feraib

advancive sing.

its

139
(or co firu) its

advancive

plur.

Sech fer

its

Sech feraib (or sech

neglective sing.

firu) its

neglec

tive plur.

Tre fer

its

Tre feraib

perforative sing.

(or tre firu) its perfora

tive plur.
I

fer

its

flru

ingressive sing.

a feraib)

(or

its

ingressive

plur.
I fir its locative sing.

I firu (or

For

For

fer

attestive sing.

its

a feraib)

its

locative plur.

firu (or for feraib)

its attest! ve

plur.

Po

fhir

Po fhiru

fundative sing.

its

(or fo fheraib) its

funda

tive plur.

Tar fer

its

Tar

trespassive sing.

firu (or tar

feraib)

its

tres

passive plur.

Ar

Ar

ascensive sing.

fir its

firu (or ar feraib)

its

ascensive

plur.

Pri fer

Fri firu (orfri feraib)

desidative sing.

its

its

desidative

plur.

Feron
Peer
Ser

its

its

its

Ferfer

Fer

hyperbole.

change of
its

its

Refer

retarding.

Pel

initial.

reduplication,

is

inversion.

change of final.

its

Pirine

not

hardening.

its

diminutive.

its

found.

Sofer

its

Pera its

Dofer

ennobling.

exaltation,

And, on, neath, through,


past the men,

its

its

Peraib

not found.

is

in,

Fefrier

across,

its

internal division.

through,

of, in, to,

past

humiliation.

staves of

words.

From, out

enslaving.

its

man,

its

interloping syllable.

Fertot

its

Its theft

Perr

its

Fe

man-throwing.
of a long

doubling a

is

Fe

final.

Jse, etc., he, she,

Head, heart

it, its

cbi\stjtiitflt3g

Eye and
Membrane and gore

attributes.

its

not found, or feir

the

its

theft of a hard.
is its

theft of a long.

losing a

final.

prefix of gender.

man s ls^

neuter selected

couple of the
the couple of the heart.
tooth

the

head.

(The

AURAICEPT

BB. 330/37

(lanamain in sreb#/w
ruaidi

i-

-i-

in

bai;/e

.28/33*

lanamain

7 glaiss,

cridi.

ind fhulaing.

in chru 1810

traigb lanamain

Lurgu
Gene dno na lanamnaide deme

J d^rgi)

-i-

ebrachtur

abhrochtur (no unearned} / malu, lanamain (no gene)


Bun J lethet lanamain (no gene) na fiacal.
sula.
Croiceann 7 feich lanamain (no gene) na lurgan. Lith 7 1815
tond lanamain (-i- gene) na traiged. Alailiu dano, it e gene
i-

na

na lanamaide demi a forbhthi, air it hi


gein forcomeda J gein daghchometa

Gem

iorcQmeta cetamus,

ttt

est,

tri

gne dochuisnet

[7]

gein fricoiw/tf.

ailmne for gluw, i;;/mta

annuas ata gai ind [fhjir forsail 7 is leis 1820


fochetoir geindir as do beolaibh
fut 7
nn-airdi.
Dinin
disail biit amal rogabh fuil arrad feola
is isin feoil.
Is
samlaidh, ar

is fair

~]

amlaidh dinin dishail co ngaib lasin focul o thosuch gu


dereadh gan urgabail ga;/ airditin. Arnin amal roghabh

cnaim mullaich
genat lasin

leicni

du/>/e

fochetoir, uair fo cosmaillius alta duini

doniter alta huadh.

Ni taidbet dno

fochetoir forsa tochradar co

Ferdialt

gu

na hai nad 1825

cnuicc 7 find, 7

mbi

fo

int airnin lasin focul

deoidh arding in

Bean.

(Incipit bandialt.)

mna.

1830

na mban.

o mnai (no o bein).


o mnaibh.

tria

do

oc mnai.

mnai.

mnaa

bein.

mbein (no
inna mna.

mnaa
mnai.

for mnai.

mna

for

co

(no oc mnaib).

(no co mnaib).

sech mnai.

a mna.

sech

Origg.

xi. i,

76-7

IV- T

mna

oc

a bean.

"

mnai.

tri

in mnai). co

do mnaibh.
in

focul.

sin.

mnaa

Origg.
1S15

Origg. xi. i, 42
domiditer E.

^M
iwo-32

(no sech

xi. i,

no leathar

Margin B.

(no mnaib).

mnaa

[aib).

tar mnai.

mna-

tar

1835
(no mnaib).

mnaa (no

"la,

115

n _ de

^^

tond T.

(no mnaib,.

mnaib).

oi.

isind fheoil T.

In tiasga do bandialt andso

c f. Stokes, Goidelica, p.

74

si?

T.

THE PRIMER

141

the
couple of the udder, that is, >Hk -arrd streamlet
and
redness
that
the
of
is,
crimson.)
Leg
gore,
couple
and foot the couple of support-ing.
A-pai*, too, of the
:

correlated

neuter, that

abhrochtur, upper

eyelashes

is,

and eyebrow,

(or imcainead, treating

eyebrow

ciliously) couple or -paif- of the eyes.

i.e.,

super

Root and breadth,


Skin and sinew the

the couple or pair of the teeth.


Activity and
couple or pair of the shins.

surface

the

In another respect, too,


couple, i.e., pair of the feet.
of
correlated
the
are
the
these
neuter, its accents,
pairs
for there are three -ktntrs that are in

existence, one

for

warding upon, one for good warding, and one for warding
Gein forcointta, for warding upon, first, ut est,
against.
ailnme for glun, cap on knee, similarly, for on it from
above stands the spear of the true forsail, and it is there
with at once it is produced out of thy lips in length and in

Dinin

loudness.

blood, which

the

It

flesh.

from

beginning

stretching
leicni

in use as, for example, fuil


with
feoil flesh, and blood which is in
along
is thus that dinin disail permeates the word

disail are

is

it.

to

end

without

Arnin such

as

ness of a

man s

man

it,

without

cnaiui mullaich top bone,

jaw-bones, cnuicc knuckles,

that do not originate with

arresting

at

and find hair, and those


first, for under the like

limbs are limbs of science made.

Now the

arnin does not at once appear with the word on which


falls so that it is at the end that it compresses the word.
Masculine declension thus far.
Incipit feminine declension.

woman.
women.
to a woman.
to women.
the woman.
the women.
O woman.
O women.
of a

of the

from a woman.
from women.
with a woman.

Woman.
through a woman.
through women,
in a woman,

with women.

in

unto a woman.
unto women.

on a woman,
on women.

woman.
women.

it

women,

past a

over a woman.

past

over women.

AURAICEPT

BB. 330/330

142

.28/351

ciasberat araili

benine a lugudud.

Ian.

soben a saerugud.

Mna

aurard (no

ni airicair a

n-iltir

bhi

ni

nach Ian ina dhiabul.

oen.

doben a daerugud,

1840

-i-

benben.

befrien a chondail.

benna).

a Ian.

ni airecair a dhiabul

been a mallrugud.
neb a delidind.

ben a
ben a

mna

no

benon a formoladh.
ben a codut.

nn-uathad

Ni airecar a

aurard.

1845

airisel

-i-

-i-

mna

sech na

a
Forsna, / fona, triasna, isna,
(benaibh).
a
dialt
n-etarlemi.
is
ben
fuach
for,
do,
sech,
in,
o,
lorga
:

Be

Bentot a thelgud noe.


airicill fuit no ni airicar

Benn

airicil

airichil

(-i-

fuit).

Bel a cennfochrus.

Be a dichneadh.

a deichneadh.

Ni bhi a 1850

calaid.

Cich J S^ un a

ndemi thepide,

fair 7 sridit

a llanamnai

Almnae

ecsait

lanamnai

No

he a ngene a forbthe 1855

ngeni-side.

Cnaim

~j

a ngeni-side.

feoil

hit

blass 7 millsi

in

gluiwi.

amal rom-ebhartmar.
Bandialt conigi sin.
Incipit do deim-dialt andseo

Nem.

Nemon

sis.

Nime

formolad.

Neem

a cotut.

I860

mallrugud.
nem.

na nime.

oc nim.

tre

do nim.
do nimib.

oc nimibh.

tria

co nem.

for

nime.

nem.

nime

for

n-nem.

nem.

a n-nem.

co nime.

n-nime.

tar

inn nime.

sech nem.

n-nim.

tar nime.

o nim, o nimib.

sech nime.

n-nimib.

fo

Nefriem a

chormail.

Nem a

a lugugud (no a diab/).

Nem

oen.

Ni

fail

1842

cia asberat E.

184G

aurard (! mna) E.

1848

triana E.

183:!

et irridit, blaiss

1856

remhebatmar E.

1867

chomail B.

condail E.

E.

nim,

a Ian.

nimib.

saerugud, nach

1847

mna

]s53

canaim B.

cf. Stokes, Goidelica,


a diabulugW, fil E.

1865

(331)

fo

Ni airecar

(-i-

1859 - 78
18li8

(no

nimib).

p.

bene) E.

74

THE PRIMER
benon
ben

been

neb

its

its

hyperbole.

hardening.

its

befrien

mna

its

reduplication, to wit, ben-

ben

its

ben

its full.

is

unity.

its

not found,

is

that there

not any Ian in

its

re-

duplication.

bemne

enslaving

singular, that

its full.

Though some say

internal division.

its

ben

doben

or

retarding.

inversion.

its

143

is,

its

its

exaltation

is

Mna

benna).

Its humiliation, to wit,

diminutive.

its

soben

ennobling.

not found (or in the

in the plural its exaltation.

benaib

is

past the

not found.

On, under,

women,
from, to,
lorga fuach
past, on, in, tis woman, its interloping syllable. Bentot
Be its theft of a hard. Its airichill fuit
its man-throwing.

through,

in,

does not exist, or

change of
losing a final.

airicil

Benn

final.

its

its

is

fuit}

(i.e.,

its

not found.

doubling a

Bel

Be

final.

its

Pap and knee their selected neuter, fair


bearing, and sridit the passage of milk from the breast,
their couple
taste and sweetness, their pair.
Cap and
;

hollow of knee, the couple of the knee. Bone and flesh


their pair.
Or these are their pair, their accents, as

we have

said.

Feminine declension thus

far.

Incipit neuter declension here below.


Nem heaven. Nemon its hyperbole.
ing.

Neem

its

Nime

its

harden

retarding.

of the heaven.

at heaven.

through heaven.

on heaven,

to heaven.

at heavens.

through heavens.

on heavens,

to heavens.

unto heaven.

into heaven.

over heaven,

the heaven.

unto heavens.

into heavens.

over heavens,

the heavens.

past heaven.

in

heaven.

under heaven,

from heaven.

past heavens.

in

heavens.

under heavens,

from heavens.

Nefriem
full.

Its

its

internal division.

diminutive

is

Nem

not found, nor

its
its

unity.

Nem

reduplication.

its

Its

BB. 331 a

144

AURAICEPT

.29 a 12

Nimib a airisel. Forsna, fona,


daerugud, nach a aurard.
a
sechna
lorga fuach o, do, in, co, es, 1870
tresna, isna,
nime,
Ni fognse
fo, for, [d]e, sech na nime a dhialt n-etarleme.
:

Ne

a thelgudh noe.

nem

no

usce,

airichill

Ne

(-i-

airichill

nathrach, ul

calaidh) ut

(-i-

est,

Ised,

ise

isi,

Ni

bi

Nemm a deichnead.

Nel a chennfochrus.

fuit).

a dichneadh.

neui ind

est,

new im thalmain.

ondar, uinnsi, unnse a 1S75

erlonn indsci. [Ni] airecar a deimi tepidhi, ar is deiminsci


fadhesin.
Nel / tuagh nimi a lanamnai demi dath J
:

airdi a ngeni-sen

Nemdialt co

A
do

foxlaid

sin.

fer.

for

fer.

in

fir.

thogairm

fuirmid oc [fhjiur.

fir.

fhothudh

shelbad

fer.

fhear

sechmall sech

inotacht hi

fer.

inchosc

o fhiur.

co fear.

he a fuirbhthi a ngeni.

it

ainmniugud

fhiur.

no

aitreibh hi fhir.

fo

fhiur.

rath 1880

fir.

ascnam

threghdad tre
A fhorthudh

tharrsce

tar fear 1885

A airchelladh ar fer. A frecnarc


fresghabail ar flur.
A imthimcheall im fear. A dighbhail di fhiur.
cia fer.
A

Doformaighet
i-

den

acht

fir

alaile

dano

/ a thuarascbail

inunn a dhighbhail

is

thuarascbhail

inchosc

tri frisna hii sin

-i-

a dighbhail

in fer; J a tustidi in fir:

a fhoxlaidh

is

inund

inund a 1890

is

thuistiudh / a

shelbhad.
Incipit

do ernailibh

Atat da aithfeghad
n-inni
bith.

thoirni 7

in

imchomairc

for

imchomarc

Atat ceithre

in so

imchomarc
iar

ernaili fair

-i-

-i-

sis.

irachomarc iar

n-airbhirt nan-airbirenn 1895

meit / inni

J inchosc /

1872 in
18
tuf- E. : tus- B.
e E.
tuad E.
ISTS d
a t n i airdidi, a ngeni-si, a ngeine E. : a ngeine side T.
1882
1886
1880-9-2
c f. Stokes, Goidelica, p. 74, 5
E.
lairecar B.
im frisna hai sin E. fuirmtigh 18W tindtudh, Fin it E.
is*
E. : in B.

1871

im

1S93
Based on Gr. Lat. iii. 459-515. L. ow.
nonnairbirend T.
Connor s poem, partly illegible here, but
After fiiiit (1892) E. gives Thomas
Molloy Gr. xiii. pp. 137-9, beginning:
printed in
Beithi senar dom laim dels,
Is luis dis, co conndeices,

1893-iws

Fern

triur, sail cethrur,

Ocus nin cona cuiger

gan

col

THE PRIMER
not

does

ennobling

Nimib

exaltation.

nor

exist,

is its

145

enslaving, nor

its

humiliation.

its

On, under, through,

its staves of words


from,
in, past the heavens,
the
heavens, its
unto, out of, under, on, of, past

to,

in,

inter

Ne its
Its man-throwing may not serve.
loping syllable.
or
the
of
nem
ut
of
a
theft
water,
est,
poison of
hard,
a serpent, ut

There

nemm

final,

its

found,

bow

final,

for

is

it

heaven

of

ne

its

height their pair, or

its
is

it

earth.

change

losing a

its

prefix of gender.

its

it,

Nel

fuif).

(i.e.,

doubling of

not

is

Cloud and

and

airichill

he, she,

Ised, etc.,

neuter

nem im thalmain heaven about

cst,

no

is

of

final.

Its selected

neuter

itself

gender.
neuter couple: colour
their accents that are

their pair.

Neuter declension thus


nominative

Its

do

fhiur.

Its

advancive

co

accusative
fhiur.

Its

fear.

Its

fir.

possessive

in

ablative

Its

far.

Its

fer.

oc

depositive

neglcctive

dative

Its

vocative a fhir.

Its

fer.

sech

fiur.

Its

fear.

Its

Its locative
Its ingressive hi fir.
perforative tre fer.
Its fundative fo fhiur.
hi fhir.
Its attestive for fer.
Its

tar fear.

trespassive

im

Now
its
its
is

fear.

privative

the

same

same
as

its

is

as

fiur.

Its

circum-

Its

Its privative di fiur.

others add three to these,

descriptive

ar

ascensive

Its interrogative cia fer.

defensive ar fer.

dative

Its

in

fer;

and

the same as
its

accusative

its

its
;

its

parentative in
ablative;

and

its

den

fir;

flr

but

privative

its

descriptive

parentative

is

the

possessive.

Incipit to the divisions of analysis

There are two views of


ing to the

meaning
method which it uses.

size, quality,

it

is

analysis, that

this below.
is,

analysis accord

denotes and analysis according to the

There are four divisions of

denotation, and accent.

it,

to wit,

Analysis according

AURAICEPT

BB. 331 a 28

Imcomarc

aicnead.

iar n-inni

thoirw

E. 29 a 45

Atat ocht fothoir;/^

primthoirnde na n-ocht fothoir;^. It he gabair


primthoiiW* conid ocht primthoir/^ samlaid,

fair / cethri

fona

iv

cenmota comacomul
GOTs\acomnl

ceilli

folaidh

airmhi

adasramed

ceneoil

laighet bis isin focul.

maithiusa bis fond


indsci, in indsci

no

indsci

no

in

mitricis in

Maso
lasin

Masa rann

nutrix

-i-

Laitneoir, int

ferdha, ut

indsci
uile

gne

dochuisin dar beolu nduine

is

-i-

pater

indsci dimbeoaighthi,

lasin Laitneoir, int uile

is

7 res 7 rece.

athair

-i-

athair doib

is

n-uili

dhula.

/// est,

caelinn

Is inni in

ceithreamad

[I]ssi in [res in]

In fhoihorattd

fothorand.

pater

-\-

uili

-i-

Maso 1915
neam

gn neoturda dochuisin dar beolo

nim ainmnigter.

\acf\aiste J tres diall J

est,

mascz/// 7 femin 7 neodair

Dia Uilichumhachtach, Athair na

nduine

-i-

uili

ferindsci

dhemindsci

Maso banmuimech lasin

deim indsci.

in

est^

indsci cate

indsci coich in indsci, in

gne fem/;/da dachuisin dar beolo duine 1910


cenel sin, ar is nntrix is bhuimeach doaib uili.

Laitneoir, int
is

baninndsci no

in

inchosc co fester coich 1905

indsci.

Maso

indsci banda, ut

-i-

in

fester

diall J

cetna diall 7 diall


cuiced diall J ran;/

primthor<7;/c/.

sew, atat cethri

Is

in rece in 1920

ranna

fuirri

-i-

seacht n-airm 7 seacht n-acenta 7 secht ndescena a dheiscin


iar ceill J iar (col. /3) ceniul J iar nguth 7 iar mbreithir 7 i
1897
1900
1901

1903

1898
aicne, toirne, fothoirne T.
comfhocul (no comaccomul) E.

Na hocht T.

cin<?/T.
cowzmocl, gn- B.
gene E.
adasramed E. Gr. Lat. iii. 465, 32
:

1902

18yy

umna

T.

Is e int aicne

T.

fothoir-B.

cobhfhillte T.

folu, aigenta.

ataraimhet T.

1907

Et masat T.

Origg. viii. 1 1, 6l. muimmech B.


n t uile gcenelE.: chinel T. 1911 Gr. Lat. iii. 494, 26
191C
19i7
i .ii4
p a truig T. Gr. Lat. iii. 506, 7
gn^ it uile B.
dimbeodaigthe E.
1920
J s
in reis an primthorund.
Is i in rece in fothorund.
ran(j 7 re s -j rece
In fothoruind hi sin T.
primtoraind isin inrecce ind fhothor E. primthoir- B.
192
1920-5
fh e \\hole passage is corrupt
n-airmhe, deicsina T.
1923
iar ngn- E.
cineol T.
gn- B.
1908

ly09

masa ban T.

mo, ia,

17

1900

hisin

no

rann

in

aicned

int

met no

met co
Is e int

focul.

an ma

cuirp

Is

-i-

in inni co fester in inni uilc

in
Is

defir eter raind 7 indsci.

ferindsci

cetfaidhi

aicenta.

J
Is

uili.

comfhilltighe J comshuidhigthe

THE PRIMER
which

to the quality

ordinate parts in

it

signifies

147

There are eight sub

and four primary parts of the eight


These are included under the four

it,

subordinate parts.

primary

parts, so that thus there are eight

besides

conjunction,

and

derivatives,

and

wit, conjunction of sense

primary parts,

compounds,

to

species, perceptions of body,

number, and accent. That is the accent


That is the size,
in which they have all been reckoned.
that the size or smallness which is in the word might be
soul, substance,

That is the quality, that it might be known whether

known.

a quality of evil or good that underlies the word.


That is the denotation, that it might be known of what
it

is

innsce

whether gender or part of speech. If it be a


is the difference between part and

it is,

part of speech, what

be gender, what is the gender? masculine,


If it be feminine gender,
feminine, or neuter gender?
to wit,
female gender, ut est, nutrix, nurse, with
If

speech.

it

the Latinist, the whole female species that passes over


genus belongs to nutrix, for nutrix
lips, that

human

nurse

is

that

them

to

male

is,

If

all.

ut

gender,

be

it

est,

masculine
father,

pater,

gender,
with the

the whole species of masculine, feminine, and


human lips, it is pater that is

Latinist,

neuter that passes over


father

human
and
the

gender,
the whole
lips

first,

rann,
first

numbers,

is

Almighty God, Father of

is,

be

it

neuter

gender, that is,


with
the
heaven,

caeluni,

est,

neuter

named

passes over
heaven.
Quality-

that

species

from

new,

second, third, fourth, and


verse,

division.

subdivision

aspects

that
If

ut

Latinist,

the

all,

elements.

lifeless

is

them

to

the

all

there

seven
according

and

res,

tale(?),

Rece

is

are

four

accents,
to

the

declensions,

Res

rece.

In

subdivision.
parts,

and

sense,

fifth

and
to

seven
species,

wit,

that

seven

aspects,
voice,

is

its

verb

BB. 331

148

labradh.

/s

AURAICEPT

do comachomol

Is

labartha asait ernaili

in

gotha
imchomairc.

E. 29

na breithri

/s

sin 7

1925
Finit.

Trefocul in so amal rocumsat na baird 7 na patreni

-i-

Cen comman.
trefocul cen
dona 1930
dallbhach
Cen comsiudh. Cen dichur n-ecoir. Cen
Cen ellach duna ellgib. Cenmota oenellar//.
dallbaig/A
Cen tar. Cen tamall. Cen fai(@ co cuibdius. Cen faicty
cen chuibdzus. Cen a focul frisin n-aprait fil/tf frisuithi.
Cen imsechfaidh indsci. Cen asneis for araile. Cen ecuac/i.
Cen ae tor 1935
Cen ecnuadh. Cen scath dofarce cuitbiud.
cuail

cnam.

Cen

craip cainti.

Cen saebsuidhiugud dialt ic frecra d iarcomruc nConach in ceath^rcubhaidh cummait baird.


Cona friortud tecta forna focla masa oe congabhthar amal
i

an-se.

urd bairdni.

asbert

Trefocul tachraid

filzV/.

cen chlaen, cen rudraigh, cen 1940


cen ecnairc fri
rofot, cen rogair, cen dimbrigh, cen forbrigh,
cen ec[om]uaim,
ir&gnairc, cen uathad fri ilar, cen ecenel,

No (mar

so) ita trefocul

da locht deg na hirlabra in sin.


Dia nditen-sidhe cethri cenela fichet-i- co[r]raib ann a

cen ecuibdius, cen anocht

-i-

formoladh, a codut, a mallrugud, a diabul, a

deilide;/, a oen,

1945

a Ian, a lugugv/d, a saerughudh, a daerugud, a aurard, a


a chonnail, a chendairisel, a dhichneadh, a dhoichnead,
a thelgudh noe, a
fochrus, a airchill fuit, a airchill calaid,

urlonn insce, a hinsce mod, a lanamna deimi, a demi thepco tomus fri fidh 1950
idhe, a ngen-side, co ndath 7 tothucht,
da bhreithre 7 in da urlabrad T.
imcomraic E. T. ends with a poem of which the
Origg. iu 18
second line is ac fiadn- ni himurscel.
1928
Trefocul tacraid filid andso sis rocumsat E.
cual Clntl
1923-40 Arc h. C. P. iii.
cf. Origg. ii. 17
_
293
iy;il
i*
heillgib E.
hellgib L.
comsiniu-J E.
cellgib B.
19:!4
1932
imsechbaid, ecnach E.
faicit
aicitcen E.
1924
1925

7 in

cf.

co,

1935

casn saebuidigud E.
dofairce E.
forthudh h.
aichni cet[h];u cuala i cumnit E.
a andso indsm E.
1942 ecomud E.
cloen, rudrach, roat E.
l!t47
1945 deibide E.
dochned, condail E.
corab and E.
lu5
a ngen-side contath -i- tothocht E.
mo d

* Cona
1944

i9i9

"

THE PRIMER

149

and language. It is for conjunction of the voice, and that


word, and language that the divisions of analysis grow.
Finit.

This

trefocul as the bards

is

devised

it,

to

wit,

and the patreni


a

without

trefoail,

(?)

have

heap of bones,

without cramping of diction, without plagiarism, without


sameness, without banishing ornament, without one of the

one of the

dallbach, without

save a single ellach Y

ellach,

without disgrace, without pause, without rhyming accident,


without unrhyming accident, without 4keir word which
poets

wthot^^guia4i_repetitioi^ ^rf -diction,

call frisuithi)

without narrative on another subject, without blasphemy,


without detraction, without a word that exceeds derision,
without metre (ae) on non-metre (au-ae), without wrongly
placing single syllables to answer as a trisyllabic word in
the use of bard measure, so that there be not the four-

rhyming quatrain which bards compose, so that there be


no violation of law upon the words if it be a measure that
is

Trefocul poets plead.


kept up, as he said
Or Trefocul is without wrongness, without too
:

many

rhymes, without an over-long, without an over-short, with


out want of emphasis, without over-emphasis, without an
absent to a present, without asingular to a plural, without false
gender, without false alliteration, without false rhyme, with
out error, to wit, those are the twelve faults of composition.
To guard against these are 24 kinds, to wit, corraib
there:

its

hyperbole,
its

reduplication,

diminutive,
its
its

its

humiliation,
internal

theft

of

its

prefix of gender,

losing

its

of

mod

retarding,
its

singleness,

enslaving,
final, its

change of

its

theft

its

its

ennobling,
its

its

hardening,

inversion,

division,

long,

its

hard,

speech,

its

full,

its

exaltation,

doubling a

initial

its

or

final,

final,

its

its

man-throwing,

its

its

neuter couples,

its

selected neuters, their pairs, with colour

and properties,

(Uv\t,

(r.

150

AURAICEPT

BB. 331^26

.29/324

reim 7 forbad, alt 7 insci 7 etargoire ar each cenel


labartha dotuisim ar beolu duine [dohuisimar L.], ar is a
dealt domiter recomhrac, a recomrac domiter iarcomrac, a
7 dech,

hiarcomrac dno

feles,

a feles domiter claenre, a claenre domiter

domiter

luibenchosach

luibenchosach,

daidemnas domiter

bricht

claidemfto?,

a 1955

arcomititer alta uad frihaltaib

in duine, ar ita coic alta sescat ar tri cet in duine, a coic

sescat ar

tri

cet aisti archetezl, 7 coic laithi sescat ar

isin bliadain 7

a coic sescat ar

conastacmai#g tlacht
Trefocul tacrait

tri

cet

du luibibtre thalmain

cet

tri

in trefocuil de quibus dicitur :

1960

filid.

Trefocul tacrait filid


Do didin a n-indligid,

Ni mo na lucht cuibrind clan*/


Di neoch tuirmim notuigeand.

1965

Sceith ecus gnuisi glana


Aincit lochta linmara,

Immar roscum Adna

ogh,

Ni tarba gen a tintodh.

Da

anocht deg

derb libh

is

1970

na filid;
main nocho n-fuair Etai#,

Dlegait a

fis

Rofuaigh aib inn

aircetail.

Da

sciath dec is da ghnuis deg


Roordaigh dia n-imchoimet
Na lochta cen lomrim lac,
Da da comlin noscobrat.

Na

1975

gnuisi diten aiber


is sen nach aimger,

Cotut

Saerugud dasrugud des,

Na

lorga fuach fria firmhes.

1951

etargairi cen 7 cew a lus labartha E.

1952

dohuisin dar L.

douisiumar

air

19oa

E.

i95-60

recomarc E.

Of the 613 Jewish precepts 365 are negative, which Rabbinical


anatomy declares to be the number of the sinews veins or small vessels in
the human body.
They equal the days in the solar year and are governed by
365 angels.
1957

The Zohar,

Ir. Texte,

iii.

v.

66, 8

the Jewish Encycl.

i.

565

980

THE PRIMER
with

measure

as

regards

151

verse-foot,

letter,

and comparison
produced on human lips

for

accent, interval, gender,

of speech that

is

for

and

every sort
it is from

estimated, from dissyllable that


estimated, from trisyllable in turn quadri

syllable that dissyllable


is

trisyllable

run,

is

is estimated, from
syllable, from quadrisyllable pentasyllable
from
hexasyllable
pentasyllable hexasyllable is estimated,
is

heptasyllable

estimated

is

estimated, from heptasyllable octosyllable


the limbs of science are equal to the

for

limbs of man, for there are 365 limbs of man, 365 measures
of poetry, 365 days in the year, and 365 herbs through the
earth, so that the ^fotection of the Trefocul encompasses

them, de quibus dicitur :


Trcfociil poets plead.

Trefocul which poets plead


To defend their lawlessness,
Is no more than a burden of a children

From something,
Shields

Ward
As

part

reckon, which they understand.

and pure countenances

off

many blemishes
Adna has devised them,

perfect

It is

no

Twelve

The

profit

not to turn them.

"errors,"

poets must

it is

clear to you,

know them

Etain has found no profit of them,


She has woven the beauty of poetry.

Twelve shields and twelve countenances


She has appointed to guard oneself against them,
The blemishes without a weak bare rhyme,
They succour them with double their number.

The countenances
Hardening and
"

"

of defence which
"

"

Right

The
"

;1

Origg.
l!

"

"

ii.

"

singular

shall mention,

that are not unsharp,

"

ennobling,"

enslaving,"

staves of words

"

measurement.

for true

l%:i

17

d imditen H. L.

Ni mo na E. cuibrim B. cuibriwd L. (cniind) E.


H 7
no tucand L. nos-tuigind E.
lochtu L.
TEadain L. E.
:miair roscum Agna og E.
:

"""

>

"

"

l!t;:i

"

Ros-fuaigh K.

*"

Saerfuidhir dacrfuidir deas E.

52

AURAICEPT

BB. 331/3 44

E.29:*42

Dialt n-eta.rleme n og,


Airichill fuit, is

fir

on,

Airichill calaid, ni cam,


Cendfochrus tuis ria thodall.

1985

dechnead tuis tair,


cona modhaib,
dara gnuis deg dil,
Is
Urlonn insci ria hairimh.

Dichnead

tuis,

Ins[c]e \\t\od L.|


i

Na

sceith ditin fon

Formolad

is

Fuaradar

Da

1990

domun

mallrugud,

senfilid sain

deilidin

is

condail.

A Ian ni Ian cen bunad


A diabul, a lugugud,
Memur

each sobard sen,

fri

fhorard, a fhoriseal.

Airmim telgud nre co nneim


Ocus cendfochmy derid,
Dichn^derid (332), is docair,
Declined deirid degfocazY.
Is iat sin

na da sciath deg,

Eolaig ica n-imcoimer,


Is na da gnuis deg rodet

Na

ceithri fodla fichet.

Na

filid

Ni

mum

na

fitir so,

fedm

eicsi forro.

Cindas fhailgit a n-ulcu


Cindas aincit anuchtu ?

2010

In n-aengnuis no [in] ensciath ard


leas ar each locht langarg,

No

in dias im each locht rolad


Ni de bias olc dia imrad.

rtirichill

E.

calaidh,

camm

E.

1!
L. sorbad B. *
Is i in L.
mod, Is iat E.
2004
joo-j-5
Follow 1989 E.
gnius B.
2010 In
oengnuis no censgiath L. E. densciath B.

1988

"-

r>

thadall L.
in

da L. E.

tadall E.

gnuis E.

THE PRIMER
"

Interloping

"

of

"Change

"Apocope

entire,

syllable"

Theft of a long
"Theft of a hard,"

"

it is

true,

it is

not wrong,

for its visitation.

initial"

of

with

of

"doubling

initial,"

"Mod speech"

153

its

initial"

in front,

modes,

a twelfth dear countenance,

It is

"Prefix

of

gender"

for reckoning

it.

The

shields of defence throughout the world

Are

"hyperbole"

and

"retarding,"

Ancient poets have found out those

Two
Its
Its

"metatheses"

is

"full"

"

Its

"

its "diminutive,"

"

humiliation."

"

man-throwing,"

"change

Apocope of

"Doubling

of

it is

final,"

of a

with venom,

final,"

final"

Those are the twelve

The

bard

to each noble old

exaltation," its

reckon

And

"internal division."

without foundation,

full

"reduplication,"

A memory

not

and

troublesome,
good word.

of a

shields,

And

learned are in the habit of observing them,


the twelve countenances which have been granted,

The

four

The

poets that do not

and twenty

divisions.

know

this,

No back to essay poetry is on them.


How can they conceal their wrongs?
How can they ward off errors
"

"?

Is

it

one countenance or one

lofty shield

Which saves from each blemish full rough,


Or the twain that are thrown around every blemish
Not thence, from considering it, will harm arise.
Jin:!

Re

n-aichni re n-imcomet

In tres rand re rein cen choll

A
-""

1J)1::

ted tall(?) in Trefocul.

Trefocul E.

ar each L. K,

Ni de L.

Xi deas,

re

imradh E.

BB. 332 a

154

AURAICEPT

E. 29/3 56

Cip he chanas cona cheill,


Tria intliucht n-amnas n-acbeil,

2015

Is duiligh is is docair
tuirim in Trefocail.

Trefocail.

Trefocul in tri focail,


Fis a ruine is rodocair,
Tricha ar a se cose

2020

Fritha tria gne nGaedilge.

Da

anocht ar a deich dib,

Ni cubaidh cen a comrim,


Nit carit a daini dam
Scarait maini for molad.

2025

Claen atberim dib ar tus,


Im eolach ina imthus :

Ni haenchloen acht it tri claein,


nach saercaem (each sasrchaem B. adds] each

2030

sasrlaid.

Claen creiti rochuala each,

Im
Re

rannaibh ni ba rognath,
each duilghiusa de,

taeb

Claen cuibdiusa, clasn

ceille.

2035

Cleen crete ni clsen cen cheass,


Is at deich millti milles,

Taibgit fiach in molta amaig,


Da sciath corcra na chomair.
}

In clasn cuibdiusa

is cubaidh,
gnuis riasan gliaphudair,
Ocus da sciath na ndegaid,
Nocho liach a llandegail.

Da

2040

Da
Is

sciath, da gnuis in gelli,


ed ainces clasn ceilli
;

Cobigi celli, gan col,


Is email di anace>l.

-*

15

ai -J4
3088

int intlecht

caraid L.

-)(r- 1

L.

-*

carait E.

L. Ni oenclaen acht

it tri

-7

tre

Am

2045

gne E.
Imeolach
L.

cloin B.

Ni

- --

da octorE.
na n-imtus E.
l>

me

haenclsen acht a[t]

tri

clain E.

THE PRIMER

155

Whoever he be that sings with his understanding,


Through his intellect rough and dangerous,
It is difficult

To

and

troublesome

it is

take account of the Trefocul.

Trefocul.

Trefocul the three words

A knowledge of its

secret

is

very hard,

Thirty-six up to this point

Are found through

its

species of Gaelic.

Twelve errors of them,


It is no rhyme without their common metrics,
No friends to me, O men, are they
Who separate rewards from praise.
"

A wrong
I

am

It is

"

them

of

tell at

skilled respecting

not one wrong but

it

it is

From which every noble


Of

the outset,
:

lay

three wrongs,
is not nobly fair.

everyone has heard,


not be very usual,
Besides every difficulty therefrom,
A "wrong of rhyme," a "wrong of sense."
In

"

"

wrong of body

my

verses

it

"

will

Wrong of body

"

is

not a wrong without doubt,

ten injuries that it injures [works],


They levy a debt of praise outside,
It is

Two

purple shields over against

The

"wrong

Two
And

It is
"A

Is

"""^

-t

"

;;:1

rhyme,"

is

:;7

<2041

are

shields,

their full protection.

two countenances of the cheek,

that which protects


a wrong in
text of sense," without sin,
"

meaning

"

a species of protection.

nach saercam each saerlaid E.


Retaeb gan E. rotaeb B. rothseb L.
fiachu E.
gle pudair L.
na degaid L.
geilli E.
:

-"

fitting

countenances against the clear defect,


two shields behind them,

Not mean

Two

of

it.

-l

>n4

-"

"

l4 -

"

riasin

:;

nirbo E.
isa x.

E.

glanpudair E.
Uti
as E. dia L. E.
-"

BB. 332

156

AURAICEPT

a 22

Da

E. 30 a 7

email ainces rudrach,


in gres glephudrach,

Co nach be
Tri sceith,

tri

gnuisi,

gan

glor,

Aincit in ro[fh]at romor.

Cuic sceith, tri gnuisi, gan goimh,


Is ed ainces ar rogair
;

Oengnuis ainces dimbrig

dib,

Is aengnuis ainces forbrig.

diten, na ro-dairt,
Ainces egnairc fri frecnairc
Sciath maraen ocus gnuis glan
Aincit uathad fri hilar.

Oengnuis

Nai

sceith diten, co nduilgius,

uili ecuibdhius
Cia nach labair con a

Aincit

Ocus

Na

2060

luis,

no-ainic rengnuis.

tri

fri

gnuisi, gruaid

gruaid,

maith aincit ecowmuaiw


Ocus da sciath, ni seeb lib,
Is

Aincit eco;muai;# n-eitig.

Ecenel, nocho n-ord mear,

Non-anaig aengnuis diten


Anocht no-aincet da sciath,
;

beith ranocht

is

roliath.

Anocht ainm coitchend cubaid


Dolean do gach lanphudair
Int anocht, ni hainm cen cheass,
;

Cia ralocht dian ruidles.

Anocht mas ainm do each locht,


Cid dia n-aidera d oen[l]ocht ?
Uair nocho n-aenlocht ce;z on,
Is

-"

I4U

_iir>4

taebhnocht

J03

ainces L.

fairbrig E.

- 11 3

naron-dairt L.

diten L.

ditin B.

"

"

3lf>l

Trefocul.

Trefocul.

nocon he E.

-or*. 9
-"

gen duilges E.
L. gon o luis B.

"

-"

m
m

"*

cun a E.

rofhad L.
:

rofat F.

narond

dairt E.

aincid L.

ecuibdes E.
non-anaig L.

non-anaic E.

THE PRIMER
Two

157

kinds which defend too many rhymes,So that the work be not clearly blundering,
Three shields, three countenances, without noise
Defend the excessive overlong."
"

"

Five shields, three countenances, without anguish,


It is that which defends against "overshort"
;

One countenance

And

that wards off from

one countenance that wards off

One countenance
Which defends

"

you

want of emphasis,"

"

over-emphasis."

for defence, lest it cost us a heifer


absent to a present" ;

(?),

"an

shield also

Defend

"a

and a pure countenance

singular"

for

"a

plural."

Nine shields of defence, with


Defend all "false rhyme

difficulty,

;;

Though he does

not speak with his good


Seeing that one countenance defends it.

taste,

The

three countenances, cheek by cheek,


Well do they defend "false alliteration
And two shields, ye do not think it deceitful,
Defend hideous "false alliteration."
"

False gender," it is not a reckless i se,


\Vhich one guarding countenance defends
Two shields defend "error"
Lest it should be too bare and too grey.
"

Error a common harmonious name


Has clung to every complete blunder
The
is not a name without
ambiguity,
Though it is great blemish to which it is peculiar.
"

"

"error"

"

be a name for every blemish,


cleave to a single blemish ?
not one blemish, without fault,

Error" if it

Why
Since

That

"

;r

-"<"

17

~*

shall
it

is

is

it

naked sided

7 ix. L. K.

roliach L. E.

n-aidiera aenlocht L.

<

in

Trefocul E.

in Trefocul.

""

Trefocul.

non-aincet L.
radiles L.

Cid ma ndubrad

re

non-aincit E.

dia bo dileas E.

haenlocht E.

158

AURAICEPT

BB. 332 a 37
Sceith

Amal

is

Da

gnuisi fogeib daib

each n-anaebh

iccait

Dingbaid

E. 30 a 25

2080

din, nf socht solam,


1

locht co

Oenicc

fir

forme-lad

cen

ic catut,

Is oeni cc ic

col,

mallrugud

Ni gne mergnima midid,


Sei deigdina

2085,

delidnid.

ic

Aichnid dom anmain, cen


Se cabartha na con^ail,

Ar

ail,

asnlocht ainceas a h?en

Ocus a Ian co lanchasm.


Diabull dingbad din, gu da[/]th
Na tri lochta co lanmaith
Aincid, ni hole in monor,
;

Ar da

locht a lugugod.

Aincit ar da locht, gen log,

Sserugud is daerugud
da firlocht masead
A urard a uiriseal.
:

Aii,cit

Aincit lorga fuach a bos

Ar da

locht

gu

lanfhollus

2100

Dialt n-etarleimi n-oll


Icaid da anocht

acon.

thelgud nai, niamda a bhlas,


da anocht icas ;

Is ar

Airichill fuit

Ni dingaib

No

jtait,

jiw>

2087

jg

n-anaeib L.

oen ca
J

mjmai

^ monar

can cheass,
da ainges

2110

atchi cendfoc/trus.

a081

n-anaib E.

dind L. E.

solum L.

J?_

s e deigniwa
db;H

ar

dos-dfngaib gan tochrus

Amal

2081

2105

de,

acht deide.

airchill calaid,

Ron-anaig

soso

is ferr

dm

L. E.

ic

delidhnig L.
L.

Is

degsnima
2(J!I1

2094

is

deiligin E.

dingbaid dind E. gu daith L. E.


* lod E.
ludugad E.
:j

THE PRIMER
Shields and countenances

159

finds for

it

As they heal every unbeautiful thing


From us, it is not a sudden silence,
"

wards off two

"

Hyperbole

One remedy has


It is

not a kind of

to

"

mad

act

it

its

meditates,

"

internal

division,"

its "singleness"

defends

"

full

full

"Reduplication"

The

"metathesis."

Against one blemish which

And

sin,

"

retarding

mind, without reproach,

my

Six helps in their


"

without

hardening,"

has

Six good protections has

Known

faults truly.

"

And one remedy

them
;

gracefully.

wards

three blemishes

full

off

from

well

us,

with colour,

Defends, not ill is the work,


Against two blemishes its "diminutive."

Against two blemishes defend, without decay,


Ennobling and enslaving
Against two veritable blemishes defend indeed
"

"

"

"

Its

and

"exaltation"

Staves of words

"

"

"humiliation."

protect here below

Against two blemishes

full

"

plainly

Its "man-throwing,"

against two
Theft of long

It is
"

It

"

great interloping syllable


With us remedies two "errors.

"

beauteous

"errors"

it is

that

its taste,
it

the better of

heals

it,

does not ward off from us save two things


of

hard," without doubt,


us from two difficulties,
It wards it off, without winding up of yarn.
As it sees it, change of initial and final."

Its

"theft

Has saved

"

w*
"

jios

a urord B.

L. sealgad B.

*
i
-"*

fus L.

din

onn-anaig B.: ron-anaid E.


- 1W
Ocus dingbaid E.
r

L.

a conn L.

deighe B.
ances L.

-">

ainces E.

Airichill chalaid L.

160

BB. 332 a

AURAICEPT

51

E. 30 a 3 8

Dingbaid dichnead tri phudra (col.


D ar n-anochtaib anumla
O dechnead gan tromsnimh tra

Foirther in comlin cetna.

Innse

m^nocho mod

n-olc,

n-aiw/g acht asnlocht


Aurlond insci, ainm cubaid,
Ni ainic acht senphudhair.

Nocho

Is iat sin gnuisi is sceith,

D eicsib

nochon at anfheigh
Ni ma teit du rigi rand
Cach fili nachasforband.

ice

na da

fichet,

gan

ail,

Frith d fhoghlaib for anochtaib,

Adharta don righ

dos-rat,

Secht g[c]abartha cethr^chat.

Na

tancadar tall
Tuaith De Danann,
imda ollam ocaib

filid

Maraen

Rob

re

2130

Trefocul.

Ag

tolladh in Trefocuil.

Da

sciath ainces clpen creiti,

Uaim

sin rand-sa is rochreti,


Deilidi foclach fasbrach
Is deilidi s\\\(zbach.

2135

airchill fuit, is feidil,

Naroi cendfoctirus deiridh,

Codut mallrugud measa


Aincit in clten cuibdhiusa.

Aincit ar in clasn

ceilli

Lorga fuach, dialt deglemi,


Ocus cobfighe, cen col,
Is

2111
- 11

-1 -1
-

- iai

email dia n-anacol.

211:!
L. pura B.
awic ic stcr E.

do righi L.
d fodlaib L.

tromgnim L.
8

anaig L.
Cat ma E.
o foglaib E.

cabartha L. E.

~"

ceathrachat E.

am
>J1

Foirther L.
anfeich L.

fort/w;-

E.

foirid

nocho gatawd

- 122

na as forbawd E.

2125

2128

maraen

da

trian E.
la L.

B.

feich E.

THE PRIMER
"Losing

final"

wards

Of our disobedient

161

off three blunders,

"

errors,"

without heavy
By doubling a
The same equal number is assisted.
"

sorrow, too,

final,"

"

Mod speech,"

not an evil mode,

it is

Does not
"Prefix

protect but one blemish


of gender," harmonious name,

Does not

protect save one blunder.

These are countenances and

shield*,

To

sages they are not unsharp


Not well goes to stretch verses
Any poet that does not carry them out.
;

To pay the two score, without reproach,


Which are found of damages on blunders,
Worshippings to the King
Seven and forty helps.

The

poets that

Who

gave them,

came over

Along with the Tuath De Danann,


There was many an Ollave with them

Making

Two

holes in the Trefocul.

shields which defend

From me
"

in this verse

Metathesis

And
Its

"

it is

wrong of body,"

greatly to be believed,

of sharp-edged words
of syllables.

"metathesis"

"theft

of a

long,"

it

That there may not be

is

constant,

Defend the
Against the
"Staves

of

of

"wrong

"wrong

words,"

of

"a

of a final

its "change

"Hardening," "retarding,"

And

"

Trefocul.

of measure

rhyme."

sense"

defend

well-leaping

syllable,"

perfected sense," without sin,


Is a species of defending them.

- IM

2134
-

;>1

l:lfi

"

sa ruinnsa L.

Na

ra L.

21as

sa randsa E.
-

silloebach L. E.

2m measa

Oats E.

cltena cuibdesa L.

is fedil

2139

Aingit arin.

L.
L.

feidil

deilide L.

E.

mesa E.

deiledu E.

feidhin B.

masea B.

ar cloena celli E.

2142

ecnail E.

162

AURAICEPT

BB. 332/315

E. 30 a 52

Cach rand romilleadh immaig

A llus rudraighe

rrandaib,

Rudhrach noco n-airisead

Dar

urard, dar uirisel.

da condail mar itclos


da airichill i fos,
dichneda, Dia dos-rat,
Tarso noco ria rofat.

Na
Na
Na

2150

Formolad, diabul, cen on,


Telgudh noe, ocus lugugud
Uaitighit

Lorga

ca^

rogair rib

dialta, deichnid.

Saerugud doine in domain


Ar dimbrig is degcobair,

Dserugud gach duini dib


Nos-aincenn uili ar forbrig.
ainces ar ilar ndan,
ainces a Ian,

Ar uathad

2160

Ecnairc fri frecnairc co fir


Indsce modh ica mordhin.
Aincit ecuibdius a

fir,

Formolad, da delidin,
Telgud noe, niamhda in monor,
Condail litrz, lughugud.
Airichill calaid,

dichned,

Da

is

mo

2165

chean,

a dheichnedh.

delidin, diabul des,

Foint

Ocus

ecommuaim

2170

n-indles,

na-foiret hi fus

Deicned, dicned, cendfochrus.

Ecenel airmidir am/,


Is luath non-anaigh aurland.
Aingit ar anocht ria head

2175

Diabul, aurard, auriseal.


2146

L. airis bed B.

2149

dos-rot B.

2187

derughugud B.

nos-rihed E.
2158

L.

uili a

B.

2148

fuit

2156

L. decobair B.

2159

ilar

fos L.

nan L.

fuair os B.

THE PRIMER

163

Every verse has been destroyed utterly


With respect to "excess of rhymes" in verses,
Excess of rhyme would not abide
Despite "exaltation," "humiliation."

