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(Name of the Subject/Lab Course):Operating Systems

(JNTU CODE:

550311

Programme: UG/PG

Branch:

No: 1 *

IT

Version

Year:

III

Document Number :GCET/IT/304 **

Semester:

Pages:90

No. of

Distribution List:

Prepared by :

1) Name :

2) Sign

Updated by :

Y.RAJU

1) Name

2) Sign

3) Design :ASSOC.PROFF

3) Design

4) Date

4) Date

:2

Verified by :

1) Name :

2) Sign

:

Sign

:

3) Design :

4) Date

Approved by (HOD) :

1) Name:

1)Name

2)

3) Design :

4) Date :

2) Sign

3) Date

**GCET/Dept./3 indicates 3rd year; 04 indicates fourth in the list of JNTU Syllabus book

SYLLABUS

UNIT-I

INDTODUCTION: Fundamentals of data mining, Data Mining Functionalities,

Classification of Data Mining systems, Major issues in Data Mining.

Data Preprocessing : Needs Preprocessing the Data, Data Cleaning, Data Integration and

Transformation, Data Reduction, Discretization and Concept Hierarchy Generation.

UNIT-II

Data Warehouse and OLAP Technology for Data Mining Data Warehouse, Multidimensional

Data Model, Data Warehouse Architecture, Data Warehouse

Implementation, Further Development of Data Cube Technology, From Data Warehousing to

Data Mining.

UNIT-III

DATA MINING PRIMITIVES, LANGUAGES AND SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES: Data

Mining Primitives, Data Mining Query Languages, Designing Graphical User Interfaces Based

on a Data Mining Query Language Architectures of Data Mining Systems.

UNIT-IV

CONCEPTS DESCRIPTION : Characterization and Comparison : Data Generalization and

Summarization- Based Characterization, Analytical Characterization: Analysis of Attribute

Relevance, Mining Class Comparisons: Discriminating between Different Classes, Mining

UNIT-V

MINING ASSSOCIATION RULES IN LARGE DATABASES: Association Rule Mining,

Mining Single-Dimensional Boolean Association Rules from Transactional Databases, Mining

Multilevel Association Rules from Transaction Databases, Mining Multidimensional Association

Rules from Relational Databases and Data Warehouses, From Association Mining to Correlation

Analysis, Constraint-Based Association Mining.

UNIT-VI

CLASSIFICATION AND PREDICTION: Issues Regarding Classification and Prediction,

Classification by Decision Tree Induction, Bayesian Classification, Classification by

Backpropagation, Classification Based on Concepts from Association Rule Mining, Other

Classification Methods, Prediction, Classifier Accuracy.

UNIT-VII

CLUSTER ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION: Types of Data in Cluster Analysis, A

Categorization of Major Clustering Methods, Partitioning Methods, Density-Based Methods,

Grid-Based Methods, Model-Based Clustering Methods, Outlier Analysis.

UNIT-VIII

MINING COMPLEX TYPES OF DATA: Multimensional Analysis and Descriptive Mining of

Complex, Data Objects, Mining Spatial Databases, Mining Multimedia Databases, Mining TimeSeries and Sequence Data, Mining Text Databases, Mining the World Wide Web.

TEXT BOOKS :

1. Data Mining Concepts and Techniques - JIAWEI HAN & MICHELINE

KAMBER Harcourt India.

REFERENCES :

1. Data Mining Introductory and advanced topics MARGARET H DUNHAM,

PEARSON EDUCATION

2. Data Mining Techniques ARUN K PUJARI, University Press.

3. Data Warehousing in the Real World SAM ANAHORY & DENNIS

4 Data Warehousing Fundamentals PAULRAJ PONNAIAH WILEY STUDENT

EDITION.

5. The Data Warehouse Life cycle Tool kit RALPH KIMBALL WILEY

STUDENT EDITION.

For more details, visit Http://www.jntu.

CHEERYAL (V) KEESARA (M) RR District.

Department of: IT

Year and Semester to Whom Subject is Offered: III BTech, IISem

Name of the Subject: Datawarehousing And Data Mining

Name of the Faculty:Y.RAJU

Department: IT

1.1.

Data mining, the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases, is

a powerful new technology with great potential to help companies focus on the most

important information in their data warehouses. Data mining tools predict future trends and

behaviors, allowing businesses to make proactive, knowledge-driven decisions. The

automated, prospective analyses offered by data mining move beyond the analyses of past

events provided by retrospective tools typical of decision support systems. Data mining tools

can answer business questions that traditionally were too time consuming to resolve. They

scour databases for hidden patterns, finding predictive information that experts may miss

because it lies outside their expectations.

Most companies already collect and refine massive quantities of data. Data mining

techniques can be implemented rapidly on existing software and hardware platforms to enhance

the value of existing information resources, and can be integrated with new products and systems

as they are brought on-line. When implemented on high performance client/server or parallel

processing computers, data mining tools can analyze massive databases to deliver answers to

questions such as, "Which clients are most likely to respond to my next promotional mailing, and

why?"

This white paper provides an introduction to the basic technologies of data mining.

Examples of profitable applications illustrate its relevance to todays business environment as

well as a basic description of how data warehouse architectures can evolve to deliver the value of

data mining to end users.

Improve Quality of Data

Since a common DSS deficiency is "dirty data," it is almost guaranteed that you will have

to address the quality of your data during every data warehouse iteration. Data cleansing is a

sticky problem in data warehousing. On one hand, a data warehouse is supposed to provide

clean, integrated, consistent and reconciled data from multiple sources. On the other hand, we are

faced with a development schedule of 6-12 months. It is almost impossible to achieve both

without making some compromises. The difficulty lies in determining what compromises to

make. Here are some guidelines for determining your specific goal to cleanse your source data:

Never try to cleanse ALL the data. Everyone would like to have all the data perfectly

clean, but nobody is willing to pay for the cleansing or to wait for it to get done. To clean it all

would simply take too long. The time and cost involved often exceeds the benefit.

