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021616

Carmopolis Oil Field, Brazil

M.J. De Souza, Ecole Polytechnique; Denis Marcotte, Ecole

Polytechnique

This manuscript was provided to the Society of Petroleum Engineers for distribution

and possible publication in an SPE journal. The material is sUbject to correction

by the author(s). Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than

300 words. Write SPE Book Order Dept., Library Technician, P.O. Box 833836,

Richardson, TX 75083-3836 U.S.A. Telex 730989 SPEDAL.

REC'D

UNSOLICITED

AUG 2 0 1990

1

SPE

PUBLICATIONS

v. 2.0

by

august 1990

1)

Ecole Polytechni.que

C.P.6079, SUcc. A

Montreal, Quebec, lDA-3A7

SPE 2161 6

reserves and the top of reservoir height. '!hese parameters are estimated by

geostatistical techniques for the cannopolis deposit. It is shown that taking

faults into account improves variogram estimation and 100deling and, accordingly,

geostatistical estimation of the "top of reservoir" variable, where a comparison

of kriging estimates with Petrobras geol<Jg'ical staff estimates obtained by

traditional methods shows significant agreement. On the other hand, oil thickness

variograms and estimates are relatively insensitive to the faults.

Global

estimates of oil reserves are very much in line with the estimates provide by

the company. Moreover, global precision estimates obtained by kriging for in-

situ reserves show that the qualifier "proven" used to describe the cannopolis

reserves

be of some help in better urrlerstanding the geology.

IN1'.RODUCTION

methcrls to improve oil recovery in old deposits always require increasing

invesbnents at an early stage of development. '!he potential profitability and

the economic risk of such ventures should be assessed as precisely as possible

SP.E 2161 6

3

oil reserve estimation and a definition of the top-of-reservoir height are two

i.J:rportant elements in the assessment of a reservoir. Examples of other i.J:rportant

parameters are block penneability, internal pressure and oil viscosity (Jones,

1984).

Among the available methods for oil reserve estimation (Davis, 1988),

precision of the oil reserve estimate they provide. '!his is achieved through

the use of a stochastic model describing the spatial continuity of the studied

variable, it is then possible to fonn best (in the sense of minimum estimation

variance) linear unbiased estimators (BIDE) and to quantify the precision linked

to these estimators.

Although geostatistics are now widely used in the mining irrlustry,

geostatistical oil field characterization is still relatively uncormnon. Among

published papers, some have dealt with Well-logging (Delfiner et ale ,1983),

penneability estimation (Desbarats, 1987), (Deutsch, 1989), non-stationary topof-reservoir simulation (Dimitrakopoulos, 1990), seismic interpolation taking

into acx::ount faults (Marechal, 1984), (Galli and Meunier, 1987), and multifacies spatial simulation (Matheron et al., 1988)

New geostatistical methods have been developed to incorporate prior expert

knowledge in situations where very few wells are available (Ornre et al., 1988).

These techniques, or others which incorporates the seismic infonnation as an

external drift (Galli and Meunier, 1987), could prove very useful in estimating

offshore deposits. However, for typical onshore deposits, tens, if not hundreds,

ofwells are available. Classical geostatistical techniques, successfully applied

SP.E 2161 5

for decades in the mining irrlustty and now in many other areas of human activity,

can therefore be used in this context to advantage.

In this paper, geostatistical techniques are used. to obtain an estimate

in production

zone CPS 2 of the CCum:>polis oil field, Sergipe-Alagoas basin, Brazil. Also,

local estimation of the height of top of reservoir is perfonned. Prior geological

infornation such as known reservoir limits and faults is explicitly taken into

account in the estimation process. A corrparison with the oil reserve estimates

obtained by the company (Petrobras) geologists and engineers is provided.

Possible advantages of using geostatistics are discussed.

1), is one of the largest onshore oil deposits in Brazil. since its discovery

in 1963, more than one thousand production or injection wells have been drilled

over a total surface area in the order of 75 km2

in the

precambrian basement and the other defined by Jurassic sandstones and IDwer

cretaceous sandstones and conglomerates (candido, 1984).

Up to 1969, the oil recuperation process relied on the natural internal

pressure of the reservoir. since then, fluid injection projects have been set

up in order to maintain pressure

physical characteristics of the oil (oil gravities between 18 and 28 API degrees

and viscosities between 30 and 80 centipoise) and extremely high penneability

SPE 216 t

6'

5

recently new assisted recuperation methods involving polymer injection, vapor

cyclic or continuous injection and in-situ combustion have been implemented.

methods must start with a detailed and precise description of the main reservoir

characteristics, including that of the in-situ oil reserve.

PRODUCTION ZONES

various subdivisions of the canoopolis field have been proposed over the

years. '!he subdivision used by the company was proposed by Baungarten in 1980

(carrlido, 1984). According to Baungarten, the IDwer Cretaceous reservoirs should

:be subdivided into six production zones (CPS lA,lB,2,3A,3B and 4), each separated

by more or less laterally continuous shales. The CPS 2 zone is studied in this

paper. '!his 34.6 knt zone includes 747 wells fully or partially saturated with

oil. Of these 747 wells, 529 were the object of well-logging interpretation to

obtain measures for porosity, net pay and water saturation (Figure 2). 'Ihe

spacing :between wells varies from 100m, where assisted recuperation projects

have been installed, to 200m elsewhere (Figure 2).

over the area of the reservoir of the hydrocarl:X:>n thickness:

seE

2161 6

(1)

with

A

htt y (x)

= hex) <$lex)

(1~

(x

(2)

where

h

<$l

Sw

hydrocarlX:>n thickness prepared by experienced geologists which are then

integrated with a

planimeter.

under this area is considered proven whilst the rest is considered probable or

possible reserves.