"

"

The two internal divisions," as was heard,


The two thefts here below,
The losings of finals God gave them,
Beyond these over long will not reach.
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

without blemish,

"Hyperbole," "reduplication,"

and

"

Man-throwing,"

They make
"

Staves of

"

diminutive,"

rare each

"

"

syllables,"

over short

before you

"

doubling of

finals."

Ennobling of the world s men


want of emphasis," it is a good help,
man of them
"Enslaving" every
"

"

"

Against

Helps them

all

"over

against

Unity defends against


Against "singleness" its
"An absent to a
present"
"

"

emphasis."

"

"

Mod speech

poems,

defends,

verily,

for its great defence.

"

defend, oh man
two metatheses,"
Man-throwing," ornamental the work,
"

Against
"

in the

"

plural

"full"

false

rhyme

"

"

Hyperbole,"
"

"

Internal division

"Theft

Its

of

hard,"

"losing

Two

of

And

final,"

"metatheses,"

Help unlawful

of letters,

"

O happy

"

these help

and

right

false

it

one

"

diminutive."
!

"doubling

final."

"reduplication"

alliteration,"

here below

"

"Doubling,"

of

losing,"

"change

of

final."

"False
gender" is taken account of there,
Quickly aurland prefix defends it.
Against "error" to some extent protect
"

"

"Reduplication," "exaltation," "humiliation."

mod

2182

L. In se

diabail deis E.

- 170

focrait E.

- 171

forfed E.

airmithir L. E.

2174

ar n-anaig E.

Aincit L.

re L. E.

1U<J

J17:1

ica

moroiwz B.

innsi

mod
>17:<

ca

mordin E.
bus L. E.

64

AURAICEPT

BB. 332/330

Milliud [remi L.] gach reim n-olc,


ni ainm ni acht anocht

Do

Lemm

ni gleaccz/r a gait
trefhocul tacrait.

Asin

t. t. f.

Trefocul.

Do

dhligegaibh dunta na nduan inso


nduan decid lib,
dana dlighthig,
nocho caingen falaigh

Dunta

sis.

for

aes in

Cest,

In daiwgen ros-dunsabair.

Menip dunta each duan dron


Cia locht
Air

is

Trefhocul

isin

e tall rostecair

Lochta imda

2190

airchetail.

Mini dunta a duan ndrariain


Czch fer dona filedaibh,
Cia heraic dlegair uaid ind,
fir doni in laid lanbinn?

On

Cia ainm each dunta dibh sein


Sluinnet na baird dia mbraithrib
Caisted each, cluined in fis,

Meni

fhuilet

2195
?

na afis.

Comiwdsma do Done/chad Do,


Ascnam Dond, im each deglo,
Saighid

2200

so, is e in slicht

Dondchadh

int

amra,
ainm ollamda.

Ascnam iar saigid suairc [modh L.],


Dondcad dia fich [in domon L.],
Uaim do rind Don^/chud na ndrech.
Dia fich in domun daightheach."
;;

"

2205

"

In inund dunad dlegair


Finntar ona filedatb^
Ar curp na duaiwe na ndan
S ar in iarcomarc n-imslan.

remmi

B.

2177

Millid roime E.

-179

Lem gniwaib legair a ngait E. accur L.


2184
dechaid lib L.
dligthig L.

2183

2210

2178

Do nach

21s

IsaE.

2188

sin

L.

ainm E.
----E.o:.

frith

THE PRIMER

165

Destruction of flexion is every bad flexion,


For it there is no name but
I have no clear desire that it should be pilfered
Out of the Trefocul which they plead.
"error"

Of

the

Laws

Poems here

for closing

Trefocul.

below.

Consider the closings of your poems,


people of the lawful art.
Query, it is not a question of concealing
Whether firmly ye have closed them.

Ye

Unless every compact poem is closed,


fault is in the Trefocul?
For it is that which has put them away of

What

old,

faults of poetry.

Many

Each man of the

poets,

Unless his vigorous poem be closed,


What fine for it is due from him,

From

the

What

is

Which

man who makes

the

the

full

pleasant lay?

name of each close of these


name to their brethren ?

the bards

Let each one

listen, let

him hear the knowledge,

Unless he would remain

in his

ignorance.

The comindsma to Dondchadh (Duncan) is


on each fair day,
The ascnatn,
The saigid (is) this, it is the famous version,
Dondchadh the Ollave name.

"

Do,"

"Dond"

Ascnam (approach)
"

after full

is

approach

Dondchadh through whom the world

Uaim do rind (alliteration


Through whom

at end)

boils the fiery

"

a pleasant mode,

boils,"

Duncan

of the

many

hosts,

world."

the same close is due


be found out by the poets,
For the body of the duan in their poem,
And for the complete conclusion.

Whether
Let

- 1H

*
"

it

ros-leacail L.

na

ainfis

ndrec B.

L.

- 1!l

"

-* 18

in airchedail L.

- i^-joo

/,..

7>.

Findum

v/ ,%

L.

jij.

29 26
,

""

duain ndreamhain L.
in each L.

39, 33

-*"

lft

n-imlan L.

66

AURAICEPT

BB. 332/346

ascnam, uaim do rind,


Dunait curpu duan, derb lind
Cach iarcomarc is gloir glan,
Comindsma is coir dia ndunad.
Saighit[h],

aes

dana

domain

in

Eter Erinn

2215

tiar tair

is

Albain,
Ni dleghait seoto sona
Cach duaine na ba dunta.

Da

Dunta.

d.

d.

d.

Uunta.

cuincead neach a ndliged

lin dam na firfhiled


For feacht feili, for cai cuir,
For gnathlessaib, for fledaibh

2220

Cia

(333).

Ceathrur ar fichit iar fir


Fecht feili ollaman righ,
Ochtur for caei, cen chessa,
Da fer dec fria gnathleassa.

2225

Deichenbhur fri fleadha fuair


Dlegair do in ghleiri caemshluaigh,
It

e sin

fri

bagha bladh,

Ceithri

damha

Da

dec d anruth donfa,

in

2230

ollaman.

fer

Coicfhiur fer

fria

gnathlessa,

Seissiur for coe, caemthuit cluidh,


Ochtar iar fir fri fleadaibh.

Tobair do

chli ar

2235

a dhan

Ochtar, uasal a fordamh,


Seser for fleadaibh na fess,

Coicer

cae,

cethrar gnathless.

du canait, na ceil,
For each feacht feili feithith,
Seissiur

2240

Cethrar for fleadaib fessa,


Triur cas, dis fri gnathlessa.

-~n

a]4

da L.

seotu L.

5221

chuir L.

Coicer L.

as.-..

is

derb B.

is

L. om.

Seiser, cce L.

ex, chesa L.

THE PRIMER
"

"
"

Full

approach,"

approach,"

Close bodies of poems,

it is

Repetition of

first

syllable

alliteration at

plain to us

it is

Every concluding word,

is

167
end

"

a pure glory,

due

to their close.

and East,
poets of the world, West
in Ireland and in Scotland,
They deserve no lucky treasures
For every poem that will not be [properly] closed.

Closed.

Ye

Both

If

Closed.

any one ask the law

What is the number of a company of the true poets


On a journey of entertainment, upon the road of a circuit,
For customary needs,

for feasts

Twenty-four verily
of a royal Ollave,
[For] a journey of entertainment
Eight for a circuit, without anguish,
Twelve men for customary needs.

Ten

for

prepared feasts

Are due to him, the choice of learned people,


For glorious contests are these,

The Ollave s

four companies.

will fall (?) to a poet of the second order,


Five men for their customary needs,
Six for a circuit, scholars of renown,

Twelve men

Eight verily

for feasts.

Give to a poet of the third order for his song


Eight, noble his great company,
Six for feasts of knowledge,
Five for a circuit, four for customary needs.
Six to a poet of the fourth degree, hide it not,
For every journey of entertainment provide ye,

Four for feasts of knowledge,


Three for a circuit, two for customary needs.

Tabair L.
Seachtnar

(vii) B.

:S1

Seiser L.

~w
2312

fethid L.

L. Triur cadais B.

68

BB. 333 a

AURAICEPT

II

Ceathrur do dus,

damh

Is triur fri fleada

fiW,

Dias

for coe, ria

as deach,

meass dun mhal,

2245

Is fria leass a asnuran.

Triar for fecht

feili

Dam

thoga do

mac

Dias

for fleadhaibh, co fathach,

Oen

coe, oen leas roghnathach.

Ni

dofhidh,
fuirmidh,

2250

theis dar diis iar sin,

In da daim do fochlocain,

ALn

for coe,

Oen

fria leassa

oen for
:

fleid fead,

dia cuinged.

Dia cuincead neach a ndligedh

Finit

Amen finit Solamh ODroma

L. Murchertac/i riabach

aide diles

-i-

nomine

cia.

scripsit.

do scrib so da
mbennacht leis da

Cuindlis

do Mac Fhirbisig

7 ar

thuilleadh.
-1243

~31

iS

L.

tar, iar sain L.

2343

fl

Ina, fochlu cain L.

--

CK, fed L.

2255

THE PRIMER
Four

to a poet of the fifth degree, a

And three for feasts of poets,


Two for a circuit, to be adjudged
And for his needs one alone.

band which

is

best,

to the poet,

journey of hospitality on which he goes,


chosen company for a poet of the sixth degree,

Three

169

for a

Two

for feasts, with cleverness,

One

for

circuit,

one for quite customary needs.

Thou shalt not exceed two after that,


The two companies to poets of the seventh degree,
One for a circuit, one for a feast provide thou,
One for his needs if any one ask.
:

If

any one ask the law what.

O Droma

Finit^ Awen,finit,

Solomon

L. Muircheartach

Riabhach

his faithful fosterer MacFirbis,

nomine

O Cuindlis

and

scripsit.

wrote this

for

for his blessing besides.

AURAICEPT
YBL. 219

a 23

Eg. 63

b 26

na n-Biges
eraicept, uair er gach 2260
n-aici bios in
dono -i- icht aici, ar is
dono
id
no
est, acceptus,
aicept,
deisgiop^/ agin maigister
Incipit eraicept

taoiseack

aicicht

airiti

na n-eiges -i- na nai


bfil ogat
Cid [Eg. diana] toiseac/i so? Ni
doteip^ asin-Gaoid/^, oir iss ed toiseac/i 2265

cugad iwd weiche nach

gan ches
ansa.

Don

arrk//

la

na bfiW.

-i-

teipi

Fenius

Gach son do na

ier

dtiachtain

amuigh.
forson
gach
in gach berla, fofrith ionad

gusan

dhorcha ropui in gach beusgna J


doibh isin Gaidilc, conid aire sin

mbesgna

er

sgoil

hairnk/// caimv/aire /

gach toiseach daw,

forlethi

is

uair

is

duo

lasna filedha, cech son fordorcha

quain gach
toiseacha 2270

hed

is

riachtain

tossach

an ogaim ar bitht n a ndorch<m/eta. Cest,


cie tugait ar a n-ab^r berla tob/V/i don Gaoidilc ? Ni ansa.
Uair as gach perla roteip^c/, / gach son fordorcha roboi
i-

bethe-luis-ni

cech beusgna, fofrith ionad doibh isin nGaoidhilc ar a 2275


forleithe sech gech mbeusgna.
Cest, dono, in raibi
in

Gaidelc resiu

niugud

Eg.

[ceana Eg.
for Goidz /f

rotop<7c/?

Ar

oin.~\

:]

Ropuoi eimh.
fagbaigt^

in

[Caidi a deimh-

da berla sechtmogat

hanmanwa dono
no coma[d] ainm gut k 2280
Ebra / Greig J Laidin,

Ceithri

in Gaoidilc.

gan

docom

ni

nuibir a ranna

primberla dona tri primberlaib -i7 ainm dilis o Gaoidw/ -i- Gaoidelg,

nd dixsit

[Ticalod a hEbrad aird,


Is malot a Greig glegair^,
Legulus a Laitin le,

Tinoltach
- Ji;:

Eg.
171

ineich

fir

2285

fine.

-"-

""

don

sgoil gtisna berla

amutg

AURAICEPT

YBL.2I9M5

172

In berla

Eg. 6 3

2a

teip/V/i trie

Roleasoig Gaoidel (col. ) glanglic,


Uatha do tsiol Gaoidil gairg

Duine aga mbia a

firainm.

Gaoidel aderaitsim

Lucht a meo\azs

is

2290

fris

ainpfis,

Ni neasa dho Gaoid^/

glic

Indas do gach ealg oirdeirc.

Ma
Co

dam

a radh

fri

each

(rubh) [co] follus

an

fath,

hail

It iat

re

2295

garmain gan gai

Cethri hanmanrt a an berla[i].

hairm sonnradach a ruccad

cie

a rand

Uga
don

sgoil

co suidhe?

motha

meud don-uco^/di.

indi

co Femtis.

mogat

rotaisealp<7^

Feine

filid

trie

Cest, cie berla

do Fenius

muig 2300

A huiletaighie cen-

Ni ansa.

dotormachtad<7/-

tu~ht2\n

nEigeipt.

Ni ansa.

do Gregaiph Sgeithia.

Eithiuir meic Tai meic Barachain


Cest, cie

na hEigipti. Cest, cie


Ni ansa. Gaidel mac

iart/wdeisgertrt/j?//

dochw<7zV/

oni.~\

Ni ansa.

Cest, cie tir a rugad Gaoidelc?

Et

Eg.

fordorcha ier dtorr- 2305

don da berlaib sechtNi ansa.

ttos<ir//

Berla

he Gaidr/ pa tocha leis die sgoil, et


is he ron-alt asa oighe no asa oidig, et is he
pa soam don
sgoil, 7 ar a forlethe sech cech mbeusgna r/is he berla tois- 2310
Gaid^/c, ar

-i-

ech rucad

on tuor

Feinius riesiu

denamh

is

eimh Ebra

7 ropoi

this^on Sgeithia

ice in tor,

et ni

conid aire sin

ar a forleithe, ar a mine.

cech mbesgna

on

tor, 7

Ni
?
mete
co
pa

aon die taiselp^ a


228 } - 8
-

CZ.

x.

tois^a
uaisl/V/

n-rt/(t)-

rotaisealpad.

do

riachtr?/;/

Ar

is

he cetna besgna rugad


mbesgna conid

lethe quaui cech

tosach.
"

134, 1?

is

a cuibhdi, ar a hetruime, 2315


Cest, cidh ar madh forlethe quain

ansa.

mad

7 Laitz// la

Ar

Ni ansa.

Gaoidelc?

Gm g

rainig a leas a

bud

Cest, nach raibi isna berlaiph ni

quaui in

--""garmaimYBL.

IU1

iartar

- :!W

donnucedi

2!12

an

MS.

AURAICEPT

YBL. 219/325

Eg. 6321125

1/3

Caite Log et Aimsear et Persa et Tucait Sgribinn na 2320


Gaoideilge? Ni ansa. Tor Nemruaid cetus Locus Faciar

\c\)idi,

an

irncht

aici

is

aimser

tinr

Ocus

aimser

Adaim.

Persa

tosac/t.

cloinn

di

di
cumd^4
on
tuor /
Sacap mac Ruicimorcus, uair is he rodus-fucc
Gaoidel mac Eithiuir meic Tai meic Barachain do
^

2325

tugait sgribhinn tour Nemruaid do


Gregaip Sgeithia.
chumdach.
Esmberat araile conid tugait di Gaidel do

rugad he, fobith is he toisec/t rosgribh a


a
dtaiphlibh /
lecaiph isin luce tsenmc/ach dienat ainm
duola

isin tir a

Calcaneinsis.
is

and rosgriph Gaoidel

Is

in Gaid//r,

he Sacab mac Ruicimorcus rosgribustar,

araile

comad aonleapar

int

Uraicept

uile,

no dono 2330

/ adberait

comad he

so a log-aimser.

Cidh ara n-apart/iar besgna doumanda don Gaedilg 7


nach di ata briathar lasna hecw^daibh eolchu ?
Ni ansa. 2335
lersinni

J do caingnibh domundu iter


Cid ar a n-abar co mad borb fie[d] Dia

aismWes do cestaibh

thuaith ct edaz s.
inti leighius

Gaedilc?

Ni

di at

briathar sund, acht do

uiledetaidh na feallsamnachta iter gramatc?4r 7 dilliochtr^


7 rim, nt dixit poeta :
2340
Foglaim feallsamnacht[a]

is fas,

Leigeand, gramatach
gluas,
Literdacht leir ocus rim,
is

Is

bee a mbrigh for nim tsuas.

Cest, nach feallsamnacht an Gaidelc

ndevnaid

Ni hedh eter acht 2315

fri
deredh an domain
na hugdaraiph toisecha. No
is ed is beusgna domunda and
7 is feallsamnacht dimain -iind erritacht et an aimiris dogni nech a
n-agaid na firinne
diadha 7 daon;/a, 7 iss ed sin is borb fia[d] Dia
[anti 2350
Gaedilc
no
andaidi.
Cidh
ar
a
leighius
ndebert
Eg, om.}
aipcitir -i- eibi ioc duar -i- ic focul, ar ni hi iocus na foc/

mion-(22o) ughdair

ar tuccait derscaighti sech

sainredach

::;<I

andqidhthi

(=and

aridhthi)

acht

sund

AURAICEPT

YBL. 22005

1/4

is
-i-

iad

na iocail nus-icainn-si.

Eg. 63 a b 8

he [focul Eg. ] itbert

Is

rand, ut est:
Cie duar donesa nath.

2355

Aaspearat tra ughdair na nGaoidel dano. Cidh ar a


asberad na hugdair robatar roimhe, uair
ndepertsim
:

he Cendfaolad arainic

in leapar-sa -i- Brolac/i i[n]d


Uraic[e]pt[a] 7 ugdair [na nGaidel Eg.] dano, rob iad-siden
Yenzus Yarsaidh J lar mac Nema. Ni ansa. Ar uaisle na 2360

is

haimsire isrup^rt
frecnairc

aimser frecnairc, uair geipzV/ an aimsir

-i-

na

for

huilz ^

aimseraiph

dicitur:

[///

presens

tempus pro omni tempore ponitur.


Samaigt/?^;- in aimsir
fhrecnairc for na huilz$ aimsirz^ Eg.].
Cinnus on 7 he da radha int aonfocw/ a mbit na da 2365
silla&a

nach gcantar a n

aonaimsir,

dicitur

///

lego

legaim, quando diets \e-futurum est -go, preteiretnm esl le-

quando

dicis

-go

-i-

intan

raidhi

in

s\\\ab

to-

toiseac/t,

dochaidi cugut in sillab deighinach et sechmatu sechat


[Deitbir on Eg.] amal isbert in Lait- 2370

in sillab toiseach.

Tempus non dividitur sed opera nostra diuiduntur -iind aimser fogailter and acht metugud aimsire
n-f
nocha
neoir

bis iter

na

sill<2&z,

no ar ngnimrad-ne

feisin

no dano

is

fr^ra dona hugdaraiph robatar a n-aonaimsir ris fein tc


tan ispert asperat ughdair na nGaidel. 2375
Cendfaol<7<f in

Cid ar a dtugsom a sound ar tus sech na guthaigi aili ?


Ni ansa. Ar is i as sruithi a bfedhaib J is uaisle a nguthai-icech mairph
a, 7
na
na
cetughdair, asperat
hughdair
Asperdis
deighencha Comba si tugait airic in perla Feine gnim 2380

ghaiph
i-

7 is

cetlapra cech pi

iacht<7<a%

acn.

n-ingnath

nemgnathach ar a ainminci,

-i-

"Nemruaid

-i-

daona gan
2358
2373

do

triall

comairleigud

blolach with r under


ia76

grjmroigne

first 1

h YBL.

dola
fria

n-indlig///^//

-i-

cumdach tuir
domun
for neam ina gcorpaiph
Nemruad itsin dono
Die.

ar a uaiphrigi forcaomnaccair isin

-i-

sillaeba

ai69

aili

Eg. om.

2382

sechmat*
an tuir

r2

n-i

an

YBL.220a
trenfer

AURAICEPT

Adaim

tsil

uile

Eg. 632 b 40

ina aimsir fein e

-i-

175

Nemruadh

2385

mac Quis meic Cairn [meic] Xai. Ni pi ierum aonri forsin


doman go haimsir Nin meic Peil acht mad comairl/V/ 7
toisic/i
nama batar and co sin anall. Da comairlzW
sechtmogat ierum robatar isinn aimsir sin isin doman a
pa he indara comairhV/ sechtmogat 2390
Trenfear iarum ind [N]emruad sin, fer an

ndernadh

in

Nemruad.

tor J

occ seilg -i- for aighiph [-i- coip Eg.~\ J for [fjieduch -ifor milaib trachta muigi, 7 airrcheis -i- for mucaip allta,
7

airmielaib

Co
eunaiph.
co
\enmam,
m[b]a

daoinip

for

-i-

oca

mbitis
lie

sochaide

samlaidh

-i-

do
a 2395

s\ogatb/t 7 co mba nertmaire -i- i;//a co\aind fein samlaid/t


oldas each, conid he dorimart in da comairl/V/ sechtmogat

isinn

athar

denam an tuir, la hua brathar a


mac Regua meic Arafaxat meic Seim

aoncomairli, do
-i-

Faillec

la

meic Nai, 7 pa he sin an dara comairlid sechtmogat 2400


anall, 7 isberatsum ierum co mba he an

chena co sin
comairlid

mba

aontois^//

doiph

(col.

/3)

uile

in

imcom^rc sund anmanda in da fer sechtmogat


lasa ndernad in tor acht chena ni airmit sgribenda acht
anmanda na se bfer ndec ba airecam diph, edon Faillec, 2405
Faillec.

Is

Nemruad, Eiber, Laiti[u]s, Ribat, Nabgaton, Asur, Ybath,


Loncbard, Bodbus, Britus, Germanus, Garad, Sgithus,
Bardanius, Sardain.
is

he Neamruad

[ler ndih ww 7 ier n-aiccwtv/acht

in cetri: is

he

cetri ier n-ealadrt /w in

chena
Faille

he immorro Eg. om.~\ iar n-ughdaras in cetri 2410


Nin mac Peil meic Ploisg meic Piliris meic Agamolis meic
Fronoisis meic Gitlis meic Trois meic Asuir meic Seim

reimraiti.

meic

Is

Naei.

Is

he

immorro

flaith

lasa

ndernadh

in

mac Regua meic Arafaxat meic Seimh meic


Not: tiel Faillec mac Eber meic Saile meic Arafaxat
meic Naoi. Asan panaictti, id esf, proprium nomen lipri
tuccad in glttas coir.
Adcuodsuw dano indi sin [adtor

-i-

231(5

12412

Faillec

sil

Cither

- "M

2W:;

airnela/X
- 416

panac .i

YBL.

xx.
- 417

Bodlibu

adqodwuw YBL.

2415

AURAICEPT

YBL. 220/312

i/6

codastiw dano anisin.

dosum

mad

anisin

tor

in tor

la

Eg.~\

a 24

Neinruad comad a ainm

Asp<?/t

forbeith ant saoirsi sin go

sin

Eg. 64

Adrodimes

brath.

o ua brathar a athar o

do;/6>

fuillter

go 2420

Nemruaid he ar chena.
Tredi ar a ndernadh
clomnd [Adaim Eg:] -I- ar uaman na dilend

moire do thoigeac/it doridhise, ar ni

rocntfsiot do derpdo
airdip
sduaigh nime, 7 do do) doiph ina
gcorpaip daonda for nem do talmain -i- comadh arad 2425
dochum nime 7 d oirrdercugud
ftyjgaphala
doip

De

anmand

-i-

in

conid e sin

fhiattaig lasa
itbert

nt vidamus

et

raufegam

ndernad

Ri nime

an tor dara

muinter neime

fri

confoundamus lingas
romel<7tr///naigem

eorum

n-eisi,

Ueniti

taoit

-i-

co

J co robuaidrem 7 co 2430

a dtengta impo.
Pa mor tra cumachta tsil
Adrt/;// 7 a nert ag denam in tuir cona festaois ierum

rasgaoilem

in roibhi cumachta Righ neime uais tis.


Romesgaighti
ierum impo int aonberla poi oca -i- goirtig//zmi, cona
roaithn^/ nech dip berla aroile -i- antan adbered nech 2435

dip tuc cloich dam is crand doberti dho. [Dethbir on, ar


ni do clochaib na do chrandaib doroigned an tor acht do
c

do bidmatn. Cinnus on, oir intan adb^r[t]


nech diph tuc cloich dam is cranw adberedh do. Eg. omJ]
Ni ansa. Na leca fora suaiti in en? 7 na forchuda. frie 2440
cria[i]dh tsuaiti 7

suite

is iat

sin clocha 7

Asbeir dona

Da

crania noimluaidis etorra.

aicce for sechtmogha[i]d

Arim suas

frie

Iter aol

bitouma/

is

Ocus talmain

gnim ngapha/V/
is

2445

tathl/.

ut est:
Oel, ola

and ocus

full,

Cre, uisgi, ros, lin lancuir,


Tuis, mirr, bitomain co mbuaid,

Not n-adhbair
-4

dilinne

a433
.

uaistib

in tut r
244

2450

Nemruaid.

forquda

>44

Is

(--ocus)

AURAICEPT

YBL. 220,333

Eg.

64ib6

1/7

Dolotar tra filedha imda asin Sgeithia reib chianaiph


iarna gnimaiph sin do foghla/V* na n-ilperla ogcon tour,
ar doruiwnetar maigm as rofoghb/ ti accus a n-airneachta

na hilberla do

tsil

Adaim, robatar and

Doloutar ierum co
in

magh

coicc^r sechtmogat

tor,

berla

Senair

sa

primberlaib

na

lion

Eaphra,

gcomloinntius. 2455
in

fer

dona

sin

gech
EgJ]

[tri

Ceithri

Laitin.

Greig,

rocumdmV//
-i-

sgoile

gacha primberla diph


-i-

ier

mag

-i-

berla

sechtmogat as gach primberla dipsin, iss ed rofoghldY/ and, 2460


na primberla. Y \\id do radh riu, uair
n-athgap<?/7

co

doboi filideacht osgarda acu cen co raibi filidecht zladnach


no is filideacht ea\a.dnac/t ropui acu in tan sin et is ierum

aricht filideacht osgarda 7

is

iadside doniat Gaidelcho.

Feinius Farrsaidh ainm a

\.o\stg

mac

-i-

Eog^/Vz meic 2465

Glunfind meic Lamfind [meic Agn#;;/ain Eg] meic Toi


meic Semair [meic Mair Eg] meic Eiteachta meic Urtechta

meic Abosth meic (221) Aoir meic


meic Seth meic
Sru meic Esru meic Baith meic Ribath meic Goimeir meic
Les<?r

meic Naoi meic Laimfiach.

laffeith

Pau

saoi sidhein isna

atuaidh.

primberla cidh riesiu tisad


Yeniits comlainius na

tri

na hairnig

2470

iarum

n-ilperla agin tuor, forfodazY a sgola


fo

crichaib 7

leith

a deisgipla uad

et

cendadhachaibh bfer dtalman

do

na

foghlaim
adfoirith^ uais, Fenius

n-iolperla,
iet ider

biathad

for

gach

nosnothrustar
et

etugud

in

-i-

2475

gcein

patar agin foghlaim -i- vii mbliadhna na foghlama J tri


bliadhna in taispenta cona[d] deich samlaidh occus ana is
;

fenius

icin tor in n-airit sin 7

[a Eg.] sgola cuige as

ccurp lipair

tor for

gach

araile

ughdair

2455

gach

gcionn

leth, is

nat

roaitr^ and co dtorrachtadar


aird,

deich

conid desin asbersim

mbliadan

and doreib^
pui

nech

in

ier

sgaoiW on

Gaedelg.
Isperat
lonain meic

do cloinn

comlaintes

2456

rocumdoch

2J6:!

iside

2468

Aboith

el-n,

YBL.

eladns
24 8
"

Goiii

taispenusa

2480

178

YBL.

AURAICEPT

221 a 13

Eg. 64

b 34

lafeth meic Nai die roc metar Gregaig et die rochin Fenius
a[c]

cumdach an

tuir et patar siol

oun, ar ni raiphe in

mac

sin

Deithper 2485

Nai olchena.

ag leffeth mac AW,

7rl.

Ni ansa. Fenius mac Baath


meic Maghach meic laffeith meic Nai Jr\. Eg.~\ Berla

[Cest caiti

gem Feim us?

nEpraide tantutn roboi


7

is

si

da.no bies

mad edh
doman

nobeth

isin

doman

cumdach an

tuir

ier mbrath, et isberat araile co 2490


muinntir nime. Pa haonberla boi isin

da.no

la

rogabsat, da berla dec

ititan

re

is

tri

fichit

tan ro-

sgarsat, ut est :
Goirtigern ainm an berla

Rophui ag mac De [den EgJ] deghergna,


Ocus ag sil Adaim uair
Rie cumdach an tuir Nemruaut.

2495

Ni ansa.
Perla n-Ebraz^e dano cidh o rabainmniged ?
in toisigh rocoimetustair he iar sgaoil^/
na mberla, ar ba he an dara comairlid sechtmogat roboi ag 2500
Is

he Eber ainm

deanam an

tuir no aga cumdach, et is aca aonur doruara/V/


an berla dorad Die [dorat Dia Eg.~\ do Adavi, conid de
sin dogarar in berla nEbraidi -i- berla nEbmloigi innsin
:

no Abraim

-i-

siol

Aprahaim

-i-

berla n&oraide dono.

Ier

dtieachtain tra dona deisgioblaibh co Fenius on foghl<7/m 2505


iier dtaispenadh i gcuarta -i- a n-imtheachta / a ngresa
i-

a bfoglama,

is

and conaitciotar cusin

saoi

-i-

go Fenius

berla na beth ag nech aile do theip/ doibh as na


acht comad acccz a n-aonar nobeith, conid airesin

doiph in berla \.obaid\ cona fortor;;z[<7<r/^]aiph -i- berla Feine 2510


cona fortorm[acht]aiph / iarmberla et berla n-etarsgarta
iter

na fedhaiph airedhaibh amal doruirmisim


est, nomen lipri, J berla na

Fedha Mair, id

isin

bfiled

Duil
asa

n-aigilhV each diph a cheile / in gnathberla fogni do chach


iter fira / mhna.
Gaid^/ mac Eitheoir meic Taoi meic 2515

Baracham do Gregaib Sgeithia


2494 7
2495

cf.

Keat. Hist.

j) O p O j )

ii.

dethergna

xv. 12-15
24it7
tur

in

dara sai roboi ag coime-

Rawl. B. 502, p. 69, 24


2512
doruirmisum, Duile

AURAICEPT

YEL. 221036

tacht Feniusa, conid uad rohainmniged Gaedelc


oirrderc indsin

-i-

1/9

Eg. 64 2 a 17

Gaedel ros-oirdercaigh.

-i-

elg

-i-

mac

Gaoidel Glas

Agnoin meic Gluinfind meic Laimfind [int en EgJ\ brathair


Is edh 2520
athar do Fenius 7 ba saoi sidien dono cidh edh e.
sidhe dono dorothluigestar in berla so go Gaoidel mac
Ethiuir J conad/i Gaoidelc o Gaidel mac Ethiuir 7 Gaid^/<r o

mac Aingin no go madh o Gaoidel Glas mac

Gaoidel

meic Feniusa Farrsaidh rohainmniged Gaidel.


a

Niuil

he

Is

sin

Berla Yeine tra arricht so sound, et iarmberla, 2525


7 berla n-etarsgarta iter [na Egl\ fedhaib airedhaib ind
fhir.

ogaim,

berla na bfiled in cethramrt^/, 7

fogni do

chach

mac Nema

Eogrt7H et ler

gnathperia
Fenius Farsaidh tra mac

cuicced.

in

et

mac

Gaoidel

Eithiuir na

saidhi doreibsit in berla-sa ocon lug tsainredach dien^d

Euateno

Caitet

siicuitas &c\acht prius.

sechtmogat o rafoghl/ti na hilberla


hie : BeithzVz, Sgeithi//, Sgouit,
p//,

Moiet, Morann, Luigdin

anmanda

in

Ni ansa

Germain,

tri

ainm 2530

da cenel
Ut sunt

Gaill, Point,

Paim-

oic, Ircair, Sgill, Siccir, Ciclait,

@) Coirsic, Creit, Sarda/w, Sig/7, Reit, Reicir, Roait, 2535

(col.

Remain mas,

Masg//.ra, Mair, Maicidoin,

Nombith

mais, Narmaint,

Armaint,

amz/z>

A1W#, Alpam,

nair, nair

brais, Britain, Boit mais,

gairg, Galus, Actaiw,

Magoig,

AcaiX Tesail

airt,

Ircair og, Etail, Espain, Guit, Goith, grim/e

Freisin, Longbaird, Laidich,

Affrainc,

sair,

Morcain

Laicdemo/W, 2540

Tragianda, Traig, Dardain, Dalmait, Daic, Eithiop,


Egiptda, Indecda, Braghmaint. Perla sain tra cech cinel

Eisil,

dip

so, fer tra

Pa he

lion

cech perla dhiph

na

sgoile, et

na

tri

sin, iss

ed rofoghlad and.

saidhe, rofaid^ o Fenius

Ni cech comchimWzYdono dochuaid 2545


and dochum a criche don foghlrf/w acht is commberlaig,

cech

fer

diph

fria berla.

amal rogabh Cai Cainbr^//ach, dalta Feniusa Farsaidh,


in dara deisgipul sechtmogat na sgoile, pa do
Eaphra^aiph
a bunad et pa go hEcipta rofaided, fobith pa hand patar a
tuisdigi 7 pa hand ron-alt 7 tuargpad asa aididh, conid aire 2550
i

"

Sicir

:!7

mais Mesgail mair

2558

amais

i8o

YBL.

AURAICEPT

221/3 15

dochuaid

comberla
Eg} asp^ri gcurp lipair Is cech
Secht mbliadna
comchineoil.
dochum a criche 7 ni cech
:

[sin

teora bliadna
robatar na deisgipuil forsin gcuairt sin, 7
a bos iar dtiacht comdar a
ag taispenadh a ngresa

doiph

curp lipair i 2555


tour for gach
sgailed doiph on

deich samlaidh, conid desin asbertsim tsis

cind deich mbliadan iar

an berla-sa doib.

leth doreibed

Poi tra cuicc^r ar fichit pa huaislem don sgoil [dono

anmanda-sidhe fordotait fedha

e tra an

et it

Eg}

taobomna

Saliath, Nabgado;/, 2560

ind ogaim, ut est : Bobel, Loth^Forand,


Hiruath, Dabhid, Tailimon, Cainaen,

Gadmer, nGomer,

Calebh, Moreth,

Ruben, Acap, Ose, Uriath, Etroi-

Stru,

Afrim.

ludonius,
chius, lumelcus, Esu, laichim, Ordinos,
fichit
pa huaisli
Is iet sin anmanda in cuicc/r ar
a

sgoil

on

is

dano,

Na

Feniusa.

fedha

coig

poi
ind ogaim 2565

diph rohainmnig/Vr
Atberat araile it
in trop).

huaisle

pa

coigiur

airedha

a o u e

i (secundum aili tri


fedha [airegda Eg} filit and, is on moirseiser pa
It e na da fidh
huais// 7 ba haredha diph rohainmnig

iet

secht

frisna

dofoirindfet

dao

araile

Tochar
cie

nin,

forsail,
i-

bethi

son

Ar

airnin

is

ind

Moir

Inbir

an

Miled

is

tuas

cuig

>\

aipgitir

aranic

<.

ea

isinn

aric/it

an

Itberat

ogaim.

Aisia,

Gluingeal
Cie litir,

Aimergin

luis-nin

oi ]-

mac
cie

no
Ina forbaigt/^r foc/?
2575
son ger fogapar O nach fuach tre n tinwsganar
-i-

no ngetal gilcach

-i-

dinin

Cest,

ngetal.

disail

caiti

iet

da
airme tur Nemruaid? A hocht. Da comairlztf Ixx,
da berla
daine,
cenel Ixx na
deisgip*/ Ixx, da
berlada
na
mbatar
lasa
Ixx
Ixx ina sgoil, da thuaith
et

Da

na cenela.

Ixx, iter aol


25"

Calep

is

bi

is

tsaor Ixx

gnim.
bitamain 7 talmain
2586

25W huaisli m

aw

se cundum ailia trii troip,

**

moirtseiser

secundum alias
an b 1 n a n
1.

Da

frie

^
tri

aigdi ar 2580
tath/# ina

coigir
in troip
i

nach

cmela

AURAICEPT

YBL. 221/342

coimhecar.

Da cheim

Ixx

Airem cinntech an tuir so


Airim an

ina

181

lethet

amal

c?/ber

hie:

tuir togaidi

2585

Neamruaid, pa din do daoiniph,


Cethri ceimend sechtmogat,
Get ceimend ar coig milib.

Da

comairlfV/ sechtmogat

Tugsad

Da

fri

cuigi

sluaigi?^

2590

berla for sechtmogait

Rothidhnaic Die dia mbuaidred.

Da

chin^/ for sechtmogait

Dona

Da

daoinib

frie

Fedo/V/ Feinius

Da

dograind,

deisgipul sechtmogat
fria

2595

foglaim.

tuaith tsaora sechtmogat

Forofoglait

thalm##

fir

Da

prim tsaora sechtmogat


Frie hela</ain na n-adpar.

2600

Da aigdi for sechtmogait


Na adhpar comadh gnathach,
Iter ael
Is

is

bitamain

talmain ocus tathlaiph.

Secht cubait dec deimnighti

Ag nim
Is

suas

da ceim

Ina lethet

fri

for

gaoith ngair/^

2605

sechtmogait
haiream.

frie

Airz w.

(222} Adberait aroile

batar isin tour


lin,

-i-

immorro

ere / uisgi, ola /

is

naoi n-adhp^zV

fuil,

nama

ros et aol, seuchim, 2610

bitamain de quipus dicitur :


Cre, uisgi, ola,

Ros,

\s aol, is

is fouil,

lincuir Ian,

Tuis, mirr, biodamain co mbuaid,

Naoi n-adhpair
na dp-

YBL.

na n-adb- Eg.

in tuir
2601

Nemruaidh.
na adbair

2615
iJ61

seichim

82

AURAICEPT

YBL.222a5

Eg. 65

a 10

Caiti log / aimser et persa 7 tugait (sgribind) ind UraiNi ansa.


cepto?
Haonlog eim is coir dona ceithrib

leapraip sin, amal isber in file


deighencu ; in os dethencu is ed

In os

a gcurp lipair

edh

is

is

is

toisechu

deighencu ariecht

edh

is

is

In us toisichw

toisichu.
-i-

leapar Cinn- 2620

faolidh meic Oilella.

Log

aimsir 7 persa

Loc do ceudus

sgriphind an lipair-si.
Luruain, 7 aimsir di aimsir

et tuccait

Doire

Aodha meic Ainmerech.


Persa do
Cendfaolaidh mac Ailella. A tuccait sgribind a inching
Domnaill

meic

[dermait Eg. } do bein a cind Cin^faolad


Rath. Ceithri buadha 6\diu in chatha

2625

gcath Muighe

sin

-i-

maidm

Congall ina gaoe rie nDomnall ina firimafe et Suiphne


Geilt do dol for gealtacht ar medh do laidhiph doroine 7

for

in fer

d feraiph Alpan do

ina chois

p\\reitk ind

fir

d feraiph Erenn 2630

gan airiugud -i- Duip Die ainm ind [fh]ir


thall dono et a inchind dermaid do
a cind Cinnfaoladh ar a mhed do filidecht 7 do bhreathemnwj- 7 do
leis

\>hreith

leighend doleasaig.
Caiti log 7 aimser

et

persa

tugait

Airraicepto?
Log do Emin
n-aimsir Conchubair meic Nessa arichta.

Ni

dorinne do breith aosa faind for

f\\e

mac
re

ansa.

Ailella

hurmor

Macha

Feirchertne

Cendfaolad
nDoire Lurain maille

doathnuaighiuster
Atberat
sgreaphtra.
i

ind 2635

sgribind

na

seis.

aroile

cona

\>ad

2640

aenliphar acht liphair imda J ni hinatW log-aimsera doiph.


Is e log-aimser an cetliphair iarsin chetlaidsl.
Log do
Daire Lurain, 7 aimser Domnaill meic Aoda. Persa do
Cendfaolad mac Oilella. A tugait sgribhin^ 7rl.
Atat da erndail forsan aipgitir Laitianta (} coin- 2645

dealc annsin, Eg.} -i- guta 7 consain -i- doaithned da


firdegail asin fis fomthnec/t for eibe ind ugtair luaidius in
ai ier bfiordliged fothu an gotha uais
toghaidhe lasa
2)318

file written

out

YBL.

***>

an

libair

2628

goe

ai:il

Dubh Diad

^^

doleassi

AURAICEPT

YBL.222a3o

Laitianto
i-

bunad

-i-

andsin

derp<7rtf

Atat

suin.

gcomhfograigit

-i-

do

frecra

sunt

-i-

for lethon

Eg.

183

frithindlid^r/^

bunad

totus a

651343

ruidlista 2650

na haipgitre dobeirsim

toit

sund.

Ar
nama,

atait

tri

bunad

bunad -i- bunad ier fogar


nama, 7 bunad iar gceill / fogar

hernaile for

iar gceill

bfogar amal ata modao a nomine quod est modus. iar 2655
iar gceill / fgar,
gceill prius, id est, ab uno a bunad
a
/// est, quartus a
net
tercius
teirsio.
Bunad ier
quatuor,
ie[r]

gcosmailius foghair nama totus don focul is atat, ar is


ainm totus, ~] briathar atat. Coic rand indsgi ind focail
is

Nomen

ocht randa indsgi and, id est :


Pronomen -i- ni ar son anma -i- me, tu.

atat, ar atat

ainm.

atucrbiuni.

Partidpium

breithir.

-i-

Prepos\if\io

cenglus na

ni

-i-

Coniungcio

2660

Uerboni,

hainm

ni cruthaigther a

-i-

-i-

foc/u

re

cheile.

ni geinter a breithir / ciell preithri aici

~]

cena beith na pre^air. Inteiriectio ni asa dtuigther toil 2665


na hinntindi 7 gan a peth na foe?// -i- ac, ua, u. It e a

n-anmanda
7

Laitneoir

laisin

dobriathar,

randgap^/

ainm, pronomen, briathar

-i-

comacomal, remsuidigud et
Is deimin am is briathar

~J

interecht lasin nGaidel chena.


in focul is atat

ar atat a

Sum
Sunius

tri

tre

tanusa

A
A

atamait,

-i-

tri

ata

estis

-i-

ata

se, a tri

atathai, sunt

-\-

2670

a n-ilar and.

\.\\,est

persa uathaid

est.

Ceudpersa

ilair estis, (col. /3) tre

indi

consrt/#i.

No

a n-uathad 7 a

-i-

a n-uathad.

atait siat, a tri

Ceudpersa uathaid sum, persa tanaise uathaid

a n-ilar.
(/5,

sunt ; J masa briathar ca ball do breithir

ataim, es

-i-

-\-

-i-

atat

dano
Ata ai

-i-

a n-ait

-i-

ata ai uait

-i-

persa

da

atat

ar in

sttmus, persa 2675

ilair suut.

a n-ait

ai

ata

ilair

dlig^a

-i-

ai

guta

ai

n-ait ind ollaman.

deisgipul frisin maigistir.

inde beus ataat a tuided, doaithnet, doaidbed, doiagod. 2680


airpert -i- atat a n-aigne -i- na guta 7 na consaine
:

:n,nio

"

14

proposicio

lr

tuicthar

MX

-"""

Origg.

i.

14

emh

84

AURAICEPT

YBL.222/35

Eg. 651 b 28

dotuidhet uait a lipriph [uaid a litrib, Eg] -i- tinwtaidhid


asinn aignedh sin i litriph
doaithnet asna litriph sin i
:

dotiagat asna foclaib sin a sretha rosga /


bfoclaiph
on hlideclit -i- ros eolus / sgoth indsgi 2685
airchetail
fasaigh /
iindsge eolais doaitbet -i- doaisbenad d eochtaiph -i- a
:

ciall

7 a caireachtaire

totns a
erridail

bunad Laitne
-ida duer deil

degail uaisle indsin.

\\irech

mbith da degail
erndail

ud

no go mad

docent

Da

ali.

eur uasat J deil degail -i- da


cotearsna dono anisin arin bfail a 2690

uaisle bit vii


iar

Ni cotarsna dono,

randa and.

sonaib cen co beith

da dul ferrda no da ard dul

-i-

-i-

Is

ar atat a secht indip

Da

fuatha na

-i-

in focrt// is atat

-i-

iar

gceill.

da dul arda

no [da Eg] eur dul -i- da uasa/ dul. Da ernduil -i- da -i- da
fir-indeall nou da firnaill no da firdul no da erdeghail no 2695
erdail no da eurdual -i- lanfogur / defogur / consanacht -ian u 7 an i it e da dual na ngutha no da orra dul no da
orra dul no da orra degail no da orra dail.
Is iat sin
Caidiet da dual 7
or / tri er J tri ir ind Uraiciopta.

tri
tri

duail 7 [ceithre duail 7 Eg.~\ v duail 7 v i an Uraicepto

2700

Lanfogrtr 7 defogcrr da dual, na nguta, lethintan is


muiti
et tinfedh, tri duail na consaine
guta 7
cethair immorro, da dhual na nguta J da dual n[a]

Ni ansa.

gconsaini

intan

duail na gconsaini

i-

in

7 in

Da

sain\.

intan

na nguta

7 tri duail

a cuig, da

is

-i-

is

a se

lanfog^r

dual
-i-

tri

na nguta 7 tri
duail na consaini 2705

defoghar

constwacht

lethguta J muiti 7 tinfkv/, tri duail na gcondual na consaini, lethguta 7 muiti; ar is muiti
:

hua.

Forsin aipcitir -i- ondi is aipcitorium -i- tin</sgetal no 2710


epe actor no ebe ughdcr/r: no ebe ioc duar no ic tur -i:

rohic<??

ic

an tor

no

mbeusgna do chach
2
-

is

IK<

-i-

aipcitz r ondi

ro eolus 7 scoth innsci

da erdeil

ondi

aipcitir

no

fhirindell

2fi86
-7

iss
is

d eolchaib

aipcidhius a

aperieis, ar is hi

-i-

a ciall, dicunt aili

tinfedhaigh

appcidhes

YBL.

AURAICEPT

222/3 32

2 a

14

^5

is aipex a
a
cindedh no tosach aipcitre
Gaidilc, incipit a 2715
a Greic Eg.\ apexe de deubam a hEpra, no

mbesgna do chach

sgailius a

Greig

no

Eg. 65

[-i-

aipgitir ondi

Laitin, apex
ais e
aipgitir ab agitorio, ut dixit quasi a, b, c, d, 7 reliqua 7
sin a main in duol coir, ar is lor do taithmech gacha focail

co pun ad Laitne. Aipgitir est copula con uel


literaram per se -i- ata ind aipgitir ina coimtinol no com- 2720
a

b/ireit/i

dano aipgitir
cengal Htrioch cona comfielus archena, no
a
a
a Gaidz /c, incipe
Greig, apexade depham
Laitin, apexa
Laitin o Laitin mac Puin meic Pice
hEeapra, Jrl.
meic Sadairn dictus est. Latinatass, Laitianda uada-side

no

Laitin

dicta

latitudine

ar

est,

mbesgna cenmotha GaidzYc

cech

leithe

is

ar

is

\_quam 27i 5

Eg.

oj/i.~\

ier

dtogail Troe ropoi Laitin, J is fada roime sin rofoghlait


na berla^cz 7 ropui Latinatas o tsin ale. No Laitinnda
Edon -i- ed aon a eirnedh -iluaided inde na
foc<?/.

edh dliged,

fuasgladh no dliged bis aenar 2730


no edh ain a aineol<m no edh ind so on

eirnedh

ag fuasgladh
is edh son a
:

i-

remaind

bfuil

don [tidloc^ no Eg.


dobeir se do;/ foc^/ da
Guta
guth

-i-

faiti

-i-

no edhon

otnJ\ tidnoc?//

-i-

edh d\\ged

tidnoc^/ dligthtr//

-i-

cheile.

guth fhotha

-i-

fotha gotha

iersinni faoidit triotha

iad-sidhen

no guth sed

-i-

no 2735

sed in

Ut
Litern qnaisi leigitcria co quod itcr Icginti
iersinni faoires
prcbcd -i- ita in litir amal inwtech in
no guth-eth[ai]t iersinni fedaid guth 2740
sed an leighind
treotha a n-aonar, amal ata a ard, 7 i inis, 7 o cluas, 7 o
no guth

gotha
Prisianus dixit
:

fed

iersinni fedaid

guth ind aonar.

leigi;z<:/

fr/

cend

dixit
et

no guth

ait

-i-

dogniat guth a

n-ait,

///

Donatns

Uocailcis dicuntnr quac. per se (223) quidiinprofeniiitiu-

se sillabaiu facinnt

per

-i-

atat

na

guth^/>i

doturgbat

treotha fein J dogniat sillaoba a n-aonar, nt Prisianus dixit : 2745


-

^ -abhan

L>74

"

guth

ct

edhu ain

-1

-7 * 4

ata

- 71

>7;il

iss

edh suo

Prisiens dicitur

86

YBL.