Never cleanse NOTHING. In other words, always plan to clean something. After all,

one of the reasons for building the data warehouse is to provide cleaner and more reliable data

than you have in your existing OLTP or DSS systems.

Determine the benefits of having clean data. Examine the reasons for building the data

warehouse:

Determine the cost for cleansing the data. Before you make cleansing all the dirty data

your goal, you must determine the cleansing cost for each dirty data element. Examine how long

it would take to perform the following tasks:

Compare cost for cleansing to dollars lost by leaving it dirty. Everything in business

must be cost-justified. This applies to data cleansing as well. For each data element, compare the

cost for cleansing it to the business loss being incurred by leaving it dirty and decide whether to

include it in your data cleansing goal. If dollars lost exceeds the cost of cleansing, put the data on

the "to be cleansed" list. If cost for cleansing exceeds dollars lost, do not put the data on the "to

be cleansed" list.

Prioritize the dirty data you considered for your data cleansing goal. A difficult part

of compromising is balancing the time you have for the project with the goals you are trying to

achieve. Even though you may have been cautious in selecting dirty data for your cleansing goal,

you may still have too much dirty data on your "to be cleansed" list. Prioritize your list.

For each prioritized dirty data item ask: Can it be cleansed? You may have to do

some research to find out whether the "good data" still exists anywhere. Places to search could be

other files and databases, old documentation, manual file folders and even desk drawers.

Sometimes the data values are so convoluted that to write the transformation logic, you may have

to find some "old-timers" who still remember what all the data values meant. Then there will be

times when, after several days of research, you find out that you couldn't cleanse a data element

even if you wanted to; and you have to remove the item from your cleansing goal.

As you document your data cleansing goal, you want to include the following

information:

records)

of records)

Addressing another common complaint about current DSS environments, namely

inconsistent reports, will most likely become one of your data warehouse goals. Inconsistent

reports are mainly caused by misuse of data, and the primary reason for misuse of data is

disagreement or misunderstanding of the meaning or the content of data. Correcting this problem

is another predicament in data warehousing, because it requires the interested business units to

resolve their disagreements or misunderstandings. This type of effort has more than once

torpedoed a data warehouse project because it took too long to resolve the disputes. Ignoring the

issue is not a solution either. We suggest the following guidelines:

S UNIT

.no

Topic

Additional

NO

1

Topics

1 Introduction

Fundamentals

of

data

mining,

Data Mining Functionalities

Classification of Data Mining systems,

Major

issues

in

DataMining.

the Data

Data

Cleaning,

Data

Integration

and

Transformation

DataReduction

DiscretizationandConcept

HierarchyGeneration

2

Multidimensional

Data

Model

DataWarehouseImplementation,

Further

Development

of

Data

Cube

Technology

From Data Warehousing to Data Mining.

UNIT-III

Data Mining Primitives

Testing methods

Languages

SystemArchitectures

Designing Graphical User Interfaces

Based on a Data Mining.

Query Language Architectures of

Data Mining Systems

4

UNIT-IV

Concepts Description.

Characterization and Comparison

Data Generalization and SummarizationBased Characterization

Analytical Characterization

Analysis of Attribute Relevance

Mining Class Comparisons

Discriminating between Different Classes,

Mining Descriptive Statistical Measures in

Large Databases

UNIT-V

Mining

Association

Rules

in

Large

Databases:

Association

Rule

Mining,.

MiningSingle-DimensionalBoolean

Association

Rules

from

Transactional

Databases,

Warehouses, From Association Mining to

Correlation Analysis,

Constraint-Based Association Mining

Association Mining

6

UNIT-VI

Classification and Prediction

Issues

Regarding

Classification

and

Prediction

Classification by Decision Tree Induction,

Bayesian Classification

Classification by Back propagation,

Classification Based on Concepts from

AssociationRuleMining,

Classifier Accuracy.

7

UNIT-VII

ClusterAnalysisIntroduction.

A Categorization of Major Clustering

Methods

Partitioning Methods

Grid-Based Methods

Model-Based Clustering Methods,

Density-Based Methods,

Outlier Analysis

8

UNIT-VIII

Mining Complex Types of Data

Multimensional Analysis and Descriptive

Mining of Complex

Data Objects

MiningSpatialDatabases

Mining

Time-Series

and

Sequence

Mining the World Wide Web

I.4.1. Text books:TEXTBOOKS:

1. Data Mining Concepts and Techniques - JIAWEI HAN & MICHELINE KAMBER Harcourt

India.

I.4.2. Reference Text Books:1. Data Mining Introductory and advanced topics MARGARET H DUNHAM, PEARSON

EDUCATION

2.

Data

Mining

Techniques

ARUN

PUJARI,

University

Press.

3.

Data

Warehousing

in

the

Real

World

SAM

ANAHORY

&

DENNIS

MURRAY.PearsonEdnAsia.

4 Data Warehousing Fundamentals PAULRAJ PONNAIAH WILEY STUDENT EDITION.

5. The Data Warehouse Life cy Tool kit RALPH KIMBALL WILEY STUDENT EDITION.

.

I.4.4. Journals:-

S

.no

Topic

Additional

NIT NO

1

Topics

Mining Functionalities

Classification

of

Data

Mining

systems,

MajorissuesinDataMining.

Data Preprocessing: Needs Preprocessing the

Data, Data Cleaning,

Data

Integration

and

Transformation,

Data

Reduction,

Discretization and

Concept Hierarchy Generation

2

DataMiningDataWarehouse,

Data Warehouse Architecture

DataWarehouseImplementation

QTP

Further

Development

of

Data

Cube

Technology

From Data Warehousing to Data Mining.

Multidimensional Data Model

3

DataMiningPrimitives,

Languages,

Designing Graphical User Interfaces

Based on a Data Mining Query Language.

