Anda di halaman 1dari 31

ModelingFractureGeometry

R.D.Barree
Barree&AssociatesLLC

Inthissession
Whatarethedominantprocessesof
modeling?
Whataretherequirementsofagooddesign
model?
Whatmodelsareavailable?
Whataretheirassumptions?
Howshouldyouselectanappropriatemodel?

2009

WhichModel&Why
If you are taking the time to design or evaluate a frac job,
shouldnt you make it worthwhile?
SimplisticModels:
Easytouse
Requireminimalinputdata
Takelittleornotime

SophisticatedModels:
Requireinputtodescribe
thereservoir
Accuratelydescribethe
fracture
Allowformakinginformed
decisions
2009

FractureDesign:
Understanding&ModelingDominantProcesses
Fracturegeometrycreation
elasticproperties,plasticity,porepressure
modelassumptions,rockshearandslip

Fluidleakoff
pressuredependence,wholegel

Fluidrheology
Proppanttransport
rheology,localizedleakoff
causes&remediesforscreenouts
2009

DesignModelRequirements
Describe/Includethebasicphysicsofall
importantprocesses
Abilitytopredict(notjustmimic)jobresults
Providedecisionmakingcapability
Understandwhathappened
Isolatecausesofproblems
Changenecessaryinputs
Predictresults

Ifyourmodelcantdothis,whyrunit?
2009

ModesofFracture

Mode I: Tension

Mode II: Sliding Shear

Mode III: Tearing Shear

Conventional frac models only assume Mode I

2009

AvailableFracModels
2DModels
PerkinsKernNordgren
(PKN)
Khristianovich
GeertsmaDeKlerk
(KGD)
PennyFrac
Pseudo3DModels
MFRAC
StimPlan,eStimPlan
FracCade

LumpedParameter
Models
FracPro
FracProPT
3DModels
GOHFER
NStimPlan
TerraFrac

2009

AllFracModelsStartWith
AWidthEquation
Considerthedisplacement
causedbyapointload
onthesurfaceofa
semiinfinitehalfspace:

Thedisplacementofthe
surfaceisgivenby:

P
2009

TotalWidthResultsfromSurface
IntegrationofDistributedPressure
Thedeflectionofthesurfaceofasemiinfinitehalf
spaceactedonbyadistributedpressureis:

ThissolutionwasdevelopedbyJ.Boussinesqin1885

2009

DistributionsofTensileStress
attheFracTips
Distributedstressallowing
smoothclosureatthefracturetip

Concentratedstressapproaching
asingularityatthefracturetip

2009

CompositeProcessZoneModeled
byApparentStressConcept
Net Stress Negative:
Internal Fluid Pressure
Less Than Closure
Damage Zone = 1-6 ft
Tensile Stress in Rock

Net Stress Positive:


Internal Fluid Pressure
Exceeds Closure

Fluid Lag = 1-10 ft

2009

PlaneStrainSolution

Appliesforcracksof
largeaspectratio
Widthisafunction
ofnetpressureand
characteristic
length
Widthisconstant
alongfraclength
2009

SneddonsEquation
forWidthofaPlaneStrainLinearCrack
Sneddonsequation(1945)foran
infinitelength(planestrain)crack,
withcracktipsat+candc
Simplifiedgeometrysolution
assumestwodimensionalplane u =
strainbehaviorwithanimplied
stresssingularity(infinitestress)at
thecracktip

2(1 )p 2 2
c y
E
2

Most2DandPseudo3Dmodels
useaformofthisequation
2009

GeometryAssumptionin
2Dmodels
All2Dmodelsrequiretheusertoinputconstant
fracheight
Lengthandwidtharecalculatedfromcompliance
andleakoff
Called2Dbecauseonlywidthandlengthare
calculated,whileheightremainsfixed.
Two2DmodelsarePKNandKGD
BothwerepublishedbyRoyalDutchShellresearchers
inthe1960s.
BothusetheSneddon linearcracksolutionfora
planestraincrack.
2009

DifferencesinGeometry
AssumptionforPKNandKGD
Fracture width at the mid-point (y=0) is given by Sneddons equation for
two common 2D models:

PKN
The total
fracture
height
(H) is 2c

KGD

2 1 2 Hp
w = 2u =
E

4 1 2 Lp
w = 2u =
E

The crack
half length
(c) is
given by L

Notethatthesearethesameequationssolvedwithdifferent
characteristiccracklengthsandassumeaninfinitestressandzero
displacementatthecracktips.
2009

ResultsControlledbyAssumptions
inSimplisticModels
0.04

10000

0.03

1000

0.025

0.02

100

P_PKN
P_KGD
Width

0.015

10
0

100

200

Fracture Width, feet

Net Pressure, psi

0.035

300

400

500

Fracture Half-length, feet

600

700

800

900

0.01
1000

2009

Pseudo3DModels

Calculatepressuredropalongfracturelength
Calculatewidthandequilibriumheightateachsegment
Mayhaveproppanttransportmodelsrunsequentiallywith
geometry
2009

ExampleofStimPlanOutput

2009

LumpedParameterModels
Upper Height

Frac Tip

Lower Height

Modelgivespositionoffracatthreepointsonly
Fracgrowthisdrivenbyverticalandhorizontalpressure
gradientfunctions
Fractureoutlineisconnectedwithconcentricellipses
Mayhaveseparateproptransportmodelsthatmayor
maynotinteractwithgeometrydevelopment
2009

ExampleofFracproPTOutput

2009

Available3DModels
NStimPlan
GriddedwidthandflowsolutionsimilartoGOHFER
Fullycoupledelasticfiniteelementwidthsolution

GOHFER
Griddeddeformationandflowsolution
Sheardecoupledformulation

TerraFrac

Finiteelementsolution
Requiresremeshingwithtime
Singlefluidentrypoint
Linearelasticsolution
2009

ElasticallyCoupledDisplacement

A point-load causes deformation of the


entire surface
2009

Whatisactually

ObservedintheField?
Fracturewidthsareoftenlessthan
predicted
Highnettreatingpressuresarecommon
Heightcontainmentisoftenbetterthan
expected
Shearfailureoccursintherockmass
(microseisms)
2009

DisplacementWithShear

ShearPlane

Slippage along shear-planes restricts


displacement to a limited area
2009

ShearSlipModel
Nodisplacementtransmittedacrossafreely
slidingshearplane
Noinfluencefromanyloadsappliedon
oppositesideofshearplane
Integrateappliedloadoverasmallarea
Nostressconcentrationatfractureboundary
Verysmallfracturewidths
2009

FracExtensionwithShearSlip
Fluidpressuremust
penetraterockand
exceedclosurestress

Fluidpressureentersexisting
crackandgeneratesastress
concentration

2009

Containment
DecoupledSystem

2009

ActualFractureinCoreSection

2009

MicroseismsAfterWaterInjection

2009

FractureHeightContainmentThroughShearSlip
atBedBoundaries

2009

WhichModel&Why
If you are taking the time to design or evaluate a frac job,
shouldnt you make it worthwhile?
SophisticatedModels:
Requireinputtodescribe
thereservoir
Accuratelydescribethe
fracture
Allowformakinginformed
decisions

SimplisticModels:
Easytouse
Requireminimalinputdata
Takelittleornotime

2009