AURAICEPT

223 a 3

Eg. 65 2 a 49

Uocaleisdicuntaurqueperse voces eficiuntur

is

-i-

ed

is

uocalcs

dogni guth tretho fein, iiel sine quibus vox


literailis profeirri non potest -i- litir na fetar guth do denam

and

lit;

na hecmms.
i-

Consoin onni

is

consanantes comfograightech

cuma

suoin no caoin suin no

ar

caimiti

is

guthtf^aiph
i-

do

greas.

caom

tsoin

iarsinni fograided la guthrt^aibh

caomsuin

son

-i-

inti

foc/

-i-

-i-

coma tsuin

siomol

fri

caoma

guthz>i

fri

suin cumaidhi

-i-

iainic [a Eg.~\ fogar a n-aonur

et

soin

na consaine maille

fogar

n-irlapra

no consain

Noconsoin-i- 2750
-i-

no

-i-

comaCid 2755

dogniatsttm iocul.

ar a n-eipertsium guta / consaine, uair guthrt/gi uathaid J

Guta

Ni ansa.

consaini iolair?

consaine

maith and.

is

Cid ar a n-epert guta -i- guth fotha no guth fouiti? uair


ni fotha in guth do fein, / ni faoidh^/^ guth trid fein.
Cid ar a nd-eupert consam comfograigtech ? uair ni com- 2760
Cid ar
fograig^;/^ in consain fria fein na frie guthazg
i.

a nd-epert guta

-i-

guth sed

Caiti ruidlius J dilius,

uor ni sedh disi hi puddein.


coitcend J in^/lius in foc^r// is
?

guta? Ni ansa. Ruidles di guth fet, uair fedhaig guth


a aonar. Diles di guth fuiti, uair nos-fuidhend fein. 2765
Coitcend di guth fotha, uair is fota cend dona foclaiph.
Indies di guth fotha, uair ni fotha
nd-uprtrt aipgitir

na

Cid ar a

innti fein.

eipi ic tuor, ar ni agin tor rotin^/scointi

-i-

haipgitri amal

is

isbeir

Feinius.

Pa

sai sidhe isna tri

primberltfz# cid riesiu tisdY/atuaid J ni saithe cen aipcitr/. 2770


Is

nAisia

remebartmar.
ansa.
i-

dono

aricht

Cest,

ind

aipgit/r
in

caiti

condelg

In cetna hernail ind Airaicepto.

etargaire

coniparaitio

-i-

fors

conndelg n-edte^/a
Gaideilgi
ni
maith ainbfios.
indsin, ar
-i-

oghaim
n-eteiY/^a?

Fors,
tre

Jiic

-i-

amal
Ni

ferr anfis

fortciudh

-\-fors ferr fios

-i-

"

2/50

2-:;

-7

:!

fograidhi

ua j r guto

~ 757
- 774

- 770

aipcitre

coma

suin

gute
fortced

-"*

-7

siomul,

/.

simul

"

-~ 3

na

etechta 2775

comfoghruidhend
conn-eitiecht, for fid

AURAICEPT

YBL.22 3 a2 9

Cid doichned,

ceddoichw^

for.

187

ced dichned an Airaz

fern arin focul

ceddichned

-i-

is

fors,

no

^>/a

sond

forail arin bfocul is

eipi ugdair, oir teibi in foe;// fein

2780

dono.

Atat dano da
Qgaiin.
ai

caingen
email -i-

caingen remaind

foirithn^in beithi

i-

mbith
fedha

i-

no

an

-i-

n-ar ndiagh.
7
da ier ndail forsin mbeithi-luis-nion an ogaiin
in

-i-

Da

isin

an

mbeithi-luis-nion

forsan

erndail

Roraidius atad romaind. Dana-i- da n-ai indsin

luis

bioth ai eolus

-i-

-i-

eolus na hai 2785

bithi leisna suidib nobith slonnad leis

taobomna, id

ai

on

uocales et consonantes, uair

est,

doradus da erndail forsan aipgitir Laitianta. Da erndail


dano forsan mbeithi-luis-nin an ogaiin -i- in og uma -iforsin mbitheolus leiterda ind ogaim -i- onnf is Ogmu -i- 2790

man ogaim
ispert in

"J

file

nion ton^, ar

ainm da gach

nin

is

amal

Mell suide, dar

Ni fortgealW

>-fffiK

mo nioa

la

Neidhi.

iflflt

>-f<

la

heigius

Ailiter fortgell^zV/ eiccius tar idha 7 ailm

Idhedh

andsin.

litir

is

he a fidh

Ailm

primfedhaiph.

didiu

moaum

is

otflapra

-i-

ceinelo

fil/V/.

lugha 2795

toraind dona v

gach

pi

iachtad

dedi sin.
No bethi-luisgach mairp.
niw ainm d aipgitir ind ogaim, ar is do is ainm aipgitr/
don ni doinsgain o a. Is airi itet beithe sech gach fidh, 2800
Is sruithe ier#;;z in

ar

and

is

rosgriprta?

Lug mac

hi

in

indi

rescript

beithe rosgripad do breitk


Eithlend im dala a mna na

robaid do

rug///<-z

uad

hi

mbethi a n-aonfleisg do beithi -i- br;thar


no a bferandaip aile muna (col. /3) 2805
Bethi-luis-nion ainm aipgitrz an
ar

vii

-i-

sidhaip

do ben

is

in

-i-

ogum

uait fo vii a sith

coimeta

hi.

og<7/;//,

o beithe doinsgain in ogum


fuaigther go hog a n-irlapra.
is

1
"

-"

mbeithi-luis-nion, written out


Nedhe fortgella eolus Feine 7

niono

ogh uama, ar is de
No og//;;/ -i- og uaim a

-i-

>N

in

- 71

dor;ul;ii-7 4
-

No

"

Oghma

fortgell geall a

iSS

AURA1CEPT

YBL.223/S4

Eg. 66

a 10

cid anogh cugam a litribh.


No occum
o
is
mac
Ealathan
meic
ar
he
Ogma
Dealphaith,
rainig 2810
litri na Sgot cusna
hanmandoiph filet forra aniugh, ut est

bfocW

in Britainia, id

est,

amal isber

mathair

in lingua

Athair ogaim Ogma,

leapar ogaim
lam no sgian [Ogma Eg.\
dano / fid, atat da gne
:

Og<7/;//

Fedha

fidh saorda / fid aiccenta

aiccenta

fid

nomine uocatur uel

libra isto

in

-i-

fidh

na

fidh saorda

suidhe

for

-i-

2815

fidh ind ogaim


Fid saorda cetamus atat

coilled.

-i-

da gne do bunad/i occa. Fiod dano on breithir \sfundis -ifothoigim, uel a nomine fundamentnm -i- fotha uel a funo,
Feda ierww iersinni is fotha foghair isin 2820
fograidim.
Gaidilc in guth^z^i /

is

coitcend d fidh saorda / aigenta

A indi immorro fidh fo


sin -i- fundamentnm.
maith a edh ag foghrugud. Ingnad cid fodera na
da bunad agin fid saorda / aonbunad icon bfid aiccenta.
bunad

in

fedh

Ag

-i-

phfidh saorda

-i-

fogair% fundamentum

araon fotha.
is

fid

is

consain
airport

fair

~]

airport \n\inorro

litir

is

coitcend doibh

eipert aire

no doire
no

\mmorro

-i-

(focul)

bfidh

forin

no

gu\.\\aig\

no go mad fotha a 2830


Coitchend dano a taptf/rt

saorda J aigenta.

\\.er

-i-

coill

-i-

aigenta
intan is fidh saorda
:

a dualgus 2825

fundamentum,funo

a dualgus fotha, 7

indas fein fair

aith^<7ta

intan

funo

sloindedh saorda 7 aiccenta.

frie

dono a tapairt

Indies

for losaiph

fedha intan

is

fidh

aigenta, ut est int attend no in fraoch /rl. no a tap<2/rt for


legtach^ no for fonialus intan is fid saorda et is techta 2835
:

Cid
in gach focul Gaoidelce.
q no g no st do beith nia.\sa for u sech gach
consoin ? Ni ansa. Ar is bbd do q quidim u, ni hingnad
cia mad solma tista di forsin nguthrt/gi iermo. Ata dano do
in secht

fodera

med

sin

comad

fog<7z>

do iarraidh
iar

s cona rathoigther fogaur

u ierum, ut

di.vit : s in principio uel ut sillabam sonat.


- S|T

coilte

2&>

""

ar leith- a no for

ft

fonialus T.

Ogricus

(?)

Comacsi dano
284

Ogricus T.

2840

AURAICEPT

YBL.223/334

Eg. 66

a 45

89

beime g don guthtf^i iermo no cid do u fein no ar a


Fid aiccenta immorro fidh na coilled -icairdius fri q.
no fo edh -i- teine suidhiu ina inne no
fo edh a airdi
luicc

fo a
is

i-

aoi

-i-

ai

and,

fora

ailius,

aoi

miodius,

chanus

ai

ai tsuigius

Et taopomna
aoi

n-airchet<7/:

omna

aoi

-i-

canus,

Ai

suighius.

menmain

loiget

aei

og cu mcced a loige

-i-

tobadamwa

in

gcein

pis

oga gapail ai saigi^f -imiodius -i- ima med no ima 2850


-i-

ier n-ioc a loigi.

taoph uaim na haoi -i- taob uaim a


onni is aoi \aio Eg.~\, raidim no taob:

no taob uaimnecha

Eg.~\

iarsinni tophar

damhna

Cid ar a nd-epairt taob uaim n-ai


nd-epairt do

aoi

shaighiw-r,

dano

-i-

-i-

ar bi ant airchetal a
a

ai

ailius

do thaobaiph na n-oumna mor

n-airechda bit
i-

a fosgadh no (fo) a suth -i- a torad a indi 2845


e sund a inne -i- fcdha fo edh a aei uair atat coic

edh

n-ecmh<w

taobaiph

na

-i-

bit

[i-

na

no taob

fidh

omw<?

2855

[na focu\, Eg.~] eisibh.

taop uaim n-aircheto//,


Cid ar

na dtaophoumna.

mor

n-omna

(bit),

ar

ni

da taophaib na bfiod bit acht rempa no ina ndiaigh 2860


Toba damhna immorro
isna foclaib pit na taopoumna.
is

he ruidhlius

roraid

Cuin

is

aonafo

Cuin

(224).

Frecra do breithir [tug intan

in focail.

da erndail forsinw aipgitir -i- frecra do


Eg, o)iil\ tug intan roraid, atat da email forsin
2865
ltttf-m tt an ogaini
atat

is

in

deda?

beithi-luis-nion
-i-

fedha

et

Ni ansa.

taophomna.

Uile

Cuin

is

Cuin is cethfedha / forfedha / taopomna.


arda? Ni ansa. Tri haicm^? na taopomna -i- b, h, m, 7
Cuin is coicti ? -i- 2870
na cuig fedha airedha ind ogaim.
treda

-i-

J forfedha 7 taopomna -i- tri haicmi na dtaopomna


no co mad hed bud coicti and -i- seichimh nGreigda

fedha

frisinni roraidius >XQ~C

2844

ina airde, aedh

e ^ota 7 o fota.

2845

fo a

Cuin

adh no a suth

[is

Eg.]

YBL.

190

224

AURAICEPT

Eg

<i

seda?

tri

-i-

foilcesta in

No comad bed pud


frisna

-v-

Cuin

is

-3-

^.

^_J

remain^

-i-

est

No

b 28

tuji

///

Gaoid// 2875

coicte in

_jiiiL<^.

teora

-i-

jj|||

seda and seichimh

rannaiph ut
seachta

ogaim

66

tri

Uraicepto

-i-

foilcesta in ogazvt frisna se

amal

isbeir

///f

beth[e] conngaip greim p,

ind

fuillti

<.

cetus

ed

is

fuillius

Laitneoir

in

b 2880

cum

aspiratione ante omnes vocaleis ponitur pro p -iremsamuigth^r b co dtinfed ar p com d Miles h, ar is p
tinted a nGaidilc.
Dicunt aili co na bi h araon re b do
luce p acht is b a aonar bis ar p, tit dixit Prisdanus :
Ambo pro ampo, buxus pro puxus b inntib sin ar p J ni 2885
b co tinfed amail adberat araile.
:

Forsail

oile,

bfail

greim
in

-i-

recair

dara

aile

mbiad

Cech

ogaim
ria

coll

baile

and, ut

\J

>

-u-

is

mbiadh nion

est

"

///f

sgript/tar

cetus

(|||

ar

re ngort

f<|Ji
>

fjf

||

tres

in

fuilW

If

Gr. Lat.

<

ii.

in

and
coll

20, 18

bfail

amal

ata

ndiuit

ata.

ngetol sgribt/wr

occus

<

>8

:>l

ranna

ass ut dicunt

T.

Teora

is

str represented by only 3 cross strokes in YBL.


seichem in Gaidil T. sechim in in Gaoedhail
^

8878

Gort cetus ar gort ndiuit ata

II

"

cumang fedha

cen

Coll

-*

is

gaibius airnin greim in dara taobomna.


inn

fuilcesta

- s74

dobeir

da taobomna, gaibid airnin


no gloun, ar ni bi emn^ 2890

les

n-ai, ut est

-i-

Airnin

sron.

ogaim.
Is aire

fot

in

fuilW

e in

is

form son do

142, 14

""

ind

96

as sgript

2895

AURAICEPT

24a28
bfaili

ata

mbia

sail

tinne

rie

^7~T-rrm

na

coir teora foillcesta

Da

email dano

firdegail

m,

n,

is

for

is

sdraiph

cetus

Sail

sin treidhi is coir

iat

is
is

662:16

Eg.

and amal

sgripta

ar sail ndiuit ata

do imcisin

isinn

Is aire

ogam.

cons<wrtibh

Laitn^/r

lasin

lethguta / muiti.
a ttuisdigi rempa.

-i-

ar 2900

ioruicesta. [is coir Eg.] and.

Ina lethguta cetus

r, s,

191

da

-i-

-i-

f,

1,

Cia adupramrz-r gu rab 2905


ed o guth / ni hedh o fogur.

lethguta f, ni fir sin acht is


Na muiti -i- b, c, d, g, h, k, p, q, t a dtuistige ina ndeoig
de suidhip. Di email dano -i- da firdeg<7/Y forna con-

sdwaiph cumaidhi lasin Laitneoir -i- lasin lethanfoirzV/;m


iiarsinni foirius in Laitneoir gach red isin Laitin
no 2910
:

Laitneoir

Laitneoir
threora/V/
i-

laithreoir -I iarsinni laithres co treorach

-i-

onni

-i-

latinatas

is

no legh-treom/df no

lethghotha

luaidhit guth

foc^rdad

dia

no

Laitneoir

lethan-toir///t.

fogrugad

no

no

lit/V-

-i-

Lethguta
luitguth no

no lethguthait no lethguthsedh no leth- 2915


hiersinni co mad leth gotha go art nobeith

guthfotha 7 ni
inntib acht nad roichit lanfogur,
Seiine del seinie uiri dicuntur sed

;//

Priscianus

dixit

[1.
nori\ quia qui demeidiain partiin deoruui uel uirorum Jiabent sed qui pleni dei
ucl uiri non sunt -i- cia raiter lethdei no lethfir, ni hier- 2920

s\nni baitis lethdei no lethfhir acht na tot comhlana, sic

na lethguta ni dod comlana -i- amal at a mbaili oile


quicuit [in] duas paries dividitur altera pars semis dicet -isecib ni fog//^//t//er a ndiph randaip raiter in dara rand co
rab leth (col. /3) cin cob cudruma, sic na lethguta ni dot 2925

comlana, ud Donatus uel Priscianus di.vit : Seine uocalcs


sunt que per se quidini proferuntur et per se sillabani non
facijintjr\a.
et ni

denait

Atat na leth guta ni hi doturgbat treotha


s\\\aib

auditus expeillit
-~*

-i-

M Gr. Lat. v.
ico, 3

treotha

fein.

indarbaid int esticht secip ni raiter 2930


***

- r-

hierain

out.

>

-"

)I:

toirnid

Quiquid

fein

asperuni dicitur

"

p p.
*-- ata

decch-

-"">

-"

auditor

YBL.

YBL.

92

AURAICEPT

224/3 6

Eg. 66

2 a 35

a fogair no a muiti
co hacarp. Muiti -i- mi-aiti -i- bee ait
no
iet
a n-aonur no muiti -i- meto a n-aonar
i- muitid
maraon re
-i- mi iti in guth a mbeth
-i- moiti Eg] muiti
:

[muiti

guth^aib: no muiti
mnai bailph, 7 uodhside
-i-

onni

is

inutns,

amlapar

-i-

ainm do

Eg] n-amlapar 7 asamlabm doraith, ar atat

for chat [each

sidhie forsnahisi 7 ni ara ni batis


dixit
inntib cid ad beca nt Priscianus
a

:
Informix
fogur
est
sed
maleformata
caret
qui\a]
forma
mulier didtur non quia
tsechmallus
7 ni he sin ni
\. adberat in bansgul dodhelpha
O deilph acht drochdealph fuirre tantum.
muiti ni tat nemfogairacht
Is amlaidh sin [iarum Eg] na
No muiti -i- mifotha
ar terci a bfogair inntib nama.
ar thanacht
Eg] etroime a fogair, ut Donatus

indsin

dixit

7 [ar

Mutae sunt que

sillabam non faciunt

-i-

nee per sc proferuntur et per se

atat

na muiti acht nocha denait

int

treotha fein 7 nocha turgbat treotha budeisin.


no don
in cetna mes br*///emhnus
-ilethguta cetumus
seis
for
hai
cetna
hamus forsinn aisneis no don

sillaib

cetna

no don cetna hai


a

fis

m*ma thaithmig/^

a taithmech

no co na ba heicc*
in

timarr o

fil

a[c] clusail

-i-

tuisdige
o quidem ate cechtar de.
do
oirechda
suidhiph
fedha
tuisnW -i- na
is

adhaip

dona caingnibh dligtechaib no

-i-

do suidhiph

-i-

doipsidhe.

tuisdige

-i-

iter

na muiti ar

an luchd ota a
-i-

dona haib

for suidhiph

no

an lucht o ata

-i- na
tesargain no a tinnsgna
guthaigi.^
in
ina
ndiaig masa tustaigi
ar a nd-epertsum a tuistigi
hedh
[Ni
uair ni gnath in tinsgetal fa deoigh.

tuisdige

-i-

tinsgetal,

dosum ar mad tuisdighe acht madh in aei


dtocht
fil
roseichiustar ina menmain -i- in dliged gotha

eimh

is

ail

an dlig*
na lethguta do airisim leis fa deoigh, Eg]
va& prius. Nir po
consanachta fil inntib fa deoigh do chur
ar mad aicornto
Eithiuir
nGaidel mac
himairgidi son lasin
amlabhar

atberar

-x

muiti

amlabra

uodo-side

YBL.

295

in

g marro

*"

set

f *i

tust.ghe, tusa.gi

YBL.
YBL.

YBL.

AURAICEPT

224/3 30

Eg. 662 b 26

193

doip diplinaiph an guth reimhiph 7 ina ndiaig. Ar as ed


~
roba himairgitfk laisium comad in tuisech do airisim lais

an deigenach do chur uadh conid muiti uile bethi-luis-nin 2965


an ogaim acht forfedha nama. Nir po himairgidi son -inir ba himaruga son -i- togaidi -i- nir bo heim airec suadh
son

bo himaireachtain suadh son

nir

-i-

-i-

sillrt

for-

Cid ar narpo himarcci<ak son lasin nGaoidel -ingaoth dul -i- an fer aga raibi in dul gaoth. Ar mad 2970
aigned no ar mad aigenti doip dib lionaiph -i- dona
tormaigh.
lasin

lethgutaiph ~] dona muitibh -i- remaibh dona lethgutaib et


ina ndiaigh dona muitibh.
Ata acht lem and chena iss ed
ropui

eimh airechta suad iaisium on comad

ustar ina

menmain

-i-

in

guth^zV^

fil

a ix rosheich-

lethguta noairi.^ 2975

isin

deoigh J an deigenach do cur uadh -i- in de\genac/i


fuach do choir ai int suad -i- in tdaopomna do cur ar tus co
lais fo

na m[b]a miait lapartha ata bitheolus literda ind ogaim acht


fedha nama. Per ewistrafen a hainm sin lasin Laitneoir
tria deig^/ach impod amal ata el, le nobeith and, 7 en 2980
comad ne nobeith and.
Cid ar mad ferr laisiw a mbeth
comdis muiti uile ina mbeth comdis lethguta 7 rnuiti
amal robatar agin Laitneoir?
Ni ansa.
Ar seichimh
i-

Gm

nG/rg, ar ni filet lethguta leoside, ar robad do


gaip
do Feinius no dono is ar uaisli uird na nG;rc no na nguth- 2985
uigcdh fri suidiugud a n-uord focal, nt dicitur : Oimne iiilc
:

prius ponitur

et

oil/me

bonum postponitur

-i-

samaigther

22 5) 7 gach [ndereoil ar tus J each


maith fa deoig et
gach sainemail co forbha ar mad aicc^n/Vz -i- ar mad dlig^
(

>.]

togaide no madh ai gnith/ diphlinaiph -i- dona lethgutaib 2990


7 dona muitibh.
Ciarpo himairccide isna muitibh nir bo

hedh

isna

lethgut<7/7>.

Roimhe

isna

lethguth<7/7#

na

isna muitiph nir bo himairgide son et nir puo


ndeoigh
coir son, et nir po hecoir son.
Ar is ed roba himaircc/c/e
-i-

lasuidhe
2964

comad

touisech doairised
Quid MSS.

airisiod

sus fedlui

MSS.

2979

lais,

et in
*"

deig^^ach 2995
ar

mo

\.per anaslrophen a hai;/m-sium

aigniti

YBL.

194

AURAICEPT

225 a 7

Eg. 67

a 19

do chur uadh co na muiti uile beithi-luis-nin an ogaim


acht fedha nama: la suidhi -i- lasin suidh -i- la Gaidel
mac Eithiuir no comad o Gaoidel Glas mac Niuil [meic
Feniusa Farsaidh Eg.
suidi

-i-

laisidhe, co

in^di

is

tuisech

-i-

nohainmnig//^r Gaidelg: no la
a tuisec/i do airisiodh lais -i- go mad 3000

om.~\

mad

guthaigi agin Laitneoir isna lethguthtf^vwtf

nobeth

fo deoig in/?tip uile \etkgutha\g\


nobeth
forpa na cantana indiph /
7
guthaige
-iuad
ar
muiti conach muiti uile
cur
tus
do
in deigenac/t
i- co
nach a ngne muiti uile. Ata bitheolus literda an 3005

noairised lais

go mad

-i-

isin

oguim acht fedha nama

-i-

Cinnus

nguttvzgaiph.

paig\.er uile, ut est

tinsget///

uadaiph

uadhaibh

fein

f,

is
s,

fein

a tinsgetal uadaibh fen / a forpa i


fir sin, ar ni a nguth^oiph ior-

na muiti a

n, J reliqva, J is eid/r

nguth^aibh cidh
Eg.}. Ni a nguth^- 3010
a

forpa

msgantar [tinscai^t^r

Ni insa. Ni thapair int ugdar in


aiph forphaighter.
airemh a fil on guthaigi sis acht amal bid fhe -i- fern, no
ne
[a]

-i-

nin,

no saoi

-i-

sail

nopedh and, no

ni

mo

ar

ni

n-ap#r muiti risna muitz^ quam ar a dtinsgetul uadaiph


do litriph an ogaim sin 7 ni heicc co mad aisdi 3015

fein 7 ata

do \erraidh do

litrib

ind ogaim 7 do muitibh na Laitne, ar

Na nguth^is a nguthtf^oip forb^z^ter-side do gres.


taibh immorro forp^^ter f, s, n: forpaigter immorro litri
ind ogaim a nguth^aip, ut est beithi, tinne,
J a
"Jrl.

muitib, ut est uad, quert. 3020


lethguta, ut est luis, fearn 7rl.
Muiti iat, ar is o muiti tinsganait acht fedha nama 7 mad
;

o guthagciiph tinsganait.
tra
cis lir insgi docuisin ?
Insgi

iadside

is

indsge banindsge demeindsge


feimz>/

ansa.

nemutur

edh

i[n]

is

i,

nem.

is

e,

is

tri

edh

nGaid^/.

tri

fer-

Masg<7/

herlanna innsge, id
is

-i-

Cest, caiti deochair?

lasin Laitneoir.

Nus-deochrend a

hec, hoc ;

Ni ansa.

lasin

in

fer,

is

in

Ni 3025

est hie,

ben,

is

Insge tra orasio uelsginnsiaa bunad Laitwi


3001

am

;i026

Nus-deochra?^id

AURAICEPT

YBL.225aso
i-

a indi sgiensia

no inniscai

conair:

ier

a inde fesa

-i-

cai

-i-

no rad

no indi

67ib

Eg.

sin

neich

Coitcend

innis/i

195

ier cai

-i-

in/ze.

3030

thapaz rt
erlapra
airpert
for cech innsge iter ciallaide no neamciallaide, saorda 7
Dilius a tapairt for gach [n-insce Eg.] n-aiccenta
aigenta.
-i-

iter

ferinnsgi

Adam

tnca
7

-i-

feoil

Tra

-i-

Kuidlius a tapairt for gach


fer toisech do rad innsge 3035

\>aninnsgi.

nama

ferinsge aiccenta
i-

/rl.

ar

is

meis

dixit: Ecce ous de osibus

adcimsus

dom

[-i-

adcimsi

cara de

et

came

cnaimh dom cnamhaibh

Eg.~\

INdlius a tapairt for innsgi tsaorda.


dorae uain -i- dorae innsge cuccaind -i- aisneis
feoil.

iar n-indisin aipcitr^

Cis

ban, denie.
snig airme

lir

-i-

tra

cia Ier

[It e cetus na

-i-

don conair

dono a

It

Eg. om.~\
Docuisin

tri

no

-i-

na

tri

a n-uathad, cesc, cuin, cid.

cislir,

do

-i-

coi sin

-i-

3045

fis

cuinngid fair,
Cia lion atat na hinnsge
no ni
ni handsa lasin saidh indsin

tarrustar.

[saei in Eg.] son


-i-

tri

cidne, caidiet

a n-ilar,

no disgnaigter, no
-i(sin)? Ni ansa
tri

n-i\ar,

tri

anond said ag

se

-i-

tri

hinnsge fer, 3040


himcomair-

tri

cia lin

douisim inwsge no docuisin


no don coi inmsiw no d

sin

-i-

nGaid^/, a

lasin

filet

n-uathtf^/.

doiligh.

no

ier

n-airem.

no

ni

handsa son

Atat dano

tri

-i-

ni

hernaile for 3050

no a cuig
amal ata
immorro
NuimzV foirpti
ar ni fasand o quoitibh.
a se, ar tairisigh co coir a gcoitz ^// -i- aon a tseissed, a do
Ant aon ierum 7 na do et na tri,
a trien, a tri a leth.
airemh 3055
a se sin -i- a haon fo se, a do fo tri, a tri fo do,
Nuimir oullforpthi
foirpti sin, uair airisz ^ coir na coitibh.
nuimir

-i-

i[n]

nuimir anfoirphti amal ata a

tri

~]

immorro amal ata (col. /3) a do dec, oir


t
estiph -i- a haon a oile dec, a do a
fas<7z

cethmz ;//e, a cethair a

trien, a se

do dec a haon ierum

jox,

3046

coi in

ra idh

fmwi sin

s036

na do

et

Vulgate, Gen. ii. 23


30S7
is he 16 fasait

is

he

se dec

seissed, a tri a

a leth, amal rogaph a


[na Eg.} tri a se sin, a 3060
3<m

306S

tri

imcomairsnigh

fasaid dip

AURAICEPT

YBL. 225/32

196

comd

cethair iar [sin EgJ\


se

conid

iarsin

taithmech a lethae

[a Eg.] deich

tria

samlaidh

na coitidhecht n-airme

coitidhe.

each

Is

gach rannaighe
coitige dano.
Ferinc/sgi -i- ferrda a n-in</sge

ct ni

671540
et ina

dec samlaidh conicl nuimir and-

se

bunad

sin is uille ara

Eg.

coit/ti is

trie

-i-

rannoigi

3065

is

mna no
:

foirius

-i-

na

ferr ina in^/sge

no firenin^sge no foirindsge iarsinni


firin</sge
im dula do luga no uir innsge id est a uiro : no f/r
:

mna

innsge na

pios indsge ind

Panindsge

-i-

bannda innsge

-i-

banfir

-i-

fir

dano.

innsge maith

-iin<r/sge

fo indsce Eg.~\ in

innsge [!

firin^/sge

bona

bios indsge na

fir

innsge bannda

in^/sin

no

no bo 3070

mna: no
-i-

banin<-/sge

in</sin.

Deiminafege -i- deimzVz innsge no doeim innsge fuirr/


no do ouwa innsge -i- innsge do duine, ar 3075
duine raidius no in deime fil and is on brethir is demo,
:

o neoch oile

no
digbaim, ata ar rodigbait fuirre in dedha remains
demhoe cech neotar lasin Laitneoir is deime laisin bfilzV/
:

No

nGaoid^/rtc/A
i-

deiminc/sge

in^sg[e] dembeoaigh///i

-i-

hindsge sloinnius do phiu.

ni hi

Deimindsge dano

-i-

3080

innsge neotur.

Masg/-i[mascul

col quaui

mo

mas

-i-

a sgel no a sgoul quain in

fer / cul

coimet

an femen no Egl\ onni

Feim^^
sliasat, ar as

-i-

foimin

and

is

ben

-i-

[si

fo

fir

no mascol

is

feim*?;/

mo

no
7 a

fis

masgolinus, mascaldo.

no femin onni

is

femur, 3085

Eg:] intan fognaigther die sliasait

no feme G/rcio, id est uirgo


Feimder dono
filia Latinc.

Latiiia.

Der Gm:o, id

est,

ogh \ngen: no onni is


femzWmis -i- feimenda no feimder dono: no flesgda no
maothcnesach dicitur onni is femen femeina -i- bannda, 3090
no banecusgda, no bangnimach, no bangneithech. Neuter
ni fid/r ci a cinel, uair nach se (no) nach si
no neut?/;-i-

i-

;!071

^~

YBL.
a scol

fir

da with/wwc/. del.
3084
masculdota

3ms

no do eimh

m3 YBL.^a/r

:i076

YBL. dema

30SS

ondi

YBL.

AURAICEPT

225/3 25

Eg. 67

197

28

2 a

nemnechtarda, ;/#; masgitlionum ncc


ni
feminionum, nee \Ji\oc nee illat: no neuwtor ni masgal
onni

neutrum

is

-i-

3095

feimia.

Cesc, caiti deochair etorra

her da aoi

no cia hait ita degcorug?^/ etorra

is e, is

ed

is

i,

nos-dedualoigther.

-i-

nos-deilighther
iru/sge:

cia hait ate etourra

-i-

he

is

-i-

in fer, is

-i-

ai

herlam/a

tri

in ben, is

da

it^r

-i-

ed

in

tri

neum.
Cesc,

cia haisg, onni i[s] sciscor

-i-

herloinrf

-i-

Cuin
he

Is

etargairi

nama gan

araill

fria araill,

nt est

ct

masgul

fria

Lonain

issedh

imaille

he

is

aile co

is

no a

tri

cuin

in^sge,

is

intan itbcror Eg.}

eim antaw dobeire 3105

\Jr\ond

Etargaire dono

in feur.
is

comarcim.

erlaim/:

emh

indsci

fris.

no

-i-

tri

urland, cuin

is

[isi,

neutur

nech

firloin^/:

tri

remhsloin^.

no a

\\.er feirruv/

etargaire dono intan dechrajgi

n-anm<7/w

a athar sainrud, ut dixit

mac

Uinsi cugut in gillcwcan,


Mac rergoccat n,
Pid gach maith ara cionwccoccaw,

chendgoccfl/^.

n-urlan^/ 7 urlaiW iar n-urlaiv/

Urlant/ ria

inand her da urland nach


rie

ini

in

-i-

no

se,
se,

no

da urlaind nach

fri

sedh.

n-urlaiW

311")

Erlan^/ ier

re scudh.

Urland inand

in sedh.

inam/

in se

urlancz

rie

-i-

fil

in

rempa riasna
urlunc^r,

foclaip ina

neuotwr

tig ina

in

aigenta,

si,

no

no

is

achd at

dedha

si,

inanda

it

sloinnti

dona

rie

in

Urland

inan^a.

gach
achd reimtsuidugud no is fri se no
Tri herlonda in^sge -i- tri rcmsloin^/ -i- tri )120

herlond

ni

focul,

it

it

in^/sgi, it

7,

28

x.

187

is

etargaire

se, is
-i-

feim///

-i-

aiccenta 7 ealadha.

feirinr/sge tsaorda,
:

si,

Gr. Lat. vjii.*82, 25

is

inasg^/ 7

Ata dono
Feirirutfsge 3125

he
::

edh

is

remtsloinnti

it

citirdeiligt//i treotha.

ndeoigh

gach inc/sge
he in fer
i.

-i-

ndeg^/V/ 7 in^/sge

is

Origg.

hinrt sgibh

""

i[n]

VRL.

nemh
is

c/>c/-

198

YBL.

AURAICEPT

225/3 4 8

is

ba[n]in^/sgi aigenta,
in cloch.

ben

in

Deimin^/sgi tsaorda,

Eg. 67

2 b 17

is

bainin^/sgi tsaorda,

ed

is

in cend.

Deimindsgi

Aigned caom and 7 aigned


Aiccned caom cetumus is
sron no suil 3130
n-eitig (226).
na mna. Aiccned n-eitigh is e (no is i) fiacail no bel na
aigenta,

is

ed

nemh.

i[n]

mna

gotha fodera sin et ni ni achd nemhgnathugud,


amal atat na focm7 perla nat-aithgeunam, ni bind lind
uair
ar ni
la
nech ni nach
nis-gnathoigim
et cail

bin<^

No

gnathoigend.

rodipW
lasin

in

bfilid

se

-i-

nama

an^,

is

oni

demo

is

-i-

coi conair, conair

araill

imalle

ar 3135

neut//r.
airport.

neich

inc/iste

Insge tra intan ismberar 3140

ar.

fris,

ita,

neut?^/

Deimhin^sge -i- in^/sge


a bunud Laitne.
Sgothecna a

gan fher no gan


cen

fil

nGaid^/ach.

Insge tra sgieinsia


In inniscoi a hinwe
conair

deime

dedha remain^/: no deme cech

fuirre in

ut Priscianus dixit

Oracio

congruam dixionim profectarum scentenciarum


denwnstrans -i- ata ind indsge ina hordugud comimairccide

est ordinacio

na n-epert foillsigius in cheill foirpti. Cesc, cuin imaricc iter


ind indsge -i- an foghar et in duil dia n-in^/isin -i- an diail, 3145
et is he sin an red fomamoighti -i- com<7/rcim.
Cuin is

eimh

irrochtain suad iter in indsge agus in duil dia n-indisi

Antan fedhair a hindsge coir fuirre


immorro it/r etourra intan fedhair

Ni ansa.
cczV/e
i-

banin^sge, no
for

deimindsge
eim airecht/ a n-ai

i-

diail:

fedair

-i-

banin<r/sge

cechtar n-ae.
-i-

iter in

athtairgith^r

Imaric

indsge
:

for
-i-

for araile

ferinrfsge, 3150

imaric

7 in duil.

no fedhair

ni himair-

in</sge

ferindsge for

no

i-

-i-

-i-

-i-

Duil

fiadhair

aisn^ter indsge coir, ut est :


SarruM/ a dealpha, gan cleith,
Elpa ingine \&.aidh,
Fri gour grene glaine ar gurt,
Is fris tsamhlazw a caomhcucht.
A -~*
:!141

313a

scieinia

Gr. Lat.

ii.

attaircidhter

53, 28

3155

conana indesti neich conana

:il:!il

coi conair

:!141i

ret

:;147

arochtazw

:;154

aisneidU;-

::Kl(i

Elbo, Fiduigh T.

YBL. 226

AURAICEPT

a 25

Ni himaircide

ni

-i-

indsge 7 in duil

-i-

eim ferindsge

for

Eg.

heim aireachta

indisi oile fair

achd

iter

68ia5

n-ai

iterin

Fedhair 3160

indisi coir.

antan adberar,

banindsge

-i-

199

is

he

in

banmac-sa, ut dicitur :
Die mad meisi

in banmacam,
Ni cechraim/ nach fealmaca^

3165

Fer nat-finntar go gcloinnter,


dib, a mtitnter.

Slanceill cei

Fedhair eim banindsge


in

for ferindsge intan isberar

is

gobwr, ut dixit:
Is
Is

in

he

gopar tan

in

is

each,

3170

gabar cid meglech,

in corr cid reil nus-reill,

Is

Is

he

in

menntan gid banen.

Fedhair dano deimindsge for ferindsge no four ban


iss ed in cend,
sech is cend fir
indsge intan isberar
3175
no mna. Deimhindsge for ferindsge quidem, ut est :
Is e in

daigh

d<?rgdighe

dath

gapar cath no cioth


Iss ed cend is caoime cruth
Fris nach

go mbrath

Fil

Deimindsge

for braoine in bith.

banindsge, ut dixit :
Cend mna romandair mo modh,
Don-farraztf duin, ni deilm ndil
Is

ed cend

Do
Ferindsge
hiwcc/M

neoch

is

fil

graindfe

for

GaphrazVz

Alain*/

Mac marph

ceilli

no cein T.

fo

mairg
:1171

sin

nim.

dixit

Colum

Cille

fri

3185

damna marphai

Doching tar
Is

mui

in</

banindsge, ut

for

Aodha mic

"

3180

for

bai

airther in lair,

et

ua

aroile,

recfus dia aire.

chorr. T.

reill nus-reill

com mbruth forsmbruinne mbith T.

domfarruidh don T.

:!|sii

hing/

Aodh/

3190
~
31

cith

3173

eacoime
ar T.

3181

romanmhuir

D187

damno

200

AURAICEPT

YBL.226a 4 2

Fedair eimh ferindsge


intan isberar, is i an cloch,

et
is

Eg. 68

for

banindsge
he an lia, ut

a 26

demindsge

est hicc:

Is e in lia, lith rolas,

lar srethaz^ suadh in s^wchas

ed oun

Is

n-aiccn^/

iar

Is

an cloch

3195

ail,

iar saordataid.

Ait a n-abar deime donw,


1

For foun

Ata

tra

modh

cheil in ier a n-aigruv/ n-oll,

Iss

ed [inond Eg.}

amlaid sin

\\\dsge, ar atae

saorda.

fichtibh eland,

feim/

Ni

da

ingn<r

aign^

(col. (3}

modh

in

lap^rda

fil

and

3200

et saordat// in

and

Atat dano ceithri fodla

-i-

mod

gach

aigenta

for tsaordato/V/

et
-i-

deichfer raindi, 7 tugait mbim/iusa, / cuimre raid, J \o\\\gud

Deichfer rainafe cetumus amal rogaph, is he an 3205


banmac so -i- don rolnd oighi fil isinn ingin is ainm

lap^rda.

Tuccait mbindiusa amal ata,

ainm

is

-i-

goour, solus

ar tucait mbindiusa

fris

isin

is

in

et

gobar

d eoch ban

mBr^nus, go dtug an

file

lolugw^ laparda amal ata, iss ed


a n-irlapra Cuimri raid amal ata, 3210

in cend, sech is Haiti

eimilt
rusg ime J criathczr arba J leastar uisgie, ar
rusg im imb 7 criathar im arp^r J lestur im uisgi do rada.
Gabar intan is trie ailm quaisi caper is ed rotruailla/ and
rob<7<r/

gobar

tria

onn

-i-

don eoch

is

noinen son 7

is

Combrec.

Ro-

truailWgoor, each solus, a suidhe unde dicitur gob^r donn 3215


eoch giuol. Cidh nach dath oile bes fair, is in ech die mbe
bee
is

do

an^

giul

airechdam

Gaoid^/ach b

bes
fair

gobar a noinen, ar

is

an^

nominatur.

no an^, ar rob

aille

goour unndi dicitur gobar nominatur.


Atad dono indsge and ata coitcend

leo

"

YBL.

indonrf

- 17

gial (or) giul

^
s

labortha

airaghamh

asan dath

an

file

gob^r quam
3220

iter ferin^sce J

indsge, ut est Flanw no Cellach no Buodach.


:a

is

Rotuill

:121:!

Cor. 22

!B1

b and

ban

Phidh dono

:
quasi caep (?)
ar rob aille

MSS.

YBL.

isin [Gaidilc

qumusda

in^/sgi
isin

AURAICEPT

226/3 17

Eg.} Laitin,

menntan

est in

;//

amal

Eg. 68

an cenel cumassu

bis

an truid

et

2OI

2 a ii

in coirr,

ut dicitur:
he

Is

in

minntan cid boinend, cid

firend.

ni hainm
[immorro Eg]
-ifer,
ferindsge na banindsge achd do neoch dofuisim
na
ndul
aiccn^
chena
o
ba
deime
-ibeun
dtuismer
7
7

Mad

uili

na ndula

iar n-aigned coir

3230

archena.

Atat dano da email


tuismiud

espa

pa

slo

dixit

md

tuismz //^ saorda 7

an

fein

7 Pa

ut est

fer,

deime chena

-i-

Pompeus 3235

uocabaloum ant corparailiinn [ant

sexu naturaliter carencium per arteim

Eg]

asgribimus, hoc est ne utrum

e\s\se

fer

-i-

n&u\.ur int uile z\ccenta ar chena, ut est

incorporalium

lhi inn

tuism^v/ clanda

Omnium rerum

Graciam

don talmain

ni

is

muna

talman

tuismzW

Tuismiud saorda cetomus

aigenta.

toalmrt/w 7 luibi ar
in

for

nee masgo-

i.e.

ncc feim ininu m,ut est(?} Ji\a\ec insticia, 1i\a\cc ueritas.

Consinsins dirit

Quiquit per naturam sexsus non assingnat 3240

neutrttm Jmbere oportet set ars qni uoluit gignere sen liquenda
seu dicenda asgribsit
raiter

suond?

-i-

iar .saordat^/rt

Ni ansa.

Natura quae motatur

Cid inni

Foillsiugisgtair

per tempera

nee

is

aiccenta

go n-apair

uairitatnr nee

separabitur et natura non est quiquid motatur et non sdaire 3245


uidetur et quaecumque extrinsccus accidundur scd quae

constant in
uuieditas

ud

se,

in

sdabilitas in terra, gurbitas in lapedebus,


in

claritas

aqua,

aere,

calar

in

ingnc.

Doepenar dano deimindsge a ferindsge no a banindsge.


Doeipenar dono ferindsge J banindsge a deimindsge amal 3250
ata isnahaib reimendouiph 7 it iat sin na deime teibidi
7 na lanomna deime 7 a ngeine-sidhe.
It e
andso
deismerachta in deime teiphighe isnahaibh reimendaibh -icend 7 cride falaing a deime deiph/V/e a ndetbir dip//;w/7;.
;

5
10

cumuscda
Bmsbixdeut

tiixit

truit

H.

--">

!U

toismer
sintt sed

"

Gr. Lat. v 343, 32

Jl7

roiisaiit

3251.

:;

thalam, ar

is ni

\\uec terra hie panes

isnaib

:IL .-,:I

don talam

T.

desmbeirechto

:a 4
"

fulach

202

AURAICEPT

YBL. 226/343

Lanamna

Eg. 68 2 a 41

in cind suil / fiecail


lanamna an cride srebanrf 3255
lanamna in fulaing lurcca 7 troig geine dono ina
lanamna deime gene na sul -i- abrachtur J malo gene na
fiecrt/ bun J leithe
geine int [s]rephain<r/ tanoigecht J dath

7 cru

baine

i-

et glaisi

dath beos

in cride tigi 7

geine

vuade

-i-

3260

7 deirge (227).

Secht n-etargairi tra docuisnet

-i-

-i-

disgnaigter

[in

Eg.]

grad conne[i]lg lasin Laitneoir, etargaire a ainm lasin


Etargairi

pfilid.

Etargairi

persainafc.

persaim/e
is

Etargaire incuisg

persoin^f.

ngnimh.

antan

caisac/it

Etargaire
maith, c\acht intan 3265

is

Etargaire derrsgaigti a nderrsgugud

oulc.

7 superlait laisin Laitneoir.

fourmoulad

nGaidel.

Maith

lasin bfilid.

Etargairi meiti a

moosoun.
et

persain<afe

gceuss^-i-

comparait,
et

incuisg

Fothugud

poisit,

fourran

et ferr et ferrsoun, lasin

meudugud

mor

-i-

Etargoire lugaidhe a lugugud

lugasoun.

-i-

et

-i-

[Etargoire incoisg persainde

moo

et

pec

me

-i-

et

luga 3270

et

budein,

tu budein Eg. ojnJ] se budein, sib budein, sinafe budeisin,

badeisin, siadsum

siphsi

bunad Laitne.

mbe

dia

Etargaire

Uraicioptou

no
tit

i-

ran^T tar

in

Etargaire
i-

-i-

est

eis

Pars pro

na

caindeiligti
est :

gradh onni
:

Pars pro

3:i )7

maolo

totom pro pairte.

tar eis

eiterdeiffrigti

na rainde.

no etargaire 3280

ed^rgleodh
is

gradus

-i-

no comdheiligte ar

in

toto et

ra

iar

craidi, ruaighie

amal

is
3279

ngleodh a fesa

ceim.

Coin^/elg

gcoinrfeilg

totum pro parte.

lasin Laitneoir in coindeilg


"

et in toit

in

in

-i-

in

et

-i-

no ttargaire -i- gair guth -ino etergleithi -i- gleas


gotha andsin

a treidiph

etergnougz/^/ in
etarro
no etargaire
:

-i-

eitercoraigti

eiterdeiligti

etorra

toiti

toto

soigti

n-aineolus. 3275

connafelc

in

ita

seiptim
i[s]

sechtmad email

isin

-i-

sechta

isin

mbe

dia

saigti

i[s]

etechtu ita

isin
:

caindeiliugud,

-i-

Secht n-ai a inde no sechtei,

n-eolus,

-i-

Sechta

padeisin.

uile,

-i-

ut 3285

Cid ar nach treide


tn?</i

tote

lasin phfilid in
"

28

eiterdeiffriti

AURAICEPT

YBL. 22702*

incosg

nama agan

mains,

bee

7 olc EgJ\

mor

is

-i-

bfilid

met

-i-

in^/e

-i-

met

et

edh a inde immorro

[Is

b 27

203

et in^/e

fouirend and nach

Laitneoir

in inde.

maith

i-

et

is

lasin

adbeurait aroile

et

deidhe

eim

treidi

Is

etargoire?

Eg. 68

et

lasin

bfil

acht

bonus

et

3290

nGaidel

et paruus, is i an met -i- mour


bee i gconafeilg neich is lugha.