Architectures of Data Mining Systems

and System Architectures

Languages

4

Comparison:

Databases

BasedCharacterization,Analytical

Silk Testing

Characterization:

Analysis of Attribute Relevance, Mining Class

Comparisons

Discriminating between Different Classes,

Mining Descriptive Statistical Measures in

5

Association Rule Mining,

Mining Single-Dimensional Boolean Association

Rules from Transactional Databases,

Mining

Multilevel

Association

Rules

from

Transaction Databases

Mining Multidimensional Association Rules from

Relational Databases and Data Warehouses,

From Association Mining to Correlation Analysis

Constraint-BasedAssociationMining.

Classification and Prediction,

Classification

by

Decision

Tree

Induction,

Bayesian Classification

KVCHART

APPLICATION

Classification

Based

on

Concepts

from

Other Classification Methods,

Prediction,ClassifierAccuracy.

7 Cluster

Analysis

Introduction

Types

of

DatainClusterAnalysis,

Partitioning Methods,

Density-Based Methods,

Automation

Techniques

Methods, Outlier Analysis.

Multimensional Analysis and Descriptive Mining

of Complex,

Data Objects

Mining Time-Series and Sequence Data, Mining

Text Databases

Mining the World Wide Web.

Mining Spatial Databases,

Mining Multimedia Databases

,,

Agel model

S Unit

.L

No

Total no of

Periods

Topics to be covered

Reg/Additi

onal

Teac

hing

used

aids emarks

LCD/

OHP/BB

Regular

OHP,BB

Regular

OHP,BB

Regular

OHP,BB

MajorissuesinDataMining.

Regular

OHP,BB

DataPreprocessing:NeedsPreprocessing

the Regular

BB

Data

DataCleaning,DataIntegrationandTransformat

ion

2

DataWarehouseand

Regular

OHP,BB

BB

Warehouse,

MultidimensionalDataModel.

Regular

OHP, BB

Regular

BB

10

DataWarehouseImplementation,

Regular

BB

11

Further

Development

of

Data

Cube Regular

OHP,BB

Technology,

Regular

BB

12

DataMiningPrimitives

Regular

13

Regular

BB

14

Regular

BB

15

OHP,BB

OHP,BB

16

BB

Systems.

Languages,andSystemArchitectures

Regular

OHP,BB

17

Concepts Description

Regular

BB

18

Regular

BB

19

BB

Characterization

20

Analytical

Characterization:

Analysis

of Regular

BB

MiningClassComparisons:Discriminating

Regular

BB

Attribute Relevance

21

22

Large Databases.

23

Regular

BB

24

Regular

BB

Boolean Regular

BB

25

Mining

Association

Single-Dimensional

Rules

from

Transactional

Databases

26

BB

Transaction Databases

27

from

Relational

Databases

and

Data

Warehouses

BB

Analysis,

Constraint-Based

Association

Mining.

6

28

ClassificationandPrediction

Regular

OHP,

BB

29

Issues

Regarding

Classification

and Regular

BB

Prediction

30

Regular

BB

31

Bayesian Classification

Regular

OHP

32

Classification

propagation, Regular

OHP,

by

Back

BB

OtherClassificationMethods,

Prediction, Regular

Classifier Accuracy.

OHP,

BB

33

ClusterAnalysisIntroduction

Regular

BB

34

Regular

BB

35

Categorization

of

Major

Clustering Regular

OHP,

Methods

BB

36

Partitioning Methods

Regular

BB

37

Regular

OHP,

BB

38

BB

Mining of Complex

39

Regular

LCD,

OHP,BB

40

Regular

OHP,

BB

41

Regular

BB

42

Regular

OHP,

BB

43

MiningtheWorldWideWeb.

1.7. 1. Synopsis page for each period(62 pages)

1.7.2. Detailed Lecture notes containing:

Regular

BB

1.ppts

2.ohp slides

3. subjective type questions(approximately 5 t0 8 in no)

4.objective type questions(approximately 20 to 30 in no)

5. Any simulations

1.8. Course Review ( By the concerned Faculty):

(I)Aims

(II) Sample check

(III) End of the course report by the concerned faculty

GUIDELINES:

Distribution of periods:

: 40

No. of classes required to cover Assignment tests (for every 2 units 1 test)

Question papers

-------

Total periods

62

UNIT-I

DEFINITIONS:

DATAMINING: Data mining refers to extracting or mining knowledge from

large amounts of data.

DATAMINING FUNTIONALITIES: Characterization and discrimination,

Mining Frequent Patterns, Associations, and Correlations ,Association Analysis,

Classification and Prediction ,Cluster analysis, Outlier analysis, Trend and

evolution analysis

CLASSIFICATION OF DATAMINING SYSTEMS:

General functionality

Descriptive data mining

Predictive data mining

Data mining various criteria's:

Kinds of databases to be mined

Kinds of knowledge to be discovered

Kinds of techniques utilized

Kinds of applications adapted

Databases to be mined

Relational, transactional, object-oriented, object-relational, active, spatial, timeseries, text, multi-media, heterogeneous, legacy, WWW, etc.

Knowledge to be mined

deviation and outlier analysis, etc.

Multiple/integrated functions and mining at multiple levels

analysis, Web mining, Weblog analysis, etc.

Techniques utilized

Database-oriented, data warehouse (OLAP), machine learning, statistics,

visualization, neural network, etc.

Applications adapted

Retail, telecommunication, banking, fraud analysis, DNA mining, stock market

MAJOR ISSUES IN DATAMINING

Mining methodology and user interaction issues

Performance issues

Issues relating to the diversity of data types

DATA PREPROSESSING

integrating multiple, heterogeneous data sources

DATA CLEANSING

Ensure consistency in naming conventions, encoding structures, attribute measures,

etc. among different data sources

BITS

1. Regression is the oldest and most well-known statistical technique that the data mining

community utilizes

2. Data mining is the use of automated data analysis techniques to uncover previously

undetected relationships among data items

3. Three of the major data mining techniques are regression, classification and clustering.

4. regression takes a numerical dataset and develops a mathematical formula that fits the

data.

