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EXCITATION SYSTEMS
Functions of Excitation Systems

Supply DC current to the field winding.


Automatically adjust the field current to maintain the
terminal voltage as output changes.
Control system Voltage/ Reactive Power flow.
Control
functions

Enhance Transient Stability.


Enhance Dynamic Stability.

Should be capable of responding rapidly to a disturbance.


Should have high ceiling voltage.
Capacity 2 to 3.5 kW/MVA

Components of an Excitation System

Terminal Voltage Transducer and Load Compensator: Senses the voltage,


rectifies, filters and compares with a reference. Load compensator maintains
voltage at some point electrically remote from generator terminal
Power System Stabilizer: Provides additional input to damp system oscillation.
Commonly used inputs are rotor speed deviation, accelerating power, frequency
deviation etc.
Exciter: Provides dc current to the field --- Power source.
Limiters and Protective Circuits: Over Excitation Limiters, Under Excitation
limiters , Terminal Voltage Limiters, Volt/ Hz regulator etc.
Limiters and
Protective Circuits

Terminal voltage
transducer and
load compensator

Ref

Regulator

Exciter

Generator

To Power System

Power System
Stabilizer

Step-up
Transformer
Et

H.T bus

It
C.T.

Field Armature
Generator

P.T.

RC

Exciter

To power system

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XC

Voltage
Regulator

Types of Excitation systems

DC Excitation Systems: DC generator is the power


source. DC generator output is fed to the field winding
through slip ring. May be self or separately excited. Used
in old machines. Problem Long time constant,
Commutation.

AC Excitation systems: A separate alternator is used as


the power source. AC output is rectified in controlled/
non-controlled rectifiers which are either stationary or
rotating.
Static Excitation Systems: Having no additional rotating
part. Generator output is stepped downed, rectified and
fed to the field winding

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Stationary Rectifier System

Field Controlled Alternator-rectifier Excitation system


AC Exciter
Field
Armature

Stationary
diode

Main Generator
Field
Armature
Slip ring

P.T.

C.T.

Controlled
rectifier

DC
ref
DC
Regulator
AC
ref
AC
Regulator

Aux. inputs

Regulator controls the field of the Self excited exciter


Alternative form uses a Pilot exciter as source of exciter
field power

Alternator-supplied Controlled rectifier Excitation system


AC Exciter
Field
Armature

Stationary
diode

Main Generator
Field
Armature
Slip ring

C.T.

P.T.

DC
ref
DC
Regulator
Exciter
Regulator

AC
ref
AC
Regulator

Aux. inputs

Exciter alternator is self excited and uses an independent


static voltage regulator to maintain its output voltage
Small response time as the Thyristor directly controls the
exciter output dc voltage

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Rotating rectifier type brushless excitation system


Rotating Structure
Pilot exciter

Field
N
S

AC Exciter

Field

Armature

Armature

C.T.

P.T.

Field

3-Ph. AC
Regulator

Manual control
Aux. inputs

Rectifier mounted on generator shaft


No slip ring and brushes
Dc output directly fed to the generator field
Permanent magnet field of the Pilot exciter rotates on the generator
shaft
Voltage regulator controls the ac exciter field, which in turn controls the
main generator field
Direct measurement of generator field current/voltage is not possible

Static Excitation System


Exciter
Transformer

Controlled
rectifier

Main Generator
Field Armature
Slip ring

C.T.

P.T.

DC
ref
DC
Regulator
AC
ref
AC
Regulator

Aux. inputs

Generator output voltage through step down transformer is rectified


Sometimes output is taken from auxiliary winding of generator
Very small inherent time constant
The maximum exciter output voltage depends on input ac voltage
During fault the exciter ceiling voltage is reduced
Less expensive and easy maintenance
Perform satisfactorily for generators connected to large systems
Self excited, requires other sources during starting for a few seconds; Field
flashing --- from station battery