RIagnus

lais-.rium in

Incousg immorro icon pfilid ni connafelg side lasin


Cid fodera dossw;// 3295
Laitneoir acht pronomen 7 dopriathar.
a radh a ngrad conndeilge lasin Laitneoir, is etargaire a
ainm lasin bfilid ? Ar ni filit acht tri graid conndeilge

agin Laitneoir, 7 atat secht n-etargaire icon

Ni

pfilid.

da cudruoMfftgW eim dosum ani adbersiom [sin Eg. } acht is


Is ed [siw EgJ\ ata etargoire lasin 3300
fior a mbeith amlaidh.
filid is

connflfelg lasin Laitneoir

derrsgoigti

etargaire

is

conndeilge

z\.argaire derrsgaighti a

-i-

nderrsgugud, ar ni gach etargaire

grad conn^eilgi acht

is

Is

nderrsgugud.

eutargaire, no ar

ni leithe

car/;

grad

conndelg oldas
3305

eutargaire.

File
fe
i-

fel sai

-i-

no

fial

sai

no

file

onni

is

filososubus

-i-

feallsoum,ar dlegar don filid feallsamhnrtr/2/ aigi no file


fi ani aorus, 7 li anni molus
no file -i- [it Eg.~\ fele ai, ar
:

dh ^ar de
an

file

ar

7rla

ed nodus-saora, feile dano in^/racus nos-ditne


no file a flectendis carminibus : no file -i- fel sai, 3310

is

fhoglama, amal ata felmac no file -i- fi a oumna 7 H a


dawu fair no file -i- fial do aei no file -i- fi oulc 7 li maith
moulad 7 aorad. Cubhaidh cia fhasus deisidhe ainm
sai

i-

in fhilid dia

Cid ar

fhognat.
conelcc las-jiww in

mad

derrsgugud do ni?

Ni ansa.

Ar

poisit,
is

is

uair

nocha 3315

foutha 7 ata

derrsgugud dhi, /// dicitur airim frie hunair, (col. /3) lit est :
Units non est nuincnis set fundanioituni nuineri -\- nocha
nfuil int

aonni conid airim acht ata conid fotha airme

YBL.
:i:al?

fe,

/tounus,

ma/us

fellsom om.

YBL. nuimerus

cf.
;;:;1

"

Gr. Lat.

YBL.
YBL.

viii.

72, 24

:>

!l

a flechtendi cannenibus

conid airme

da cudruwm, ani om.

mt

filed

YBL.

204

227

AURAICEPT

Eg. 6S 2 b 15

amal ata deach icon

bfilidh -i- dialt, ni deach side(n) fodhei- 3320


V tria tsaordata// in^/sin
deachaiph atrimther.
iint alt aigenta immorro do posit
posit a positns -imad
Cid
ar
ainm
suidhiugte.
compariti doberitsim arin
sin cid la

gcoindeilcc uile

do

Ni ansa.

Posit cetumus

ni dersgaig

Comparit immorro seoch derrsgaigzV/ do neoch 7 3325


derrsgaigt/2r di. Sw/^rlait immorro ni derrsgaigt//^r di
conid airisin is ainm foriata in comWelg uile. Atberat
araile foirend connach dersgaight/<w do comparit acht do
ni.

posit derrsgaigit araon


beirius comparit,

mor

-i-

Caiti conn^elg cheille cen soun

cen

suoin

Coinrtfelg

Uirglisiumns no-rad

nt

cheill,

is

est

anma^a

-i-

7rlo.

Pid dano maith 7 ni bi

Deus,

fo

Die [maith Dia

Ponteca oldat na maire

oile

iar sou;/ et ni

amal ata

imalle,

Ulairie Pounticum

is

-i-

olchena

luga a serbiu.

is

somillsi

an muir

7 ni hiarsani badis

Conndelg cotursna

an^/sin 3345

indsi dotio.

Etargaire
uin</sie

uin</si

---

fir

isin

YBL./of//w5

Eg]

no suinwsi

uainsi

-i-

nem, id

an ben: ounrf aur


""-

1:a)

"

::

est

-i-

in

YBL.

Dens.

-i-

on^/ar

Uin^/sie

-i-

uinr/si

-i-

-i-

ander

an

dem.
:!;!:M

mor

;:;:;:;

no

uainse

foirend YBL. repeats


compraiti
brab-beres superlait T.
rofetfaigh sin arai T.
serbe, cotursna indsi;/ dono

bee prabh-b#;-es comprait 7


mi YBL.
bounus, meliour
cetera

cetitvius

inchouisg i persainf /e
uin^se [no sonnse

oun^ar

sonwse: uinwsi
aun^/ a

:::;4:i

mairia

setera

gres,

souin 3335

connelg techta.
magnns, niagior, nmxiinus
derrsgugud di, ut bounus 3340
Bid dano conealg anrt et

fein dersgaigius, nt est.

duilsins est quain

somillsi acht

EgJ\.

ceilli

connelg

do

dilsi

hi sin in

is

Coindealg tsoin 7 ceille imalle

ni dia hin;/e

Uirglior,

Coin</elg

nobiad sin

Coin^/elg suin J

fortis, fot twr, fortissinius,

dow

anc/sin.

fousgadh

cheill bonus, bonior, boniunis

gan

bfuil iar gceill.

Uirgilns,

fr/e sin arai tsouin / ni bfuil

frie

cruthugud

3330

bonus, melior, optimus.

arai cheille and, ar ni connr/elgter

acht

Bee brab-

ct superlait.

comparit

brab-beirius superlait.

-i-

fer:

3350

YBL.

AURAICEPT

227/3 31

Etargaire incouisg persain^e


se

budein

/rlo,

me

-i-

205

as

Eg. 69

budein, tu budein,

amal adubramar romhaiiW.

Etargaire per-

angnimh dorignes, dorignis, dorigne dorigensum


Etargaire persain^/e ceussad 3355
dorighensat, dorigheunsait.
ia foditen dia n-echtair -i- nom-cartar-sa, not-carthar-si,
sainrtfe

carthar-sim

non-cartar-ne, nobar-carthar-si, carthar-sim.

Etargoire deurrsgaighti a ndersgugud -i- fouthugud in


cetna graidh -i- poisit form;/ -i- forrain fair in gradh tanaisi
:

i-

i-

comparit
formoulad
:

for in

fourmoulad

molad

-i-

mbrabh

feurrsoun laisin

molad reimhtechtmV/

for

toisiuch

formfuilled fair in treas gradh 3360

-i-

-i-

superlait

[-i-

nGaoid^/ coithcend

Eg.~\
i

-i-

maith

bfecmais

Fouthugud, immorro, J form//, J fourmolad


gaire meide a meudugud -i- mour / mouo

in

filed.

Etar

lasidhe.
7

brabh

et ferr et

moosoun

7 3365

bee 7 lugha 7 lughasoun.


etargaire lugaiti a lugugadh
_^_^
Atberait araile ni bfuilit acht cuig etargoire and, ar is aon-i-

etargaire leo na

tri

hernaile deighenc/M

-i-

/\

edargoire mete

7 \ugaid& occus eutargaire dersgaigti a nderrsgugud.


[Cie
aclberadsim eutargaire mete a metugud J eutargaire 3370

ionan^ (228)

lugaite a lugugad

is

om\

ndersgugud Eg.

ar

laighet
inntip beuos.
EtargnougW beurla

is

et

etargaire dersgaigti

derrsgugud

meud

in

et in

fil

Gaidr/cc

guth ealg

-i-

ar

ni

et

na da perla Ixx. ina fecmais

fir

guth

-i-

cheana, ar roghaphar
foirind ceachtor sic. 3375

don

irdercaigti.

Elg

-i-

Eire

iguth Eir;/uch an^/sin -i- berla is gnath i nEirinn


dano. Ni certtuirem na gcinedh ar ni phfilet do reir inn
Secht bfeudhu oiredha filet and fo aisti an
ug^rrdais.

Gn gaid
leap<7/-

dono

-i-

-i-

ua

lucht-sa sis
3363

ebo

et oir

int Uraicipt uile.

Bruic
is

;MI7

Jecmais

cuicc

:;:;74

**-

Itberat araile co

Is iat

cona

liophair

ug^ais, feda oireghro

suas.

tseitchib.

imda

mad

aon- 3380

adber sin an lucht-sa anuas

-i-

hua

Atbeurat dano
Coirill

:L:7i;
X!7S
Elcc
fogabar
cona seitib, Bruich P.M.

filet,

in

ua Coindi

ind ughdarais T.

mo: O Coinne

1126

206

AURAICEPT

YBL.228aii

Do

na maithi ar cheana.

et

frecra

sound

eurndail do beith

Da

fuoirre.

Madh

nocales et consanantes.

a 36

na h-aipgitiW/; dobeir
is fairre uile Hess da 3385

thoit

da hurbernadh

et ni

Eg. 69

-i-

erndail

da

-i-

beus

fo athargtf^

fir

n-aile,

ni [ni

Eg.
con fil isin coipdi, iss ed bid foullus as sin go mbetis and
guthaige na turgbadis/w se J na tagendais s\\\atb per se.

Go

heiccintech

ua Bruic

acomat

is

ag

Patronoimic

coir a beith

-i-

Atat
leithe a

is

tri

Atber 3390

connahi quidim.

Adber ou

frecru o da-n-iinorr o

frecrus.

primo

do

is

dobrz ^/zar.

<w/.]

immorro

Finrt

heurnaile

fuirm^ quaui

fuirm^

for

inde

com-

na nuimre

clusail

ag

fil

is

ioucal.

ar ni hebertai

a inafe acht risin patronomic dogentai a patre 3395


7 aderar riu uile cid a patribus uel a matribus beit.
Lapis
dicitur eo quod leidit peidini is cumga a fuirm^ quidim
reir

deiside

Robad

a inde.

quam

do rada

dir deiside lapis

gach ni [fris tairtaigt//<?r Eg.] tarraigt//^r cois.


Bonus is comforlethan a fuirmed et a inde, ar
bonus acht bail a mbi
foires
i-

in

-i-

cail

Laitneoir

bonitatis.

ara leithe fouirius cech ni a nLaitin

-i-

habar 3400
lethan

no Laitneoir

Ni lanceurt dochoidh

ar feuphus a treorac/i isin Laitin.

Gaoidel

ni

fri

ssund ac deunam muiti dona taophomnaibh


-iar a tosac/i do airisiw occa 7 an dered 3405

ar in fath sin

do chur uada, sic est in beithi-luis, ar robdis muiti uile


na feudha ar in bfath sin no ceudna. Ar is ed fil doipside tosac/i a n-anmandb do airisi;/z ag nech do deunam
foucail et a nderedh do chur uadha, amal ata ailm -i- a 7
onn o 7 araill and dano die ndenait muiti dona taoboumnaiph 3410
dtossach do airisim aicce. Robtis muiti
agon
i

Gaid<?/

na haipgitre Ephraide 7 Gregda, ar is toiseach a


n-anman^/-side do airis[im] ag nech et an deired do chur uad,
uile \itri

ut

est

m3
3392
3396

3402
S40(i

alebh
ni

[-i-

a Eg:] agconn Ephraide, alpa


X)88

3S87

d airbernad T.
atharcadh, an \ T.
do ag fregrad doifn T.

freccra

Qrigg. xvi. 3,
isin Laitin T.
chora

* tartaidther

T.
:m * feabus a treorach
derna T.

:M1

:i400 - J
:

a icon Eg.]

coibdi

ym

Gr. Lat.

v.

,
"

[{

YBL.

treoru T.
deired foco/

34I:!

turbadis

146, 19
dounus, bounatatis
s*04

Gaidiol

YBL.

AURAICEPT

228 a 39

Eg. 69

2OJ

b 27

agcon G;rgda, ailm agcon Gaoidel. Is amlaidh sin atat 3415


dtusach do airisim ag nech / an
na tri haipgitri -iar seichim Gregda. immorro
Is
deredh do cur uad.
i

Ebraide bud couir don Gaoid^/

int ord

dorinne

et ni

comdis muiti iar mbrigh na dtaobomna uile, sic


nach dat muiti ag Ephnz^aiph 7 a g Gr^gaip na consat ni 3420
uile cid
dtousach do airisz w leo. Ma do reir [immorro

arai

Eg. ] na

naibe

sgrephtra

in

ughd#z>

in

leighin^

is

[i

bunad don

Eg.]
aipgitir Ephraide
aipgitir Gregda
7 Laitianda 7 don bethe-luis-nion a n-ogaim cen co n-iiWisit
ugdair in leighind, ut est aleb isinn Eabhra, alpa uadha- 3425
is

ogaim.

[Greic Eg.], a isin LaitzVz, ailm isin Gaoidilc


Inscie tra da.no inde in iocatl is indsge (col. /3),

ar

sgie

side isin

is \\\d

fil

gcomtach isinni is a sciensia, an ecna,


Ni ceart dochuaid in Gaid^/ sund -i-

iar

i
n-aendefoghair.
tiachtain do o aipgitir co hin^/sge cen taithmech sillaibi 3430
no-eperta rempe, ar is tousacha iat qiiam inwsge. FermVz
i

7 reliqua
fo

-i-

foimin

mion an ben

-i-

Mion

an bfer bis an ben.

foir

n-athfeg^

in

deisidhe an ben.

fir

no

Deithpir

\ngen 7 mac) is he in banmacsa [d airighti go tiugad as sin co nderna fermac co rannda 3435
de a ndeip/r iter in mbanmac 7 in fermac Eg. oni^\. Is he
raindi

(-i-

da raitW

idir

-i-

deismeracht na hetargaire i ssunafa iarsin deuda remain^


irlan^/ 7
indsge -i- taithmech deidhe and for aird

-i-

-i-

masgail 7 feimzw do neoch dofuisiw et o


ttuismzt/^r -i- a tuismiud and o mnai et ata tuismiud di 3440

taithmeth

i-

in

modh

ar a

tuism^

si

budein o neuch

oile 7

dano an

modh

o dtuismena -si cloim/ uaithi pudein na tr/au /rlo.


Iss iarmo [si Eg.] tucc zidiQ\\iud aiccenta hie.
Ar tanz ^r

taithmech aigenta reime, quando dixit -i- tuismiud saorda


ercoiliud aigenta ar 3445
7 tiusmiudh aigenta ideo dorad
aird hie.

Incusg
ntls
34:18

dirinne T.
taithmit T.

et

inwde
*

34

et

Gr. Lat.

meud

viii.

tuisme T.

is

amlaidh so

302, 3

;f44 -

natura T.

aim

a44;i

is

treidhe

tucca,

aicne hie T.

in

dernadh T.

:!445

YBL.

idio

208

YBL.

AURAICEPT

228/8 15

ig gabail fo incousg, oir

derrsgaighti

comparit

immorro

lughugud

sin

is

inntib

fil

incosg

meidi a

ULtargaire

meudugud

lionaibh.

Adberat

treidhe in sechta remhain^.


Is

poisit 7 3450

\\.er

gap/W/fo met dip

ig

deda dip lionaibh.

is

uile.

gapail fo inafe

Etargaire

superlait.

Conid hamlaid
aroile

is

nderrsgugud ag

etargaire lugaite

2 a 17

Ina hetargaire incoisg persain^/e uile

sechta remaind.

Eg. 69

amhlaid so beus

eutargaz re dersgaighti a nderrsguccud ic gaphail fo 3455


dixit prius.
sicut
indi,
Etargoire meidi a mheudugud 7

ou/2

-i-

lugaite a lugugud ic gapail beos


amlaid sin feught/for so conid deudo.

etargaire

deochur ider

Caiti

e 7 u mdsi

is

fo

meud,

Ni ansa.

Uindsie

cetomus: sloindedh persain^/e saindredatge indsin


Diciturmndso. uait in

tuaslaictech,tt/<&rzV.

cona anmaim, ut dixit poeata


Uinsi

Mac

cz/gat in gillccucca

rerccucc<2/

saindredach acht

(!

haonur

-i-

is

Lonain)

intan

is

tantum,

(-i-

ssuidiu.

is

in^/sge

Is

sic

long brab

uin</sie

irland conid

in

itberat

bioss, et

tsloindedh

fer

fodem

Cidh

edargaire

ua- 3460

fer sa\\\dredach

Slo mded cQ\\.chend immorro amal ata se in fer

-i-

Bith gach maith agat ar a c mdguccan


A ceundgagtwz (-i- a Chin*/ Geuccan).

sed.

is

araile

and

is

is

iffin)

3465

et ni feus cia
si

oundar

7
7

in<afege

conid

ag sloin^edh indsge a 3470


e in fer, uair is rem-

etargaire intan isbeurar

uim/se.

Skunked
i-

issin

cenil

amal ata etargaire ioncoisg

persain^ fein ita a

ice slouinflfed

ceutpersain</e,

n-ioncosg doip budeine


hetargaire

aile.

persain<r/

hincousg co n-aithnigt^r trit 3475


et persain^/e tanuise -i- triena

tre

Cidh ar narbo

persain^/e

amal atat na

lor lais-ji^;;/ a n-etargaire

incoisg persain^fe a rad me nama con n-abair me budein?


Ni lor eim, uair is deimnigte et is deiligte eimh rie each 3430
:t454

3466

is d.

1.,

bes son T.

346
3471

ggcain

sluinde, sundruidhe T., uatuasloigtech


atberar, araile om.

bis,

AURAICEPT

YBL.228/3 4 i

me

persain^ a rad

Nam

ipsi.

me

ego
~

budein

iterator

budein, ut dicitur an pronomine egomet

non alms cum dicitur egomet

et

fed

nech

ni

2OQ

b ii

692

Eg.

aile intan isberar egomit.

biaid

-i-

infirmas fiat

gurab

-i-

is

Qniqnid
each

deimnigthi

3485

ni athraigther.

Fogaphar dano comparit cen posit amal ata Dnlcis cst


mare Ponticum quam setera mairia -i- is somillsi an muir
:

Pountiogda oldtait na muire


batis somillsi acht
son.

lugam a

is

Coindealg

Airraiceptau
maith ind anbfios.

-i-

ni hiarsini

Coindealg in edtachtau
ceudna hernail (229) 3490

serbi.

n-edteuchta

md

cheuna

oile ar

in

fors ferr anfios etoechta sin ar ni


Finis don ceudliophar.
:

Log do Emhain
Concap/r meic Neusa.

Incipit leaphar Feircheirtne sunc/o.

Machuo

aimser do aimser

Persa do Ferchertne
aossa faind for

[A

file.

dono do breith 3495

tuccait

Eg.~\

seis.

Duiphithir daol dath a berrda


Ge raga co ngeog na craunn,
Caisithir casnaide a chul,
Glaisithir sul frie

D
t.

n.

gl

f.

Sechtau
et

b.

cc. c. r

ch

br.

cusnt

mu.

:uu7

3505

indsge
:

rb

th

r.

s492

:!506

-i-

br

ds

rbr

n.

geog, crann

sechtai

fidh 7 deach,

-i-

Seuctu

-i-

no sech/ui

reim

seiptim 3505
i

n-ai.

secht n-aisti na filidechta

ant ambfes
:f498

3500
tt

t.

et etargoire.

secht n-ai a inde

daipither dael, beirta

sechto

::

sc

rt.

Secht do aiph domiter and


M88 ol chena

t.

toimsighther Gaidelc

Laitne

t.

c.

frise

forpaid, alt

a bunad

d.

r.

bugha mor.

"

:i

:;w4

locc

3501 3 cf.
-

Nesa

Virg. Gr. 77, 12

n-aisti ina

tt seq.

210

mbrousnac/ia na bairdne

7 vii

a n-eolus

-i-

mbrosnacha

dechta

Eg. 69

no

2 b

soigti die

ai[s]

40

mbe

Jr\.

airb^rt

vii

i-

AURAICEPT

YBL.22 9 ai5

primeillgi na filidv&/a
na bairdne: no secht ndeichit na fili-

airiom

vii

-i-

dialta, ar

nd-ecmats

in sechta

ni bfuil

3510

andsin

aire rofagp^r.

is

connagar don
Coitcend do each uile airem sechta 3515
focul i[s] sechta.
Dilius do vii ndiuitip na filidechta.
frisand euprad
Coitcend

diliJ, ruidliz^

et

Ruidlius don cetxvcm

na sechtmaine.
four a

fri

-i-

frisand-euphradh

Indlios

vii laithib

a thapairt for airem

aile

acht

vii.

Tomus, id
inde

vii

indlius,

a bunad Laitne

est niensura,

no tomess

-i-

to teunga a airbert 7

-i-

meus

tomeus a 3520
aire fein

no cudrumad a airport -i- meus dognither o theung^W. Is


Gait
Is ceinel eimh.
fisid an gne no in cinel in tomus.
et toumus
ngnee ? Ni ansa. Tomus filidechta
each ae 3525
seachda
frie
tomhus prosta -i- a breith
bair</e 7
tomus ?
Caiti ruidhlius J dilius, coitchend et indlius

eat

diph.
Ni ansa.

Ruidlius do filidecht a preith re sechta.

Dilius

n-anak.

Coit-

do bair[d]ne a tomus re cluais et


ceund indlius do prois -i- coitchend o
do sidein, ar ni fil alt aunrt

coir

dialt imach.

Indlius

Cindus aithfeugthar in foucw/ is sechta fri vii laithibh


na sechtmaine ? Ni ansa. Grian mar Doumnack -i- fiodh.
mar Luan -i- deach. Mars mar Mairt -i- reim.

Eusga

Meurcuir mar Ceudaoin


i-

i-

fourpaid.

-i-

Uenir mar Aoine -iConid amhlaidh


eutargaire.

alt.

in</sge.

comuaim n-uad,

tri

haon a n-iargcomarc.
Gaidelc -i- guth Elg
"5ii

:i.-,u

eiii^j

:2i re yii. a
:r>:!7

airdi

"

-i

a ndialt,

-i-

Ealg Eire

vii la
tri

etstq.

cf.

hErinn T.

vii

n-

a reucomarc, 7 a

:r>u

v. 30, 5,

na

na sechtmaine

guth

-i-

ndeichith

Origg.

3540>

ennaigh

cuirter

sin

airdrendtf 7 vii n-aiste na filidechtu 7


fri

mar Dardaoin
Satarn mar Satharn 3535
loib

Eir^ach

-i-

ouccus diles
Gr. Lat. viii. 240, 15

3540

AURAICEPT

YBL.229d 4 o

Eirenn

berla

no Gaidelcc

-i-

211

Eg. 70 a 29

oirderc

ealg

Gaaid^/

-i-

rus-oirrdercaich, ar ni dut[h]cha do reir an indaithmz^e sin


ina do each ni dooirdhercaigh Gaidel.
In gach GaidzYc

tomustrt/ re sechta.

edh oun touimsighter iar 3545


saordataid, uair adcodar a chon<a?ail amal ata fe-fVz -er, / ni
gach sechta domiter and, ar is aonseachta fil aund.

edh eim a secht

Is

Connaghar dono

dialt 7 cid

secht fo

7 airbert, coiichend

7 inafe

~]

tsec/it.

dilius J ruidhlius 7

gach focz/1 don tsechta (col. /3).


Fid ceutumus -i- fundanientuin :

Fo eadh

Laitne.

thapairt for
epart

uili

-i-

a funo a bunad
A airbert -i- a

no airbert

-i-

air

lit/r

Coitchend immorro

Dilius do forfedhaiph.

taobomnaib acht

siden, ar ni

taophomhna

nota aspiracionis
conid not tinfzV///.

ud

punad

indUus in

no guthaighi no consaine fair.


Coitcend 3555
diliits, coitcend, indlzV/j, do feudhaiph.
fedha do radh riu.
Ruidlzky do feudhaiph

airedhaiph.

dona

inn ogaim

fichit

-i-

3550
tie!

a inde isna foclatd.

fedh<7z#

eipert aire

-i-

Ruidlzftj,

doip

sechta

-i-

itz r,

nochan

Tmfed/i

-i-

immorro doiph non est litera sed

Indlius

uath.

ut est :

fuil

uath conid

litir

tinugz/c/feudha

feda do radh riu sin uile acht

is

-i-

acht ata 3560

neimtniug-

dilius 7 indlius 7

coitcend daip ouile.


Fid na filidechta -i- in ceudna fiodh
airedha phis a bfocul an imfrecra, 7 an taophomna docuirither reisin bfiod sin do thapairt ar aird, ~J go rab inan^ 3565
fidh oiredha beas a

dtaopcuibdiph an raind J a n-imfrecra


na dtarmartcend. Fid in anma prosta. in cetna fidh airedha
bis and 7 in taobomna docuireth^ reisin fid sin 7 deuoch
i-

traig
dialt

is

frithindlidh^/z Laitne.
Deach
no daghfuach no defuach intan

de fuaigther int aircetal


Connagar dono buwadh J Inde
is

7 ruidluis J indlius a ndeach.


rohorrd<rrc

""

Gr. Lat.

ii.

-i-

-i-

is

di fuach intan

recomrac
ocht

no 3570

sillaoba.

coruige
coitchend J dilius
Puad quidein onni is tectuni
J airbert,

acht ni duthchrt do Gaidilc


ar nimduthcuigh, in imtaithmigh T.
^eo Y BL.
cuidibh
nochin
35, 24
:

212

AURAICEPT

YBL.229J32I

Eg. 70

ibis

deach do [gach Eg.] round. A


inde immorro daghfuach no defuach. A airbert -i- o dialt 3575
A inde dono diph
cobrk/z/: no foca/ aile fair -i- si\\a&.
i-

didiu arinni

ditiu in

is

Coitchend doib uile dialt do rad


fuaigther intan is sreth.
riu, ar is dialt doformaigh for each n-ai dibh fri araile.
ru\dlius iar ceill / son imale ina
Dilzz/s iar sun didiu
:

n-anma

budhein do radh

dilsi

no iarchomarc
ndeachaibh

do radh

Deach na filidh^/zte
Deach in anma prosta

uama

re

-i-

sillrt^

uaim dognith^r
is

aei a indi

mbios

bairnde acht tomhus

antan

fri

vii

atsamrtz-/zther.

is

rund.

isin

ainm

int

ainm.

filidhecht

cowuaim tomuis

reidhe cen

dona

and, ut dicitur

sioll^ mbios isin

in lin

in lion

alt

deachz

la

is

foil

deach do na hocht ndech^z^ doroich

Reim
antan

-i-

ar ni

fris,

cenib deach-side fo deisiu

fios cie

rechomarc 3580

-i-

Indlius do dialt ain;;z deigh

/rlo.

aile

each n-ai

fria

-i-

a 3585

no

dligthz^-

cloais / coir n-anala

no

uaim intan is proiss. Reim dono cem a airbert 3590


no rem a bunadh quidem
diall no tuisil a bunaidh Laitne
onni is robamus comsuidigti. Ruidlius do rem d fidh
filidecht.
Dilis do taibrem cethorcubaidh filifor fiodh
dechta / bairdne. Coitqent do rem suin cin cheill / do
rem suin J cheilli imale. Dilis di prois. Indlis do rem 3595
suin nama, uair ni filltir.
Cesc, in gne no in cenel in rem ?

raidh

i-

Caitetangne? Ni ansa. Reimh fidliachta,


rem bairdne, / rem proisi. Da gne immorro for filidhacht 7 bairdne -i- rem d fidh for fidh 7 taobreimh.
Iscineleimh.

Rem

d fidh

Sian sleibi slatu seiscind,

Taobhreimh amal ata sund

Flain^f, a

luam

Co Maistin

moill

It
It
8574

3600

cetamus:
Colum caidh comachtach.

for fidh

glana,

it

in

yrlo.

gaisce grind

3605

gaoth,

it

gart,

no

it

garg, do rinn, no

it

grin*/,

laoch, a Flain^/.
run;/

35Si

deachij

de, atsamther

3606

glan

AURAICEPT

YBL. 229/344

gne immorro

Ceithri

ata

fer,

ar

reim

for prois o

Rem

as reimmthar.

is

Eg.

Ni herecor a reim sum, ar

ainmnigh

/ for a ginitil.

taobhreim each
reim

-i-

ar

fir,

ut est in

ar

fer,

is

ain;;/mV/

airbt?rt

clain*/ Laidin

Fuair has a

ar

is

Reim

ind / as 3615

inchousg aund imalle.

~]

Bellat v&athah Niuil

Do

a 3610

Treide ara (230) togtar


reim
as reimnighther

ind reimnigther.

is

fer,

Reim dano ceim a

for

suin J ceille imale, amal

nach lanreim.

ni

reim as amal ata

ind amal ata


imalle,

Reim

aondelb

is

Taobreimh prosta me budein,

ata Fland Flaind.

213

reim suin amal


dano amal ata

ceille

Patraic.

702a2

lo

neimhnigh

langeiml/^,

3620

greine glain,

Ceile Feniusa Farsaidh.

Cia taopomna na techt rain^/?


I mbeth-luis-nitf# an
ogaim

On

lo rocruta

na ceoil

guta lasin Laitneoir

Is

Connagar dono

ssund bunad

v consaini.

uaim a

3625

J \r\de J airbert, coitchend

Bunad quidim

7 dilius / ruidlius 7 indlius.

amal adrubruwair. Re

inde.

oni as robamus
airbert

-i-

ceim.

Cotichend dona huilz ^ reimendaiph reim do radh n u.


Diles a beith a n-uathad.
Ruidles a beith a n-ilar 3630
no diles do reim na bairdne.
Ruidles do reim na
;

Eg.] inn uathaigh


i-

fair

forp<7zV/

airnion.

anma

forsin
-i-

no indlius [reim

rand

Et

ilar.
-i-

-i-

foirbeoaidh

dia

dlap//art//<?r

no

is

forsail:

bidh intan

foirid

-i-

in

fair

forpaid

forsail 7 airnin

fourbeoaid intan

dinion disail

is

Forbaidh

dtuigsin ind

no

no forpaid

intan

proisi

cen adcodar a

n-ilar

bith for in bfocul

7 dinion disail

no

do reim na

Indlius

filidhechta.

in

mbeo

3635

is
i

forbaidh no in rand

dia breith re seachta.


Caiti
"

bunad
at>

-4

togar

forbeodhaidh

et

inafe

airberf,

rocruthuigh T.

coitchend 7 dilius 7 3640


M -* Is
a ainm T.

rocruto na ceol

3et8
,

taborthar, dtapurt

guta

YBL.

YBL.2 3 oa

214

AURAICEPT

22

ruidlius et indlius isin focul

is

Eg.

fourbaid

702 a

Bunad cetoumus

inde

fair

-i-

accentus -i- fonnairius, HgnuissAW&.


foursin bfoucul four fot no cumair -i- airnin,
bid
dipad
iorsail dinin disail: no fourpaid a airpert -i- for [fhjidbaith

oni

is

dono a

dona

Couitchend

airbert.

huilib

ior^aidhibh 364 5

Rudlius
fut no gair.
fourpaid do rad riu. Diles a beth for
do
Indlius
a radh fri fourbaid fordingi.
fourbaidiph dul a
loag aroile

gconssaine

do da forbaid na nguta 7 do aonforpaid na


no
no forbaid ilair for forbaid uathaid
no 3G50
for
fout
cumair
forbaid
four qumair no

-i-

forpaid fuit
Forbaid intan is foursail -iindies cen a fuath do sgribend.
sail fair no foursail -i- four fuilhW iarsinni foutaighes an
:

foucal: fourpaid antan

acht

is

dinion

is

duir: no dinin disail

Forpaid dono

fuilliud.

fair

sech ni nion ni

dissail,

difuill/W

disin

-i-

bid intan

is

-i-

sail

nem-

airnion no forbuaidh 3655

no fourpaid -i- for


Dilius do airnin.
forsail.
[fh]idhbaid a airbert. Ruidlius do
do
Indies
disail.
do
dinion
Couitchend
fourpaidip dul a
do
eunforpaid na
log araile -i- do da forpaid na nguta 7

intan

is

Airnin

airnion.

consaine, ar at iat

tri

-i-

eirnidh nion

fourbaidi docuisin

-i-

airnion, forsail, 3660

Airnin arding defidh -i- ding fil and


7 dinin
teirce feuda fodera -i- di fo diulto^ co nach fidh acht
disail.

taobomna, ut

est

ceund no gloun^.

[No

Dinin

is
is

airnin arin bfoucal

disail ar gair geip/rf

fir-ding-eas a deiredh Eg. om.}


sail gairdigius in foucal 3665
i- di fo diultad co nach nion co nach

duir (sgribt/^r) ag ionchousg na fourpzV/e


oulchena. Forsail
sin, ut est feur J leur J gach timourta
for fuot feudair -i- sail fair forin bfoucal dia fot amal ata

acht duir, ar

ban

is

7 Ian.

Alt onni

menmain no go

ailter ina

berar re seachta
:it>48

sees

uasal

altus :

is

3650

ag
g ar diges

-i-

f ot

i[n]

bunad Laitne

feiser cia halt (col.

nath, no ind

:n
:!ti71

in jjg
co fesar

/3)

an^r/V, in

no onni 3670
airchetail
laid,

;!

^135. taobogmna

;!672

in anair

.;.

no

AURAICEPT

YBL.230/3I

215

2 b 12

Eg. 70

no in sainemain,
ind emain, in sethrad, [in seutrad Eg.
-iota
na
seacht primaiste
in dian dona dianaiph o sin anon
<?;//.],

inonw

anma

Alt in

na da

Alt

o deach slouinwter.

is

main.

ts\\\aib

-i-

onni

prousta
Alt go bfeisser a airbert,

a in^e.

men- 3675

ailter ina

re n-aimsire bioss iter

in

-i-

Connaghar

J \nde J airbert, coitchend, dihkr, ruidl/wj, indhwjr


Bunad quidiin oniss altus, ut dixiuius.
isin bfoucz// is ault.

dono bunad

inde dano

no

ail fuit

-i-

no

oull ait

ailid.

-i-

airpert

3C80

aigned saordatad. Coitchend do gach alt, alt do rad ris.


Ruidl/V/j da
D\\ius do ault saorda no da ault bauirdne.

no

ault aigmV/

and

inad

Indlius do dialt, ar ni bi ault

filidechta.

no alt aiccenta a n- mad

aiccenta: no ruidlius

ailt

do

Alta ruidlius

7rl.

immorro do

-i-

dilius,

~]

coitchend

filidechta

ault

bairdne

alt

tsaorda no alt saorda a n-

ailt

do

aisti

Indsge

no

in

si

nath,

is

se

co bfeisser an

airbert,

i-

coitchend

coi inwisti [neich

chend do ferindsge
indsge
Flaw;/

Connagar dono bunad

dilius

ruidlius

inde

indlius

ind

oniss ouratio a im/e

Airbert dono

Eg.\

do banindsge

-i-

-i-

inwis coi

Coit- 3695

irlapra.

do deimindsge: no

fer, is si in
fir

no

Dilius

se.
is

ier

bunad
94

raiter,

fiacail

is

beun.

Ruidlius intan raiter,


is

se an fer so, cona

do radha

is

7 inde
i

~]

risin

is

no

sron

si

na mna.

ruidlius

Dilius
e bel

anmaim

is

no

suil

an 3700

se

fiacail

saiiu/r^-

gcrand na tuisrmV/

no intan fedhair indsgi

n-aiccned

onni

antan

he beul no

Indlius

daig.

367!.,

in

e i[n] 3690

coitchend do ferindsge 7 do banindsgi, nt est


no is couitchend dona huil/7;
no Ceallach

ni

alt.

is

masgal is
an fir no
an

mbi

amal rogaph is
an
anma
prosta -i- firindsge no
Indsge

Bunad cetamus

indsge.

no do

no go bfeisser

in aiste beraid re seachta,

an laidh.

banindsge no deimindsge.
7

aisti urdalta,

3685

Dilius

coitchend,

fouclaiph na proisi, / coitchend do gach foe?//


-i-

et indlius

aisti.

-i-

for

araile.

No

airrbert, coitchend 7 dilius 7 ruidlius


::>M

fris

bcra

:17

""hioidh

"

;;

YBL.

risin

7
an

3705

216

AURAICEPT

YBL. 230,326

bunad

Indsge, sgiencia, a

indlius.

Eg. 7021,45

indis

coi

im/e

sgouthecne a airbert.
Ruidlius do indsge aiccenta caom.

Dilius do

indsge

Coitchend indiles don indsge saorda.


indilsi.
Couitchend ar a gnathugud
7 3710
co feusair ind aisti eurdalta bera re seachta

aiccenta euccaom.
ar

Indlius

etargaire
i-

i[n]

-i-

nath debrichta no

luipencoussach no

in

an anma prosta,
urdaulta.

Caiti

an

se

is

bunad

7 ruidlius 7 indlius

in trebrichta,

an

no

urdalta

fer

no

laid ar a chair

imrind bera re seachta.

in

is

Etargaire
an ben

si

inde J airbert, coitchend, dilius 3715

an e[targra]diamus

-i-

foruaslaigt/^r// a

euturgnod goutha quia fit gair -i- guth. Airbert -i- a


bmY// re toumus no re seacht no eipert aire -i- deiliugud no
de dualugud. Coitchend dona huil/^ etargair/^// etargaire

inde-i-

do rad

riu

couitchend

-i-

n-ord comairme.

risna seacht n-etargairip tuas


uair

persain,

Ruidlius a rad
uair

is

fri

frecrus

si

sloinded

is

Dilius a rad 3720

no do etargaire mchoisc

he.

persainde s&\\dvadaigQ.

hetargaire deurrsgugud a nderrsgugud,


in

coindealg

tomus

hetargaire
Indlius -i-

na feo

coindf/c.

no

no ruidlius a radh

frissna

iar

hetargaire

no a

re

ndilsi.

rad

3725

fri

etargaire inchoisg persainde


heutargaire aile cenmota in sechta tuas do neoch dip
:

air

Coitchend indlius immorro dona

Couitchend a n-uord comairme.

heutargairib ar cheuna.
Indlius

do neoch diph nat

frisgair in co mdelcc.

Cesc, an gne no in cinel in fidh


Ni ansa.
cinelj catet a gnee ?

Fidh saorda

aigenta.

-i-

Is cinel

fourfiod et

an

in

is

fidh

Fidh aiccenta

ogaim, an gne no

in cinel

airechda

et

e sin in cinel cinelach gnethach

-i-

eiccen uair techtaig gne

taobomna,

3730

Masa

eimh.

Fiodh saorda

fidh ind ogaim.

Fidh

fiodh na coille (231).

-i-

Is cenel

-i-

fid

fiod.

Cesc, an
3/08-4103

gne no an
:!"

j?g, Ol)l

cinel

indiles

an deach
:;T1

"

on

is

Is cinel

eimh

uair

etargrediamus foruaisligthech T.

3735

AURAICEPT

YBL. iji.4
techtazd gnee

217

secht ndeich na filideechla.

-i-

cinel

gneithech fogapaid [ocht]


Cesc, an gne no in cinel in reim

techtaid

gnee

da gne

-i-

d fiodh four fidh

Coulum caid cumachtach

bairdne

et

taopreim lanreim, ut

filidechta.

cinel eim,

Is

filidechta

e sin in

Is

na

n-ernaili

est

uair

reim

-i-

jrlo.

3745

Taobreim, ut est:

3740

Floin</,

a luam an gaisgid grind

gnee four proiss o reim -i- reim souin gan


ceille imalle, 7 taophreim prosta, 7 reim
ceill, / reim soin
Reim suin gan ceill cetumus -i- fer, fir. Reim
soin nama.
Ceitheora

~]

suin

et ceille

imalle

-i-

Taophreim prosta 3750

Flan;/ Floim/.

me

Reim suin
pudein.
hairecar a reim souin, ar

nama
is

-i-

Patroig

aondelph

fora

Ni

Pairoig.

ainmniugud

fora ginitz/.

Tri gneithi ara togtar reim ind, J reim aus, 7 reim ind
Reim as, amal ata fer, ar is as reimm>t/zer. 3755
7 ass imalle.
Reim [ind, amal] ata fir, ar is ind a reimniugud. Reim ind

amail ata

7 ass imalle,

in fer

-i-

ind teit

dualgus foghair uathaid

ind ina

7 ass tet a

-i-

reim as ina dualgus

no
7 ind imalle 7 ina dualgus ceille imalle
3760
as
-ifer
as
iar
Reim
soun.
ar
ni
bfil
Patratc

ilair

foghair
reim ind
fir,

ar ni

-i-

fil

reim

ind iar

Reim

gceill.

ind et ass imale

-i-

Flan;/

\mnd, ar ata ind iar gceill, 7 ata ass iar son.


Is e sin in cinel cinelach

sound forsna reimendaib.

gneithech ceinelrar// rocoumad


Is e in reim -i- reim Laitne

no Ebra no Grege no Gaoidelce as a fogbad bunad an 3765


focail, uair ni bunad acht cechtar de (no dib) sin.
Is cinel eimh,
Cesc, an gne no in ceinel in forpaid ?
uair

techto/c/

dtaurrustar

tri

cinel int alt?


alt

tri

gneithi.

Is

gneithe na GaidtVcci.
Is

cinel

sin

7 ault

go

cinel

foura

Cesc, in gne no in

eimh, uair atait

saorda 7 au lt aigenta

an

tri

bfeisser.

gnee

Ant

fair

-i-

alt

co

3770

218

AURAICEPT

YBL.asiaa;

bfeisser immorro teuchtaid coig gne / coig cine/a.


Cesc,
an gne no in cinel ind indsge? Is derp conid cinel tria
chail na tri n-indsge sin J teachta na tri hindsgi.
An

cen^/ deochmz^ius daoine an domain. Cesc, an gne no 3775


in cenel inn etargaire?
Is ceinel eim, uair is diairmhiti
a gneithe.

cenel etardeochraigius na huile.

Is e sin in

Caiti eisi in tsechta frisa dtoimsigther Gaoidelc?

Eisi feuda quidim

ansa.

an fhiodh

-i-

in \Aog aieoir teipidi gaibius

\\-e\\uch in focail, ut dixit in

Eisi fedha

is

Ni

file

3780

freitighe,

Ferr daiph a aithne ogaibh,


In blad eieoir theip/^e

Techtas ind eallach


Caiti

deiich

eisi

An How

Ni ansa.

fouca//.

no

in

uaiti tson 3785

aowconngbalach ainmnigther o dialt gou briocht cona

n-athgapail diplinaiph.

bruud

fillti

fourbriste

Caiti eisi reime


fogan/rz

fil

Ni ansa.

otha ainmniugud

An
in

uataigh co io^laid an ilair. Caiti eisi forpaide ? Ni ansa.


In \.ormach no in dighbail aimsire airigius signed a 3790
gcomsinedh fri fogur. Caiti eisi alta? Ni ansa. In toi

don filid ag ceimniugud don litir for araile mad


alt saorda, no don tsillrtzY; four araile mad alt aiccenta.
In ioulud firen foirbthe
Ni ansa.
Caiti ezsi indsge?
tengad

fil

feudhair isna trib cenelaiph. Caiti eisi etargaire. Ni ansa. 3795


Ant athfeugad meidi \nde no inchoisg no eiterdethbere
Eisi -ino etarderrsgaigti rodealph Die iter na duilib.
go mbeith esse d ecensia -i- mar roinnius rann J uilidhecht
i- mar ta crand J a
geuga / a cousmailius. Ese cruthoigti
7 eisi

adbarrda

geineimain

on

Iss

ed

athair

eisi

is
~J

adbarrda and

cosmailius.

Is

-i-

ed

mac do
is

eisi

cruthoighti and mar ata mac aga foghW;;/ [o] oidi no


/ fiagfraidh int ugdar cie ai [i]s uaisle, eisi
maigistz r
cruthoighthi na eisi adbarda, J ader gu rab (col. /3) uaisli
;

"

YBL. don

fil

don

filid

:!7!

/.

essentia

3800

YBL.
eisi

231/3

AURAICEPT

cruthoighthi

darrmtf

he a adpert sin nach bfil acht 3805


no go gcruthoigther he o

is

219

arna geinemain and

fhoglaim, ut dixit Plato.


Cret iat na tri hernaile ata agin Laitneoir frecrus na
secht

and

-i-

Secht

J dobriathar.

pronomen

secht

na

n-aisti

bairdni domiter

isi

bfocal

Ni ansa.

filid ?

agon

n-etargaire

-i-

filidechta
is

sechta

Coinrtfealg

sechta do aib doiniter 3810


secht

-i-

seiptim

n-aisti

na

Punadh

sin.

(no capail) deside fri sechta do aibh and ai -i- secht


n-aisneissia na secht n-aisneis (no foc/ so) anuas in
seacht atat iar n-aisneis isin bfocz//
in sechta

gach

ai

breith

do aib ind

-i-

re

secht

iarrtoigther
proisi.

do

na

foucal

ai

-i-

ind aisneis

seiptim co

diph

an seuchtsa anuass do

sidea aile

-i-

filidecht, ar is

imcupazd.
\gther
airedhaiph, conid aire sin

-i-

foucal

do

and

sic

iarair

is

air[e]

ruidlius

do

rno

is

is

is

deiside 3815

a bfoclaibh na bairdne

mourn recar a
comardad do beith

innti

fail

Brett/i rie secht

sic.

filidechta each ae

Ruidlius do filidecht 7

T>\

is

les

iar

is

na

ruidlius 3820

im[fh]recra

bfeudaiph

fhilidecht.

Dilius

do bairdne, ar is lugam rig a less comardad imcubaidh


dligther do iarair innti acht conub binn re cluais 7 co r ^b 3825
comardad cheudna J in gach Gaid/lcc Jr\. Is douil/^ cetus
dialt aontsillaop^ do tomus fri sechta.
Is amlaidh so
eimh, uair fogabar deiliugud aimst rrda cen go bfoghabta
Is amlaid sin toimsigther dialt fri
deiliugud folpt//rz^i.
sechta 7 ni gach sechta frisa dtoimhiuster Gaoidelc, ar 3830
is fri haontsechta toimsigther hi -i- frisin sechta remain^
i- fidh
7 deach sic a bfoclaib ailiph in tsechta.
larroigter

bunad

7 inde 7 airbert, coitchend J ruidlius 7 dilius 7 indlius.

Lore Luocha hEgbric hui Briain,


Court a mbith bouth brat seoil,
Aide Mide meic don Grein,
Sidhe na haoine im feil Eoin.
3806

Diog. Laert. v. I, 19: Virg. Gr. 161, 5-7


:;v;7
Gort a mbid botha brat sroill T.

um

383")

feil

T.

220

YBL.

AURAICEPT

231/3 27

isin

larraigther

rand

so

cuipdiusa, / cretcuipdi[us]

deig#ouch beous

isin

ibdius, iargcuibdius.

Dilms

riu.

iar

sou

~J

soudhcuipdius

lethcuibdius

salcuibdis /

do rad

iarraigther

cretcouibdius, lancu- 3840

Coitchend doip
dialt

soad

-i-

deich do

uile

rad

gach n-aontsilW/;

fri

neamciallaidi, sic est coax / ar a tsuin nemciallaide sin

no
7

dilius a

radh

soun imalle
Caiti

-i-

tomus
a

iar

gac/i bfail

sechta

fri

friu

bfoug^r
i

mbia deich

-i-

Ruidlius iar gceill

uile.

3845

ciellaidi.

an fiodh touisech

taobomna tois^ do

biss

ar aird

isin

7 go
tapairt
da taophcup^z z/.y an raind -i- go raibe an fhidh
cetna beass a n-im[fh]recra na da tarmortchend J co rab
inand a lion do taophomn<7/ beus impo; 7 go bfeiser cia 3850
deach dona hocht ndeachaiph doroich an aisti; 7 go bfeiser

ruonc/,

"

bfeisiur in

taophreim no

in

cia

forp<7zV/bes

halt

d fidh for fiodh

reim

dona secht n-altaibh an

Indsge

gne

in

-i-

7 co bfeisiur

a bfoclaip ind im[fh]recra; J co feusair ca


ercetail

na

-i-

filidechta.

go bfeiser an se no an si an aisd
do gne do tomus re sechta,

J eutargaire 3855

n-aircetail

ni

forbta ainaile rotaisbenad

-i-

don

coicid

foc<7/,

ba

intan

ar
rosgad no tomusti and cibindas notomhusti
Ni ansa. Do
lancub^Va- no taobcupc&ky and.
oir

bi

foclaib
is

coic

romesad a n-anail in filed Caiti secht an ochta


Ni ansa. Intan is ocht ndialta i mbricht,
Airraiceptu?

fear//

andsin

is

secht

n-alto

and.