5.

6.

7.

8.

The model is represented as classification rules, decision trees, or mathematical formulae

New data is classified based on the training set

Clustering is a data mining (machine learning) technique used to place data elements

into related groups without advance knowledge of the group definitions

9. Data mining is referred as Extracting or mining knowledge from large amounts of

data

10. clustering techniques include k-means clustering and expectation maximization (EM)

clustering

Easy Questions

2.explain Data mining functionality?

3.explain Major issues in data mining?

4.Explain Classification of data mining systems?

5.Explain A multi-dimensional data model?

6.Explain Data warehouse architecture?

UNIT-II

DATAWAREHOUSING

A decision support database that is maintained separately from the organizations

operational database

A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and nonvolatile

collection of data in support of managements decision-making process.

DEFINITIONS:

OLAP (on-line analytical processing)

Data analysis and decision making

MULTIDIMENTIONAL DATAMODEL

Star schema

Snowflake schema

Fact constellations

CUBE DEFINITION (Fact Table)

define cube <cube _name> [<dimension _ list>]:

<measure _list>

DATAWAREHOUSE APPLICATIONS

supports querying, basic statistical analysis, and reporting using crosstabs, tables,

charts and graphs

multidimensional analysis of data warehouse data

supports basic OLAP operations, slice-dice, drilling, pivoting

Data cleaning

Data integration

Data transformation

Data reduction

Data discretization

Data integration:

Redundant data occur often when integration of multiple databases

The same attribute may have different names in different databases

One attribute may be a derived attribute in another table, e.g., annual revenue

Redundant data may be able to be detected by correlation analysis

Careful integration of the data from multiple sources may help reduce/avoid

redundancies and inconsistencies and improve mining speed and quality

Data reduction strategies

Data cube aggregation

Attribute subset selection

Dimensionality reduction

Numerosity reduction

Discretization and concept hierarchy generation

the aggregated data for an individual entity of interest

e.g., a customer in a phone calling data warehouse.

Parametric methods

Assume the data fits some model, estimate model parameters, store only the

parameters, and discard the data (except possible outliers)

Log-linear models: obtain value at a point in m-D space as the product on

appropriate marginal subspaces

Non-parametric methods

Do not assume models

Major families: histograms, clustering, sampling

Discretization

reduce the number of values for a given continuous attribute by dividing the range

of the attribute into intervals. Interval labels can then be used to replace actual data

values.

Concept hierarchies

reduce the data by collecting and replacing low level concepts (such as numeric

values for the attribute age) by higher level concepts (such as young, middle-aged,

or senior).

BITS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

A data warehouse integrates data from multiple data sources

A data warehouse is a copy of transaction data specifically structured for query and analysis.

OLAP stands for On-Line Analytical Processing

OLAP can be braodly divided into two different ways that is: MOLAP and ROLAP

A data warehouse maintains its functions in three layers staging, integration, and access

The data accessed for reporting and analyzing and the tools for reporting and analyzing

data is is is also called the data mart.

8. Data access layer is the interface between the operational and informational access layer

9. the data warehousing concept was intended to provide an architectural model for the flow

of data from operational systems to decision support environments

10. The integration layer is used to integrate data and to have a level of abstraction from

users

Easy Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

Explain data Transformation?

Explain data Integration?

Explain Data Reduction?

UNIT-III

DEFINITIONS

DATAMINING PRIMITIVES

More flexible user interaction

Foundation for design of graphical user interface

Standardization of data mining industry and practice

DATAMINING QUERY LANGUAGES

A DMQL can provide the ability to support ad-hoc and interactive data mining

By providing a standardized language like SQL

to achieve a similar effect like that SQL has on relational database

Foundation for system development and evolution

Facilitate information exchange, technology transfer, commercialization and

wide acceptance

What tasks should be considered in the design GUIs based on a data mining

query language?

Presentation of discovered patterns

Hierarchy specification and manipulation

Manipulation of data mining primitives

Interactive multilevel mining

Other miscellaneous information

Task-relevant data

Type of knowledge to be mined

Background knowledge

Pattern interestingness measurements

Visualization of discovered patterns

Task-Relevant Data

Database or data warehouse name

Database tables or data warehouse cubes

Condition for data selection

Relevant attributes or dimensions

Data grouping criteria

What Types of knowledge to be mined?

Characterization

Discrimination

Association

Classification/prediction

Clustering

Outlier analysis

Other data mining tasks

A DMQL can provide the ability to support ad-hoc and interactive data mining

By providing a standardized language like SQL

to achieve a similar effect like that SQL has on relational database

Foundation for system development and evolution

Facilitate information exchange, technology transfer, commercialization and

wide acceptance

What is the Syntax for DMQL

task-relevant data

the kind of knowledge to be mined

concept hierarchy specification

interestingness measure

pattern presentation and visualization

Syntax for Association

Mine_Knowledge_Specification ::=

mine associations [as pattern_name]

What tasks should be considered in the design GUIs based on a data mining

query language?

Data collection and data mining query composition

Presentation of discovered patterns

Hierarchy specification and manipulation

Manipulation of data mining primitives

Interactive multilevel mining

No couplingflat file processing,

Loose coupling

Fetching data from DB/DW

Semi-tight couplingenhanced DM performance

Association rule language specifications

MSQL (Imielinski & Virmani99)

MineRule (Meo Psaila and Ceri96)

Query flocks based on Datalog syntax (Tsur et al98)

Syntax for Characterization

Mine_Knowledge_Specification ::=

mine characteristics [as pattern_name]

analyze measure(s)

Discrimination

Mine_Knowledge_Specification ::=

mine comparison [as pattern_name]

for target_class where target_condition

{versus contrast_class_i where contrast_condition_i}

analyze measure(s)

What is the Syntax for task-relevant data specification

use database database_name, or use data warehouse data_warehouse_name

from relation(s)/cube(s) [where condition]

in relevance to att_or_dim_list

order by order_list ,group by grouping_list ,having condition

BITS

1. Premitives of dadmining are Background knowledge ,Interestingness measure

2. Background Knowledge is the information about the domain to be mined.

3. Set Grouping Hierarchies Organizes values for a given attribute into groups or sets or

range of values

4. Certainty (confidence) is defined as ratio of tuples containing both A & B and tuples

containing A

5. Data Mining tools perform data analysis and contributing greatly to business strategies,

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

knowledge Dad mining is more realistic because Design a query language,Design a good

architecture.

bases, and scientific and medical research

Drilling Down is a Specialization of data Concept values replaced by lower level

concepts

Association rules that satisfy both the minimum confidence and support threshold are

referred to as strong association rules.

Data mining language must be designed to facilitate flexible and effective knowledge

discovery

Semi-tight Coupling Besides linking a DM system to a DB/DW systems, efficient

implementation of a few DM primitives.

Easy Questions

1.Explain Data Mining Primitives?

3. Architecture of data mining systems?

4. Design graphical user interfaces based on a data mining query language

UNIT-IV

Descriptive mining describes concepts or task-relevant data sets in

concise, summarative, informative, discriminative forms

Predictive mining Based on data and analysis, constructs models for the

database, and predicts the trend and properties of unknown data

Concept description

Characterization: provides a concise and succinct summarization of the

given collection of data

Comparison: provides descriptions comparing two or more collections

of data

Data generalization

A process which abstracts a large set of task-relevant data in a database

from a low conceptual levels to higher ones.

Generalized relation

Relations where some or all attributes are generalized, with counts or

other aggregation values accumulated.

Cross tabulation

Mapping results into cross tabulation form (similar to contingency

tables).

Visualization techniques:

Pie charts, bar charts, curves, cubes, and other visual forms.

Mapping generalized result into characteristic rules with quantitative information

associated with it

Decision tree

each internal node tests an attribute

each branch corresponds to attribute value

each leaf node assigns a classification

ID3 algorithm

build decision tree based on training objects with known class labels to classify

testing objects

rank attributes with information gain measure

minimal height

the least number of tests to classify an object

Decision tree

each internal node tests an attribute

each branch corresponds to attribute value

each leaf node assigns a classification

ID3 algorithm

build decision tree based on training objects with known class labels to classify

testing objects

rank attributes with information gain measure

minimal height

the least number of tests to classify an object

Data dispersion characteristics

median, max, min, quantiles, outliers, variance, etc.

Numerical dimensions -correspond to sorted intervals

Data dispersion: analyzed with multiple granularities of precision

Boxplot or quantile analysis on sorted intervals

Dispersion analysis on computed measures

Folding measures into numerical dimensions

Boxplot or quantile analysis on the transformed cube

Quartiles, outliers and boxplots

Quartiles: Q1 (25th percentile), Q3 (75th percentile)

Inter-quartile range: IQR = Q3 Q1

Five number summary: min, Q1, M, Q3, max

Boxplot: ends of the box are the quartiles, median is marked, whiskers, and plot

outlier individually

Outlier: usually, a value higher/lower than 1.5 x IQR

Five-number summary of a distribution:

Minimum, Q1, M, Q3, Maximum

Boxplot

The ends of the box are at the first and third quartiles, i.e., the height of the box is

IRQ

The median is marked by a line within the box

Whiskers: two lines outside the box extend to Minimum and Maximum

Standard deviation:

the square root of the variance

Measures spread about the mean

It is zero if and only if all the values are equal

Both the deviation and the variance are algebraic

Difference in philosophies and basic assumptions

Positive and negative samples in learning-from-example: positive used for

generalization, negative - for specialization

Positive samples only in data mining: hence generalization-based, to drill-down

backtrack the generalization to a previous state

Difference in methods of generalizations

Machine learning generalizes on a tuple by tuple basis

Data mining generalizes on an attribute by attribute basis

BITS

1.

framework for understanding the overall organization and function

2. Clustering using representatives called CURE

3. The Data Mining Server must be integrated with the data warehouse and the OLAP

server to embed ROI-focused business analysis directly into this infrastructure

4. A decision tree technique used for classification of a dataset

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

data cleansing is The process of ensuring that all values in a dataset are consistent and

correctly recorded.

data warehouse is a system for storing and delivering massive quantities of data.

analytical model is a structure and process for analyzing a dataset

data navigation The process of viewing different dimensions, slices, and levels of detail

of a multidimensional database.

10. logistic regression a linear regression that predicts the proportions of a categorical target

variable, such as type of customer, in a population.

Easy Questions

1.

2.

3.

4.

Data generalization and summarization-based characterization?

Analytical characterization: Analysis of attribute relevance?

Mining descriptive statistical measures in large databases?

UNIT-V

Association rule mining

Finding frequent patterns, associations, correlations, or causal structures

among sets of items or objects in transaction databases, relational

databases, and other information repositories.

Basic Concepts of Association Rule

Given a database of transactions each transaction is a list of items (purchased by a

customer in a visit)

Find all rules that correlate the presence of one set of items with that of another set

of items

Find frequent patterns

Example for frequent itemset mining is market basket analysis.

Confidence

Support

Minimum support threshold

Minimum confidence threshold

Martket Basket Analysis

Shopping baskets

Each item has a Boolean variable representing the presence or absence of that item.

Each basket can be represented by a Boolean vector of values assigned to these

variables.

Patterns can be represented by association rules.