Caiti

foucal

in

in

3860

is

aoncong-

baulach, deconngbalach, treconngbalach? Ainmnigther o


triuw (232). Ni rodilssi do an trian o n-ainmnigther ouldas

da trian o nach ainmnigther -i- iargcoumarc, tretsill- 3865


(.ebach.
Caitet na da taophoumna gauphus greim guthaige
coull 7 ruis taur eis a, ut est Cuorm^ baurd
Im pa seussach, im pa seung,
Im ba treusach,
nglound,
in

i-

turm<?

A
O

:iS4:!

:!S48

Criosd
ti

in

congena friom?

go techt tar forliond

Gr. Lat. ii. 5, 15


na feuda beus isin da taobhcuba/V/

**

:;u
.

3870

louru/.

;:

in fid ; deidinach

tuirmibh T.

T.

AURAICEPT

YBL.2 3 2a6
i-

is

221

reimtsuidhiugud da ts\\\ab iter da choumuaim


sin an lourcc buddein bios uag \mfa\ung an foucait co

auraile et ni louitend couir

3875

Cie leuth cou prat/t ier gcuairt chruos


Cusalua mo chouplauch creus
:

Im ba souir no siar, ni suaill,


Im ba bu-thuaidh nou bu-deus.
leuth cou pra//z iar gcuairt crous, a
no gu dtainic dialt n-eitterleime etraiph. 3880
an dialt n-eiterleime -i- eiter
iter Mound 7 leuth
7

freucuomtf/Y sin

Cia

deired in roind toisigh 7 toussach an rouind deighenaigh.

toumus fri fiodh -i- caiti iat na feudha frisin


Ni ansa. Co fesar a lion, a llion
a nd^wtar an toumus ?
et a n-uaiti et a met et a loighet, a gcumang J a n- 3885
Cesc, caiti

eugcuomaung, a n^rt
Is

ed a lion

haicme.

n-uaiti

-i-

toirne, id est nion)


fleusg, ut

nmrt

a n-aimn^rt.

aicme an ogaim
aon

-i-

cuicor ceucha

et

aonaicme.

Et a

coic flesga.

-i-

-i-

Ni ansa.

meut

laighet

Caiti deochair iter a

bethe.

est

feudhrt7# 7 a
s\\\aibe.

et

cuicc

-i-

(-i-

aon-

-i-

cumang

a 3890

-i-

a bfedha/^ air^dhaiph fri suidugW


Cumoung cetamus intan dogniat
:

guth ind-aonaur -i- a no o no u. A nert immorro antan


dusbere fri suidugud a silW^, amal ata bethe, ailm, souil

7 a

n-aimn^rt

Ni ansa.
occaibh

cetamus:

ata

fidh

cend

uath

fri suidiug/^ s]\\aibe.


antan is fo nialus na

no egcumong

-i-

intan don-

deochair

Caiti

douiph.
Ni ansa.
7 a n-aimn^rt ?

fo

n-eugcumaung 3895

dtuobouwna/M

Egcumoung

egcumang
is

-i-

amal

guthtf/^e

intan

Caiti deochair iter a

ailm, souil.

luis,

iter

Egcumang cetamus

umworro antan

3900

Fior eimh, ar ni tuigter na feuda deghenchuo

defougraibh sin

n-

na nguthtf/ie, amal ata fidh


a
intan don-ouccaiph uath cend doiuph.

nialus

taophomn^/M

tria

bit

na

gcantrt/;/

fo

chetoir.

filit

isna

Aimnert

ag comhsuidighttph cutrouma na nde- 3905

222

AURAICEPT

YBL.2 3 2a33

fougar isna for feud hrt^, amal ata ier ~J beun. Cuicc fedho
gaucha haicme / o aon go cuicc cachai -i- oenfleisc go coic
-i-

flesgaibh

Gne

doib.

amal ata beth[e] na haonz/r / nion na cuiccmr


aile
Egcumong cetuomus antan piti fo
:

est : quoniam, guidem, lasin Laitneoir


no intan 3910
guthaighe a n-aontsillaib lasin nGaidel, ut est
Caiti deochair iter an egcuwBriain, gliaid, feoil, beoir.
oung / an aimhnert?
Eccoumong cetomus intan na
tit

nialus,

biti

tri

bit

comung

ni

Laitneoir

seru\ii\s uulgus, lasin

uuall

auall

fedhaibh
(col.

nGaidel.

lasin

Lanchumang
nd-ouorba

co

taophoumnaibh

ut est iarum, cian 7 ciar,

/3)

aon co cuic each

n-airrde:

muin

-i-

aicme na bforfiodh

ouna

trian a n-egcosg 7

tri

-i-

feudhaiph J
Is amlaid

ind ogaim.

imdreng//W crand
ail?;/*?//

it

-i-

e aithne aicmi uath

is

-i-

Tredruim aithne aicmi

Imdruim aithne aiccme ailm adiu

co

bethe do deis an droma, is e 3925


Tua[th]druim -i- do leth tuaidh an

Desdruim

aithne aicme bethe

droma,

-i-

o aonfidh co cuicc fedha 7 o


is
fleisgaiph co ndod-deilighther -iai

cain-nus-deiligther triana n-airde


i

uath

no co n-irdiphand. Cuicc aicme 3920


cuiccmr gacha haicme cenmotha na forfeudha

aonfleisg co coic

inntibh iter

ndofir-baidhe,

ougaim
7 o

ni berar a

comang
mor chena. bfarrad na bfidh n-airedha. 3915
immorro intan biti fo consanachd, ut est

uadhaibh auchd

Aimhnert

Aimnert immorro

occai.

-i-

on rand
is

isin

ceimnigther

7 anaull.

Aithne

mou rohainmniog^

-i-

shou anmoun^/a dringtacha 3930


imdrichaur ougam -i- amal

iat

(sin)
is

is

amlaid ceimnigther isinn ogam


craund 7 i ss e d is crand sound

Is hi frem -i- frem na craoiphi


conair aipgitri ind ogaim.
isahrad four frem an crouind ar tus, J do lam dheuss 3935

remhat

-i-

aiccme bethe,

aicme uath.

larsin

aicmi muin,

7 is trit

is

do lam

et

leiss

-i-

aicme ailm.
:!!

17

Gr. Lat.

iv.

cleith

uait, 7 is fris

Tairis 7
367, 19

fo
-i-

deoigh
cuccut

-i-

-i-

uime aicme na

AURAICEPT

YBL.232/3IS

amlaid sin deiligter feudha ct forfeudha


taophoumna. Cesc, cid ar a n-eibertar fedha friusidhe 3940
Ni ansa. Fobith domiofrisna taopoumna amal fida?

bforfiodh.
7
i-

ter
7

223

Is

na taoboumna

taopomna

friu

a n-ainm prostu

-i-

na

7 cainfuaigter

fouc<?//

\\.er

-i-

fedha

dip, ut est luis ailmi

Is he sin in sealpad saorda


7 bethe ailme -i- la 7 ba.
Ita 3945:
cin reim acht reim remraithi -i- do fedhaiph nama.

in

comuaim amal

lethraind

cinnus

ata fidh airedha in lethraind toisigh 7 in


teit

deirig

domither

frisna

fuaigedh in rand.

dis

in

amal

taopoumiitf/tf

Cach da

Cesc,

Ni

fidha?

Is ed a
a cupaid.
taopomna
co
rabet/i
a fidh 3950
da
coibfid
a
cubaidh
each
iarum
cupaid
cetno beus i bfoclaiph ind im[fh]recra J corab inand a

ansa.

ar

fidh

do taopomnrt7$, ut est bas 7 ^ as frass bras, cend


corn
dourn, dounrc counw, nem eel. Cid ar a nlend,

llion

>

aubaur
ansa.

feudha

Amal

friusidhe

frisna

-i-

taoboumnaiph

Ni

iarraigther fidh airedha in an;//a icca breth re 3955

sechta, sic sin

iarroigther

bfoucal cauch da

taopoumna

taoboumna

in

bis

and

-i-

isin

ar fiodh, ut dicitur :

MarcacA autconn^/aurc ane,


EutacA uime co nndath

dath at

Uan
i-

coll

Bas

tanttuti.

bras 7 lass

aontugud co

comardad

lass,

no

cin

aontug//^/

intibh 7

tuinne dath a da

ru i s a n-agaid

is

onn

lancupaid

taobhomna

no cro a cubaid

fri honn
Taobcubaid -i-

indsin.

Dedha

inan^us andsin.
ndeiliugud amal

i#a.n</

3960

o.

e ant aontug[ud] co

n-aircetail ata, uair

is

cro,

gilithir geiss,

n-inan</us

airecor

ata bas
is

las,

J int

and

-i-

is

iar

inan^/ fidh air^//d%a

taobomna deighenoch

sain

39Gr>

fil

immorro

toisich.

Caite ruidlius 7 dilus, coitchend 7 indlius do fedoibh 3970


Dilius do forfedhoibh.
Ruidles do fedh-

dotomusfriu?

AURAICEPT

YBL. 232,338

224

taobomna.

Coitchend do

uibh airedhoibh.

Inlius

do

taobomnrtz ^ sic isna foclaibh ailiph in tsechta.

Conagur dono

bunath o aon,

isin aipgitir

airec o

dedha, J a cor a tredhai, 7 a comuaim fri ceathardha, 7 a 3975


comhdluthugh fri cuicthi, a morudh fri sedhai, a fogh<7/7 a
sechda, a riagh?/! re hochta, a hincosc a noie, a fastad
a ndeicthi.
Is e tra int aon tuas -i- Feinius Farrsaidh,
in

dedho mac Etheoir,

mac Aingin,

tredhath

in

in ceth-

Aimergin mac Noiwe meic Nionuail, 3980


an seisidh Fercheirtne (233), in sechtmad a dalta, int
ochtmad Cendfaolrtd//, an noimad a dalta, an dechmad
ruim///e Cae, in coicidh

Cinaptha, a fosto/ a n-aon -i- int uachdarach (-i- Fenius) -iIss e so tosach an Airaicepto iar nAimirgin
a n-aimsir mic
3985
nGluingeal -i- Aimirgin a fearsa

in trefocul.

MiW

arriacht

Cualun^

Tochur
a loc

Moir a

Inbir

7 tucaid

denma

tolugud go hewingen amal ata

Cease

hui

crich
-i-

Ir

nEnechglas

mac Miled

dia

n-ar ndeoigh.

beurla Feine, 7 cia hairm a


Iss e immorro 3990
haimsir i rriochd ?

cia rainig in

n-airrniochl, 7 cisi

Feinius Farrsaidh

-iin persa
ogin tour -i- in
sechtmadad
na
Pa do
dara
loug
sgoile.
deisgiopul
Ephradaiph a bunadus 7 ba go hEceptacta rofaoideo?, fobith

irrainic

in

and batar a tusdige 7 P a hand ron-alt. Is and roan


Feinius feissin accan tour no go tdourracht a sgoul cuigi 3995
as gach aird i cionn deich mbliedan iar sgailed oun tour
iss

four gach leth, connaitchend cusin sai

-igou Feinius berla


na beith ag nech aile douiph asna hilperl^/^, achd comad
ouca a n-aonur no beith, no ag nech nofouglainnedh leo
Is andsin doreip^ doip in berlu-sa asna hilper- 4000
doridisi.

laiph rotaispenadh

Gaidel

mac Aingin,

thlaig, 7

is

ne

do aonfer diph,
uair

he

is

mo

b ferr diph conad he a ainm-sidhe

:l97 -

inlm

397

:!9S-

Cinaodh T.

:ww

is

pa he an fer sin
daroth/i?/^ no toro-

dedhas
1.

a phersu

:!98

leg.

for-

mac nGoimeir

gu hAimirgin

jrl.

T.

AURAICEPT

YBL.2 3 3a2o

225

in berla sin,conid Gaidelc deiside o Gaidel mac


Aingin
meic Glunfind meic Laim[fh]ind meic Eithiur meic Aghno- 4005
main do Gregaiph.
Inand tra Gaidel mac Aingin 7

dota

mac

Gaidel

da ainm patar four a athair -ian^sin iarum doreip^ in berlasa


a n-edargna in gach berla, 7 u mpa caoine -i-

Eithiuir

-i-

Aingein 7 Eitheoir.
u

mba

fri

ferr

-i-

turgp^// 7 u

mba

haipgitribh

gitribh

gc.\a\\ugud, iss

litri

Rolaiti iarum

aile.

ed doreip^/ 4010

hairrniocht cairechtyzz H

arnichta

ailibh

no huocht

sin

It iet

-i-

cairachtaire

mbethe-luis-nion an ogaim, ut

isin

doip

leithe

Gach soun do na

insin Gaidilc.

isna

Is

est

leosum

sechnait in Gaidilc dona haip


feudha for leth 7 a dtaobomna 4015
i

nGaid^/ go bfuil each dip four leth (do)


ge nacha cumusg atait agin Gaid^/ amal atat agin
Laitneoir cros ar ani is crux Latine is croch agin Gaidel

for

leth

lasin

araile

grus ni

a fregra lassin Laitneoir, ut esl :

fil

dam
Sech a

teit

an

4020

lios

an glas

Inab imda grus

An gob imda

auss.

Ceitheora ran^/a forfogailti agin tour -i- da


deisgiopul
sechtmogat, 7 da comairlech sechtmogat, da thuaith 4025
Is e primthoiss^//
sechtmogat, da berla sechtmogat.
ndernad an tor -i- Eber mac Saile, 7 Gregus mac
Corner otat Gregaig, 7 Laitin mac Puin otat Latianda, 7

lasin

Ribath Scout otat Scuit,

meic Nai

Nemruad mac

Cuis meic Cairn

F. F.

Brec dano a rad so


ut

est

-i-

Greccus

mac Gomer do

in

beith

parabulamb genilogia
leapair
na nEapra/c/i -i- ni rabatar acht tri meic
ag
Gomer, Aisc, Necus [1. Aschenaz], 7 Rifath a n-anmanda
7 Togarma iarsin go rogenair Greccus o n-ainmnigtir 4035
agin

tour,

-i-

geineal<?z>

Chron.

i.

32

"

:;

<

Fenius FzrsaiM

71!.

T.

40:;J

Chron.

i.

226

AURAICEPT

YBL.2 3 3a 4 2

immorro ingra -i- ingar (col. /3) go mad


mac do Gouimer Grecus, co nnach raipe ic cumdach an

Greicc.

Ni

raibi

amlaid

tuir

Coumaimsim^ andso

sin.

sis.

Da

bliadain

an tuir go flaithius Nion meic Peil, a do


Ceithri bliadna dec ar tri fichit ar 4040
coicait dopoi a righe.
Nion co deired flaithiusa
secht cetaiph o flaithus
coicat o sgailiud

rotoglad an Trai fa
Laitin
deigh secht mbliadna iarsin co dtug Jinias ingen
mete Puin, conid deich mbliadna ar ochtmogaid ar oucht

Tuta^eis

ri

an doumain.

Is re lind

dorinne 4045
cetaiph o sgailiud an tuir Lauina J Laitin fein
a caingzVz fris.
co nnach o?rt-tiaghait oes ind Uiraicepto
sescatmad primhtois^// an tuir. Sgouta

Is follus assin

co na bou

in

ingen Fouraind ri Eigipti o n-ainmnigtir Scuit et as sou


rofaus -i- Nel mac Feim usa Farrsaidh fer frichnam/^// 4050

he go dtainig asin Sgeithia go magh Seunair


rapatar na teungtha ar na sgailed / dob ail

mar
leis

do

dtuicced se na teungtha 7 docuala ri Eigipti Nell do beith


Dotogairm cuige fein he co tecusg^
ag sduidz r into.

na hEigipti fo na tengt// / tug se a ingin fein do -i- 4055


Scouta / onoir romor, conid uaiti ainmigtir Sguit, ut

se

dixit poeta :

Feine o Feinius atbertai,


Brig gan douchta,
GaidzY o Gaid/ w/ G\as garta.

4060

Sguit o Sgota.
I

mpau

ferr 7

mba

lethe ina each berla Jrlo

-i-

ferr

leosim a n-etargn a mbith coumdis muiti uile quam a


mbeth comtis lethguta 7 muiti amal atat agin Laitneoir.
A mba caoine -i- caoime leis a cuig fo fut 7 a cuig fo Ian 7 4065
a cuig fo cruaidh -i- fedha airedha andsin. Caoime leosim
dono a cuig fo gair, a cuig fo bugu, a cuig fo deghfogotV,
forfedha indsin, quam aon quig fuithzM uile amal ata agin
4044

YBL.

4058-ei

4060

c f.

ar

ouchtmadad

Keat. Hist.

YBL. Gaid-

ii.

16,

o Gaidg

319-22

Maolmuru Othna, 69

AURAICEPT

YBL. 233/325

Laitneoir
Iss

ed

dichronus

fo

Eg. 71

nemcinnti

-i-

227

no nemtsealp*?^.

na cuig guthaige an greim 4070

isbeir in Laitneoir gabait

Latini ovineis suont twcales producti J


corropti posunt -i- atat na huile guthaige Latianda co
gcaomnagtar / co roectar 7 co dtimairgter. Leithe i gciallsin

est

uile, tit

aibh 7 a bfouclaib 7 a leitriph.

^~

a bfouclaiph dono

Laitneoir

lasin

-i-

-i-

Laitneoir

cetoumus

Lethe 4075

Laitneoir.

lasin

nGaidel dia

Gourmarium

frecra.

Grus immorro

laisin nGaidel.

a frecra-sidhe lasin Laitneoir

clouch

lasin

ail

Laitneoir,

fil

leitriph

gruthr<ar//

laisin nGaidel, ni

lasin

frecra

grus J cluoch 7 lind ni fil a frecra


grus J tanouch: gourmaulo lasin

laisin

Laitneoir, gruth
lasin Laitneoir,

Leithe

nGaidel

lasin

nGaidel

lapis 4080

pcutra laisin,
sdrupala lasin Laitneoir

carrrtr lasin nGaidel, oun</ J ailcne, immorro, is iat na


cenela clouch do nach filit a frecarth^z
agin Laitneoir.

Lethe dono

de

sin

bfouclaib 7

inas

in

gciallaib /

Cid

Laitin.

leithi

litribh in

Gaidelc 4085

foclaib, ni lethi

ilanman^a agin Gaidel ag sloinr/edh


reullait sin isinn uathadh foucal fil icon

gciallaib, ar cia beith

na

an

ret, tic

ciall

Ni

Laitneoir.

on amal isber

fior

in Laitneoir

sgieris

nomen, cognico rerum perit

muna

hetorgnaither (234) ant ainm.

neoir, uisgi lasin


lasin

nGaidel

nGaidel

\\r\d

nGaoidel

immorro

Nicienciim

na reut 4090

atbail aithne

Aqu\a\

lasin Lait

aiinnis lasin Laitneoir,

pisginai laisin

-i-

lasin nGaidel, ni

aphoun</

iechlind

Laitneoir,

lasin

a frecra lasin

fil

Laitneoir.

409-,

Rolaiti iarum a feudha four leith et a

four leth co

bfil

each

ai

7
leuthguta ana amal nach

Gach
4082
4091

duil

1.

bfil

for leith
la

Grecca

ou

raile, ar

a.uc/tt

Origg.

xiii.

xvi. 3, 2

21, 1-3

4088

rellait

*2 abond

ni bfil

muiti nama.

do nach raibe aiwmniucc?^ isna beurlaibh

scopulus,

Origg.

diph

thaophoumna

ailiph

4089

Nisi enim

40!

Gaidc YBL.

228

YBL.a 34

arichta a

AURAICEPT

grus.cluoch, 4100

isin Gaidilc, ut esf,

ainmniugud doiph

lind.

an dara

i-

silla

laisin Laitneoir 7

a
oir

deg^/ach

tanuisi

mu

Laitneoir ar cor

mu

tria

gnither

amal ata

iter
1

do-

et

oir

and

circundit, poi

S na persainrfe

d eturtsam-

circundamus

iter
circundis,

o circudas,

conat

tanaiste

persaind

ilair lasin

-i-

et

tanuisi uathaigh cruith^r in cetpersa

on persain

on

chumair

penuilt
in sillab

uilt

ainm do

is

penuilt

siorcundamas,

is

ugud

oir is

deigenach

fuodera

Cidh

circunda,

Ni

ansa.

Neoch

ar tus.

ata

Do,

did,
ropui
cuimre (no coibhiti Eg. om.)

dis,

cumair rolean

in

circundimus

Dobai ar

de

ria

ina aimsiroY/ 7

cuimre

na

tri

persan</a

sirqundad

na

sin ita in penuilt

is iat

4120

sirqundas,

sircunrt^,

a
ilair

cet:

circun-

gen

tuas,

ar

-i-

aimseradh

persan^/a

sirqundimus,

litrip,

don

sin
tri

4115

cumair Eg.} a sircundimus

\iuathaid :

ilair

damus,
i

fertar

rolen

cuimre

persain
len

si

et

na

m
dimus

tuas do beith cumair [oir dobai

ilur

circundamas

uime

is

et

sin.

tosach

gur-

cirqundercimus
lenand
ni

nior doluidsi on a qumachtain -i- ar do


aonsillaTb.
do
acht

4125

-i-

fout

do

bhi fada co nnderna.

da

Cid foudeura aiccent forin penuillt comair sen -i- 4130


Ar ata do
cund ata ? Ni ansa.
et nach ar

met

is

dobriathar

luigtech in

4103

pindiult T.

4104

sillad

4112

bai

4118

fertur coibhfidh T.

41 -4

cin

411:!

go lenand T.

robai
41 - H

4Wr>

conid

sircuim

is
4107

tanusi

410<J

rei

do

d etorsamugud

4114

rolen aimserud

4116

ferthor

4121

YBL.

4122

na cobihfidh T.

413

airnin forin T.

persanr/anr/a

aon tsiollaobha

<fhe

T.

AURAICEPT

YBL.234<*34

Eg.

22p

711343

conna romill uimpi a haimsered nach a haiccent amal na


romill a

suidiugud a rolagat.

re

in

""

in

Is laigtech risin mbreithir.

4135

ed ind son tosach ind Uraiciopta iar Feinius J iar


7 iar nGaidel mac Eitheoir no mac

Is

nlar

immorro

Millidh

cailirefacio.

mac Nema

a persanda / aimsir dano an aimsir a

Is iat sin

Aingin.

tangadar meic Issrael a hEigipt. Is a nAisia aric/it, cia


isberait isa muig tSeunair doriacht.
Tuccait a sgriphind 4140
a touthlugud don sgoil moir go Feinius et co hlar mac

Nema

go Gaidel mac Eitheuir a

tep/V///i doiph ind


dtiodnacul (in) rechta do Maisi 7 ar
do Caei Cainbrethach oga, conid airi sin arriachta

Uraiciopt[a] / iar
bfoglrtz;;/

na haipgitri a n-aontapaill amal


na dtri primberladh 7rla.
Se primtoisigh lasin dernad
Greccus mac Goimer

Saile,

isbeir

Eimer mac
Gregaigh 7rlo, amal
tour

in

otat

PartaW mac

adrubrumair romaind.

cuiteut aipgitri 4145

-i-

Sdairw

(col. /3)

meic

Seura meic Sru meic Eusru cetnarogaph Eire rie [iar Egl\ 4159
ndilinn Nelmruatd meic Aghnoumain meic Paim meic

Seura meic Sru

7rlo.

na

Cest, caitiat aipgitri


cairechtrt/ri

agus
cetamus andso sios
Nt

tri

iter

ainmnighe

aipgitir

Ephra/V/e

primberla

ansa

eim,

4155

aleph (H. Eg.) id est doctrina -i- forcetul.


beth (-s- Eg.) i.e. damns -i- tech.

gemel

(-r-) i.e.

deleth

(-ci-)

hee

uau

Ni

ista

(-u-)
(-g-)

i.e.

sdai[n]

heth

teth (n)

i.e.

i.e.

41:!4

-i-

Ian.

-i-

clair.

andssou.

4160

prinncess (prinnceps Eg.)

(-k-) Jicc

(-h-)

-i-

tabalarnm

i.e.

plenum

i.e.

uita

-i-

bonnm
BL. Mill

-i-

-i-

tigerna.

he.

is

beutha.
maith.

Gr.

L;it.

ii.

402, 13

viii.

177, 9

230

AURAICEPT

YBL.234/3I4.

ioth ({) prinncipium

4165

tossach.

-i-

cap (-S-) i.e. manus -i- lamh.


lamiach (-s-)
cordis, disciplina.

mem

jw

(-x-)

[n]un

i.e.

excipsis

uaitib.

sempiternuui -i- co suthain.


-i- furtacht.
(-ri-), adiutorium

iTiyfons.sum, oculus

-i-

topur no

osa ab ore non ab osse

fe,

sade

cop (!) uocacio


res

4170

ri.

-i-

vi

"i

-i-

(-ci-),

samet
ith

Eg.7iibso

(-f-)

(-C-)

iusticia

capites

sen dentium

tau

signa

-\-

-i-

-i-

-i-

-\-

(-i-

suil.

on bel

/ ni

on chnaim).

coir.

4175

gairm.
cend.

fiacla.

cornarda.

Finit disin.
AipgitzV Grecda suon^a

alpa

4180

(i).

B beta (ii).
F gama (iii).
A delta (iv).
E ersion (v).
Z

steta

eta

4185

(vi).

(vii).

teta

iota (ix).

kapa

luta (xx).

(8).

4190

(x).

M imos (xxx).
N

oz

xl.

E csi Ix.
n phi [6]
4186

Ixx.

[]

Th e Digamma,

after are

4195

700.

vi,

is

omitted

one place wrong up to

xl,

and consequently the numerals there

AURAICEPT

YBL. 234/344
Fi

2 3*

b 37

Ixxx. 5 [sampi] 900.


[koppa] 1x1 us

[TT]

um

centum us
csima [a- ] centum ono
pro

[yo]

uu
[

duo] us

[1.

centum.

[T] tri

4200

xc.

[H] cuic cet us

hi

Eg. 71

0.

psi 5 [sampi] nai cet us


uio [\f/] seacht cet us

Tav [da oo = w] uocht

4205

cet.

Domnall ua Aoda

[Finit disin o

mo

doberim

secht
/

mallacht / mallacht Dia dob[er]air air sin di Q\\oniam

Maolchonaire.

cuwain dam cuige so

Is olc in

damsa

uile raot / is

mo

is

dobeir se cunain

aithigh

(?)

uile Eg.}

4210

a \.Q.prinncipium

Aipgitir Laitz rt^tffo indso.

b
d
f

iusticia

i.e.

i.e.

trocaire.

i.e.

i-

puluia
t

adaig.

-i-

(1.

i.e.

7 teine.

umla.
pluvia)

pax
i.e.

z presiositas

or.

Is

-i-

-i-

Ephraidhe

uioo

onora

lux

sithchain.

i-e.

i.e.

betha

-i-

-i-

etrad).
-i-

regnoum

-\-

onoir.

i.e.

i.e.

griansolustur.

nox

et ignis

aqua

i.e.

4215

nobilitais

i.e.

dies et

fota.

(1.

pietas

diuiti.

(sic)
-i-

i.e.

i.e.

-i-

solis

fertain.

-i-

-\-

la

r
/ ^220

uisgi

aurum

-\-

loghmaireacht.

Fenius Farsaidh (rainic) na


-iaipgitir Greccda / ^2

e in feur cetna tra

aipgitir
-

-i-

i.e.

longa uita

ceitheora haipgitri

42C

craphac/zt.

dignitas

i.e.

Eg},

subachas.

-\-

i.e.

eatrmadh

-i-

tossach.

tarbdacht.

-i-

utili\f\as

[oinoir

religio

aithne.

-i-

opsequium
i.e.

i.e.

i.e.

duailitas

-i-

\Ji\ilaritas

nertmairecht.

recongnitio

i.e.

ogmoir

-i-

flaithemnus.

nert.

-i-

uenerado

indrucus.

-i-

i.e. fortitude

-i-

asrubartamrtr
7 aipgitir

4211

"

cf.

Laitianda J in bethi-luis-nion
Yirg.

""YBL.

Muro Gram.,

Mtl

p. 89, v.

~-

YBL.

232

AURAICEPT

YBL.234/330

an ogaim

is

aire

deigenach ar

certi in

is

Eg. 71 2 a 16

fa

is

deoigh

arichta in beithi-luiss-nion an ogaim.

a sgripkend a n-aontapaill a ropatar roimhe uile no 4230


comad he fath arriachta aipgitri ind ogaim J sgribhind
i-

na n-aipgitr/ oile
imalle, ut diximus

nd-aontapaill

aipgitir ind

-i-

ogaim

forfeuda agin Gaidilcc


7 rola a guthrtz^z for leith a n-urd aipgitri o consanaip,
non sic na haipgitri aile acht a [c] cumusg atat inntip nocales 4235
7
is

ar

he

uair itait

ar

b[a Eg.] coiger


aipgitri in

lin

bethi-luis-nion
It

-i-

lion

fhichit

na sgoile

it

fordota iarum,

2tt

tri

coull,

dofhourmaghat

conidh aire

for

rolaiti

est

filit

frisna vii tuas, ui\\eand,

rolaiti four leith (235).

leith.

TflfllirnninKO-

Asberat araile conid deich feudha airedha


an

aire

is

an anmanda fordota in

ogaim
an ogaim, conid uadh

anmanda

in

-u-

and

ifi;z,

it

e 4240

eman-

Ismberait araile

co nnach o dainiph itir ainmnigther aipgitir (no fedha) in


ogaim isin Gaidilcc acht o chran^aiph cin cob aithionta
in[d]iugh araile croind

cram/aiph

ar

diph,

atat

hernaile

tri

for 4-245

aire feudha, J aithig fedha, 7 losa feudha et

-i-

uaithibh sin ainmnigter feudha ind ougaim.

Aire fedha

quidim:

ibor,

dair,

Aithig fedha
crithouch,

coull,

droigen,
fiondcoull.

fidhout,

cuillen^/,

fern, [sail

Eg\

trom,

Lousa

aball,

uindis,

gius.

bethe, lem, sceu, caorthan^/,

feorus,

cran^

feudha

-i-

fir,

feithlend, 4250

aitend,

fraoch

gilcach, rait, eidhend, driss, spin, leclo -i- luachair 7rlo.


Beithi didiu o beithe rohainmnig//^r ara chousmalius fri
cois

an

beithi, ut dicitur :

Feochuos foultcain

-i-

beithi.

mbeithe rosgrip^ in ceutna hainm


tuccadh
a
nEir/
-isecht mbeithe tugt/ia do
ougaim
mac
Eithlenn
bertar do ben
fo
shecht a
Lug
7

is

airi

sin

is

4255

AURAICEPT

YBL.235ai2

7i2bi

Eg.

233

sidhaiph uait nisi cam custodieris -i- muna coimheta tu hi.


Et is airi sin beoss sgript/zazV bethe i dtousach aip^zYrz ind 4260
is o cratW rohainmnigther -i- o chaorainm do chaorthanrt isin tseunGaidilcc, ut

Luis dono

ogaim.

than^/ uair luis


diritur

sula

li

luis

Fern dono

chaor.

-i-

o cran^f rohainmnigther

is

dicitur aireunrt^/z Fian

-i-

fern ar

is

fern, ut

-i-

na sgeith. 4265

di dogniter

o chrana7 rohainmnigther, ut dicitur li ambi


nembi soil ara cosmalius a datha fri marph. Nz ;z

Sail &\diu
soil

caourthaiW, ar ailleacht dath a

is

dono

is o chrand rohainmnigther -i- o uinnsin^, ut dicitur


coscrad sidhe niw -i- u mdis -i- ar is di na croind gaei

an

triesa cosgarthar

sith

no costad side

uin^/is

-i-

nin 4270

garmno dognither do uint/is -i- ar isinn aimsir tsidha


togbtf/th^rgarmna. Huath dano is o chranc/ rohainmnigther
sge, ut dicitur comdal qua uath, ar is uath mor hi ar a

giniol

i-

deilgniph no is miwic la each comdail ic sgiaigh. Duir


is o chrand rohainmnig///<?r -i- dair, ut dicitur airdem 4275
:

dono

o chrand rohainmnigther -icu\\cnd, ut dicitur trian roith tinne -i- cu\\end ar is c\.\ \\end
in
fidh
is
o
treus
roth in charprtz ^.
Coll dono
dair.

dosaiph

chrand
fer

-i-

Tinne dono

is

rohainmnigther -ieach ag ithe a cno


Queirt dono

ut

coull,
-i-

coull:

cno-car

dicitur

no ith-car

fer

no 4280

o chrand rohainmnigther -iOuiert (-i- cli) -iapall, ut dicitur clithour baisgell -i- eilit.
oe/zV
-iis o chrand
Muin
dano
abull,
gelt queirt
apall.
cain-car

fid.

rohainmnigther
i-

finemain

-i-

finemain,

-i-

is

///

dicitur airden maisi mui;z

iarsani fasas a n-airdi

-i-

finemain.

dono eidheand, ut

dicitur glasibh geltaip gort

Ngedal

nuo

-i-

gilcach

Gort 4285

eidheand,

-i-

raith, ut dicitur luth lego

ngedal

-i-

gilcach no raith, ar is luth laisna legaib J coibnes iter k J


ng no miod<7r/z ice -i- ar imad a ice no [-i- Eg.] gilcach no
:

raith.

ssdraibh

Straif dono
-i-

*** Fiand

-i-

droig^z^/ no
1

-"

17

droig^^, ut dicitur aire sraba 4290


straif

nembeth

-i-

saididh nell

4 - SJ - 5

airden

-i-

)L>! "

a dhe
sraib

ssuass.

Ruis

ruis

trom

-i-

oc/itach

i-

AURAICEPT

YBL.2 35 a38

234

dono

uath feirrdris

fe ue, at

Onn
Ur
echlaisg.

palma.

erchra

fer

fe

fe

smiths

iobhar

tuathmar

iachtadha

ruici

Ailm

truim.

feth

-i-

-i-

-i-

ut

iobhar,

dicitur

eo barr simper.
Eba -i- 4300
Oir -i- feoruss no edlend,

fer.

-i-

guiremh dal -i- frech.


no crithach, ut dicitur

-i-

fidh

aicdhe feorus

ut dicitur tuathmar

fir

Idedh

snamchar

crithuch, ut est
dicitur

crand

-i-

flesg.

sio^eim fedha iobair

ut

teine

fraoch, ut dicitur

-i-

edh uath

-i-

-i-

no ailm, id est, quaisi pailm a 4295


ut
eich -i- aitend no
diciturcudnoudh
aitend,

-i-

Edath

troum, ut dicitur ruamna

-i-

no ruamna ruisg
no ailm airdeumh

ut

eithlend,

-i-

fiarses.

Uilleand

-i-

dicitur

eidleand,

no edleand. Ipin -i- spinan no


fedha pin -i- caor. EmrtTzcoll -i- 4305
no emancoll -i- gabar emancoll ar ach
fid

spin, ut dicitur millsim

umda

a fedha

cia

gabar ar aill -i- midiuiti, ut dicitur oud saothaid


no emancholl -i- seim muin caol.

[Uch

(col./3)

tinn mo chorp Eg. om.~\


Anmanda fiodh tra sin uile amal
is

foghaphar
uadaiph ainmnigter feudha in ogaim

Gaidilc / nochan o dainip


lir a
cumang ? Ni ansa.
7

ut aili dicunt.

itir

Lancumang

taobomna co nd-ourba huath

n-aigiW cidh mor cidh bee


Cin

uch

is

Duili Feudha, /

fedha

-i-

Oulkwan

-i-

iat.

Is

fedhair

ceithirtsliocht

-i-

isin

uile

iter

amal bes
innister

for

4310

Cesc, ciss

inntib

imne

isin

isin

fedhaib

4315

taobhoumnaiph -i- cumang 7 ecumang lancumang J


lethchumang
cumang a forfeudhaiph, ecgumang a
lethmuitibh, lanchumang a fedhaiph; lethchumang
Itberat araile is tretslicht is coir and -i- 4320
gutaibh.
:

lanqumang a muitibh

ar ni bfilet lethguta lasin nGaidel.

Treidhe dogni uath -i- bog^


cetamus for taobomnaib
Bog<7*/
:

- 4 airdemh

4:!U

co ndurboi

***
pill-,
4;!13

amne

et

seimhugz^/ J urdipaW.

J isna

ndiaigh do-ecaiph

YBL. pa;l
4:: - ::

sinemh T.
doecamni

YBL.

doibh

AURAICEPT

235/3 12

-i-

do p

do

do

c /

Eg. 72

do duir

t 7

doiph.

boucad

do gourt.

235

lersin

rempa do-ecaiph
cloch bogad
magh. Seimugud

^.] is

Gaidilc 7 seimiugud for gut/w^iph [7

Bouccrt^ beithi, sop

gach taobomna don 4325

tinted ar

Laitneoir, immorro, bidh

cuill,

bog^duir,sodh; bogad guirt,


taophomnaibh 7 is rempa do-ecaip doiph.
Seimhiugud d, dhamsa, 4330
Seimiugud uatha, Phatraig.
dhuitsi.
Seimiugud b, a bheun. Seimiugud c, a cheun.

tin^e.ath;

dono

for

Seimiugud

Seimugud g, a ghrad, a oghda.


rempu do-ecaiph doibh. Pidh
iru/sa Gaidilcc.
taoboumna
gach

tinrfe,

thir.

ar gutaibh J

Seimugud

dano tinfed ar

is

Boccad b cetauius amal ata Bhatraig, ar as uath bogas in 4335


and ar ni bi p lasin nGaid//c. Seimugud uathrz amal
:

fil

ata a Phatrn^

Airdlpdad

dad
as

ar c la beith uath and,

o rodipad)

(-i-

is

seime ina

[a] n-aill.

immorro -i- a shail airdip-i- in taobomna do \xicht

sail

a fhind, a fhir, in f[h]eudha

f,

do

raith, ut est

[am<7/

no Eg. OKI]

c mdus

domiter frisna 4340

taopoumnaiph amal fidha sic fidhau. Iss ed ropad chert


and acht uath baidhius in fern, conidh airdiprtW fil and.
Seimugud immorro amal ata a fher -i- ni tot as air ec 7
ni bi

ind.

lancumang

[Ar

at e teora fuillti in Uiraicepto

Huath cetumus. 4345


uath 7 forsail 7 airnin Eg] Ni ansa.
Is ed fuillius b conngaib greim p, ar ni bi p lasin nGaidr/.
Caiti adeimniug(^? Xi ansa. Amal ata ogin Laitneoir b
i-

ciiui

p.

p -i- samaigther b co tinfed ar


uath araon re b do [log Eg] p

aspiracione ponitur pro

Dicunt

cona

ali

bi

acht bi a aonur ar p, ut Presens

pro ampo

-\-

buxus pro pu.vns, anibou 4350

ar p,

in fuilled tamzzje

-i-

inntib

sin

ni

b co

tinfed

amal

adberait araile.
Forsail

dono

fattugud, ut est sroun.


Airnin is e in tres fuilled
>

+<*>,

4:u:;

-i-

doecam doib
inti

as airec

4:;:;i

bean

-i-

doberat

in baile

K: *
4:::

"

for in

son dia

recar a leuss da 4355

Patroic, .\ISS. uathGr. Lat. ii. 20, 1 8

4 - ul

iidho

236

taopoumna

airi# greim

gaip/c/

MM

quert, y-

a 24

foilcesta in ogairn Eg.~\

Is iat sin

<.

Eg. 72

in dala n-ai, ut est cen^/;

eumhnad in ogaim. [Teora

ar ni bi
i-

AURAICEPT

YBL.235/337

treidhe

is

coir

do

imchisin isin ogam.


Is aire is teora foirmc^Ai no imccs/a
is
coir and tit dicunt ailii:
Cia haon fid bog blath 4360

mwbuan

Bis ag ugdar [da imluad Eg. #;//.], Geiphius


fedha
is forpai ?
Is consain i[s] taophomna -i- huath.
greim
Caiti deochair iter indell 7 tindell ?
Ni ansa. Indell
int

imcomarc
Cesc,

deochair

itir

c\\mnedh

cinwtech

4365

Ni ansa.

C\nnedh a n-aip^zV/r Gregdo ar


cinntechem oldas aip^/V/r Eupra. Cintech[a] an aipgitir

cinntecha son
is

ernedh.

J tindell int

caiti

Laitianda

an

oldas

bethi-luis-nion uair

aipgitir Grecdu.
fa

is

Cinntec/isom

in

Cia haonfoucal

deoig irriachta.

na ceithri hernaile an Airraicepto cin nach 4370


dethbir tomuis na tarmortcind na fedha na focal na

gaibius ar

Ni ansa.

forgnuisi?

Lait/##as

ogam.

for [forjfedhaibh

bfoclaiph fotaiph
7 gair suidigthi

-i-

bfoclaip

is

aipgitir

bfedhaiph airedhaiph

7 gairtsuidigti

and

laig laig, coir coir

fot
:

Ebra,

fedaibh

for

(236)^

suidigthe

J
i

gair n-aigenta 4375

Fot n-aicenta quidiin

bfoclaip gairdiph.

iet fecht

Gregda

in cethir slicht

fot .n-aiccenta

-i-

isna forfeudhaiph
i

In focal
Is

-i-

gairdi

iar

suidiugud

7 fotaig fecht aile, ut est cain cain,

no amal ata feur eua a

fidh in

anma

a fhiodh airechda amal rogab


mbrethtf/M neim^ -i- 4350
cenmotha forfeuda a bfil deghafoghar na nguta.
Ni ansa. Fout
Cesc, caiti fout ct gair inntiph?
i

bfeudaip

forfeudhaibh
ar

gairtshuudighti
ghreus -i- a corus

reumaind

is

S air

lethaimser

forfedh.

for

Asin Cin

taopoumnaiph

-i-

thaophoumna do
O\\a;/i

toucc<?c/

in

do chourp ind Uraicepta.


et
caiti
fot
Ni ansa. Amal ata nemh, for
Cesc,
gair?
fedh fil and. Neim, immorro, fidh airr^/fo/o fil and.
Nidat
inonda suoin frisna da chupaid >X"1WK
e co ndefogur
blog-sa

J ni

4:17::

Laitne

4:1T

fear eua,

YBL. ueua

4385

YBL. 236

AURAICEPT

a 16

2 a

Eg. 72

237

33

e glan uerbi Gracia, ul est, seudu oir 7 set conaire, 4390


eua and no seut -i- \epaid, is eugad icca sgribend-sidhe ar a
Is an e glain teid, is aire sgript/w eghad and.
cruaidhe.
7

Nemh
Set an teinid immorro tre eughadh a sgripend.
im \.d\)nain, eua and. Neim nathrach, eghad and na
7

Min^,

sgriph^/a
and.
Min
.

arb<7,

forfedha

dtuc///rt

iphi;/

Min immorro,

an</.

immorro, idedh

au</,

isin n-aipgitir in

itir

beg,

ip/iirt

4395

deudha ar a
ogaim -i- do fregra
ar

do deibghur amal ata isnahip brr/^aibh nem^/ geunmotha forfedha a bfil defougur na nguta Jr\o, / dono do
tseimugud foghair forsna feudhaibh, ar is buigi bis isna 4400
bfeudaibh airedhaiph
Cruas immorro
forfeudhaibh.

and

dicuntur
araile

is

nim

-i-

in

uis^i,

foirithn/jf

firfedha

-i-

no forfedhai

-i-

idedh

naom, immorro, .emhanand


fourfeudha idio
:

ed ismbert

fout, ar is

isna feudhaibh 7 fot a

fil

no forfedhai

eudha

for

na fedha im

cuimre foghair

no forfedha

nem, eua and

forfedha, ut est

coull

-i-

f<?rfedh//>

fidh for fid inntib

ar no-sechantais iat

4405

no forna

no forfeuda
feudftaiph atat and for ail J ni for a n-aild
dono it inanrfa J na defoughair -i- in defoghar fil inntiph,
amal ata peun, 7 bein dogeuntai de mina beth defoghur 4410
:

is

Cionwus on

amlaidh na forfedha.

intan isberar fer

cumair sidhe
mode.
gairit

Ni cotarsna inni

J ni bi fair

ebai a fidh in

anma

sin arin defougur.

Is

achd aimser co leth nama anas

Di aimsir dono forsin nguth#z>e fouta. Cia bat


iarum in defoghar reumazn inrathoighti. Ceun- 4415

mota dono an fed, connicc comard^d fuit J gair inntib


amal itber in Laitneoir
sircumplex four na sillabaib
:

foutaiph, ut est do, si


ut est pax 7rlo.

u
a

Jr\.

acuit.four na sillabaib cuimribh,

Eba-i- eadhad pudhein. Oir -i- oun^ iar bfir. Uilleand -i 4420
Emhancoll -i- trs\\\nad col
Ipin -i- i budein.

uile and.

fuath
4397

-i-

tactha

fuat

cuoill
4

"

emn<7/th^r

Gr. Lat.

v. 128,

22

and.

Atmberat
14

araile

eumhnoigther

238

dono ebad
immorro is
ita

AURAICEPT

YBL.236a45

is

ipin

ar

ar

ar fheudhaibh fotaibh atat

is

fo

Eg. 72

meudonto/V no

fo

ita

medhontrt/>

is
:

ar

no

b 19

uilleand

fo medhontaz^-//

is

pin

is

coir

and 4425

Emhancoll dono is ar x ata fri foimdin na foca/


nGregda no Laitne do thaphairt isin Gaidilc 7 is a re
raiter emhancoll friss, ar is coll indara taoboumna fil an
ar p.

7 is (col. /3) aire is coll

toissecha coll an ix

quam

Connaghar dono

roheumnad and

7 ni sail ar

is

4430

sail.

beithi-luis-nin an ogaim caiti


in fidh gaipius greim taoboumna 7 an fidh ghaiphius
greim da thaoboumna -i- in fidh gaiphius greim foucail
7

fidh

in

na

geiph

Is e in fidh

foucail.

isin

taopoumna

greim

na

fedha na

fidh a ndiaigh araile

gaiphius greim taopoumna quidevi -i- 4435


-i- fidh
bis araon re primfidh a foe////

no araon

n-aontsillaib, ut estteo\\, beoir, Briain,

7rl.

di

no

re

defogur

fidh tet a gconsanacht,

thaopoumna

aonfidh

7 u.

frecrus

Fidh gaipius greim

tomus

do

diph
taopomnaibh, ut dicitur gach da taopomna ar fidh. 4440
Fidh gaiphius greim focail -i- fid laphrus a eonar. Fiodh
na geip greim taopomna na feudha na foucail -i- u nialsa,
nt dicitur.
bis a

-i-

nee nocales nee consanantes habentur: no fidh

ndiaigh araile, nt diximus.

Connaghar dano

isin

an ogaim taopomna gaiphius greim feudha 4445


7 taobomna 7 foucail, et taophomna gaiphius greim da
fidh et da taopoomna, 7 da taopomnai gaiphius greim
beithi-luis-nin

taopomna gapus greim quicc fed 7 se


dtaopomna, 7 taopomna gaipius greim foucail, 7 taobomna
na gheiph greim taophomna na feudha na foucail. [Ni ansa 4450
an taophomna gapus greim feuda 7. taopomna
Is
Egl\
Et taophomna gaibhius greim da fiodh
7 foucail -i- q.
Et da thaopomna gaiphius
thaoboumna
da
7
da
-igach
thaophomna ar fidh a thomais.
greim fedha
Taopomna gaiphius [greim] \ bfedha 7 se dtaophomna 4455
feudha,

et

-i-

nged<?/.

4150

AURAICEPT

YBL. 236/319
i-

duir

239

Ni machtnadh intan gaphus

n-ait dinin disail.

722b

Eg.

greim na coic bfedh / na g e dtaophoumna, cia nogap/W


greim da fiodh J da thaopomna. Taopomna gapus greim
tri

bfidh / ceithrz

dtaopomna

a n-inad

sail

-i-

for[s]ail.

taobomna congaib 44GO


Taopomna gaphus
na
geibh greim taopomna na
greim forpaidi. Taopomna
fedha na focail -i- taobomna die dtogaiph h cend conad
marbh do raith, no uath budein.
focail

greim

Cest, cis
dialt,

deach dochuisin

lir

regcomrac, iarcomrac,

Deach

claidemnus, bricht
dialt:

dagh

intan

is

di

fo

maith

-i-

regcomrac, dib fuigther intan


diultad co nnach bfuil alt and

da

gcomraiczV in

comarc
iarsin
i-

comrac

comarc

Feiles
baile
fo lais

-i-

da

fillis

na

lama

an

duir;/

cebe dibmus

-i-

-i-

no

re

(no)

iar

-i-

is

re

-i-

iarsin 4470

comraigit

-i-

gach ndeighenach

tsillaba/^ toisseacha.

filW

-i-

Dialt

regcomrac

iar

-i-

(tres) sillab forsna

ft\\ed

-i-

Daghfuach

sreth.

is

alt

largcomrac

int alt iachtarach

in

ata

umann

tsillaib

tanaise.

int alt

focal intan

-i-

focal invenitur.

-i-

houcht

claonre, luipenchous-svw/z, 4465

daghfuach

-i-

Ni ansa.

feiles,

fuach

-i-

luis

filis

larn

-i-

fis

-i-

leisin mbfilid, uair is

fillti

-i-

no 4475

cudrz/wa di

gach leith de. Claonre -i- claon indara re -i- a


do ar an dara leth J a tri ar in leith aile. Luipencoussach

tsillaib di

i-

an coss cona luibnib

seissedh daz &

-i-

Claidemnus

lamh, 7 claidem na laime in


dialt claidemnus.
Bricht

hocht

briathar

-i-

br/-//tar

ocht

bfilid

na
-i-

slinafean, ar
-i-

brigh

mbriathar and

sillaba

and

meoir

coic

"J

in

manus

claidetu

is

he

in

hoc/H

no bricht

traig in

manus 4480

-i-

sechtm^/
-i-

brigh

iarsanni

cenmota

7 consain agin Laitneoir.

a taobomna agin
Aenfid a ndialt, a do a

recomarc, a tri a n-iarcomarc, a cethair a fheilius, a cuig


a
a se a luipencoussach, a secht a clouidemnas
cl^wrej
4457

4476

447:t

nogabad
diberse

cf.

142

44

YBL. da
brithor

with /</.

del.

.-

tres sut. lm.

4ls:>

AURAICEPT

YBL. 236/342

240

Eg. 722 b 38

a hocht a mbricht, ceinmota taobhomna andsein


Is aire sin ni talk in trefogur a nd-aonndialt.

ainm airme a

e int

Is

no a

tri

ceuthir.

da.no.

na 4490

iat

It

hanmanda uird airme primus, secundus, tersius : a tress


anmanda uird airme iar bproiss, / anmanda uird airme
i-

immorro iar n-aigned.


amal rogabh a tri no a
sechta

Caiti

Intan

and

Is si sin in

in

ocht ndialta a mbricht

is

dialt co gceill

-i-

aolit/r

n-us

comhlaine.

Ni

cotarsanai

bfeuda

iar

dei

iss

ig

moam

de,

sloindedh

ceilli

haonfid.

Cid

co

lagat

is

na secht fedha

Na

Ni ansa.

aile?

bfuill/Wc///

secht n-alta

it

luga
defoughar ind sin 4500
defougar sin. Cidh fodera in

na coig feudha

-i-

isini is fer, ni

Greugda

and

is

and a n-us

litri

cuig

Rosaig

(237)

la

lughamh

timarda iarum eba


chena.

dethber airme anforbhthe

cuig, ar nach fuillter o chouitibh.


Ni ansa. 4495
ochta ind Uraicepto?

na x

cuig fedha

r
ag fregra dona cuig guth^4 ib t//c na secht
fedha fregra dona defograiph tuc -i- ea oi na x feudha, 4505
ar x no ar emnad, ata
ipin ar defougar, ata emhancoull

cetumus

x samlaidh.

pin ar p, conid
Caiti

bunad

et airbert,

in</e

7 indies isin bfoucal is

oni

is

An

prodiximus.
lasin

airbert

bfilidh,

coitchend 7

-i-

troig

ut Donatus

dialt

Laitneoir

dixit :

diles, ruidles

Defuach

noinen.

troigh lasin

Muimm> so.

Bunad quidem

Ni ansa.

deach?

deach us Grecum

diximus.

Iar n-Uirazrecht

Pes

is

inde,

ut 4510

go bricht, ut
deach a ainm
sillabarum

est

et

-ian chous
temporuni cert\a\ enumeratio -i- ita in troig
n-aimser
icon 4515
et
na
sillab
conad airmideta derbh na

Laitneoir.
troigi

Ata dono airmideta derpta a

&zs\\\(?baig

et

houcht

s\\\ab

tresill^^z>

ceithri

a se dec

emnaiti 7 troigh et aimsir agan Gaidel o dialt go bricht


i- sillab forbes cech deach dip di araile isin Gaidilcc, conidh
49

tallot

4: 0::

MSS.

fuills

AURAICEPT

YBL.237i6

241

Eg. 731 a 18

a hocht samlaidh a mbricht conid airmideta deurph sin 4520

o haontsillrt/^ conicce a houcht.

Ocht

sitta&a

(-i-

est

isin Gaidilcc,

itt

nigsiomairwe

Jrlo.

minabdis ecsamla) isin pfocw/ is mo


fianam^z /echaradhartoi / inrocomraircFoc^zY doilphdi so rodolpset filz# na

Gaidhilcci et na Laitne a n-agaid araile dia mbreith re 452.1


Team sillaba x isin bfoc/// is mo isin Laitin, ut
sechtu.
est teinerifficabiletudinetatibus.

Cesc, cia roich dialt a

forcing 7

inis

Chairtend

-i-

Cholaim

Mac Da Cerda
Dam

congair

v&Vwch

La
(i- dialt

co

int

-i-

a sleibhe

Chuisi J

sleibhi

7 o 4530

sain-

iter

da

a,

gulpda,

l-")35

arganda

tricha segh

andsin, coic

ceill

sloin^/edh cheille

anman^a

-i-

Fongluaisi glaodh
Is

ag

-i-

amal ata

Cille,

Luachra

Sliab

riud, nt dixit

Ni ansa.

meut ogus a laighet?

Rosouich a laighet co haonfiodh


comlaine 7 is fouczc/ so, ut est a 7

os) lurganda.

(-i-

litri

is

mo

do,

is

lit[ir]

luga).

Rosoich dano co a cuicc a met, ut est flesg 7 triosg, brisg,


-i4540
epaid, et bracht -i- ut est:sgailp, tracht, et bricht
Conberbtar brachta

[A Eg.} n-ebron bru,


Feisi

gan lachta
fuor tnu

Ni

airmif/ier

amal adbert
spiracione

not

tinfzV.

chor as do

-i-

is

in

Laitneoir

nochin

raith.

4541 ~ 4 cf.

fuil

non

uath conidh

lit//-

litera

est
litir

fiadha 4545

scut uota

acht ata conid

tinugud fedha -i- neimtniugW -i- a


Gach dialt iarum imatorm^zV fria araile

Tinfed

he meud

dian

teine).

isna foclaib delghenchu, ar ni

cocumaong cech
4825

(-i-

-i-

ao/z iocail.

Laws

laiget
i.

Deich co houcht

[i]

mbricht 4550

cecha Gaidilci o dialt conna n-

140, 47: Stokes


4540

Crit. p. 24:

airmend

Contrib. sub

conberbaim

AURAICEPT

YBL. 237036

242

2 a 7

Eg. 73

athgaptf/7 diplinaiph -i- co gcumangar do gach dialt cliph


Isin mbricht a mbit ocht s \\\aba.
iarna tinol deach.

Etargairi a n-in;zsgib

Miled

masgoul,

is

is

e,

i,

eudh, iar macaib

is

neotor lasin

feim/;/,

Laitneoir

uina se, 4555

bFeraib Bo]g moth, touth, traothr?^,


uinafei, oundar,
Is e punad gacha Gaidilcci dialt
la Tuaith De Danann.
iar

moth toth
bunad and, ar ni

acht

Madh

traoth.

nach

bfil

iadsidhe

focal Gaidilici

fein ata

iat

is

na bud indip-sut

dano.

Mod

dialt is

buonadh doibsidhe ar ni bunad aonreud do budein


dat bunadh Gaidilci indso acht it bunad cecha

gach ferda, gach feirindsgi. Toth each 4560


ban^z
Traoth gach neotor, gach
banda, gach
indsgi.
iss
ed bunad gacha Gaidilci Jrlo -i- ar ni
neotarda,

nuo

(it)

nit

Masa cen^/, caiti in cim / dianat bunadh? Ni


ansa. Moth
gach ball ferrda / gach cuma ferrda. Toth
gach (col. /3) mbannda no gach baull bannda et gach
cuma bannda oulchena. Traoth^-i- gach neuttfrdai gach
7

rni//Y//.

4565

-i-

i-

-i-

(no r\ach} nectorde -i- gach cumai neimnecht<?rda -i- gach


cuma neimecuscdai no dano is bunad gacha Gaidilcci 4570
dialt acht mouth touth traoth.
Iss ed is moam lem cheuna
:

ciasa

bunad Gaidilgi is bunad ceinil


amal ata moudh mo a odh -i-

in ceol is

no
i-

mo

luga amal rogaph ant aidhpsi a

mo

a fedh a n-airdi intan

tai

a oudh an ceol

-i-

intan

ron-aile

fern/;/

tai

is

na

ni traothait

cornairecht

no
et

tai a
is

4501

4374

treith
banindsci
lusrhai

edh intan
na

-i-

ciuil

YBL.

4578

feman

l(

dat
ina

nDruim Cheutai

is

Toth 4575

fouta ron-cluine no

Toth

n-aill.

ardai

-i-

quain ani aile

ni

bun

fria

-i-

ar a-

sdocairecht no 4580

traothaig, traotus intan

eudh no a odh
4

ni

mo

tourand no caint.

isliu qiuini

ciuil isli

no troeth
a

is

a n-athfheugadh an ceoil is
no toth taoi a edh no a oudh

fo bith is caile / ls crnaidhi

traoth

in ceol

mbec

cronan no certan
is

is

no dono

dialta it/r

is

feugad

4306

each

4583

femin

is

traoth

cruit
:

feimin

cumma

ferrdai

no
-i-

AURAICEPT

YBL. 237/316

no dono moth

masguol

ferrda et

bannda

membri

73ib6

243

anmanda

ball

Eg.

7 touth 7 traoth

-i-

neot0r amal itbeir in Laitneoir

Nomen

4585

nomen meimbri mulieris et nonien membri


at focail Greed u issin cias a Laitin ata

uirilis et

naturalis

is
"J

deismerecht dip 7 is aire nadat dialta, ar ni failit o neoch


7 ni failt^r uatlw/^ acht mina ndernter mot for moth 7 tot
for

toth

troeth

anmand aidhmz
Moth mo a odh
bindfe

intan

is tai et is isliu

-i-

Ismberat araile comdis 4590

traoth.

for

ciuil.

Caiti
is

cruit.

quam

deimhniugud? Ni ansa.
Toth -i- tai odh intan is
Troeth

n-aill.

-i-

traothrt/d?

in dias aile intan is stocairacht fo bith is airde a faidh

is

aire
traotha doiph.
Is e so tra a chumair is he bunad 4595
gacha Gaidilci dialt -i- o regcomarc co bricht J ni bunad
he do etsill#z$ amal roghaph mot tot traoth 7 is ar gach
ndialt tugait-sidhe i sunda J is aire rothogait-sidhe sech
is

gach

dochuaidh

ndialt, ar

menma

comdis regcomrac,

friu

ar fogabar a chondaill ut diximus.

Domiter
an airchetail

halta

fri

domiter

fri

4600

halta daine

duine amal

fri

frv sgara

araile,

luas

corab gach da regcomrac

Iss

toimsigter alta
fri

toimsigtir

gach

fri

domiter

aingeal

-i-

Cesc, cindus
gach n-indsge.
gach n-indsge? Ni ansa. Corab each da dialt

sic

n-indsge,

uadh

alta

///

est dair J cair, tiar 7 ciar, tis cis, tuas

lebhar

daing^;/,

ed a cupaid intan

is

4605

frisgara araile, ut est

remhar, duine 7 mouine.


comfid -i- focal imfmra J is
7

Cidh ara

dtugs//;// na
gach ndialt archena? Is aire eimh 4610
dus-fug-sidhe, ar ata tuigsi ceinelac/t and (no inntib),
cidhad dialta, 7 n c&nelack dialt[a] archena
andsin.

comhdefch]

-i-

tarmfortcind.

in

foc/w sin ar aird sech

at<7

dono cia madh iadsum adberdis ar aird suond,


Is bunadh an dialt do
ar ni bunad in reut do budh /#.
gach Gaidilc uadh fein sechtair. Ni bunad immorro e 4615
Ni

dialt

<?

4MW

failt-,

* X)5 tair

mona

4596 9
-

mo

460

recomarc

dialta arata

ar a

condail
cen</

4803

fri

each indsci

244

AURAICEPT

YBL.237/346

(no

Ismberat araile comad aire na budh

do budein.

iat)

bunadh

73ibx

Eg.

Gaidilge, ar ni dialt

it/>

he /

ni

bunad Gaidilge

-i-

teipzV&

aroile acht dialt.

e [v Eg.]

It

gne

in berla thobaigi

-i-

berla

Feine 7 fasoighe (238) 7 iarmberla 7 beurla n-etarsgarta 4620


7 berla iortcidz na bfiled tresinn aigillzV gach diph araile.
Berla Feine tra -i- in Feinechus no araile berla robui

ag Feinius ar

leith.

-ifis oghai na bfiled


dliged firfurtacht
Fasaigh
no na lurga fuach -i- forsna feroiph, fona, isna, tresna, 4625
:

-i-

fresna, sechna fira

7rl.

diailt n-eterleime, u( est e,

na

lermberla dono cuic

es, et, in, co, tre, tar, re, fo, fair 7rlo.

rum, ballorb -i- ball d farpa na filidechta occa


miruine 7 is do canaidis ainm ballorb. Gne n-aill
-i-

(no coic)

muirm

-i-

do iarmberla
acht, et

ierum, 7 dono, J

-i-

gidhed chena,

mac Nema

thaithmech.

heidir a

uair ni

iaran<^,

arrainic

fa

Berla n-etarsgarta

ouccus, 4630

-i-

7 atat, cesc, cislir, cair, cisne, catiat.

iarmberla de ara secucht

Is aire raiter

\\autem

tra, 7

iter

ara cruaidh/ amal

No

iarmberla

lar

deoigh 7 ni fedtar a thaithmech.


na fedhaibh airedhaibh -i- berla 4635

deiliugud na bfiodh n-airedha isinn aonfouor/


tria na n-indaithmech, ut est (ros) re os intan is ros coille.

triasa bfil

Ros

-i-

raidh as intan

marbhusge
luas

mbi

forsa

ar

ros uis^i

is

ros

-i-

Berla

fasas.

tighe

ford[or]chaidhe amal ismbert


etaill

ni

etaill

-i-

afam

aro 7

i-

inis, etaill

d iomraw go risuw an

smitra^

smit

forrac/i

-i-

-i-

brigh

fasaid

4611

fordorcaidhe

4621

na

fartcidi

inis uasal

-i-

in

filid fo

4644

-i-

-i-

imrum

-i-

1639

rofhas

an do taradh

Eire 7 amal

cleas

464
4647

4640

Da Tuarad:
:

smetrach 4645
-i-

cleas

daigin ecn^/f go bfourrgitis


-

aicille

is

ar a

bfiled

uassal 7 ar a

Da Suadh no
briathar 7 mon

-i-

Feiniusa

fourrac/t neich o smit a cluaisi

briatharda donidis na
4620

ros lin

is

in filidh a sgoil

rogabh san Imagallaim in

Brimo

no rofhos intan

roas intan

tighi fhasas

egnaidh

AURA1CEPT

YBL. 238023

nech

732

b 31

245

smiot a chluaisi do tarr amg-: no smidrac/i

tria

rigi,
(?) ainm in cleasa sin.
in
coiged gne
gnathberla fognf do chach. Ismberat 4650

smit cluas
Is e in

forrach smit ai

7 rach

comad he

araile

Eg.

ba berla

in berla

Feine fasoighe na

co na

bfiled, /

fo leth eit/ r.

Alt go bfeiser cia halt dona secht n-altaib uad

-i-

i[n]

nath, in anair, in laid, in anamain, in setrad, in sainemain,

dian dona dianaiph. O ssen anon^ is o deachaibh 4655


Nath -i- no
tslointer alta ar na rob indsge cumusgai.
fidh -i- indsge -i- anaor anair -i- a n-aor no an-air -i- aon a
in

Laidh

hiar.

lapus

-i-

laitz r

-i-

moulad

leith intan

is

no

no luater intan

laid

If

-i-

do

rith

-i-

rith

ndeigh(6ach.
romaind. Dian

scut

iar

Sainemain

Setrud

-i-

cuibdius

cin
-i-

no onni

Anomam

reith.

somaine reisna haistibh roimpi.


sed

aor

is

suad no leth fedh fedh co

fo

luipencosach

is

an a 4660

sed raid no

-i-

cosin

lethranof

saine a maine risna aistib

dion no dian

adp#/ an

-i-

connach cutroma a hai reisna haistibh

-i-

di fo

O sin

oile.

diult^

anond

-i-

4665

ono sechd primaistibh imach ios o deach adrimtar -iis ni dona deachrt/^ foricfa / is uathaip ata ainmneach^
in duain 7 regcomrac a
doip -i- dialt a forbai cech
rain<3fe

forpai

iarcomarc

bforduain,

casbairdne

[a

Eg.]

bairdne ar na rob inwsgi cumusgcdhai ar na rab prois amal 4670


aisdi na ndaorbard.

Lorga fuach -i- lourga focul arusc reire -i- amal


lorga
lamhaip daoine iga n-imfoul<7^ o port do

biti
t

arna dtaoth-

(col. /3) satis ina lighe,

samlaid (imtha)

p<?;

it

andso lorga biti a ngeiniph na bfiled ig fousugud o 4675


foe/// d fouc///: lorga fuach -i- lorga fouc?// -i- remtsuidiugud desill^ach

Cormac

biti

comuaim

focul,

ut

Im ba

sesach im ba seng
V

foirrtc/;
4666

da

iter

is

1670

labhus

-i-

molad

cumusgc YBL.

7rlo.
u

haistib, set

4 71

ligiu

est

AURAICEPT

YBL. 238/35

246

dialt

n-eterleime

-i-

Eg. 74

a is

da chomuaim, 4680

aontsillab iter

ut dixit :
Cia

Cia

leith co

lound

iter

dono lorga fuach

duine, ut dicitur

duine for

in

iarum

dia

tir,

briathar

Tet

ailiter.

doleici
fai

-i-

tot ua

dolleici

tealgud duine, ar
for tir

donn

aphain;/,

uoch (no

sis

isinn

ferde

-i-

4690

dam,

Fertot ara cheile

fuotrugud don

dia

aile

fairsium o nach aile

gnim

-i-

duine iarum

don bruach

don

sis

doleigi

indsin.

oc/i)

nae
Teit

fair.

Arfaomsi eutach imat o neoch

gnimach son
in

4685

is

dia ndamrtv/

-i-

duine ceusadh

in

Ita

im ba

in dialt n-etarleime.

ed isbeir-sim dano fertom

briathrtr cesta
fris,

ba
-i-

Dia nda;;/ad nai

uisgi.

Iss

ssuidi.

fothrugud

bruach isinn
i

an dialt n-etarleime.

leth

dialt n-etarleime isin rand,

he in lorga fuach / in
Fertot a tealgud nae

is

iar gcuairt 7rlo.

praM

Tot

uisgi.

uisgi,

in

ol

tot,

tond 4695

ainm don foghar sin dogni an


frisin duine,
buo bo, go ged an anmanda foranachta do soun
toun</

do foghar in geinemnai rohainmnigter.


Aurland dano ainm d airell in gai. In adharc duph bis
fonn gai, is di arsisider in gai, imtha samlaidh arsisiodhar an 4700
i-

indsge dona deich n-airlondaib-si

dona

tri

hirlon^/aip-si

-i-

is

e,

is

no

airisider

i,

ed.

is

gach indsge
It

andsin

irlanda ferindsgi / banindsgi J deiminsgi hie, hec, hog, lasin


Laitneoir.
Se, dai, tri, ceithri urlanda ferindsge indsin.

Se

-i-

ceithri

o tsln

is

he an

fer,

da

-i-

da

fher, tri

tri

-i-

fir,

ceithri

-i-

4705

Inanda immorro irlanda ferindsge 7 banindsge


Is aire nach sinter sech a ceithrz
imach.
Si, da,
fir.

teora, ceitheora urlanda banindsgi andsin


di -i- di mnai, teora mna, ceitheoram

is

-i-

i -i-

is si

in bean,

ceitheora mna.

he 7 atat immorro irlanda q^ /cenda iter ferindsge ~ 4710


banindsge indsin. Is ed immorro irlanda deimindsge, ut
dicitur iss ed in ceund fir; herlond
ferindsgi dano
It

4689

don abaind

AURMCEPT

YBL. 238/333

deimhWsge a

aontaighius

Eg. 74

n-urlan^/aibh

ilair

247

2 a 12

da nem,

-i-

no urland indsge -i- remslondW in


urlanda 4715
no
ferincjsge no deimindsge
indsgi
banindsge
an
ria
md
s\\nnen
sr-v
-iainm bis
airslin
gai airell
didm -i- iarial -i- iam bis, ar rs do is ainm cro in gai, is de
ut

da fher

dicitur

-i-

i-

airsisiodrtr in gai fo deredh.

ar ni bi erlan^

di

uath^

uathadh

feimzw

iter

iter

uathad

nemtor

iarlain<^.

iter

masgal

cethair, -i-.da
i-

gan

Is e

n-aill

7 ilar

Si, di, tri,

da,

tri,

ceitheora 4720

?iec

hie,

Se,

do

>

Coitcend immorro doib

ilar.

Gne
il

urland indsge andsin,

iter

masgal 7 feimin 7 neutor o cethair imach, ut est v fir, v


mna, v anmando occu freisligi foghair no ercro erlapra
:

4725

aroile indsin.

Cuig

fillte

xx

a reim

hogfegait na b\id re uama


gne saorda olchena. Caite iat

na

go

hai

(239)

na

anmon<afo

xx

[7

n-i?/adh

Ni
diph do coma dilis budhein ?
nai dib a ndeilb ainwne^a 7 ainseda, 7 a tri 4730

asamberat each
ansa.

a cuig.

-i-

ai

a ndeilb geinit// et togarto, a secht a ndeilb togarto 7


n-uathad fer, fir,
foxlada -i- tri a n-ilor (-i- fillti) 7 a tri
i

og

fir

a n-uathad

na

fir,

na

fer,

na

fira

a n-ilor.

Cuig

reimnig/W an anmo do filliud ina v


xx ta v fhegait na fihV/. Is edh reidhe inde each anma 7 4735
xx gne olchena. Tre brectr<7^ ciall remsuighther friu no
is ed sedhait ac eimniugud fillti na fuach -i- na focla -sfillti

xx

fri rei;//

-i-

ainmniugad a n-airemh,

cin

segait ut dixit

-i-

fer

xx P ro

ata andso

diall

feugait andsin
sis.

fcg.~\.

-i-

Fer a

ainmniugud, in fir a selpad, ar fer a aircill, a fiur a aitrebh, 4740


do fior a dhanwad, a fir a togairm, o fir a foxal, co fir a
YBL.
YBL.

471:!

iliair

neuotur

47:i!l

Margin

YBL. doYBL. illegible

47273!

cethair

tioininatiuns

gftutiuus

(-i-

(-i- fir)

tiatiuus (!

do

fer)
!

fior)

<iiusatiu\u~\s (-i-

sealbad
tobarta

inand

ainmneachadh)

(! inand 7 a tobarta)
uoca/iuus (! inand 7 a geni//7)
olilatiuus

>

ainmneachadh

-i!

foxla

togairm

-i-

ainsed

248

AURAICEPT

YBL.239ai2

Eg. 74 2 a

fer a incousg, i fer a inotacht is inand /


a mmnechad, og fer a fuirmzW, for fer a fortad, fri fer a
freisligi do, o fior a foxa/ { digbail, la fer a thaophda, iar

asgnam, an

bfer a tiarmoirecht

inand / a inatacht, im fer a timcell, 4745


is inand
J a dhan/zadh, tre fer a

is

bfer a tormac/i

frisin

tregdad, dar

ainmniugud,
re feur a

fer

tairrsge.

fouthud

fo fer a

remudh,

-i-

Is

fer

ciall

-i-

tuarusgbail

inotachta uathaid,

Feughthar dono a

ar fer a fresgabail.

na delpa-sai fon gcuma cetnai

-i- fir a
ri-ainmniugud, 4750
a tuar/^gbail, it fir a incosg, na fer a selpad, dona
feraibh a danad, uair ainmniugud ag ainmnech^, geinitz /

n-ilar

na

fir

ag

tobart/vV/

selpad,

ag

ainszV/

mnlocud,

ag

faicsin,

foxla ag dibail no ag fagail, sic in


togar;;z<?;zn ag gain//,
:
fer
didiu
eba a fidh an an;/za, e a guta, dialt 4755
sequentibus
a deach.
Son aonconngbalach cin alt and iter in da
sillrtz$

idedh no

mberar

ipfin in

ar bit a ndis

fir,

aroiliph and, #/ est co

and ina reim, idhedh and (amal)

ar ni

fer,

each Eg. ] mbaile a maraud


filltzY;

bfil

cia dobeith

Dinin

disail

iphin

a forbat d

iorsail J dinin disail.


no. defidh

bis

-i-

inntib

each baile na

Airnin arding defid


nemhfidh, acht

-i-

no

forsail

-i-

sail

(no

fidh ina 4765

Ar

aiccent lasin Laitneoir.

Forsail for fout feudhair

forbaid.

n-ainmniugud

docuisin lasin nGaidel

teora forbaidi

bfocal

n- 4760

tsios.

Idedh immorro no

at e

nama

acht reim ceille

in fid bis a

maran^, conid aire sin itmberar idheth no iphin, a


reim no ina tselpad.

fota

is-

fir,

Is

isna

no ina reimh intan

iphin and o fiur, sic in sequentibus.


aire didiu na hairim eubhai ina reim

ata a

[in

tselp<7^/

ail)

-i-

fair

is

airnin

-i-

-i-

taobomna

tairgither fair
-i-

deredh na

no

is

4770

conit

aimser sech an

qumair.
Dinin disail ar gair geipz# -i- gaibt d fair com d gairit.
Airnin arding defidh -i- dered na foo?/ no defidh -i- 4775
4742

YBL.

repeats

asgnam

47(W

MSS.

dib-

YBL. 239

AURAICEPT

a 39

nemfidh, acht
fot

feghair

cend, glend

Dinin

forbaid

is

2 a

iorsail for

defid

arding

249

35

ut

est

forsail for fid fada, ut est slogh, sron.

ar

no

Arnin

tairgither.

/rl.

disail

taobhomna

is

-i-

Eg. 74

gair

ut

geibzV/,

est

gach

ler,

fer,

Intan sgripthar ainm ogaim, is and 4780


sgriptar na forbaidhe so uasa fri rellugud fuit no cuimre
timorta olchena.

no

fri

ar ni

tend<7</,

chena; uair amal itber

tuicfzV/>

Laitneoir acuit for na

in

cuimbr*?, ut est pax, bac, /

<s,\\\aba

est res, sic dober an


sircumplex
Gaidel dini/2 disnil forsna cuimr^, ut est (col. /3) fear, 4785
amal bis graif ar gach
forsail J for na fotaib, ut est lam

na sillaba foutaibh, ut

for

~J

ilfoclach

aoneip^r-t

hacuit

la

la

bis

sic

sircumplex,

airnin araon re forsail / re dinin disail, ut est cend, sroll

Airnin

/rl.

nion

eirnzV/

-i-

no airniw

nion

-i-

ar

fair,

is

nin sgriphthar ag incosg na forbaidhe sin, ar is nin ainm 4790


no
coitchend da gach litir iter feudha 7 taophoumna
:

airnin

nin

-i-

rohaircc^

ar

fair,

forbaid

in

is

he nin cettaopomna riam


Forsail

sin.

sail

-i-

fair,

ar

in
sail

is

sgript[h]ar ag incosg na forbaidi sin, ar is for fot feghair


4795
forsail.
(Is) sinedh n-aimsire doforne s amal is tiumortad

tomes duir no forsail -i- forfuilW an foucail conid fouda


no forsail sech in qumair.
Dinin disail -i- di fo diultad and connach nion connac/t
sail sech is duir: no dinin disail disin difuillzW -i- nemh-

{m\\ind.
disail, ar

Ismbeurat araile as aire sgriphthar duir a ndinin 4800


is

duir

fil

ar tus a ndinin disail J

nion ar airnnin, ar

is

nin

sail ar forsail, ar

sgribhthar
ut alii dicunt

disail

fidh,

-i-

ni

Ail

haimsir fota no

-i-

ni

diail

aimser
ni//.
-i-

fil

acht

is

nemforail
i

-i-

memfidh YBL.

47S

ar

dinwin

and, uel

qumair.

Dini;/

Disail

-i-

ni

nemhfliuillifM/.

suouiW

YHL.

a i re

is

medhon

forb^/V/.

ed eim, ar gen go dtoimsigt/^r

47711

aire sgribthar

deoigh and
fil

fa/ail sech in

Cesc, in ar tomus tuccait


Iss

fa

is sail

is

in fouc^l is feur?

n-aiccned, toim-

iar
4M<

"

fota

no

m8

gin

4805

YBL. 239 p

250

AURAICEPT

17

sighther iar saordatazV/, ar atcoutor

Atmberat

fefr/ar a chouwail.

araile

doberta sound acht ar deo[c]hair

alt

b 23

saorda and

-i-

na budh ar tomhus 4810


fedha

iter

forfeudha

n-aigmV/ 7 gair suidhighti a bforfedhaib, amal ata


Fot suighighti 7 gair n-aiccm# a bfedaibh airedhaibh,

fot

i-

fer.

amal ata

alt

airc/zetozY

-i-

Gne
fillti

ai

go

bfeisair i[n] nath, in anuir Jrlo.

uama na

re

cum

Iss

n-iolar

saordai sin

is

hai 7 fich^

a dhilis fein

ed a lion

conid se samlaid
a

Cuicc
filid

gne saordu dono in xx


Cesc, caitiet a n-aradnai foraib o mberar

sin.

dip

filltechtf.

tri

4815

do ferindsge ~J do banindsge andsou.


a reim -i- a cuig go hoghftteughait na

fichit

gne saorda
gach

co bfeisser cia halt dona secht n-altaib an

n-ail

bfilhW

Eg. 74

-i-

fer,

na

-i-

fir,

a n-uathad, 7 a tri a n-ilar,


og fir, a tri a n-uathadh
:

na

feur,

deimin eim

Berat eiccen uair delpm/ 4820

tri

fir,

na

An xx

flora.

he so a n-aradhnrtz.

is

x dibh a forgnuis ainwiWa

gne
do

ains^a, 7 aon diph a 4825

forg[n]uis geinit/z 7 toghartWtf, 7 a secht a ndeilph


thobartha 7 foxlaidae, in da fillzW dec dibh
tieghait
It e andso ind anmanda
bforgnuiss ammneda J a mseda.
"a

i-

ar fer a aircioll, go fer a

fer a tsechmall, for fer

bfer a tiarmoracht,
frisin bfer a

im

asgnamh,i feur a inoutacht, sech

a fourtadh,
fer a

thormach, tre

usgbail, ut di.vit in

fri

feur a freislige, iar 4830

fer a timceall,
da[r] feur a thairrsgi,

file

tregdadh,

fer a tuar-

is

da fillti dec,

Is iat so in

(Dar) lemsa nocha lanbiw,


Tiagait a bforgnuis feudha,

\\nmneda ocus

Na
7

secht

foxldufc
"

bfillti,
-i-

4835

ainseda.

immorro, tiaghait a bforgnuis


a aitreuph, og

fior

atcotar

481

firai

condail

4S18

fior

a fuirm^, fo

uamai, saordai

fior

a llin

"

56

geinitil 7
4

"-"

airchell

n-aradhn-

YBL.
J827

togartodh
toborta, tegait
4(a*
nochn, \\iihpunct. del.

*>

4828

:!

"

aimnedai
a

n-anmondo

a fiur

AURAICEPT

YBL.239/34I

fouthad, do

thiarmoir^///,
tit

poeta

fri

fir

2 a 16

25!

a dighpail, iar fir a 4840


a fhresgabail, ria fir a rtlmniugud,

danadh, do

fir

Eg. 74

fir

Is iat so

na secht

fillti,

Nit ernaile adhmillti,


Tiagait a ngnuisibh glana,
Tobharta ocus foxladha.

Aonfill/^//

immorro

ut dixit in

file

teit

a forgnuis toghorta 7 geinitli,

In fer a tusdighe tiar tsoir

Do

4850

tsealpad, do togharta/^,

Ogus doib araon ni rice


Gus mad int aon don fichit

(240).

gne saerda con a n-aradhnaib corraib


forra /rlo.
Fer didiu, ebadh a fiod, idedh no iphin ina
reim no ina tsealpad, no is idhedh ina tsealpad 7 ina 4855
thogairm, ipin ina togartozV/ 7 ina foxlaid. Eba immorro
Is iat sin in fiche

Cidh

a fidh ina ain;#mV/ 7 ina n-aimzV/ar chena.

ini is ipin

and (?) -i- guthrt^e inna comaccomal frisna guthoighibh oile.


Cinwus didiu a radh comad ipin fiodh in awma is fir, ar
is ididh glan fil and?
Ni ansa eim, qumusg nobeith 4SGO
and -i- di/ disail a forbaid ina tsealpad -i- in fir, 7 iphin
a fidh ina reimim -i- don fir, ar is reim gach tuisse/ on
ammm d sis no dono int ipin isb^r suond, is ar
i

o idhedh doinsgain ip[h]in.


Caiti dilius feudha a bfeudhaibh, J dilius feuda a bfidh, J 48G5
Dilis fedha i bfedoibh cetumus -i- a
dilis fid i bfedaibh?

idhedha

ata, ar

is

riasna ceithri guthdgaibh oiliph, ar

is

hi cetlabra

gach

bi

iacht^gacha mairb ach dilis fedho fidh dono -i- is


ogaim secip fid ina sgripthar. Dilis fidh a

dilis in forfidh

amal ata

bfedhaib

-i-

and

foghar

an

defoghar -i- is ed is dilis 4S70


hairmither in foghar
n[i]

in fidh is

toisech,

ar

deighenach.
-**40

)1<:

;i

adanadh YBL.

tid

4844

aidhmillte

oiredha, oiredha with dunct.

del.,

4fi4T

no

geinitli written out

ispin

YBL.

4!C>:!

4886

coraib forra
foxal-

AURAICEPT

YBL.2 4 Oal7

252

Eg. 75

b 6

Alt go bfeisser -i- go bfesor an aisti dona secht n-aisti


bprimda na filidhechta do gne do thomhus. O tsiw anond
is o deach<2/$ tsloinnter
alto uadh -i- na rab indsgi 4875

cumusgda

anound

o sin

-i-

is

do defuachaib

[-i-

is

do

deghfoclaib, Eg.} tsloinnter aisti in airchetail, ar na rab

indsge cumusgda -i- amal dogniat na daorbaird.


Lourcca fuach -i- lairge no lourgaidhe reimtsuigiug<7</
:

detsillaebach bis riasna

da chomuaim

ica

saorad ar da gne 4880

[email Eg.} -i- fogair J claon ceille.


Fertout a tealccud nea. Et buo bo [7 Eg.} go ged

anmanda

rangauter na filedha

sin

tre

ealadz

doib

-i-

do

Fertout -i- fer dotuit aund 7 bou cornea


buo on geim nobeith 7 gedh comad on gedh ghoutha 4885
dobir as nobeith, amal isber in Laitneoir Nomen de suono

reir foughair.

fourcaomnagair int ainm don foughar, amal


Iss ed a foghar ica luosgadh.
Is
aire sin rainicc stipula do anmoim do icon Laitneoir.
est

factum

-i-

ita condall, sdip, stip.

Tout

nomen de suono factum

da.no

duine oga legad

for

-i-

in

guth trom doni an 4890

an toind.

Aurland indsge -i- do airell gai is ainm. Caiti int


eurland saorda foghaprtr conid aiccned? Ni ansa. Urland
acht aonindsge

grainde in
is

indsge do nach bfasand indsge


-iNi ansa.
indsge in bais?
Indsge 4895
Caiti int erlond is iarlond, 7 int iarlond

Caiti in erland

in gai.

gai.

urland, J int urland

is

remlond

Ni ansa.

Urland

in

urlond Eg.} fodeisin, iarlond doteis, ar is iar gach


~
ndeigheunrtc/z, conid he sin int irlound is iarlound

gai

[-i-

urlond

int

remlond

is

-i-

antan rosauoigh

Iar

co

haireill.

4900

Caiti urland urlainne a n-urlaind ?


Ni ansa. Ferurlond,
beunurlond, nemurlond. Urlond uorl^zWe a n-urlond?
[Ni ansa Eg. out.} -i- bean an fir. Aurland a ndis ind

urlond
ilair

-i-

masgail

4878

eum

ind

et

cumuscdai

Aurlanda
[a nemh Eg.} nou a n-iffern.
feimin andso sis Se, dha, tri, ceithre Si, 4905
:

4879

remtsuigh

488:!

dib-

4S87

forcaomnacair

YBL.2 4 oa

AURAICEPT

253

Eg. 751 b 40

inanda insge airme o tsin imach.


Is andsin fogabar comrargai \\air neutz/zr -i- cen ur\and
Caiti ind indsge
n-uath^i namz.
iolair ogaib acht
Ni ansa. Iss ed in cend,
tsaorda fogbur conid aicc^nta?

di,

teora, ceitheora

saorda a radh, 7 se for in duine.


Cia
immorro a radh ris iarna buain de.

ar

as

aiccenta 4910

Is

haonfoucal

regcomarcach isna remend- (col. /3) aiph gebes eungradus


igreim ceithri n-ernaile dona reimeundtfz ^ ? Ni ansa. In
foucal

is

treghdad

ar ni bi in tregdad
int indotacht

int

asgnamh

et is

int aitreph

gan

is

asgnam

ni bi ant aitrioph cin 4915

ni bi int inotacht cin int

asgnamh

cin an treghdad, conid treghdad o tuo

ni bi

md

go

Cia bricht a mbit ocht bfeudha ocon

tuoin^ tecktus.
bfilid

aitrioph 7 indotouacht 7

is

congeiph an aonguta greim a leithe, tit est sliachta


ogleth andsin 7 ni certleth -i- a aonar a n-aghaidh 4920

na secht

litrioch aile.

Cia baile in Uraicept[a] idta in sealp<^ saordu cin reim


acht reim reimraiti, ut est luis ailme no bethe ailme -isealpad

ita

do ailm

isin

bethe 7

ls

luis?

Cia baile

bfoghap^r comtath condsained cen tinfed threothaip ? 4925


Ni ansa. An bail a mbi mn ria ngourt gan guthaigie

eutorra, ut est uinge.

Cia baile

na n-ocht
baile a

bfogapar

mbi deufougar

torm<2Z~/z

in fidh fourtormrtz^/z iar

bfoucal

si\\ab isin

is

ochtmad

isinn

bfourp^
Ni ansa. In

briocht?

dialt, is

fidh

four- 4930

indala foghar.

Cie taopoumna gapus

greim taopoumna et feudha


Ni ansa. Quert. Cia taobomna [na] gabh
et foucail?
na feudha na foucail? Ni ansa, h.
taoboumna
greirn
Caiti

bunad

Aipgitir,

id est:

aipccitir ina

legiteva

-i-

ruidliusta in foucail

comtinol

a n-uatha

4919

sliachtai

aipgitir

Apexedebam. 4935

copula con
litzV

ainm tighe

45108

is

1!

"

literarum per se -i- ita in


cona comfialus a litera oni is

aroile
:!

anmanda

n-ernailedh

W:W defo.tr

aitreupus a dtraigh

4918
41

fedhai

taoibomnai na geb

AURAICEPT

YBL. 240/319

254

Eg. 75

2 a

24

maura dienad hainm Molosus / gibe nech adchi tegdus


a n-anmaru/a sin foillsigt/^r do fis cecha healadna.
Amal 4940
eolus do neoch faicsin na
i[s] seud iarum fouillsigius
teghduse
aicsin

lit/r,

amlaid

litera

edh fouillsigius do neoch fiss J


is litz r o anmaim

is

conid airesin tuccad int ainm

an anman^a

tige

no

sin, is

reimraiti

sin

a literatura

dobmiis arsanta forna

for

each baile

litir

on fouillsiugud

-i-

ita

on coimilt 4945

claraib ciarta, ar inntib nosgripta

ar d/us.

Condagar bunad
7

di

rudlius

indies

inde

airbert,

fouca/

do;z

is

coitchend / diles

aipgitir

Bunad eim

A hairpert dano a 4950


epe ugd^zV: no eipe icon tor.
four ni nach inde, ut dicitur
Aipgitir dno -i.

tap<?7>t

tossach

7rlo.

Cach tan tiaghait na foucail sech a n-inde


amach co ni nach ni is in^fe inntib no comad in
i

toirne
airbert

aithm^te eile ar an focal anaithnzV/^ -i- tinscetol 4955


no tosach no comad i a n-airbert Eg.] reim dia rosuigidh
na foucail ut. Beurla n-airperta coitchend dona litriph
[foc<7/7

uile

diles dona consainib

a tapairt for
as a \jid&.

IN

lethgut<?/

ruidlius

do guth^aibh

intan legait 7 for ni

as

indlius

lugaiV^

4960

tiasca do fedhaibh

deachaibh

reimeund<7z7;

indsgibh 7 eutargairip amal


filed<7z$ na
la
sgoile ceuta robautor ag Feinius
roshuidhigti
na
Gaidilci doip asna di berlaiph
Faurrs<7zV///
ia[r] dteip^
for

forbaidh/^

altozM

Ixx co rotaissealpad do Gaid^/ mac Angin. Ar is he sin 4965


asna hilberlaiph dona
rototh//^/rtr ant aonbeurla do
teip<?

mba

haille 7

\.har

Sgouta, ingen Forain^, conid dia hainmside raiter 4970

gach berla dona dib berlaibh


Ixx.
Conid airesin doraisealp^ do, conid de dogarar
Gaidelc J Gaidil. Nel mac Feiniusa Farrsaidh dia dtar-

pa caine

Sguit amal adrupromar.


4939

mara dianad, cidh be


i

4943

in

Fer a hainmniugud uathaidh,


4W:J

ainm

coimmilt, ailiteratura

tige,

MSS.

onamaim- YBL.

fir

AURAICEPT

YBL. 240/341

do

fior [a

fir

incousg uathaid, na fir a incosg ilair, a


uathaid, a fhira a thogairm ilair, o fer a
in fer a

a toghairm

fir

fox<?l

feraibh

a
a

feraib

255

ainmnechad ilair, na fir a sealpad/t


danodh uathaid, do feroib Eg.~] a danodh ilair,

a sealpad uathaid,
ilair,

Eg. 752 b 12

foxcrl

ilair,

fuirmed

ilair,

oc
co

fuirmed

fir

fer

uathaz d, o 4975

og

uathaid,

asgnam

uathaid,

co

feraiph a asgnam ilair, sech fir a sechmall uathaigh, sech


fera a sechmall ilair, tre fer a tregdad (241) uathaid, tre
fera a tregdad

ilair,

a fer a inotachta uathaigh, a fera a 49*0

inotac/it ilair, fo fer a fortud uathaigh, for feura a fort/^


ilair,

fo

a fouihud

fior

fera a

fo

uath<7?V///,

fouthud

tar fer a tairrsge uathaid, tar feura a tairrsgi

uathaid,

fresgap<?zY

fri

fera a fresgapail

ilair,

ilair, fria

fir

feur a

ilair, fri

feura a freislige ilair, sic in sequcntibus : 4985


feron a formoulad, fer a codttd, feear a mallrugud, rer a
freisli^v?

fri

uathaid,

deilidin, fefriar

chendfochrus

chom/ail, fer

tuois, fel

aon, fer a Ian, ser a

a chend fochr/v s deirz d.

N[i] airecor

diab//l -i- ferfir, firin a lugugad, sofer a saorugud, dofer


a daorugud, ni hairecour a urard -i- fera, feraibh a urisiol, 4990
i

feurtot a telccud nai, fe a aircill calaidh, ni hairecor a


aircell

fuit,

firr

a deichned,

fe

a dichned, 7

is

e iurlond

inclsge.

fuolach deime

Cend cridhe

deismerecht na ndeime teibtdi

no lanamna an cind, suil 7


srephand J cru lanomna in
:

teibzV/i

in

fir

fiacrtz /:

f\\\aing,

in

It

fir.

sin

isna reimendoibh

lanamna

in

4995

cride

luorga J tragha/c/:

lanamna in chind, suil 7 fiectf/7.


Gene dano na lanomna ndeime abratchor 7 maula,
bunnd J leithet, geine na fiacla tanaig- 5000
geine na sula
ban no glas, geine int [sjreupaind tighe
edit et dath
ct dath beos -i- ruaidhe 7 deirge gene in cru
tond 7 lith,
gene na traigeudh croicend 7 feithe, gene na lurgaw no
:

lethor et tound, geine na traigedh.

^- YBL.

fo fiora

YBL.

AURAICEPT

241 a 21

Araile dono

Ar

at

a 7

na lanomna deime a fuoirpdai. 5005


-igene forcometa / g en

e geine

it

Eg. 76

docuisnet

tri

geine
frithchometa / gen decomheta.

Gen

forcoimeta cetumus

amal rogap faircle for glun.


Imtha samlaid is fair anuas ginither forsail is focetoir
Gen decometa 5010
geinither as do belaiph i fiout / gairdi.
diniw distf// amal rogap fuil ar dh feo/1 agus isin feoil.

dono dinm

Is 3.mlaidh

di.svz//congaib lasin bfoucal o tousach

Gen frecometa

cin urgabtf// cin urditeun.

godeired
amal rogab cnaim mu\\aic/t

airnin

J leicne / cnuic / find J nahi

nat geiniter lasin dune fochetoir, uair is fo cousm^/ius 5015


Ni taidbeut dono in foucal
alta duine demits alta uad.
is

airmn

mbi

lasin bfoucal

fair fo

forsa dtouchrauthar

deoigh ardingidh

in

foucal.

foceutoir co

Ferdialt co sin

anuas.
ben, mna, do bein, na 5020
in
ina
dona
mna, a ben, a mna, on
mnai,
mnaib,
mban,
mnai, ona mnaib, oc mnai, og mnaib, co mnai, co mnaib,
sech mnai, sech mnaib, tre mnai, tre mnaib, im

In tiasca do bandialt andso siss

mnai, im

mnaiph.

mnai, for mnaibh, tar mnai, tar


Benon a formoulad, bein a coutz^, beean a 5025

mnaib,

for

maullrugud, ben a aow, ben a

Ian,

ni hairechar a diabal

nach Ian cin a diabal,


beinin a lugug^, sobeun a saorugud, doben a daorugud.
Ni hairecar a urard -i- beana airecar immorro mnaa.
i-

beanbean, gia isberat aroile ni bi

Ni hairecar a
aircealla

urisil

calaith.

benaib, bentot a telccud nae, be a 5030


Ni hairechar a aircealla fuit, bel a
-i-

cendfochrus deirid, beund a dichned, len a chendfochrus


tuis, be a dichned, si 7 uindsi a urland indsge
oig 7 glun
;

lanomna bias 7 mills!


a
lanomna in gluiw 5035
faircli
a geinsidhe
7
esgat
fuirmth^ a
feoil
a
ngeinid-sidhe no it e
[cnaim Eg.~\ J
ngeinsidhe amal reimeipertmor (col. /8). Banndialt co sin.
a deime teipidi

fair

J srithiti a

5011

fuil

ar

dh

feo/1 as

sin feoil

cf.

line

1822

5017

tochralur

YBL.

241

Don

j8

AURAICEPT

deimdialt so

Eg. 76

a 41

257

sis.