Apriori Algorithm

Single dimensional, single-level, Boolean frequent item sets

Finding frequent item sets using candidate generation

Generating association rules from frequent item sets

Single-dimensional rules

buys(X, milk) buys(X, bread)

Multi-dimensional rules

Inter-dimension association rules -no repeated predicates

age(X,19-25) occupation(X,student) buys(X,coke)

hybrid-dimension association rules -repeated predicates

age(X,19-25) buys(X, popcorn) buys(X, coke)

Categorical Attributes

finite number of possible values, no ordering among values

Quantitative Attributes

numeric, implicit ordering among values

Static Discretization of Quantitative Attributes

Discretized prior to mining using concept hierarchy.

Numeric values are replaced by ranges.

or k+1 table scans.

Data cube is well suited for mining.

The cells of an n-dimensional cuboid correspond to the predicate sets.

Mining from data cubescan be much faster.

Objective measures

Two popular measurements

support

confidence

Subjective measures

A rule (pattern) is interesting if

*it is unexpected (surprising to the user); and/or

*actionable (the user can do something with it)

kinds of constraints

Knowledge type constraint- classification, association, etc.

Data constraint: SQL-like queries

Dimension/level constraints

Rule constraint

Interestingness constraints

A constraint Ca is anti-monotone iff. for any pattern S not satisfying

Ca, none of the super-patterns of S can satisfy Ca

every super-pattern of S also satisfies it

Succinctness Property of Constraints

For any set S1 and S2 satisfying C, S1 S2 satisfies C

Given A1 is the sets of size 1 satisfying C, then any set S satisfying C are based on

A1 , i.e., it contains a subset belongs to A1 ,

Example :

sum(S.Price ) v is not succinct

min(S.Price ) v is succinct

BITS

1. An association rule is a pattern that states when X occurs, Y occurs with certain

probability

2. Goal Find all rules that satisfy the user-specified minimum support (minsup) and

minimum confidence (minconf).

3. Table data need to be converted to transaction form for association mining.

4. Subset function finds all the candidates contained in a transaction

5. Transaction reduction is a transaction that does not contain any frequent k-itemset is

useless in subsequent scans.

6. Sampling mining on a subset of given data, need a lower support threshold + a method to

determine the completeness

7. Icerberg query Compute aggregates over one or a set of attributes only for those whose

aggregate values is above certain threshold

8. A rule is redundant if its support is close to the expected value, based on the rules

ancestor.

9. Data cube is well suited for mining.

10. Distance between clusters measures degree of association

Easy Questions

1.explain Association rule mining?

2. Mining single-dimensional Boolean association rules from transactional

databases?

3.Explain Mining multilevel association rules from transactional databases?

4.Explain Mining multidimensional association rules from transactional ?

5.Explain From association mining to correlation analysis?

UNIT-VI

Classification:

predicts categorical class labels

classifies data (constructs a model) based on the training set and the values (class

labels) in a classifying attribute and uses it in classifying new data

Prediction:

models continuous-valued functions

predicts unknown or missing values

Supervised learning (classification)

Supervision: The training data (observations, measurements, etc.) are accompanied

by labels indicating the class of the observations

New data is classified based on the training set

Unsupervised learning (clustering)

The class labels of training data is unknown

Given a set of measurements, observations, etc. with the aim of establishing the

existence of classes or clusters in the data

Issues regarding classification and prediction Comparing Classification

Methods

Accuracy

Speed and scalability

Robustness

Scalability

Interpretability:

Interpretability

Decision tree

A flow-chart-like tree structure

Internal node denotes a test on an attribute

Branch represents an outcome of the test

Leaf nodes represent class labels or class distribution

Decision tree generation consists of two phases

Tree construction

At start, all the training examples are at the root

Partition examples recursively based on selected attributes

Tree pruning

Identify and remove branches that reflect noise or outliers

Use of decision tree: Classifying an unknown sample

Test the attribute values of the sample against the decision tree

Conditions for stopping partitioning

All samples for a given node belong to the same class

There are no remaining attributes for further partitioning majority voting is

employed for classifying the leaf

There are no samples left

Information gain (ID3/C4.5)

All attributes are assumed to be categorical

Can be modified for continuous-valued attributes

Represent the knowledge in the form of IF-THEN rules

One rule is created for each path from the root to a leaf

Each attribute-value pair along a path forms a conjunction

The leaf node holds the class prediction

Rules are easier for humans to understand

Two approaches to avoid overfitting

Prepruning: Halt tree construction earlydo not split a node if this would result

in the goodness measure falling below a threshold

Difficult to choose an appropriate threshold

Postpruning: Remove branches from a fully grown treeget a sequence of

progressively pruned trees

Use a set of data different from the training data to decide which is the best

pruned tree

Approaches to Determine the Final Tree Size

Separate training and testing sets

Use cross validation, 10-fold cross validation

Use all the data for training

Use minimum description length (MDL) principle

Enhancements to basic decision tree induction

Allow for continuous-valued attributes

Handle missing attribute values

Attribute construction

machine learning researchers

Scalability: Classifying data sets with millions of examples and hundreds of

attributes with reasonable speed

Why decision tree induction in data mining?

relatively faster learning speed (than other classification methods)

convertible to simple and easy to understand classification rules

can use SQL queries for accessing databases

comparable classification accuracy with other methods

Bayesian Classification

Statical classifiers

Based on Bayes theorem

Nave Bayesian classification

Class conditional independence

Bayesian belief netwoks

Bayesian belief network allows a subset of the variables conditionally independent

A graphical model of causal relationships

Several cases of learning Bayesian belief networks

Given both network structure and all the variables: easy

Given network structure but only some variables

Discretize activation values; replace individual activation value by the cluster

average maintaining the network accuracy

Enumerate the output from the discretized activation values to find rules between

activation value and output

Find the relationship between the input and activation value

Combine the above two to have rules relating the output to input

Rough sets are used to approximately or roughly define equivalent classes

A rough set for a given class C is approximated by two sets: a lower approximation

(certain to be in C) and an upper approximation (cannot be described as not

belonging to C)

Finding the minimal subsets (redacts) of attributes (for feature reduction) is NPhard but a discernibility matrix is used to reduce the computation intensity

Fuzzy logic uses truth values between 0.0 and 1.0 to represent the degree of

membership (such as using fuzzy membership graph)

Attribute values are converted to fuzzy values

e.g., income is mapped into the discrete categories {low, medium, high} with fuzzy

values calculated

For a given new sample, more than one fuzzy value may apply

Each applicable rule contributes a vote for membership in the categories

Typically, the truth values for each predicted category are summed

What Is Prediction?