Nem, nime, na nime, do nim, do nimibh,

in

nim, in

nimip, o nimh, o nimibh, oc nim, oc nimiph co nemh, 5040


co nimip, sech nem, sech neimibh, for nemh for neimibh,
Nemon a
tre nem, tre nimibh, tar nem, tar nimiph.

neemh
nemh a

formolad, neimh

cotud,

nem

aon,

a chondail,

a mallrugud, nefriam
Ian.
Ni hairecar a

na a tsaorugud, na a daorugud, na

diabal,

[a] urard,

na 5045

[a] urisiol.

Forsna, fona, esna, isna, tresna, sech na nime a lourga


fuach
dialt
o, do, im, co, es, fo, for, e, sech nime a
:

n-eitarleime

e.

air- Eg.~\ cell

[Ni fogabar a thelga nue. Ni hairecar


Nemm 5050
fuit, nel a cheundfouchrus deridh.

a deichned, nea a dich[ned], is ed 7 oundar a urlanda


Ni hairecar a deime teipidi, ar is deime foindsge.
deisin

nell

sduag

dath
neime a lanamna deime
no is he is a foirbti an gen.

7 airdi a ngeinidh-sidhe

Dialt cou sin anuas.

Finit

Amen.

5055

TREFHOCUL
LL. 37 o
1.

2.

Can chloen.
Can rudrach.

7.
8.

Can ecnairc fri frecnairc.


Can uathad fri ilar.
Can ecuibdius.
Can ecenelas.
5060
Can ecomfhuaim.
Can anoc[h]t.

Can rogair.
910.
Can
rofota.
4ii.
Can dim[b]rig.
512.
Can forbrig.
6.
na
XII
he
sin
annuas.
[At
Corraib immorro co ndath / co tothucht.
Co ndath / tothocht cona thomus fri fid
3-

H.]
7

deach

A formolud.
A chotut.
A mallrugud.
A delidin.
A chonnail,
a uathad).
A oen
can dichned, can
A Ian
A diabul.
[dochned).
A lugugud.
A shaerugud.
A doerugud.
A irard.
A irisel.
A lorgga fuach.
A dialt n-etarleme.
(-i-

(-i-

reim 5065

Cor[r]aib and
thelgud noe
noe, duine -i- in tan tuttes

7 forbaid 7 alt 7 insci 7 etargaire.

in

duine forsin tuind,

son

imme

is

foccul eturru 5070

insin, tot.

A airichill fuit.
A chendf hochrus.
A dichned.
A dochned.
A indsce mod.
A erlond indsci.
A clemi thepidi.
A lanamna demi.
A genis de gein

5075

5080

-i-

on

lanamain

for

each

cenel labartha docussin


o dialt co bricht.
5058
306-5

In marg.
jn marg.
258

ili

can 7 rcoir uch L.


in air^//i fiwd Itar ecc ifaar

5061

Cain
^ mad

dimrig L.
L.

HAEC SUNT EXEMPLA PRAECEDENTIUM


LL. 37 b

H. 143

259
I

b 6

HAEC SUNT EXEMPLA PRAECED


ENTIUM
i.

Can cloen

Gabiam

5085

cuibdiusa.

la seise soirche

Seotu sochraide soirthe,

Ria ndul

Gleam
i-

issin fargge

5090

ar lessu re n-aidche.

soirthe 7 aidche exemplum.

[A lanamna. demi a geni-side cen claen


hoc

-i-

ata andseo

cetus, ut est in

-i-

Gabam

la sesi soirche

Seotu sochraidi sorthi

5095

Re ndul dun as is fairthi


Gleam ar les ria n-aidhchi.
Soirthi ocus aidchi

de
i-

is

and mana derntar oidche

e in cloen

Atat dano tri email for cloenadh


n-aigidh soirthi.
Claen 5100
cloen 7 cloen ceilli 7 cloen cuibdiusa.

cret

cuibdiusa

Cloen
cccinit

fil

hie

-i-

H. 143

andseo.

cretti.

mac

Fland

Lonain

6.]

Ua Delbna

.,

r#p2

Tir da Locha forsiurig fotha,


Fond fochrotha, cricha cuan,

5105

Caille cailfota, cuibrend buadach,

Barcc
2.

reil

Can rudrach.

Mo

rohetrocht niamach ruad.

Mac Da Cherda

thipran

cecinit :

Collamair

Ni c^ch atarodamair,
Inti

5110

atarodomair

Atib cona commadair.


5091

scirthe L.

5102

lonwaiw L.

260

LL. 37

TREFHOCUL

b 19

[Mo

tipran

Collammair

Ni each atarommadair,
Inti rodas-rommadair

5115

Attib conna commadair.

Mac
aile

Cerda

Da.

dano

dixit

Desmirecht

rand-sa annuas.

in

for rudrach, ut dixit Cellach Corrach

Roscathatar

Ocus

mo

mo

glonna

Inid acum

longa

5120

uile,

contuili

H. 143

In fer robf Moeltuile.

3.

Is

Can

12.]

rogair.

caingen

5125

Bith frisin less n-imdarigen

Ocus gairm neich na dorus


raromus.

4.

Can rof hota.

Atd sund os chind

Eo

hit shluaig

5130

find fota fo neim,

Focheird faid ngluair ngrind cloc bind


I cill Choluim hut Neill.

[Cen

Mac Lonain

root, ut dixit

cloen 7 root inso

nduain Delmna.

Cert

^_

Tir da Lacha fairsiung fotha,

Fond

5135

fochrotha, cricha cuan,

Cailli caelfhota,

cuibrend buadas,

Bare rer n-oen etrocht ruamach ruadh.

Cen

rogair dano, ut dixit Liadain.

Root rogair inso

5140

Ata sund os chind

int laidh

Heo

find foda fath fo neim,


Focert find grind cloc blaith bind

Hi
5124-7

/n

cill

Texte*

H. 143

Colu[i]m hi Neill.

iii.

18,

48

5133

Delnma

L.

1.

cret

i;.J

HAEC SUNT EXEMPLA PRAECEDENTIUM

261

LL. 37 b 27

Can dimbrig.

5.

Fer

Muman

Ind hue issind assgandfhir

Fo

cecinit :

5145

5150

(?)

tarrib tsebleirg tuignech,

Deoraid ama/ cech Laignech,


Maignech ama/ cech Muwmech.

[Fer

Muman

Cen dimbrig,

cecinit.

Ind uea innd ra sgaindair

z//

est

(?)

Fo tharraib taeblerg tuignech,


Deoradh amal each Laignech,
Maignech amal each Mumneach.

6.

Can

H. 143

Rechtgal hua Siadail

fhorbrig.

Oengusa mic Domnaill

23.!

nduai n 5155

cecinit:

Badbrf Chuicid hJLrenn

uile

Ard bara, brass bile,


Dobadi sis, ni sfd chena,
Cach rig acht rig nime.

5160

[Cen forbrigh dano, ut dixit Rechtgal hua Siadail


Gemtfs ganna

fir

betha

Otha Liphi gu Letha,


Nasfurfead

ol niptais ga[i]nn

5165

Digi do d^maind Domnaill.

Desmirecht

aile

Badbri Cuicidh hErend


Art bara, bres

huili

bile,

Dobbadi sis, ni sid chena,


Cach rig acht rig nime.

Can ecnairc

Gnath

Ba

re

26.]

5170

fri frecnairc.

Fhlaind Locha

At fond

H. 143

linib

same,

flatha fine,

la Fland, lathar n-ane,


secha dine.

5175

262

LL.

TREFHOCUL

7b

[A [Fhjlaind Acha
At fond flatha ffri

linib

143

b 34

same,

Is

Ba

gnath rf Fland, lathar n-ani,


rf secha dini.

Can uathad

8.

H.]

5180

fri ilar.

Maelcainnig hua Tolaig -i- mac Lairi Laidig.


Cormac siii amra dess,
In dagda imma-radim,

Mac Culennain
Co

cetlaib

mora

can ecnach,
alaind.

5185

[Cormac sin, amra legind,


D eis in daghda norraidhim,

Mac
Co

Cuilennain, can ecnach,


cetlaibh moraib alaind.

Can

9.

Oengus mac Oiblen

31.]

5190

cecinit.
feile

fortren taitnem

Tuir

Co

cuibdius.

Oc cungid na
Asa

H. 143

la feige

leir

frithgnam
ord na caibdel.

[Cen cuibdius, ut dixit yEngus

5195

-i-

cuingid na fele
Is a forthren taitnem,

Tuer

la fegi

frithgnam

Co Her ord na
10.

H. 143

caibdel.

36.]

5200

Can ecenelus.

Tanic sund de muntir De


Cleirchen gelban, cain a If,
Ni fhetar cfsi run
Bud messu dun oldas dm.

[Cen ecenelus -i- na dertar [1. derntar]


no baninsci dferinsci, ut est:

5^05

ferinsci

do baninsci,

Tainic sund do muintir De


Clereach gelban, glan a li,
Nucu n[fh]etar ciasa run

Bad meassu dun


13

L. dagdai with

5192-5

crossed out

Felire, Prol. 329-32

oldas

5210
H. 143

di.
r>188

5205

ecuach H.
1.

di

38.]

HAEC SUNT EXEMPLA PRAECEDENTIUM


LL. 37

263

1 1

Is

Can ecomfuaim.

he

Senchae same,

ri

.Gel cloe gaile iar crud chuile,

5215

Do[rat] feolairecht ngona

For Eoganacht

[Cen ecomuaim

fer

Maige.

do beith and, ut:

fidraid

Sencua San/,

Is e rig

Gel chlue

gaili

cruth cu

ri,

Dorat feolairecht ngona


For Eoganacht fer Muigi.
12.

(Can anocht

cia locht

-i-

-i-

H. 143

41.]

a nda nocht iarna diriuch

don dligiud LL. margin^)


airchetul

Fogonar
sium

n-anocht n-ellag, ar

is

coitchend-

uile son.

sicut (?) asberat na


[Cen anocht -i- cen nocht and
airchetul
n-anocht, ut est :
huedair,
Fogonar
C5
^5
i

Imcomarc

flatha Fe?nin,

Macha im Mumain,
Tore atchiu argair gabair
Fiu Core no Lore no Lugaidh.
Fotait mail

"

"

Argair

and cen
H. 143

foesin.

ni
i

fris

cia

rodligh co

5230

fil

nocht and

44.]

Co ndath 7 tothucht, ut dicitur: Tlachtga na n-uath


dub a n-aerthar, brec i fochanar, find mmoltar, /// cos ... 5235
.

~J/O

ganna fir betha


Otha Liphe co ILetha,

Ciaptis

Nosfirfed ol niptis [gainn]


Ol dige di dernainn Do;/maill.

Maelruanaid ruad

imma

5240

rind

Arching dorair lidualaig


Is caill ton bo can buaraig

For

aill

sron cherr Maelruanaid m/c Flaind.


Mi

"

5228-si

fr

TV.V/V,

iii.

13,

24

"

- 41

49
42,
inarg. dui ut idei
:

dernaiwl L.

264

TREFHOCUL

LL.37ci2

H.i 43 ib

48

[Corraib co ndath 7 co tothucht. Att e


sin

find 7

-i-

dub

brecc ua focarar

tri datha na
hec[se]
Find ua moltar dub ua n-aerthar 5245
comsan, ut dixit Fingen mac Flaind

J brecc.

mad

Dosronusaa doib droing mbind bairdni briathar


cen tlaisi ni tartatsom duals da hesi.

Gnim

Brecc

fochanar, ut dixit Fingin

mac

Flaind

Daronusa doib drorig bind bairdne brethir


Gniim can tlasi nistartsatsum duas dar esi.

glesi,

H.]

5250

glei[si]

Nislen ecnach ond ces chetlach cruth roncuala


ar lidala acht na tucsatsum duas for duana.

Ar

i-

Tothocht dano -i- anWbeit a besa,


corop amlaid moltair
molad laich do laech J molad clerich do ch\erec/i.

5055

[Tothucht dano -i- beit a mbesa, corob amlaid moltar


each -i- moladh laich for kech, molad
for
cleirigh

molad mna

mac

Coisi

for

Moladh

mnai.

do

laich

Isech,

clerech,

nt dixit Urard

Crithir crithes crothas cuan


Riches rochas core buan

5260

Ua rig Lemna leotha cend


Bres B^rba buille dilend.
Molad

clerigh for clerech

Tuthal dluim do deirc

De

dil

5265

Hua

Chonaill mic Amirgin


Huasal escop Insi Fail

Comarba cathrach

Molad mna

for

mnai

Ciarain.

Ciall cruth

cen<?l

cen chairi

5270

Gaes gart genus co ndruin eland,


Compert cen grain gaili
Atat

53471 8l

K5

Arch - C.

ic d/tf^bail uili.

P.

iii.

296, 44, 5

Ir. Texte,

iii.

30, 19

121, 31

HAEC SUNT EXEMPLA PRAECEDENTIUM


LL. 37

H. 143

Sechta
Is

ed a

tomsiter Goedelg, fidh / insci / etargaire.


as gu -i- cona thomus fri fidh -i- in cetna fidh 5275

fris

fid

ind focail as guthas.


a thuisel.

Is

deachaibh.

Is

7 baninsci

Is

ed zs deach a

ed a forbaid a aicent

alt airchetail / ni

n-indsci.

265
i

he

ed a

insci

na teora

deminsci.

Is

Is

(verso}.

int alt bis etir

ed a reim

Is

traig.

ed a

insci docoisnet

ed

alt int

each da dealt

etargaire

Corraib and, a formoladh, ut dixit

-i-

Mac

t sna.

ferinsci

deligud 5280
Lonain.

Feron a formolod.
Cenn o lochaib do lindol
Co clothaib, clu nadh gandon,
Techt for eocho cind crichi,
Maith bethu bithi annon.

5285

H.]

chotut, ut Fer Muman dixit :


Goth gruce golfad breice
Baeth criche crich co ndorthor,
lar mbeithsiu sasb a thigthol
Taistel Milcon mic

[A
Fer

cotot

Muman

(-i-

timorcain

dixit so sis

fri

5290

Onchon.

aicnead no

cind) dano, ut

Goth gruice gulfad mbreice


Bseth criche crich iar torthor

5295

lar mbeith sund sa_pb a thiugthol


Taistel Milcon mic Oncon.

H. 143

7.]

mallrugud, ut Cormac cecinit do Inis Cain:


Nech nobiad bliadain lain
I

taig aiged Indsi Cain,

Rabad glebdn a m ab
Oc dul dar sliab Sion

5300

sair.

[ut

[A mal[l]rugud dano
Nech nobiad
Yof

-i-

fri

haicnead

-i-

bliadain lain

aigcd Inse Cain,


ainglaidi a main

cuit

Robad

5305

Ic dul tar sliab Sioin sair.

!7;i

quidam :

a rad co mall,

docoiscet

H. 143 2 a
r -- :

RC.

xx. 150

10.]

266

TREFHOCUL

LL.37C23

delidin litterda, ut dixit

H. 143

2 a 13

Glainidir gol co amson


Sui dian sosad silochta

Sine

bi

mac

Mac Lenin

dixit:

cleib caindlech

n-ainm aimi

Saer sert each

[A

5310

Inse Catluw^ coir.

delidin sillabacda, ut

delidin, ut dixit
bi

mac

gossa fer (!) Fergossa.

Mac Lenin

5315

cleib caindlec sersit each.

H.]

Cormac dona Cnoib Segsa

chondail.

yd Ailig ollchathach,
Ailsius deir ndianim dub^
As goam

diabul

gilidir gesi

5320

Locha Lefn.

A gur agur
1

iar cein beith

pein pein, ni sid sid,


co brath brath

Amal each each

5325

In each thrath thrath cid scfth scfth.

A lugugud,

ut

Mo

Flaud mac Lonain

chara-sa

Cnamine

Car aslach n-Eile n-achtach,


Bid falid frim Damine,
Cia dom-fhacced cet marcach.

oen,

2it

5380

Clothna mac Oengusa dixit :

Imchomarc roruad rogda

D fhir imdich soshluag sadha,


A iath na trenf her tigba,
U aim do threnfher glegel gabla

doerugud, Mac legind

fri

(margin

gilla rig

5335

triadi).

Resad

Ar corrucan cumraide,
Ollurgbail ar nglanbaile,

Nis-fuar caem a chomdile,

Ciaso drer
5a2

cf.

RC.

xx. 144, 27-8

r :; -s

is

5340

dagduine.

Goed? 158
1. Caras iath

K27

;w

/;-.

Texte,

iii.

63

HAEC SUNT EXEMPLA PRAECEDENTIUM


LL. 37

267

40

A urard

Frim gruad corcra ma chora,


Dom-ruacht bochta fom-bera.
Ni chelim, uair it cara,

5345

Feib atberim atbera.

A irisel,

in

ben side

cecinit:

Secht mbliadna lana o noc[h]t


Fotgluasfither on oenphort,

Feraib mnaaib mairg rosbi


in Dond cathach Cualhgi.

Im

A lorgga

Lormac

fuach.
In toceb

For

mo

cecimt issin tririg

churchan cfar

in n-ocian n-ucht-lethan n-an

In rag, a Ri richid

As mo

5350

reil,

thoil fein ar in sal

5355

Im ba sessach, im ba sehg,
Im ba fressach, torgib drong,
A De in curigene friwzm,
thi

oc techt for lind lond

Lorgga fuach

eter da focul

sal /

sessach

\m

ba,

is

5360

in lorga iuach.

A dealt n-etarleime -i- remshuidigud oenshillatte eter


da chomfhuaim fhidraid, ut idem in eodein.
Ced

leth co brath iar cuaird chross

mo

Coslafe

Im ba
1

-i-

ba

bachlach cress,

im ba

fo thuaid,

5365

siar, ni suail,

im ba

desmerecht andsin

Is e in

toesig

in

sair,

fo dess.

-i-

ced eter dered ind raind

lond 7 tossach ind raind tan[aisi].

A thelgud noe
Orddan na

53711

recht as gleo

rrig

cein

ba beo

bert

fogni

Saerthot slantot cech

5352-6* cf.

slt.

/>:

sa tathot rota rodatf.

Dic/i/uHg, p. 9

].

tisat.

tressach,

cf.

940

268

LL.37c

TREFHOCUL

56

urachil calaidi

Cen cob delb alaind mo drech


Nimtha a chleith ceil na guth

dam

Deithbir

Uair nach

(LL. 38 a)

Colum
Bid

cid diuir

rochiur

dath

chruth

-i-

rochiguir.

airichil fuit.

Cille cein

mo

mo

ma

5375

5380

nom-bo

du can da co

fei[rc].

Fri each riguas ge radat

No

molur meit

mo

de[i]rc.

Cendfochrus.
Fail

filid

Fegsat

Fenchas co

Mad

5385

fus

feig la Fergus,

mal each maige immach


A Dia a

tar

Doroscib doinib Dubthach.

ri.

[A dichned.]
Dal rodalus, ba mor in baes,
Druim

Issinn arus os

5390

Lias.

A mmo

Chomdiu, [a ri] ru ra (-i- dichned littri)


Cach mbi bui (-i- di silla#) ba bas ni thias.

A
La mac

declined

neit fadb corcra,

fir

5395

Teit daig demin ni tercdu,


[Forruim] tenn co cruind ochtga,

Gnath cend

crub

Con Echtga.

Cellach cemind inmain fer


.

mac

febra

A
Is

eise.

rig rigi tuir la

demi

...

5385-8

gaidther ca

dam

fifotr.

RC. xx. 152


Amra c.C. (Stokes Coed? 158 RC.
5397 denn
RC. xx I50
L.
.

5400

thepidi.

5395-8

he daig derg dige dath

chainem cruth

5390-s

as dilid

5389

5405

In marg. a de;i

xx. 144)
5

3-5

c f.

556.9 o f Auraicept

HAEC SUNT EXEMPLA PRAECEDENTIUM


A
indsci

269

lanamna demi.

no banindsci do thabairt

isin

ridemi

ut quidam

cecinit :
Is

he a bna

lass

sein sith

A genis

is

ri

fuair

gruad gland ama/ gre m


fri

silbad rig co.

de.

Quidam

dixit

he mac milis ne tar each triath


issi imcain imchess caich
Is

fri

fath a finchruib ar fuach.

5410

5415

DE DUILIB FEDA
BB. 305

LL. 38

10

/3

Incipit do, L. De, duilib feda na


filid,

is

L. la filidaib.

a do

Is aen, L. oen, dialt

timargain, L.

fri

Corus

fedat

forfid

eo

firthar do, L. da,

do

ri

a * re

-X~>

righe, L. rigi,

fri

timmargain.

Ca

L.

fihtf,

/S

forfid, L. fored, lasiw

"0

ri

fored

fuid,

fegait

5420

ar aen, L. oen, ~3jC~,

^Wi

uair

&

yd
ata L.

3^_

iar

uird na for/ed, L. hetir,

L. baire

da emancoll, ll

L.

oni.

is

.ttfe_,..

>X-.

ebaid, L.

tria

ban

emuncholla nosben&nd,

it

L. id emanchuill nodabenadar, uile


it

3JBE

ingen), L. bairi, bairen^, J

(-i-

B., 7 bai / baill, L. bair, 7 baile

eo 7 ceo

bairc, L. bairg,

suid B.) / brai / brais / braird 5425

(-i-

/ bairt

mna), L. bran,

(i-

bair

etis B.) bail J baile,

(-i-

Beoil [7 beoit

7rl.

>^--,

^ ;;A ] 7 beoir 7 gleoir L. om., J treoir, i[t]

-^*.

Beid

7 teid 7 reid 7, sgleit L.

0?;/.,

5430

L. geid, 7 seid, L. 7 gleid, dead 7 scead, L. stead, 7 treat,


L. tread,

it

>X~

nodusb*adar, L. nodabenadar,

Liag, L. Han, 7 Brian 7 grian, L. 7 trian, 7


7

L. 7 riar 7

cliar,

feda

tiar

miad,

triall 7

fin,

L.

srian

ifin,

5435

uile.

Feoil

-i-

fian,

fiad,

mian

uile.

L.

fiag,

-f-,
L.

-i-

fian,

fia,

L.

-i-

"^~~,

feo,

270

feoil,

-i-

L.

feaigh,

nodusb^adar,

L.

nodabenadar,

uile.
5423

L.

feagh,

TsT~

-i-

7eT~,

fial,

etis over bail B.

w28 L. corr.

DE DUILIB FEDA

BB. 305/321

Buidle

dall B.) 7 buidlen

(-i-

Buaid

-3^.
L.

focul,

L.
(i-

fuam

out.}

is

^f"

airemh ard, da 5440

mual

duar

(-i-

mulenn,

(!

muir) nuall

(-i-

duan

err,
fid,

"*%"

ceol, L. coel, is

B.), guit, L. cuitti,

L.

"~tt~~,

rai

moi

7 loi

is

gabud),

7 gnoi,

noer

L.

boaid 5445

nuar

(-i-

suad

is
"V0-,

~--,
L.

buar

boairig,

nodambentar

Doi

roi

uile.

coi 5450

adds dabenadar

L.

.-0~,

~y~, muad

maeid

[L. om.

is

is

boairech,

7 lai 7 gnaei, L.

-0,

is,

0-,

nodusb^/dai,

mai

coich

L.

oir,

-0-,

J cai 7

L.

Nasr,

is

boir,

^~,

Ocus
7

is

muir)

-i-

271

eblud B.) boar 7 boa, boilglan, om. L. 7 boilban, (!

banefes

is

L.

muis,

Cual

fida, uile.

trefocul)

^T;

da,

muir, L. dilend

(-i-

(!

arem, L.
L.

it,

cruan (!

feoil),

L. muilend) fuar
L.

druaid

LL. 38/321

gabad), L.

(-i-

med), L.

muag

uile.

suad

({

is,

~yfr~ druad 7 suad

is

nodus-b^v/tar].

Lanchumang

firfedaib,

L.

forfedaib, L. fhorfhedaibh, fegthair

dede
L.

file,

forfhedaib,

cumang

do thaebomnaib.

Teit

n-aen, L. n-oen, ata-boing, L.-bong, tui teachtaid


fad, L. fath,

L. eter, in

da

fid

nad

fubai.

aireghda

immorro

in bail[e L.]

amsilW/>

-i-

in bail[e L.]

L. in da fhorid

[-i-

^^

Is e

in

coimfrecra.

mbit
i

in

lanchumang,
Is,

L. e in,

L. om.}.

fili,

teid,

cumang 5400

da guttai, L. gutta,

toc/^vzdar, L. tochdar,

isin

forfid

OGAM
BB. 308

/3

44

aimser 7 persu 7 fath airic in ogaiw? Ni 5465


Loc do Hibernia insola quam nos Scoti habitamus.

CAIDE

loc 7

tf/wtf.

n-aimsir Brese mic Elathan rig Erenn dofrith. Persu


do Ogma m ac Elathan mic Delb^/V^ d^rbrathair do Bres,
I

ar Bres 7

an^sew.
is

Ogma 7 Delb^M tri mic Elathan mic


Ogma didiu, fer roeolach a mberla a

e rainic

Cuis

ogam.

\n\.

co mbtt/i in bescna-sa

ic

airic (309)

filidecht,

derbad a intlechta

5470

~J

lucht in eolat s fo leth, sech lucht

na buicnechta. Can as fuair ainm iar suwd


it ogam, J caide mathair / athair \n ogaim, J cia

na tirdachta
7 ret

Delb<z7/7/

~]

cetainm roscribad

tri

ogam,

7 cia fid in roscribad, J cuis ar 5475

roscribad, 7 cia dia roscribad, 7 cid ara remtet bethi ria each,

uoluuntur omnia).

(hie

Ogam
iar ret,
filid

Ogma

\mmorro,

forsin

suo inuentore primo ria sunw quidein

ogum og-uaim

filideacht

Gaedelg icna h\edaib

ar

trid,

athair

-i-

is

ogaim Ogma, mathair ogaiw

lam no sciaw Ogma.


Is e so immorro in cetna ni roscribad
i-

in

do

beithi roscribad, 7

tri

ogam,

>

secht do ben uait


5W5-9

D. Gr.

xxviii.

note e

sid

no a feram/ ali

Margin
272

TTj

arris

B.

Berthar

m<2#is-coweta

W73 suwd written out


548

"

TjTj

bmth robaid do Lug mac


mna na ru[c]tha uada hi

Etlenw roscrib^ 5m dala a


n-aenfhlesc do bethi
i
sidaib -i- secht mbethi
fo

og-uaim, dob^rait na
fri
fedaib toi;sit/rr 5480

sun)

5485

OGHAM
WHAT

are the place, time, person, and cause of the inven


Not hard. Its place Hibernia insula
tion of the Ogham ?

Elatha

Ogma
for

In the time of Bres son of

nos Scoti habitamus.

quam

Its person
king of Ireland it was invented.
son of Elatha son of Delbaeth brother to Bres,

Ogma

Bres,

and

the

Delbaeth are

Now Ogma,

Elatha son of Delbaeth there.


speech and

three
a

of

sons

man

well

poetry, invented the Ogham.


as
a proof of his ingenuity, and
its
of
cause
The
invention,
that this speech should belong to the learned apart, to
skilled in

exclusion

the

in

of rustics

and herdsmen.

Whence

the

and matter, who


Ogham got
are the father and the mother of the Ogham, what is the
first name that was written by Ogham, in- what letter it
its

name

according to sound

was written, the reason why it was written, by whom


it was written, and why b precedes
every letter, hie
uoluuntur oinnia.

Ogham
its

from

sound, quideni

Ogma

suo inventore primo in respect to

according to matter, however, ogum

is

og-tiaim, perfect alliteration, which the poets applied to


poetry by means of it, for by letters Gaelic is measured

by the poets
of

Ogham

is

the father of

This moreover

Ogham,

Ogham

the hand or knife of


is

>

"jTT]

[Tj

the

t .e.

first

Ogma,
Ogma.
is

the mother

thing that was written by

(the birch)

b was

written,

and to

convey a warning to Lug son of Ethliu it was written


respecting his wife lest she should be carried away from

him

into faeryland, to wit, seven

Thy

wife will be seven times

bs

in

one switch of birch

carried

away from thee

into faeryland or into another country, unless birch guard


273

BB. 309 a

274

immorro remitet

aire

Is

\>eth\.

OGAM

15

bethi,

ar

is

mbethi

ogam.

ro-cetscrib<7<^

ogaim J caiteat ? Ni ansa. A iiii bethe 5490


a v, uath a v, muin a v, ailme [a] v, forfeda olcena.
Ni ansa. A iii -i- viii n-airigh
Cis lir aicme ogaim?
Cis

fedha,

cetus

lir

fogla

viii

n-athaigh,

viii

fidlosa.

fernw, dur, coll, muin, gort, straif,

Ocht n-airigh
onn, or. Ocht

n-athaig -i- bethi, luis, sail, niw, huath, tinwe, quert.


chuit a feda is athaig- feda fidlosa olchena.

Ar

5495

Ni ansa.
CL, et
Quot sunt genera in ogaim"?
figuras eorum et potestates secundum ordinem nimtiabimus,
o tuctha am//ant/
asnedim primus do fedaibh na cran
fedhaibh

for

antur.
taebtf
is

\n

can

mas^,

Cesc,

mna

ogaim secundum

\n

ogaim

domun d

alias

Secundum

noimn- 5500
feda

alios

quidem
na filideachta rofaid
fhoglaim na mberla. Bai xxv ba

huaisliu di[b] conid iat a


luis-nin \n

et

asin -ainmni[g]ter

Ni ansa.

o scoil Fen/kra Yarsaidh

Fenius fon

alios

-i-

scol

for bethi- 5505

n-anman-saide tuctha

ogaiw eter feda

tsebomna;

7 bai cethrur

ba

huaisli dibh-side iterum, conid iat a n-an;//anw-side tuctha

forna

vii

fedaib

aire[g]daib

7 rotuillset triur eli friu,

forfeda

tri

Secundum

aile,

conad

>1fl

ITtt

Jtt1t)(0

conid uaidib-side ainmnigter na

aire

alios is o fedaib

deglait<?r

na

caille

Beithi

ar leth

tuctha

^te
-^^^

anwanw

wl uatha v B.

:>:
"

Margin.
ar ach no uch
soou

Luis

-i-

mui;/ 7 B.

Molgalraig

por cethrur

for

immorro o bethi na

fedaibh \n ogaim trin-troip.


cailli forsin cetna fid for set na aipgitri in ogaim.

"ff^.^,

i.

ach no uch ar emuncoll ar gabar emuncoll


4
d fhodlaim B.
"

r>;

/.

morshesser,

vii

confused with

iiii

5510

OGHAM
On

her.

that

cedence, for
are

takes pre

birch,

b,

Ogham was first written.


Ogham are there, and what

divisions of

Not

they

moreover,

account,

in birch that

it is

How many

275

Four

hard.

five,

five,

five,

besides diphthongs.

five,

How many

groups of

Ogham

Not

hard.

Three,

eight chieftain trees, eight peasant trees, and eight


shrub trees. Eight chieftain trees first
alder, oak, hazel,
viz.,

vine, ivy, sloe, furze, heath.

quicken

As

Eight peasant

trees, viz., birch,

willow, ash, whitethorn, whin,

tree,

apple

tree.

to their letters all other shrubs are peasant trees.

sunt

Quot

CL,

et

of

genera
eornui

figuras

et

the

Not

Ogham ?

secundum

potestatcs

hard.

ordinem

speak priuiuui of the woods of


the trees whence names have been put for the Ogham
letters, secundum alias et alias naniinantur.
Query, well
nuntiabimus.

shall

whence are the Ogham vowels and consonants


named? Not hard. Secundum alias quidein, it is from

then,

the

school

of

Fenius

to

Farsaidh,

wit,

the

school

of poetry which Fenius sent throughout the world to


learn the languages.
There were five and twenty that
were noblest of them so that it is their names that were

put for the Bethe Luis Nin of the Ogham, both


vowels and consonants
and there were four who were
;

the noblest of these again, so that it is their


were given to the seven principal vowels

names

that

that

from

irtt

and they

added

these are

named

fr^

3S
fB

^""-

other three

to

the other three

are classified

apart.

them

so

diphthongs, wherefore

Secundum

alias

it

is

from the trees of the forest that names were given to the
Ogham letters metaphorically. Moreover beithe, b, is from
the birch of the forest for the

first letter

Ogham

that

alphabet.

Luis,

1,

is,

on the path of the

elm

in

the forests.

OGAM

276

BB. 309 a 38

lemh

sin isna cailltib.

\n

ogaim

dono

sail

-i-

Fern
sin

garmna no nenaid

giwol
7

fearn sin isin

-i-

isin caill.

feadaib.

isna

ogaim dair
-iquulem/ no trom isin
caill.
isin
coll
-iQuert in ogaim
ogaim
Muin -i- 5520
caill no cairthen^ no crithach.
insin.

fir

Coll in

caill.

quulen^/ isin
midiu. Gort

i-

Ida

eu.

\3i\ieann

De

-i-

On

isin caill.

Getal

gius.
-i-

Ebad

ibhar.

-i-

fuath

-i-

coll

dar

ar

foltchain

tuc

-i-

Oir

eleru

-i-

dano secundum
coll

-i-

Edad

draighen.

emnaide

feorus.

-i-

isin caill,

alias

ainm

in

no

iar

iar ret

5525

coll ina fuath.

Feocus

Moraiwd mic Mhaiw an^so.

Briatharog^w
;#aru/

ifin

Emancoll dono

sin.

Straif saildrong

gilcach.

Ur

in

Pin in ogaim, pin dam?

atbertar caera pinne

feda

-i-

aiten no uimus.

edlenaf.

-i-

Nin in ogaim -i- 5515


Uath \n ogaim

Dur

no see ar a delgaighe
dono isin caill. Tinne in ogaim

cra.no

Sail

caill.

beithi
/3)

(col.

sen

isin

briatharog^;;/,

Moran^ uaidh

fen

for

an-

uair

fedaib

in

5530

iat
is
gabus greim feda isin briatharog^w.
Feocus foltchain ar son bethi, ar at e sin da egosc
in bethi, 7 tucad uadsan for fidh in ogaim rogab ainm

ogai;a

uad.

Li sula

-i-

luis sin

Airinach Fian
ndergi ar aenrian

6528

Ante.

iii.

-i-

no

43

-i-

5535

in luisiu.

sciath
air is

ar

fern

aigiseom

sin

in fern adbz/r in sceith

5535

Origg.

xvii. 9,

93

ar

tucad

OGHAM
that

that

f,

Sail, 8, of the

alder in the forest.

is,

the forest

in

willow, again,

is,

277

Ogham,
of the

Nin, n,

maw

of spear, or nettles in the woods.


Ogham,
Uath, h, of the Ogham, that is, test-tree or whitethorn, on
to wit,

account of
again,

its

the

in

thorniness.
forest.

d, of the

Dur,

Tinne,

of the

t,

holly or elderberry in the forest.

Ogham
Ogham,

Coll, c,

of the

Quert, q, of the

to wit, hazel in the forest.

holly in the forest, or quicken tree, or aspen.


to wit,

m,

mead [from

forest.

Onn,

thorn.

o,

to

wit,

Straif, str,

Edad,
Ebad, ea, to wit, elecampane.
Uilleann, ui, to

letter.

Ogham is
Mum, vine,

i,

fir.

Ur, u,

to

wit,

to wit, service tree.

Oir, oi, to wit, spindle tree.


io,

of the

Ogham,

pine,

Hence are named caera pinne, goose

again, in the forest.


berries

Ida,

Pin,

wit, ivy.

wit,

Ogham,

willowbrake in the

or ash.

furze

to wit, yew.

e,

oak,

Gort, cornfield, g, to wit,

it].

broom.

Getal, ng, to wit,

is

to

again secundum alios is the name of that


Emancoll^ witch hazel, ae, again, to wit, c doubled
ifin,

according to fact or according to form, to wit, c across


c in

form.

its

Word Ogham
foltchaiii,

in

Morann Mac Main

faded trunk and

Word Ogham,

the

gave
which

of

fair

here.

Feocus

hair, that is for birch, b,

because names

which

Morann

Ogham letters, these are they


take the effect of letters in the Word Ogham.

of himself to

the

Feocus foltcJiain for b, for these are two aspects of the


birch, and it was hence put for the Ogham letter which

has taken a

Li

name from

it.

sula, delight of eye, that

is luis,

quicken

tree,

1,

to

wit, the flame.

Airinach Ftan, i.e., shield of warrior-bands, i.e., shield


f, with him owing to their redness in the same

for fern,

respect

or because the alder, the material of the shield

OGAM

BB. 309/36

278

o fernae forsin

Fian

fid

Li n-aimbi
acht
7

mairb

li

-i-

Cosdad sida

-i-

Cosdad

sida sin.

Conal cuan

mn

anma,

dossaibh

-i-

-i-

aill inc/e

conach beo 5540

aigiseom

sin,

n-og<7/;//.

giol garmna

fri

re

huath

\n

fid

airde

ogaim ar co ibm us

-i-

ciall

quert sin

dur sin a dualus a feda

coll sin ar a chaini

do

-i-

buaili

in tan

isin caill.

no boscell

-i-

boscell

degas a bas.
-i-

elti

-i-

5550

a fedaibh.
-i-

gelt

-i-

basceall

Clithar boiscell

edruma

iat.

Clithar

dono -i- gelti no elti quert a dualus a feda.


Tresiw fedma -i- muin \e\s-s\wu sin -i- ar rentaidh anma 5555
muin duine no daim, ar is iat is tresi feid;;/ ann.

boiscell

fri

sail

-i-

sin aniu.

Clithar mbaiscaill
is anflf tic
-i-

sen

fo diultad

sida aigi sin o nin na garmna.


uath sin, ar is uath la nech conal chon 5545

-i-

Cainiu fedaib

dono

Airenach

ar uath iat ar aenrian.

Ardam
Trian

i-

fid

Conal cuan do rad

alladh.

am

-i-

Li n-ambi dono

marb.

is

tugad uaidisium forsin

in

rogab ainm uaidhi.

ogaiin

sciath fern sin aigz sium.

-i-

Millsiu

anma

frisin

frraib

-i-

gort arba.

gort leis-siuw sin ar oentaidh [in]


In tan (guiu/t} bis ina fuac^on^, is

5539

a igsiw B.

S55 2

on tiagas

5536

ann written

out

:>:

late livid

in
t>y

OGHAM
was from fenue given
taken a name from
fern,

it.

to

f,

am

for denial, so that

it

was put

Cosdad
is

maw

the

which has

letter

Airenach Ftan,

n-aimbi^ again, to wit, that

hence

Ogham

shield, that

i.e.,

is

with him.

Li n-aimbi, hue of the


wit,

the

279

for the

lifeless,

he

i.e.,

hue of one dead, to

not living but is dead. Li


sail, willow, s with him, and

is

is

Ogham

letter.

checking of peace, that is nin, ash, n it


of a weaver s beam as applied to wood a sign

sida,

of peace is that. A checking of peace with him


from the ash of the weaver s beam.

is

that

Conal cuan, pack of wolves, to wit, that is uatli, thorn


Conal cuan
h, for a terror to any one is a pack of wolves.

owing to the affinity of the name,


they are a thorn, in the same way.
Ardaui dossaibli, highest of bushes, that is dur, oak,

said of the
for

Ogham

h,

d, with respect to its

wood

in the forest.

Trian, t, another thing the meaning of that to-day.


Cainiu fedaib, fairest of trees, that is hazel, c, owing
to its beauty in woods.
Clithar mbaiscaill, shelter of a hind,
boscell,

lunatic, that

comes

to

is

i.e.,

bas-ccall, death sense, it

him when he goes

again, that is an apple tree


Clithar
wit, they are light.

or

boscell,

boiscell,

that

again,

to wit,

then his sense

Clithar

to his death.
:

a fold

is

is,

i.e.,

boiscell,

hinds, to

lunatics or

quert, an apple tree, q, with reference to its letter.


Tresim fedma, strongest of effort, that is inuiu, vine, m,

hinds

with him,

man

i.e.,

owing

or ox, for

it is

to identity of

name with muin, back

they that are the strongest

of

in existence

as regards effort

Millsiu feraib, sweeter than grasses, that \s gort, ivy, g,


with him owing to the identity of the name with the corn
field.

When

it is

in the blade,

grass, to wit, the cornfield.

sweeter than any grass

Hence

for that

letter in

is

that

Ogham

OGAM

280

BB. 309

millsi

na

ga^/z fer in

fer

forsin

fid

ut

ar comaentaidh in

/3

24

n-ogam

Luth legha
coibm us

etir

getal

raet

raet,

ar

airgit

ar

is

-i-

decht de.

ndene d^rg

duine

Is

Uad-side
5560

atura.

lasna leigib,

luth

straif

fid

sug

ainm cechtar

in lossa

Straif

n-ogam.
ic

dathadh na

gorm

denum
mban co

ic

isin or

straif

5565

raet.

ia[r]

straif ar

aentaid

de.

on ruidiudh no on

-i-

rids iar 5570

7 is

ruidhiud fasas a n-aigid

do cuimilt

Tindi rucae

faethi.

no on ruided, ar

ruis o rus

frisin

ruamna

ruamna in
dianad ainm

ruccae ruis sin

dono do rad

anma

ngeal conad
berbthar tresin fual

Tresi;/7

de.

-i-

tri

is

tresiu

is

ret, ar is tre ruis scribthair,

in

ar

-i-

gort arba.

in airget

uaid-side isin

Tugad
anma aturu
Tinnem

in

straif leis-sium sin

straif

isin

dogni

sen

-i-

cath 7 getal.

Tresim ruamna
iar

sin

is

tri

ruis

scribtair-side fen.

Ardam
ailm

-i-

mactad

-i-

ailm aigisium sin; ar

is

no

ic

(no a) adber in duine ac iachtad

machtad

i-

iactadh

ngalczr,

5575

ag ingantugud secip raeta.


Congnawaigh echraide -i- onnaid in carpait -i- na roith
onn \eis-s\um sin, ar is tri onn scribthar onnaid in
-i-

Tucad uad-side 5580


is ainm
on aitenw tucad int ainm is onn

Alitcr comguinidech

carbait.

forsin fid ut

dianad

onn do cechtar de
frisin fidh

a.\nin
~J

is

onw

n -ogatai secunduni

-i-

aiten.

ar agntaid ataru ar

alios.

"

5571

a n-aidid B.

7::

ruir o rufl- B.

W7K

ngalair B.

OGHAM

name between

the complete identity of the

to

owing

281

them.
Lut/i legha, a physician s strength, that

is broom, ng,
the
with
strength
physicians, and there
between cath, panacea (?), and geial, broom.

to wit, because

an

is

affinity

Tresim

to

fact

is

ruamna,

him

with

str

is

for

azure,

strongest

in

Ogham.

the

in

for

stronger,

become

it is

it

sloe

is

reel

that

it

making

it

genuine

of

to

red,

Straif,
for

the

the

(?) silver.

that

according

sloe,

dyeing

makes

wit,

things

pale

silver

It is it

which

boiled through the urine into the white gold so as to


make it red. Tresim ruamna is the sloe according to fact.

is

Hence

it

identity of

was put in the letter named str, owing to


name between them, i.e., straif is the name

of each of them.

Tinnem
berry,

r,

fact, for

in a

by

man

under

rucaz, intensest of blushes, that

to wit,

it.

the rids,

it

rttis,

face through the juice of the herb being

elder

rubbed

ruccce, an ingot of a blush, again, said of


elder-berry, from shame or from reddening, for it

Tindi

by r that it is itself written.


Ardaui iachtadh, loudest of groanings, that

is

ing, to wit, that

is

from the reddening or shame according to


is written, and it is a reddening that grows

is

ailm,

a,

fir,

with him

for

is

it is

wonder
ailm or a

man

is,

says while groaning in disease, or wondering, that


marvelling at whatever circumstance.

Congnamaid
,o nnaid

echraidi\

of the chariot,

furze, with

him, for

it

chariot are written.

Hence

i.e.

is

helper of horses, to wit, the


the wheels, to wit, that is onn,

by

onn,

o,

that the wheels of the

Aliter, comgninidech, equally

wound

was put for that letter which is


ing,
named onn, o, owing to identity between them, for onn is
a name for each of them
and it is from whin that the
name onn was put for the Ogham letter secundiim alios.
i.e.

whin.

it

282

BB. 309

j8

OGAM

47

Etiud midach

cath.

-i-

Uaraib adbaib

-i-

Tucad ua-side

ur aigisium sin ar

is

for getal.

do

uir in

talman 5585

Tucad uada-side forsin


ainm uaraib adbaib.
dianad ainm ur \n ogaiin, ar aentaid anma aturu
is

fidh
-i-

ur

cechtar de, J tre ur scribthair.


fid

Ergnaid
crit[h]aig
fidh

is

og<7/;//

edad (310) aigisium

-i-

don

sin, ar is

crun;/

ainm ergnaid fid. Tucad uada-side forsin 5590


dianad ainm edhadh, ar is uad tucad edad

fair.

Siniu

ainm

fedhaib

-i-

dianad ainm idad, ar


ar

do ibar

is

is

idad aigiseom sin

Tucad uad-side

siniu fedaib.

ainm

is

uad tucad

ar

is

do ibar as

forsin fid ut
int

ainm

is

n-ogrtw

idad

fair

;-

5595

idad.

Snamchain fheda -i- ebad les-^i?/;;/ sin, ar snamchaiw


fid -i- don bran mor is ainm sen.
Tucad uad-side forsin
fid dianid ainm ebad in ogai;;/, ar is ainm do bratan e
7 is tri ebad scribt[h]ar side ama/ aipgitir in betha -i- 5600
tre seg (!

os), eo(-i-)tre

Sruitem aicdi
ar acntaid in

Tutmur
edlenw

ainm
is

is

-i-

anma
fid

aturu

(-i-

ret.
-i-

or

Ion).

Tucad uad-side forsin


ainm cechtar de.

fid

-i\i\\\eann leis-[s]ium sin, ar is do


Tucadh uad-sidhe forsin ogam dianad 5605
is uadh tucad u\\\eann fair, ar is do edlinw

u\\\eann

ainm.

\\i\\eann,

fil

eonasc

or iar

ar

ainm.

Millsim feda -i- pin sin aigisium, ar is don chrunw


dianid ainm pin is ainm millsium feda.
De atbertar caera
pmne. Tucad uad-side forsin fid dianad ainm pin, ar is 5610

uadh tucad pin no

tri

ifin air.

B.

"

>!l

fefea tuth no fea flesc Ante. iii. 43


aerc[h]aid fer no fid ! idhadh
aerchaid fid edath -i- ind aor rolil in flesc cui tiometi est fe Cor. 2 606
!

51:111

sed B.

OGHAM

283

Etind midacli, robe of physicians,

Hence

it

was put

to wit,

cat/i,

panacea (?).

broom, ng.

for getal,

Uaraib adbaib, in cold dwellings, to wit, that


fresh, with him, for from uir, the mould of the earth

name

Hence

uaraib adbaib.

nr, heath, in

Ogham, owing
them

it

was put

for the letter

to identity of

and

is

nr,

is

the

named

name between

written by u.
ur,
to
wit, that is aspen
Ergnaid fid, distinguished wood,
with him, for ergnaid fid is a name for the trembling tree.

them, to wit, each of

Hence
for

is

was put for the Ogham


hence was edad, e, put for it.
it

oldest

Siniic fedaib,

yew, with him

Hence
yew,

i,

yew,

is

is

name

name

edad, aspen,

to that letter in

is

idad,

for service-tree.

Ogham named

hence the name idad was put

for

named

letter

of woods, to wit, that

for sinht fedaib

was given

it

it is

for

it

idad,

for idad,

for ibiir, service-tree.

most

Snaincliain feda,

buoyant

of

wood,

to

wit,

ebad, aspen, with him, for fair swimming is wood


Hence it was
to wit, that is a name for the great raven.
e is a name
for
the
for
the
letter
named
Ogham ebad,
put

that

is

salmon, and it is written by ea like the alphabet of


the fauna i.e., by stag (deer), eo by eonasc (ousel).
Sruiteni aicdi, most venerable of structures, i.e., oir, oi,
for

Hence it was put for the


spindle tree, according to fact.
letter owing to the identity of the name that is between
them, to wit, oir

Tutmur fid

is

the

name

of each of them.

nilleann, juicy

wood

is

woodbine, that

is

woodbine with him, for it is a name for honeysuckle. Hence


for hence
it was put for the Ogham named woodbine, ui
;

was woodbine put

for

it,

for

it is

name

Mil/sent feda, sweetest of wood, that


for

name

for

named

pin, for

gooseberry with

is

the tree called pin

him,
Gooseberries are hence named.
letter

for honeysuckle.