First, construct a model

Second, use model to predict unknown value

Linear and multiple regressions

Non-linear regression

Linear regression: Y = + X

Two parameters, and specify the line and are to be estimated by using the data

at hand.

Using the least squares criterion to the known values of Y1, Y2 X1, X2, .

Multiple regression: Y = b0 + b1 X1 + b2 X2.

Many nonlinear functions can be transformed into the above.

Log-linear models:

The multi-way table of joint probabilities is approximated by a product of lowerorder tables.

Probability: p(a, b, c, d) = ab acad bcd

1. Model construction describing a set of predetermined classes.

2. Scalability Classifying data sets with millions of examples and hundreds of attributes

with reasonable speed

3. Classification predicts categorical class labels.

4. Data Cleaning preprocesses data in order to reduce noise and handle missing values.

5. Probabilistic prediction predicts multiple hypotheses, weighted by their probabilities.

6. CAEP stands for Classification by aggregating emerging patterns.

7. In Genetic Algorithm each rule is represented by a string of bits.

8. Fuzzy logic uses truth values between 0.0 and 1.0 to represent the degree of membership.

9. Prediction models continuous-valued functions.

10. Predictive modeling predict data values or construct generalized linear models based

on the database data.

Eassy Questions

1. What is classification? What is prediction?

3. ExplainClassification by decision tree induction?

4. Explain Bayesian Classification?

5. ExplainClassification by back propagation?

6. Explain Classification based on concepts association rule mining?

7. Explain Other Classification Methods?

8. Explain Prediction and Classification accuracy?

UNIT-VII

Cluster: a collection of data objects

Similar to one another within the same cluster

Dissimilar to the objects in other clusters

Cluster analysis

General Applications of Clustering

Pattern Recognition

Spatial Data Analysis

Image Processing

Economic Science (market research)

WWW

Examples of Clustering Applications

Marketing, Land use, Insurance, City-planning, Earth-quake studies

A good clustering method will produce high quality clusters with

High intra-class similarity

Low inter-class similarity

Requirements of Clustering in Data Mining

Scalability

Ability to deal with different types of attributes

Discovery of clusters with arbitrary shape

Minimal requirements for domain knowledge to determine input parameters

Able to deal with noise and outliers

Insensitive to order of input records

High dimensionality

Incorporation of user-specified constraints

Interpretability and usability

Type of data in clustering analysis

Interval-scaled variables

Binary variables

Categorical, Ordinal, and Ratio Scaled variables

Variables of mixed types

Major Clustering Approaches

Partitioning algorithms

Hierarchy algorithms

Density-based

Grid-based

Model Based

Outlier Analysis

CLARA (Clustering Large Applications) (1990)

CLARA (Kaufmann and Rousseeuw in 1990)

Built in statistical analysis packages, such as S+

It draws multiple samples of the data set, applies PAM on each sample, and gives

the best clustering as the output

Strength: deals with larger data sets than PAM

Weakness:

Efficiency depends on the sample size

A good clustering based on samples will not necessarily represent a good

clustering of the whole data set if the sample is biased

Birch: Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies, by Zhang,

Ramakrishna, Livny (SIGMOD96)

E.H. Han and V. Kumar99

DBSCAN Algorithm

Arbitrary select a point p

Retrieve all points density-reachable from p wrt Eps and MinPts.

If p is a core point, a cluster is formed.

If p is a border point, no points are density-reachable from p and DBSCAN visits

the next point of the database.

Continue the process until all of the points have been processed.

Limitations of COBWEB

The assumption that the attributes are independent of each other is often too strong

because correlation may exist

Not suitable for clustering large database data skewed tree and expensive

probability distributions

Neural network approaches

Represent each cluster as an exemplar, acting as a prototype of the cluster

New objects are distributed to the cluster whose exemplar is the most similar

according to some do stance measure

Outliers

The set of objects are considerably dissimilar from the remainder of the data

Example: Sports: Michael Jordon, Wayne Gretzky, ...

Distance-based outlier: A DB (p, D)-outlier is an object O in a dataset T such that

at least a fraction p of the objects in T lies at a distance greater than D from O

Algorithms for mining distance-based outliers

Index-based algorithm

Nested-loop algorithm

Cell-based algorithm

Sequential exception technique

Simulates the way in which humans can distinguish unusual objects from among a

series of supposedly like objects

OLAP data cube technique

Uses data cubes to identify regions of anomalies in large multidimensional data

BITS

1. clustering is the assignment of a set of observations into subsets.

2. Subspace clustering methods look for clusters that can only be seen in a particular

projection of the data.

3. Many clustering algorithms require the specification of the number of clusters to

produce in the input data set, prior to execution of the algorithm.

4. Distance measure which will determine how the similarity of two elements is calculated.

5. Hierarchical clustering creates a hierarchy of clusters which may be represented in a tree

structure called a dendrogram.

6. QT clustering is an alternative method of partitioning data, invented for gene clustering.

7. QT clustering QT stands for Quality Threshold.

8. Formal concept analysis is a technique for generating clusters(called formal concepts)

of objects and attributes.

9. Evaluation of clustering is sometimes referred to as Cluster validation.

Several different clustering systems based on mutual information have been

proposed.

Easy Question

1. What is Cluster Analysis?

2. Explain Types of Data in Cluster Analysis?

3. Explain

4. Explain

Partitioning Methods?