Hence

hence pin, or

it

ifin, io,

is

inilsem feda.

was put

was put

for the

for

it.

BB

284

3io a

Luad

OGAM

ach no uch, emancoll leis-[s]ium sin,


ar gabair emuncoll ar ach gia gabar ar araill.
Finit
-i-

saethaig

Briatharogam Morai;/d.

Margin: Abgiter briathairogam Mic \nd

O[i]c annso 5615

sis.

Glaisium cms
ar

is

fair

Cara ceathra (-i- lem).


ar a blath / ar canach.
ar

is

uad tuccad

Comet
is

cailli,

sic in reliquis sequentibus.

Cara

-i-

dil

lasna ceathra in lem

Tucad uad-side

for luis \n ogaiin, 5620

luis fair.

lachta

coimetas

ogaiw o bethi na

beithi sin \n

-i-

uad tucad bethi

-i-

ferr

in

ogaim

na

sin o fern

in lacht, ar is di doniter lestair

imon

caill,

ar

lacht.

Lut[h] bech -i- sail sin ara blath / ar a canach. Tucad


uad-side ara fid coibhnesa \n ogaim.
5625
-i-iban
niw
Uad-side
Bag
garmna
ginol garmna.
fora fid coibnesa.

Banadh

gnuisi

-i-

uath, ar

ban gnuis

is

duine in tan

in

doberar uat[h] no uamun uimi. Uad-side for


ar asntaid anma aturu fen -i- uath cechtar de.

Gres

sai r

Tucad uad-side

dai r.

-i-

fid \n

Qgaini

5630

fora fidh coibnesa

\n ogaivi.

Smir

guaili

nesa in ogaim

do cm\\enn, ut

3615-58

c ff

Anec.

-i-

-i-

cuillen;/ sen.

Uad-side fora fidh coib

tinne secunduni altos; ar

ainm

is

tindi

5635

alii dicunt.

iii.

44, 7-25

Lower margin

col.

Dhia a

libair bai

3li:

:!

guailli B.

OGHAM
Luad
uch, alas

scethaig,

that

expression of a weary one, i.e., ac/i, ah


emancoll, ae, with him, for emancoll is
!

is

taken for ach, though


Finit

285

may

it

be taken for something

else.

of Morann.

Word-Ogham

Alphabet of word-oghams of Mac ind Oic here below.


Glaisiuin em s, most silvery of skin, to wit, that is the
birch of the
birch, b,

Cara

from birch of the

Ogham

was put

for

it

forest, for

ceathra, friend of cattle, to wit, elm.

dear to the cattle

is

hence

sic in reliquis sequentibus.

the elm for

its

Cara, to wit,

bloom and

for

down.

Hence it was put for the Ogham luis, quicken tree, 1, for
hence was quicken tree, 1, put for it.
Comet lacJita, guarding of milk, to wit, that is the

Ogham

alder,

from alder of the

f,

guards the milk, for of


the milk.

Luth
its

cognate

Bag
beam,

for

Ogham

i.e.,

forests, for

its

Hence

catkin.

that

it is it

the vessels containing

is

it is

willow,

s,

for

put

for

the

letter.

ban, fight

maw

made

are

of bees, to wit, that

beck, activity

bloom and

it

of

women,

weaver

to wit, ash, n, of

of weaver s beam.

Hence

for its

cognate

letter.

Banadh

gnuisi, blanching of face, to wit, fear, huath, h,

for blanched

is

man s

face

Hence for
name between

fear or terror.

of

identity

stands for

Ores

was put

the
the

is

encompassed with

Ogham

letter

same two,

to

owing to
wit,

uath

each of them.

sair,

for its

Smir

when he

carpenter

cognate

work, to wit, oak,

Ogham

d.

Hence

guaili, fires of coal, to wit, that

is

holly.

Hence

cognate Ogham letter, i.e., tinnc, t, secundum altos


for tindi is a name for holly, ut alii dicunt.

for its

it

letter.

286

OGAM

BB. sio a 36

Cara bloisc

-i-

Uad-side fora fidh coibnesa

[coll].

in

ogaiiu.

Brigh annum

-i-

Uad-side fora fidh coibnesa.

quert.

Aruusc n-arrligh

-i-

muin

Uad-side fora fidh

duine.

5640

comainmnig[th]ech.

Mednercc,

-i-

Uad-side

gort.

fora

fidh

comainm-

nigthech.

Moridrun

Tucad uad-side

straif.

-i-

fora fidh

comainm-

nightech.

Ruamna

dreach

co mbi ruidead
ruis in ogaz

in rois

sug

-i-

intib.

Ruamna

on ruidead no on

doni ruamna na ndrech 5645

drech dano do rad

fri

rus, ar is tri ruis scribthar

side fen.

Tosach

iarna genemain

Fethim

-i-

freg;vz

ailm sin

ar

cetlabra gach duine

is

-i-

o.

5650

a.

no fedem

saire

-i-

onn

Siladh clann, ur les-[s]ium sin, ar is i uir in talman


dogni silad na clann cuirtir inti. Silad clann dono do
rad

o uir in talman do radh

comainm

fria

Comainm

-i-

frisin

fid

n-ogai;/^

carat

coma\nmntgthech

5655

-i-

edadh

Uad-side fora fidh

isin caill.

n-ogam.

Crinem feada no claidem -i- ibar. Uad-side


-i- idadh.
n-ogtfz w, rogab ainm aile uadh
Cose lobair

ainm uad

-i-

(col. /3)

-i-

elenw for in

fid

in

forin fidh

ogaim, rogab 5660

ebad.

5638,9,43 c f_

rogab

ur cechtar de.

Anec.

iii.

44

564

cowaiwwingech B.

OGHAM
Cara

Hence

of cracking, to wit,

friend

bloisc,

287

cognate Ogham letter.


an
duine, force of the man, to
Brigk

apple

c.

hazel,

coll,

for its

Hence

tree.

Arusc

cognate

wit, queirt, q,

letter.

man

n-airlig, condition of slaughter, to wit, a

Hence

back, m.

Med

for its

for its

synonymous
Hence

to wit, ivy, g.

nercc,

letter.

for its

synonymous

letter.

Morad
Hence

it

run,

was put

Ruamna

of secrets, to wit, sloe, str.

increasing
for its

synonymous

drench, redness of faces, to wit, sap of the rose

which causes the redness of the


in

them.

Ruamna

elder,
elder,

r, it is

blushing

Ogham

beginning of an answer, to

for

is

ruz s,

it is

by

wit, that is

human being

expression of every

for the first

after his birth

is a.

FetJiini saire,

stone,

dreacJi, again, said of the

itself written.

Tosacli fregrn,

faces, so that

from the blush or from the reddening,

r,

ailin,

letter.

smoothest of work, we fedem, to

wit, onn,

o.

Silad claim, growing of plants, that is ur, heath, u with


him, for it is tiir, the soil of the earth, that causes the

growing of the plants that are put into


plants, again, said of the

Ogham

soil

Growing of

it.

of the earth,

is

said of the

which has taken the same name with

letter

wit, each of them is ///


Coinainm carat, synonym

it,

to

Hence

in the forest.

for its

for a friend, to wit, aspen, e,

synonymous Ogham

letter.

Crinein feda, most withered of wood, or sword, to wit,


Hence for the Ogham letter, which has
service tree, i.

taken a

name

other than

Cose lob air, corrective


for the
it,

Ogham

letter,

it,

to wit, idad, yew.

of a sick man, to wit, woodbine

which has taken a name other than

to wit, ebad, aspen, ea.

288

Li crotha
or

-i-

Uad-side fora

or.

fid

comainmrng-t/iec/i

-i-

ogaiw.

Cubat
in

OGAM

BB. 310/31

n-oll

uftleann

-i-

ogaim rogab uaide

Amram

blais

rogab ainm uaid

-i-

Mucogam
Finn

in so.

(b), liath (1),

Aicme huat[ha]

-i-

doth

Aicme
ore

cru

forglaisi

loichi

a cru loichi

Aicme

loch

(f),

(h),

(i).

bethi

cron

(s),

forglas (n)

cetoth leithf

(d),

(c), cetoth forglam (q).


finni (m), indoth \eithe

(u),

(atr),

cetdoth 5670

(g),

indoth forglaisi
a

cm

ore a cru cron

(e),

ore

(a),

Foraicmi annso

Fororc a cru

Uad-side forsin fidh

ifin.

ore a cru finm

5665

indoth cron

loichi (ng),

ailmi

fid

cron

indoth

Uad-side forsin

edlenw.

iphin.

cetoth find

loichi (t), cetoth

Aicme muine

no

pin

pin no

-i-

-i-

uilleann.

-i-

in(r).

\eithi (o),

ore a cru 5675

findi (ea), fororc a cru \eithi (oi), fororc

a cru cron (iph/w), for[or]c a cru

(ui), fororc

[forglaisi] (cc).

Aicmi bethi

Linnogam.
B<>rba

Luimnech

(to),

Aicmi huath[a]
Catt

(c),

-i-

(str),

Aicme ailme

hon

Cusrat

Aicme muine
Strur

-i-

(1),

(h),

Febal

Derg

in so flrius

(f),

Sinand

(d),

Tearc

Rigi

(s),
(t),

5(530

Nid

(n).

Teith

(t),

(q).

Muinten (m), Gabal

Aru

-i-

(g),

nGrian

(ng),

5685

(r).

(a.),

Eobul, Uisiu, Erbos, Indiurnn.

Dinnogam

-i-

Aicme bethi -i- Bruiden, Lift, Femin, Seolae, Nemthend.


Aicme huath^z h-Ochae, Dindrigh, Temair, Cerae, Quorann.
5690
Aicme muine Mide, Gabar, nGarmon, Streulae, Roigni.
Aicme ailme -i- JE, Ogba, Uisnech, Emain, Iliu.
:

E668-5829

cf

Kilkenny Archccokgical Journal, July 1874, pp. 212-16

OGHAM
Li

289

beauty of form, to wit, heath. Hence for its


the Ogham oi.
synonymous
Cubat ?i-oll, great equal-length, to wit, woodbine, i.e.,
Hence for the Ogham letter which it has
honeysuckle.
crotha^

letter, to wit,

taken from

it,

Avirani
ifin,

to wit, woodbine, ui.

blais,

gooseberry.

name from

it,

This

is

White

most wonderful of

Hence

to wit,//

for the letter

or iphin,

Sow Ogham.
to,

grey

1,

black

io.

This
f,

pin or
that has taken its

taste, to wit,

is

group

amber

8,

B prius.

blue n.

Group H. Accompanying litter of a white (i.e. milch-)


sow h, grey d, black t, amber c, blue q.
Group M. Litter of a white sow m, grey g, black ng,
amber str, blue r.
Group A. Pig-in-pen of a white sow a, grey o, black u,
amber e, blue i. Diphthong group here
Hog-in-pen of a white sow ea, grey oi, black ui, amber
:

io,

blue ae.

Ogham. This is Group B prius, to wit,


Lower Shannon 1, Foyle f, Shannon s, Nith n.

River-pool

Barrow

b,

Group H. h Othain (Fahan)


Catt

c,

Cusrat

b,

Dergderg

d,

Teith

t,

q..

Group M. Muinten m, Gaval g, Graney ng, Sruthair str,


Rye r.
Group A, to wit, Aru a, Eobul, Uissen, Erbus, Indiurnn.
Fortress
B. Bruden, Liffey,

Ogham,

to wit,

Femen, Seolae, Nephin.


Group
Group H. h-Ocha, Dinn Ri g, Tara, Cera, Corann.
Group M. Meath, Gabur, nGarman, Streulae, Roigne.
Group A. /E(Cualand), Odba, Usney, Navan, Islay.
T

2QO

OGAM

BB. 310/323

Aicme bethi
Aicme uatha
Aicme muine
Aicme aibue

besan, lachu, faelinn, segh, naescu.

hadaig, droen, truheoc, querc.

-i-

-i-

5695

mintan, geis, ngeigh, stmolach, rocnat.

aidhircleog, odoroscrach, uiseoc,

ela, illait.

Dathogam.

Aicme bethi -i- ban, liath, flann, sodath, necht.


Aicme huatha
huath, dub, temen, cron, quiar.
Aicme muine
mbracht, gorm, nglas, srorca, ruadh.
Aicme ailvze alath, odhar, usgdha, ere, irfind.
-i-

5700

-i-

Ceallogam.

Aicme

bethi

-i-

Beanchar, Liath, Fearna, Saigear, Naen-

druim.

Aicme

\iuat/ia:

Durmach,

hlrard,

Tir-da-glas,

Cluain 5705

maccu Nois, Quell dara.

Aicme muine
Mugna, Sruthair, Raithen,
Aicme ailme -i- Ard macha, Jr\,
-i-

Daenogam
Fer no

laech ar aicmi bethi

Minna (no mna) no

-i-

fer,

clerig ar

56ir2

3W"

fer,

iii

fir, iiii fir,


:

fir.

bean,

ii

iii

iiii

ii

aicme uath

mna, iiii mna, v mna.


muine
ar
aicme
Oglach
oglach,
mnae,

/rl.

ii

oglach,

iii

oglaich,

oglaich, v oglaich.

Origg.

xii. 7,

Origg.

xix. 17

r (i!)4
I

nycticorax (?) Origg. xii. 6, 41


Maro Gr. pp. 7, 14 / 5^.

5709 cf.

5710

OGHAM
Bird

Group

Ogham,

B. besan pheasant

(?),

hawk, nasai snipe.


Group H. Jiadaig night

291

to wit,

lachu duck, fcelinn gull, seg

raven

droen

(?),

truith

wren,

starling, querc hen.

Group M,

i.e.,

mintan titmouse, gets swan, ngtigh goose,

stmolach thrush, rocnat small rook

Group A.

(?).

aidhircleog lapwing, odoroscrach scrat(?), uiseog

lark, ela

swan,

illait

eaglet

(?).

Colour Ogham.

Group

B,

i.e.,

ban white, Hath grey, flann red, sodath

fine-coloured, necht clear.

Group H,

i.e.,

huath

terrible,

dub black, temen dark grey,

cron brown, quiar mouse-coloured.


i.e., mbracht variegated,
sorcha bright, ruadli red.

Group M,

Group A. alad
red, irfind

gorm

blue, nglas green,

piebald, odhar dun, usgdha

resinous, ere

very white.

Church Ogham.

Group B, i.e., Bangor, Liath, Ferns, Saigear, Noendruim.


Group H, h-Irard (Cluain), Durrow, Terryglass, Clonmacnois, Kildare.

Group M,
Group A,

i.e.,
i.e.,

Mugna, Shrule, Rahen,


Armagh, etc.

Man (Human

Man

or hero for

etc.

Being) Ogham, to wit,

group B, one man, two,

three, four, five

men.

Minna

nobles (or

women)

or clerics for

woman, two, three, four, five women.


Youth for group M, one youth, two,

group H,
three,

four,

youths.

i.e.,

five

OGAM

BB. 310/339

292

Mac no
iiii

aicme ailme

ar

gille

mic, v mic

&mnac

-i-

mac,

ii

mac,

ar ailme, a

ii

ar onn, a

mic,

iii

715

iii

ar ur, sic in reliquis.

Dasnogam
cetna
Caillz^v? ar

Laechesa ar aicme bethi

-i-

ar bethi, 7 a

aicme huatha

ii

ar

iarsin imraet (no imirt)

mar

luis,

sin sis

uili.

^720

similiter.

Macdachta ar aicme muine

similiter.

Ingena bega ar aicme ailme similiter


do ar ur.

Ogam

oen ar ailm, a

tirda.

Aicme bethi annso


biail, loman, fidba, strathar,
Aicme huatha
huartan, dabach, tal, carr, qual.
Aicme muine machad, gat, ngend, sust, ruse.
Aicme ailme
arathar, ord, usca, epit, indeoin.
-i-

5725

nasc.

-i-

-i-

Bran,

Labraidh,

Rigogam -iJ mar sin

/rl.

tinnscanas on

do gabail ar

fid

Ogam
Glais ar aicme bethi

Soud

ar

righ 5730

in

usceach

-i-

?enghla[i]s ar bethi, v n.

-i-

aicme huatha

ainm

-i-

uile,

in ainm.

soud,

soud,

ii

sutd

iii

iiii

sitid,

said.

Abann

5735

aicme muine

ar

abann,

Tipra ar aicme ailme


tiprait, v \.iprait.

tipra,

Conogam
ar

aicme bethi

arc/tot?/,

Milchu

abainn,

iii

aibne,

iiii

iiprait,

iiii

v aibne.

at bne,

Archu

ii

ar

archu

tiprait,

iii

5740

-i-

[ii

archu],

iii

zrchoin,

iiii

tri

v wchoin.

aicme huatha

milchoin,

5724

ii

iiii

milchu,

ii

milchu,

milchoin, v milchoin.

Origg. xx.

14, I

12-13

572

rigdg B.

OGHAM
or

Boy

lad

for

boys, to wit,

293

group A, one boy, two, three,


one boy for a, two for o, three

four, five
for u, sic

in reliquis.

Woman Ogham

heroines for group

cedure (or method), to


all down.

Nuns

for

Maidens

group
for

H
A

wit,

here,

two

same pro
for

thus

1,

similiter.

similiter, to wit,

i.e.,

biail axe,

one

for a,

two

for u.

Ogham.

Agricultural

Group B

after the

for b,

similiter.

group

Girls for group

one

loman rope,fidba hedge-bill,

srattiar pack-saddle, nasc ring.

Group H,

i.e.,

huartan

dabnch cask, tal adze, cart

waggon, cual faggot.

Group

flail,

machad

gat withe, ngend wedge, sust

ruse basket.

Group A,

i.e.,

arathar plough, ord hammer,

it

sea heather-

brush, epit billhook, indeoin anvil.


to wit,

King Ogham,

Bran, Labraidh, etc., and so all, to wit, to take for the


name, the name of the king that begins with the
letter.

Water Ogham,

to wit,

Rivulet for group B, to wit, one rivulet for b, five for

Weir

for

Well

for

n.

group H, one weir, two, three, four, five weirs.


River for group M, one river, two, three, four, five rivers.
group A, one

well, two, three, four, five wells.

Ogham,
Watch-dog
five

to wit,

group B, one watch-dog, two,

three, four,

watch-dogs.

Greyhound
five

for

for

group H, one greyhound, two, three,

greyhounds.

four,

OGAM

BB. 31107

294

Conbuachaill ar aicme muine


a

aill,

tri

conbuachaille,

conbuachaill,

ii

conbuach- 5745

conbuachaille, v conbuach-

iiii

aille.

Oirci ar aicme ailme


oirci,

oirci,

a dho

Dam

tri

iiii

oirci,

oirci.

Damogam
Tarb

oirci,

ar aicme bethi

tarb, a

5750

-i-

do

tarb, a tri tairb,

iiii

tairb,

iiii

claim,

tairb.

aicme huatha

ar

damh,

dam,

ii

iii

daim,

v daim.

Colpthach firenn ar aicme muine


a

tri

colpthacha,

iiii

colpthach, 5755

tiartada^ v &artada.

Boogam

-i-

lilgach,
Lilgach ar aicme bethi
v
iiii
lilgacha,
lilgacha.
i

Gamnach

ar

aicme huatha

ii
lilg<?z>

gamnach,

ii

gamnacha, iiii gamtiac/ia, v gamnacha.


Samaisc ar aicme muine
samaisc, ii samaisc,
:

iiii

ii

colpthach,

colpthacha, v colpthacha.
i dartaid, ii dartaid, a tri dartada,

iiii

Dartaid ar aicme ailme

tri \ilgacha,

gamnaig,
iii

fodailter

samaisce,

5765

ainm

in

Jr\.

Caechczwogam -iduine -i- aicme bethi don leth des

aicme huatha don leth cli: aicme muine don


des: aicme ailme don leth cli.

Loscogam
inann

iii

samaisce, v samaisce.

Dairt ar aicme ailme,

iat

-i-

fogail in

5760

leth

5770

-i-

anma.

Macogam
ainm na mna
-i-

ogam ban

torrach

-i-

bera lenum roime.

fodhailter

ann mani

Dia mbera, immorro, lenum,

is

e 5775

OGHAM
Herd

dog

five

group M, one herd

for

dog, two, three, four,

herds dogs.

group A, one lapdog, two, three,

for

Lapdog

295

four, five

lapdogs.

Ox Ogham,

to wit,

Bull for group B, one bull, two, three, four, five bulls.

Ox

group H, one ox, two, three, four, five oxen.


Bullock for group M,.one bullock, two, three, four,
for

five

bullocks.

Steer

group A, one

for

steer,

two, three,

four,

five

steers.

Cow Ogham,
Milch cow
five

for

to wit,

group B, one milch cow, two,

three, four,

milch cows.

Stripper for group H, one stripper, two, three, four, five


strippers.

Three-year-old heifer for group M, one


two,

three, four, five

Yearling heifer

for

three-year-old,

three-year-old heifers.

group A,

etc.

man Ogham, to wit,


man s name is divided, to

Blind
the

wit,

Group B. to the right side.


Group H. to the left side.
Group M. to the right side.
Group A. to the left side.

Lame Ogham,
they are the same,

viz.,

a division of the name.

Boy Ogham,
pregnant
is
If,

to wit,

women Ogham,

that

to wit,

is,

the

name

of the

woman

divided there unless she bear a child previously.


however, she bear a child, it is the child s name

296

BB.

31

ainm
ann,

in
is

OGAM

a 24

lenim fodailter arm


mac.

Mad

7 dia

coimlin,

mbe

litir

forcraidh

bud ingen berthair don

toirrchius.

Cossogam
mera da laime

ar son na feadh

-i-

imon lurgain

7 a tabairt

5780

don lethdeis imon lurgain ar aicme beithi. Don leith


Fiartharsna na lurgan ar aicme
cli ar aicme huatha.

mu wi.

Cearttharsna ar aicme ailme

cetfidh na /z-aicme, a

dho

ar in

fid

-i-

ammer

ar in

tanaise, co soised a

coig ar in coiged fid secip aicme.

Sronogam
mera na lam imon
fiar,

sroin

-i-

do

chli,

co

-i-

aliaju percutit lignoruin (col.

\n

do deis

cear[t]tarsna.

Naemogam
ainm

-i-

similiter

Basogam
manus

5785

naiw

5790

/3).

-i-

tinnscanfa gabar ar in

fid

-i-,

Brenaiwd, Laisrean;/, Finden, Sinchell, Nesan.

hAdamnan, Downan, Tigernach, Cronan, Ouiaran.


Manchan, Giurgu, nGeman, Strannan, Ruadan.
Aed, Oena, Ultan, Ernen,

Ite.

Danogam.
Bethumnacht, luamnacht,
H-airchetul,

druidheacht,

filideacht, sairsi, notaireacht.

tornoracht,

cruitireacht,

quis-

sreghuindeacht,

ron-

lenacht.

Milaideacht,

gaibneacht,

ngibae,

naireacht.

Airigeacht,

ogmoracht, umaideacht, enaireacht,

eacht no ibroracht.

Biadogam

-i-

bairgen, leamnacht, sic usque in fineiu.

iascair-

r>795

OGHAM
that
is

is

divided there

a boy.

If it

and

297
there be a letter over,

if

be an even number,

it

it

would be a

daughter that will be born of that pregnancy.

Foot Ogham, to wit,


the fingers of the hand about the shinbone for the letters
and to put them on the right of the shinbone for

group B.
shinbone

To

the

left

for

group H.

Athwart the

group M.

Straight across for group


A, viz., one finger for the first letter of the groups,
two for the second letter, till it would reach five for
the

for

fifth letter

of whichever group

Nose Ogham,

it

be.

to wit,

the fingers of the hands about the nose,


right

and

viz.,

similiter to

athwart, across.

left,

Palm of hand Ogham,

to wit,

nianus aliain percutit tignoruw.

Saint
the

name

to wit,

Saint with which

of the

taken for the

Ogham,

it

will

commence

is

letter, viz.,

Brenainn, Laisren, Finnen, Si ncheall, Neasan.

H-Adamnan, Donnan, Tighearnach, Cronan,

Ciaran.

Manchan, George, nGeminus, Strannan, Ruadhan.


Aed, Oena, Ultan, Ernen, Ita.
Art Ogham.
Livelihood, pilotage, poetry, handicraft, notary work.
Trisyllabic poetry, wizardry, turning, harping, fluting.

Soldiering, smithwork, modelling, deer-stalking, dispensing.

Sovereignty, harvesting, brasswork, fowling, fishing, or


wood work.

Food Ogham,
Bread, sweet milk,

sic

to wit,

usque in fineiu.

yew

298

BB. 311/3

OGAM

ii

Lusogam
ainm secip
ut

do ga[ba]il ar

nac/z losa

braisech ar bethi,

est,

-i-

Jrl.

Cend a muine
tairisem fo

fid

tosach in

in fidh a tindscanfa,

anma

-i-

5810

-i-

hainm

in fad as a

frisa

cosmailligeacht tosach secip anma, in fidh sain do


scribhirm i tosach in anma ar son a anma fen
7
;

deredh

in

anma do scnbenn

Ocus ogum n-airismech ainm

IB

>""

Cend
Cotarsna

dilsib.

ele in ogz;//-sea, ut est, 5815

certle

muine dono

fo

remut

int oga/;//

iarsna fedaib

tairsem fo

-i-

fid

anma, a tosach do scribenn iarna fedaib


MJ1 i- Mx\ R -i. ruis.

nderid

in

dilsib, ut est

5820

ffff

Nathair im ceann

-i-

anma do scribenn i medon na craibi, / int


co direach uada co dered na craibi
do
scriberm
ainm
7 a scribenn frithrusc co tosach na craibi conid inann

in fid toisech in

tosach 7 a nderedh na craibi -i- dered in anma 5825


issed bis a cechtar de, / est in Jmc figura, Cea\\ac/i
ni bis

coimdes

sis

airlegind

airlegthar int
anma, ut est,

ainm, ar

is

suas,

ann

ita

/
821-9

/;-.

El>.

ii.

145-8, 159

J
in

asa

is

fid

medon

tosach in

OGHAM
Herb Ogham,
to

name

take the

with which
t>,

it

299

to wit,

of whatever herb

will

ut

commence,

be for the

it

letter

kale, for

est, braisecli,

etc.

Head

Bush, to wit,

in

consisting of a letter at the beginning of the word, i.e., as


far as the name of it (the letter) resembles the begin
ning of whatever word it be, to write that letter at

name for its own name and


name according to the proper
And persisting Ogham is another name for

the beginning of the


to write the end of the
letters.

this

Ogham,

ut

"

esf,

cert-le, ball

i.e.

of

1|||

")

thread.

Head under Bush, again


The

opposite of the foregoing Ogham, to wit, consisting


of a letter at the end of the name, to write the begin
ning of it according to its proper letters, ut est,
>

/[

llll

////

Mael

to

R>

Serpent about Head, to


to

write

the

first

of the stem,
to the
to

the

letter

and

of the

to write the

end of the stem

is

Ceallach, indifferent to read

from the middle of

it

first letter

it

that the

up

backwards

it

that

it

and

is

the

at the

end of the word

the

which stands on each of them, ut

stands the

straight thence

at the beginning
it

middle

the

in

the stem, so

beginning of

same thing that stands


end of the stem, i.e.,

wit,

name
name

and to write

Ruis

wit>

name

in

est

or

down
is

Jiac
;

figura,

and

it is

read, for there

of the name, ut est

(p.

300

/3.

29).

BB. 311

CTKWkf.

itn:r,ti.T.
1.
<ffl<<$*l?

frji

i.<0iai.iti-

^Cr ur- a^ftnj. afr tJ

no

<*?.o

T]t u oo

*ic

"i

"pn

c-tm c-iLcoJp^
-ti

5J-<?.3

wi.o

oCTTrn.tK
i

cTp

tj

(jV ti.

t-Tih n.

.y ttr.

S"-

T trf.I nn t

Tm.jT-1

9 ttJ-S-T

Wi ef
i-

po vKhlf

"if

<

.tiirt.

tntIT6.1-9.Tt

ne

tr

11.0

t>;

it.

im.4-u.tf

<fc

Tinoe

t-

Tlvafi. i.

po rotpx-Tvfrw w

^.
V

0^5vf-tne^<rfhftarm^.

TNrWu.^u.-potvci^STum^
i-^?MiwtemtonfKmi.t: filtcooor7

J
A

Jmd3MMtlM31M^
^
^^^^

r_^^r4^j4WHnB

=^=

-""

ferrmt-

_.

~m$H^

pm. rw^M/jr^wnmmk

300

FORMS OF THE OGHAM ALPHABET,


1

Aradach Finn andso

Ladder (Ogham)

sis.

ETC.
of

Fionn 5830

here below.
2 et reliqua sic foraicme

group behind
3

andso.

Luthogam

4 Tredruimnech
5

n-ar ndeigh.

etc. sic

diphthong

us.

Hinge Ogham
This

so.

is

here.

5835

three-ridged (Ogham).

Three-stemmed (Ogham) of Fionn.

Trelurgach Find.

Canal Ogham.

Ladogam.

(Unnamed.)

8 Ceathardruimnech

Cruteni.

Four-ridged

(Ogham)

of

5840

Crutine.
9 Aliter bethi,

10

letter,

11

mar

dam

so

uili.

Aliter

to,

so

all.

aicme beithi, elit ar aicme h, iarnu ar


Osogam
aicme m, laeg ar aicme ailwe -i- aen dib ar in cetfid
na aicme, a do ar in fid tanaise, J mar sin uile co
5845
roised ar in fid dedenach -i- a v.
for
hind
for
hart
group B.,
Stag Ogham, i.e.,
group
H., fawn for group M., calf for group A., i.e., one of
them for the first letter of the group, two for the
second letter, and so on till it would come to the last
-i-

i.e.,

Runogam na

ar

5850

five.

Secret

Fian.

Ogham

of the warrior-bands.

12 (Unnamed.)
13

14

Ebadach

Ogam

[of Ilann.

Ilaind.

Brkcren

Ebad-fashioned,
-i-

in

doimni

>

mbi

//

<,

e lin flesc scribthar \na uath ut in figura


beithi, xx do idad.

Ogham

of Bricriu,

i.e.,

the

(Ogham)

in fid isin aipgitir is

depth

in

-i-

aen do 5855

which the

letter stands in the alphabet, that is the number of


strokes which are written in its formation ut in figura,
viz., one for to, twenty for i.
(Then follows a composition in

301

5860
this

Ogham.)

BB. 312

15

.6
17
i8

<arj

/lotoo
-"

c1ct*tr
h9?fra^fi<

35

^S?^^S^%^^!ISzSfi23S^

$$et&0fWftfc*gbflmE^
SiT^^^fe^l-^^tV^-^H^b ^* ^Tjfl*J**
-

e*

-.

36

uSip

% -oirr

jiHr

iruni-Td-. uu-

^,X

_w

3TfH^r%-$^
32

*ifc

-M-TvCq^pa ^^fcf:!*

stj^rW

?i*

1>r

i^/ifliiftn?^?

5^

tiar

**^;5

*c

*.!^[L*L^4ffif4wWSwjKS

302

15

Ogam
fidh

uird
is

hit orcl bis for

toseachu

na fedhaib

quam aile
denam anma

scribthar

n-aipgitir

n-aipgitir -i- in
e is tosec[h]u

is

ac
tiedencha, dedencha he
isin ainm ut est in hac figura, to n r a -i- Bran
5865
b 1 d r a a i, Labraid.
Order Ogham the order which the letters have
in an alphabet, i.e., the letter which is earlier than
another in an alphabet is written earlier in forming
a name; and the last, last in the name ut est in hac 5870
figura, b n r a, i.e., Bran Tb 1 d r a a i, Labraid.
;

16

Ogam
fid

ar a

mbi

aen

-i-

aenflesc forcraid

go v gach a.
on which is one,

do scribend

la

gach

et reliqua

Ogham

i.e.,

one stroke too many


up to five of each. 5875

to be written with every letter, etc.,

17

Ogam

adlenfid.

Letter rack

Ogham.

18 Gleselgi [glese selge] -i- da ainm do scribmd -i- each


trina cele dib -i- tosach in cetanma do scnbend
connigi
a leth, / tosach in anma ele ina dhiaidh, / dered in
chetanma ina dhiaidh, 7 dered in anma ele postea ; 5880
7 ita anmanda a ndentar, sin anma tosaigh, sin J
derid, inund, amal atait isin da craib ana7
Hunt-track, i.e., two names to be written, i.e., each of
them through the other, i.e., the beginning of the first
name to be written up to half of it, and the beginning 5885
of the other name after it, and the end of the first
name after it, and the end of the other name postea;
.

and wherein are names which are formed identically,


those of a first name and those of a last, as they stand
in the two stems there.
5890
-i- da ai;/m.
A little, a small sea:
two names, feth-nat, seg-nat, aliter

bec-an,ler-an: gleselgi
gleselgi, to

gleselge.
track.

wit,

--A

19 Crad cride ecis.

20

Armogam

21

Ogam

little

calm, a small

Anguish of a poet

deer, aliter huntheart.

5895

gai ar aicme bethi.

Sciath ar aicme h.
Claidim ar aicme m. Calgadeg (sic) ar aicme a -iaen dib ar in cetfid gibe aicme, a da ar in tanaise.
Arms Ogham, i.e., spear for group B. Shield
for group H.
Sword for group M. Tusk-hilted sword 5900
for group A., i.e., one of them for the first letter of
whatever group, two for the second.
-i-

ac[c]omaltach -i- in fidh is nesa don fidh do


scribend imaille fris ga?z to/nwisc.
Conjunct Ogham, i.e., the letter which is next the 5905
letter to be written along with it without
interruption.
6804

6882

d-gidencha B.
cf.

conlisio.

Origg.

i.

32, 9

303

Gr. Lat.

v.

387, 26

22

Ogam eamnach

-i-

da

b sic.
Twin Ogham,
letter, i.e., bb for b

inun^a ar

fidh

in fhid

-i-

da bethi

ar

23

i.e.,

identical

t\vo

letters

the

for

5910

sic.

Do foraicmib

7 deachaib in ogaim andso air n# cumai[n]g


brogmoir lasna biat a deich / a foraicme / a forbethi,

7rl.syllables of the Ogham here


excessive
the
powers whereby there 5915
according
are syllables, extra groups, and extra alphabets of

Of extra groups and


to

them,

etc.

Abbreviations, (i) bacht, lact, feet, sect, nect


Sigla.
huath, drong, tect, caect, quiar: maei (MS. nsei), gaeth,
5920
ngsel, strmrect, rect ai, ong, ur, eng, ing.
:

Abreviations, (2) cai no ad, c no onn, p no ui, -ino no no, ach ui oi ai au, air cair, s, bran, tri,
tru,
cru, cru, Columcille, Ceallach, Cuilibadh.
bran,

24 Sigla.

ol on,

25 goach, tucht, ict, miliu, uili, eth, can.


26 Beithi, leam, fern;/, sail, nendait sge, dair, trom, coll, 5925
aball
midiu, gius, gilcar//, saildrong, rait
quills//;/
:

uinus, draigin, ibur,

ferus, edlenc/.

elen<r/,

27 Bethi, luis, fer;/;/, soil, nin \\uatk, dur, ti;/di, coll, quert
muin, gort, ngedar, straiph, ruis ailm, onn, ur, edadh,
5930
idad ea, oi, ui, ia, x.
:

28 (Unnamed.)
29
Saitheach fochrom, clu co

Dodaiwg
Brec oc

;;/boil,

foluaich lucht aswbir.


forglais,

derg

(gl.

midoth

findi

7r

oc
l-)>

5935

find,

Mselsem

(gl.

ardoth

findi

7r

^)>

fuirid

(gl.

derg

maese;//), leitheal, bran;/ (gl. sa,-tech).

Cruithean fororcan so

30

Mucogam
cedot[h]

sis

dodai;/g brec.

find, liath, loch, cron, forghlas


leithi,

cedoth

fin[n]i,

7rl-

Sow Ogham

white,

grey,

amber,

black,

blue

5940

accompanying litter of a white, grey sow, etc.


31 Ogam romesc Breas -i- -Bres mac Elathan -i- ba ges do
dul sech gan a legad.
Rolad iarum int ogam-sa ina
ucht ic tec[h]t a cat[h] Muige Twreg.
Romebaidh 5945
in
cath
fair-sium
iarum
gen robai ac legad in ogaiw.
"

beithi, with

above the

304

first

Is

so apgitir in ogaim-sea -i- scribthar in


ainm in duine.

fid

iarsin

lin litzV bis isin

The Ogham which confused Breas son of Elatha


who was under a prohibition not to pass on without

5950
This
was
afterwards
thrown
into
reading
Ogham
his bosom as he went to the battle of Moytura.
Afterwards he lost the battle while he was reading the
Ogham. This is the alphabet of this Ogham, to wit,
the letter is written with all the letters that stand 5955
in the person s name.
(Each letter, besides being
it.

is

written,

32

spelt.)

Ogam dedenach
ar son in feda
luis ar sail (sic

Final

-i-i-

deghinach don ainm scribthar


ar bethi, sail ar luis, nin ar fenz,
nin ar nin ae, no da cc, no ch.
5960

in

litir

edad

/.),

Ogham, i.e., the last letter of the name (of the


written for the letter, viz., e for b, s for 1,

letter) is
for f, 1 for s,

for n, Jrl.

x, or cc, or ch.

-i- in fidh dedinach do


gach aicme scribthar
ar in fidh toisech, / in fid toisech do gach aicme ar in 5965
fid ndedinach -i- nin ar bethi, / bethi ar nin, 7 gach
fid ara cele isin aicme uili, 7 gach ni d impodh inti

33 Cend ar nuaill

fein uile frithrosc

no p

ia

Head on

no

se,

cc,

no

ch,

the last letter of every


letter, and the first letter 5970

Proscription,
written for the first
of every group for the last letter,

group

i.e.,

is

i.e., n for to, and To for


and every letter for its fellow in the whole group,
and everything to be turned all backwards into itself:
ia or p ae, or cc, or ch.

n,

34 Ogam ar abairter cethrur -i- ceathar feada nama 5975


labairtar and -i- duir, J tinwi, luis, fern -i- duir ar
tinwi ar uath, a v
luis ar luis [/. muin],
bethi, a v
a v; fern ar ail[m], a v -i- duir ar bethi, da duir ar
;

luis, 7

mar

sin

uili.

which

Ogham

duir, tri duir,

iiii duir,
tinni, v tinni, /rl.
is called a foursome, i.e., four letters

duir,

v duir tinne, da tinni,

only are spoken in

iii

it, i.e.,

ii

tinni,

iiii

d and

t, 1, f, i.e.,

for B., five


d for b,
;

t for H., five ; 1 for M., five ; f for A., five ; i.e.,
dd for 1, and so all.
d, dd, ddd, dddd,
t, tt, ttt,

35

Ogam

ddddd

5985

-i-

in

cetna

fid

do gach aicme ar

in fid tanaise do each aicme ar


bethi, a v
v; in tres fid do gach aicme ar muin, a v, /rl.

uath, a

ae,

no

cc,

tttt, ttttt, etc.

buaidir foranwa

no

Ogham

5980

ch.

of uproar of anger,
305

i.e.,

the

first

letter of 5990

every group for

B.,

five

the second letter of every

group for H., five; the third letter of


M., five, etc. x, or cc, or ch.

every group for

36 (Cf. 70.) Ogam rind fri derc -i- fraech frit[h]rosc -i- aicme
ailme frit[h]rosc ar aicme bethi -i- idad ar bethi 7 bethi
ar idad aicme mubie ar aicme uath[a] -i- ruis ar uath
Aicme bethi ar aicme ailme
7 uath ar ruis 7rl.
frithrasr.
frithrasc 7 aicme uath [a] ar aic;//
:

Point-to-eye Ogham, i.e., mane


group A. backwards for group B.,
for i;

group M.

r, etc.

Group

for

B. for

(?)

backwards,

i.e., i

for b,

i.e.,

and b 6000

group H., i.e., r for h, and h for


group A. backwards, and group

H. for group M. backwards.


37 (Cf. 71.)
cocrich

Ogam maignech
na;//cz

don

Enclosed Ogham,

two

letters,

i.e.,

38 Fraech frithrosc.

-i-

maigin

i.e.,

gach da

fid

-i-

6005

an enclosure between every

a limit only to the letter

itself.

Mane(?) backwards, secunduni

39 (Unnamed.)
40 Brec mor. Great dotting.
41 Ogam cumusgda -i- gach dara

do scrfoend cumasgda
7 ail we, in

iter

fidh fen.

altos.

6010

fid d aicme bethi 7 \\natha


gach dara fid d aicme muitte

cedna.

letter of groups
i.e., every second
and H. to be written mixed every second letter of 6015
groups M. and A., the same.
42 Ogam imarbach -i- aicme h re aicme b, 7 aicme &\\me re
aicme muine.
Combative Ogham, i.e., group H. before group B.,
6020
and group A. before group M.

Mixed Ogham,

B.

BB. 313

f sr ^

<

^
y

56
58
eg

>^.

;i

<

5!

c 5a

i=sr
57

~*^^^fj.T:os~W

B3ol

^~,/

"

^^f^f^^i^M^sS.st
liif

iij;

:^.

?,

~JU
^JLc^&S

Jt

^.-

cc..7pc.-. v,V
-. /

*C

sRx!

^^IL^

77

307

43 Sluagogam

-i- in fid fen do scrfoend ter


({ ina thri) aire fen
bethi ter (ina thri), luis ter (ina thri), /rl.
Host Ogham, i.e., the letter itself to be written

i-

thrice for

44

Ogam

itself, i.e.,

thrice,

thrice, etc.

do ind na craibhi do ac[c]omal -i- 6025


aicme ailme do mesc frithrosc ar aicme bethi -i- idhad
eter b / 1, /rl.
aicme m do mesc ar aicme h. Na
ind co ind

-i-

foraicme

mar

sin.

End to end Ogham, i.e., the two ends of the stem


to be joined, i.e., group A. to be mixed backwards with 6030
group B., i.e., i between b and 1, etc. group M. to
;

be mixed with group H. The extra groups similarly.


45 Ogam leni da reib -i- riab eter gach da fid i certogam.
Two stroke smock Ogham, i.e., a stroke between
6035
every two letters in regular Ogham.
46

sesmach, ar is a medon inonn, ar is and forbait/^r,


as a leth deginaigh leghthar prius, ar is and bis
aicme b 7 h, ar is ina medon ata forba na ceithri

Ogam
7

n-aicme.
Steadfast Ogham, for its middle is the same, for 6040
there it is completed, and from its latter half it is
read prius, for there are the B. and H. groups, for in
its middle is the completion of the four
groups.

47 Gort

na bet da fid for aenlit[ir] -i- tri feda eter


d aicme bethi.
6045
Corn-field under colour, that there might not be
two Ogham letters for one letter, i.e., three letters
between every two letters of group B.
fo lid, ar

gach da

fid

48 Coll ar guta -i- aicme b / aicme


gan cumscugud, 7 coll
ar aicme ailme, a v -i- aoncholl (sic /.) 7 da choll 7 tri 6050
cuill 7 ceithri cuill /

no

coig

Coll, c, for a vowel,


change, and c for

cuill.

group B. and group M. with


group A., five, i.e., c, cc, ccc,

i.e.,

cccc, ccccc.

49 Brecor beo.

Lively dotting.
50 Ceand imreasan.
Strife head.
51

Ogam

Dedad.

52 Ceand debtha.

Ogham
Head

6055

of Dedu.

of dispute.

53 (Unnamed.)

54 Insnitheach.

6060

Infilleted.
308

55 Didruim.
56

57

Ogam
Ogam

Ridgeless.

Well-footed

focosach.

negladae

Ogham.

ndedlaide)

(1.

-i-

in

cuiged

fid

fod-

ailter.

Separated Ogham,
58 Ebadach

-i-

the

ebad etar gach da

Ebad-fashioned,

between every two


59

i.e.,

Ogam Fem usa.

fifth letter is

severed.

6065

fid.

>

<

-^~

(Ogham),

i.e.,

an Ebad

letters.

fid b^wai
[1.
benas] in fid ara
6070
gualaind do buain imaille fris gan fognum fair.Ogham of Fenius, i.e., the letter which touches the
letter on its shoulder to be taken off along with it
without making use of it.

in

-i-

60 Indiupartach ands[o]
cetfidh.

-i-

Is e cetfidh

diupairt gach aicme ar aile


na haicme tanaise, ut est.

imon
6075

Fraudulent (Ogham) here, i.e., each group s


It is the
defrauding another of the initial letter.
initial letter of the second
group (which ends the
first

61

group), ut

est,

Taebogam Tlachtga
Side

Ogham

-i- d
aentaeb uile
of Tlachtga, i.e.,

na fega-sa sis.
6080
on one side all these

letters below.

62 (Unnamed.)
63 Ogam Erimoin.

Ogham

Erimon.
64 Snait[h]i snimach.
Interwoven thread.
65 Ogam fordunta.
Foreenclosed Ogham.
66 Nathair

fria fraech.

of

6085

Snake through heath.

67 Bacogam. Bend (or angle) Ogham.


68 (Cf. 36.) (Unnamed.)
69 Ogam tregdae. Pierced Ogham.

(J090

70 (Unnamed.)
71 (Cf. 38.)

Locogam.

Place

Ogham.

72 Fiaclach Find, J is ar cuimri nach scribthar acht da fid


do gach aicme.
Toothlike [Ogham] of Fionn, and it is for brevity 6095
that there are but two letters of every group written.
73

Ogam

,-iirenach.

Shield

Ogham.
309

74

Rothogam Roigni Roscadhaig


bethi a

huath a

Wheel Ogham

v, muin a v, ailm a
of Roigne Roscadach

B. five, H. five,

M.

75 Fege Find.
76 Traig (sz c
snaithi.

in

77 Sigla.

v,

Fionn
/.)

sruth

five,

A.

v.

6100

five.

Window.
Ferc[h]ertne

-i-

coig

Stream strand of Ferchertne,

feda
i.e.,

in

gach

five letters

each thread.

5105

Abbreviations.

iul, og, ech, ind, Hi, rii, Hi,


di ailm, fict, dacht,
gart

310

fii, ict,

arb, insci, ruidriug

BB. 314

h_>nKWS*J

flaibnwa^mawTttltfmiun-

*
f

JJ
*yto4l^^tn.iigl^3^WKiwnVr
^TOjyttt^Os
f
/

ai/y

-t

"T^Ss-SWl

TO

^- Dtfatfr/n

1.Ieici

JK

-^.
JJ
-f

J*

<t^oi7t1ncm

^1

-ti

-o

rB?-j>-s-~

"w

-m

^s

ooit)

KI"

t:

YYTr: TzX) T^ \l n

r^^^
l

itt

twf iTnwprmi iftnan DOJOJWB .Gfr.


^t*! wA

T T-

P l-%-X-fe\- i
^ v^^jr^ZT,
t/
^ O T b W H J,
?W

ifll .

S.

<ll^ -T<tTj

t-iSW^^^erfn.^.?*!!
Lffiis-t7tih*Kfc.-i d -U 1MoT?mmmi<f.-u C
hri

7tAJi^44.1-vC^tnti^.7:c.Taa4zx>rfpi/pKj,

rj

<*??UA.

*W4-t^c^wif^^- i PB^* Tp-^^*c.ai<>

Y_M

1
A]*"

^c^4iuidrmDicJTxwtmnBcoi^jn4-r7xjS<tteT<>

.1

rt

i/

U -V*i

Ik

rr

H- n

"^

78

tii

diailt

eet

ban bachlach

ara

sesd

lat

inscii

nact

maidm

cridi eors

gai

dec indsci so anuas.

6110

These are ten expressions above.


79 Forfeda

troigi

bang

trenoct

ue

ailm

fain

sigan

enoct

Additional

duiriu

gort guinche

remar

ailm

coeliu

srub-aigi

aupai

ui

ailm guinche.

6115

letters.

80 Forfeda:

mane
neal

esci

taeb

goth

icht

te

ongan

fisidect

ail

dea

liasairect

eth

oeth

emridoth

maicc.

<