6. Explain Density-Based Methods?

8. Explain Model-Based Clustering Methods?

9. Explain Outlier Analysis?

UNIT-VIII

Set-valued attribute

Generalization of each value in the set into its corresponding higher-level concepts

Derivation of the general behavior of the set, such as the number of elements in the

set, the types or value ranges in the set, or the weighted average for numerical data

hobby = {tennis, hockey, chess, violin, nintendo_games} generalizes to {sports,

music, video_games}

List-valued or a sequence-valued attribute

Same as set-valued attributes except that the order of the elements in the sequence

should be observed in the generalization

Spatial data:

Generalize detailed geographic points into clustered regions, such as business,

residential, industrial, or agricultural areas, according to land usage

Require the merge of a set of geographic areas by spatial operations

Image data:

Extracted by aggregation and/or approximation

Size, color, shape, texture, orientation, and relative positions and structures of the

contained objects or regions in the image

Music data:

Summarize its melody: based on the approximate patterns that repeatedly occur in

the segment

Summarized its style: based on its tone, tempo, or the major musical instruments

played

Object identifier: generalize to the lowest level of class in the class/subclass

hierarchies

Class composition hierarchies

generalize nested structured data

generalize only objects closely related in semantics to the current one

Plan: a variable sequence of actions

E.g., Travel (flight): <traveler, departure, arrival, d-time, a-time, airline, price,

seat>

Plan mining: extraction of important or significant generalized (sequential)

patterns from a planbase (a large collection of plans)

E.g., Discover travel patterns in an air flight database, or

find significant patterns from the sequences of actions in the repair of automobiles

nonvolatile spatial data repository for data analysis and decision making

Spatial data integration: a big issue

Structure-specific formats (raster- vs. vector-based, OO vs. relational models,

different storage and indexing)

Vendor-specific formats (ESRI, MapInfo, Integraph)

Spatial data cube: multidimensional spatial database

Both dimensions and measures may contain spatial components

Spatial association rule:A B [s%, c%]

A and B are sets of spatial or nonspatial predicates

Topological relations: intersects, overlaps, disjoint, etc.

Spatial orientations: left_of, west_of, under, etc.

Distance information: close_to, within_distance, etc.

Hierarchy of spatial relationship:

g_close_to: near_by, touch, intersect, contain, etc.

First search for rough relationship and then refine it

Spatial classification

Analyze spatial objects to derive classification schemes, such as decision trees in

relevance to certain spatial properties (district, highway, river, etc.)

Example: Classify regions in a province into rich vs. poor according to the average

family income

Description-based retrieval systems

Build indices and perform object retrieval based on image descriptions, such as

keywords, captions, size, and time of creation

Results are typically of poor quality if automated

Content-based retrieval systems

Support retrieval based on the image content, such as color histogram, texture,

shape, objects, and wavelet transforms

Image sample-based queries:

Find all of the images that are similar to the given image sample

Compare the feature vector (signature) extracted from the sample with the feature

vectors of images that have already been extracted and indexed in the image

database

Image feature specification queries:

Specify or sketch image features like color, texture, or shape, which are translated

into a feature vector

Match the feature vector with the feature vectors of the images in the database

Time-series database

Consists of sequences of values or events changing with time

Data is recorded at regular intervals

Characteristic time-series components

Trend, cycle, seasonal, irregular

Estimation of cyclic variations

If (approximate) periodicity of cycles occurs, cyclic index can be constructed in

much the same manner as seasonal indexes

Estimation of irregular variations

By adjusting the data for trend, seasonal and cyclic variations

Atomic matching

Find all pairs of gap-free windows of a small length that are similar

Window stitching

Stitch similar windows to form pairs of large similar subsequences allowing gaps

between atomic matches

Subsequence Ordering

Linearly order the subsequence matches to determine whether enough similar

pieces exist

Problems with the Web linkage structure

Not every hyperlink represents an endorsement

Other purposes are for navigation or for paid advertisements

If the majority of hyperlinks are for endorsement, the collective opinion will still

dominate

One authority will seldom have its Web page point to its rival authorities in the

same field

Authoritative pages are seldom particularly descriptive

Hub

Set of Web pages that provides collections of links to authorities

HITS (Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search)

Explore interactions between hubs and authoritative pages

Use an index-based search engine to form the root set

Expand the root set into a base set

Apply weight-propagation

Web log is filtered to generate a relational database

A data cube is generated form database

OLAP is used to drill-down and roll-up in the cube

OLAM is used for mining interesting knowledge

Benefits of Multi-Layer Meta-Web

Multi-dimensional Web info summary analysis

Approximate and intelligent query answering

Web high-level query answering (WebSQL, WebML)

Web content and structure mining

Observing the dynamics/evolution of the Web

BITS

1. A time Series Database consists of sequences of values or events obtained over repeated

measurements of time.

2. Sequential Pattern Mining is the discovery of frequently occurring ordered events as

patterns.

3. DSMS stands for Data Stream Management System.

4. Spatial data base stores large amount of space related data such as maps ,medical

imaging data.

5. Spatial data mining refers to extraction of knowledge, spatial relationships that are not

explicitly stored in spatial databases.

6. MBR stands for minimum bounding rectangle which is taken as rough estimation of a

merged region.

7. A set value attribute may be homogeneous or heterogeneous.

8. Data cleaning refers to preprocessing data in order to remove are reduce data noise.

9. Scalability refers to ability to construct the classifier or predictor efficiently given large

amount of data.

10. Decision tree induction is a learning of decision trees from class labeled training tuples.

Easy questions

data objects

2. Explain mining spatial databases

3. Explain Multidimensional analysis and descriptive mining of

complex data objects?

4. Explain Mining spatial databases?

5. Explain mining multimedia databases?

6. Explain Mining time-series and sequence data?

7. Explain

9. Explain mining multimedia databases?

10. Explain Mining time-series and sequence data?

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