1963). '!he reader interested in technical details is urged to refer to wellk:nown textbooks on the subject (David, 1977; Journel

am practical

am

Huijbreghts, 1978).

sketched.

Geostatistics adopt a stochastic view of a deposit. '!he particular

RE 21616

variable. '!he collection of these random variables throughout the deposit fonn

a random function. Umer secom order stationarity asstIllptions (or a slightly

relaxed version of it, called the intrinsic hypothesis, which requires secom

order stationarity only for the increments of the variable studied) it is

poSsible to characterize the two first moments of this random function by a

variogram that depicts the degree of correlation (or smlarity) between values

as a function of the geographical distance

(am

observations.

Once the variogram is knovm (in practice, an experilnental variogram is

calculated

am

estimators. '!his estimation process is knovm as kriging. 'Iheoretical estimation

variances for

any

'!he basic

the estimation

am most

iIrportant step in

am modelization of the

any geostatistical

study is therefore

(the variogram under the secom order stationarity assunption, the generaliZed

higher order increments of the variable studied).

values smlar to a nomal distribution. Although this is not a prerequisite

for kriging, it is usually a desirable property since the variograms are usually

"RE 21616

8

less erratic

am

easier to IOOde1led.

directions. Figure 4

sh~

sh~

obtained with pairs crossing known faults removed. '!he variograms are sinri.lari

both are well adjusted by an isotropic spherical IOOdeI with a small nugget effect

(Journel

am

am

across

'!he spherical IOOdel equation for "1 (h) is

"1

(h) = 0.01

nf+

)]

(3)

where

a is 700 m

am

0=0.4

a is 750 m

am

0=0.49

nf

nf

(Figure 4)

(Figure 5)

am 5.

cross-validation kriging

(Table 1) by removal of sample points one at a time gave starrlardized errors with

mean

am

values of 0 and 1 (although their variance obtained when faults are taken into

account is slightly too low). It can be observed that limitation of the kriging

neighbo:rhood by faults decreases the quality of the estimation as irrlicated by

bigger mean absolute

am

into account reduces the number of points in the neighbortlood used for kriging

which results in less precise estimation. '!hus, for oil thickness, taking faults

of faulted blocks should be rather weak.

(Jot1n1el arrl

radius 800m. A maxiJnum of 10 samples were used in each kriging system.

CcJrrparison with well statistics shows a decrease in the overall average

thickness, a feature due to the fact that the wells were preferably clustered

zone of influence), arrl a decrease in the variance of the kriged values due to

the smoothing effect of kriging (David, 1977).

a value very closed to the estimate of 49.0 x 106 m3 obtained by the Petrobras

company using traditional methods. '!heir estimate is considered as being all

proven reserves.

on practical problems: the size of the kriging system for global kriging, arrl

SPE 2161 5

10

the necessity of taking into account correlation between kriging errors with

the local approach. An approximate solution is, hOW'ever, easily obtainable by

the method

of composition

of

(Journel

arrl

Here, we dealt with 529 wells spread ItDre or less unifonnly over a 34.6

millions m2 area. Making the assumption that these samples can be considered as

the product of a ramam stratified sampling plan, an area of 65.4 thousarrl

(a square with sides 256 m)

ref

(Journel arrl Huijbreghts, 1978) or with the aid of a canp.Iter program.

We find

rf (.IV)

= 0.12 m

'Ihus

if t hie k n e s s ~ 0.12/529

arrl

O'volume

= 0.0002 m

m3

justifies the tenn "proven" used by geologists to describe their reseJ:Ve

estimate.

Although not necessa1Y here where reseJ:Ves are very precisely k:r1OW'n, the

use of kriging (estimation) error standard deviation as a basis for defining

proven, probable arrl possible reseJ:Ves has been advocated in same instances

(Sabourin, 1984) for the mining i.n:lustry arrl could also be envisaged for the

petroleum i.n:lustry.

RE 21616

11

advance and was considered known. If this were not the case, an additionnal

error term associated with the surface estilnation should be included. Here this

term would be negligible due to the dense grid of wells.

TOP-OF-RESERVOIR FSl'IMM'IClN

A similar procedure

reservoir.

All the available data (747 wells) were used. Figures 7 and 8 show

the directional variograms with all pairs (Figure 7) and with pairs not crossing

faults (Figure 8). variograms obtained when faults are taken into ac:::x::ount (Figure

8)

present better continuity with a sill less than half the one obtained

present a geometric anisotropy with the main axes of anisotropy along (N80W) and

perperrli.cular (NlOE) to the paleochannel direction.

i.

where

a,. is

960 m if r=N80W

650 m if r=NIOE

SEE 2161 6

12

ii.

where

430 m if 1"=NI0E

standardized results when faults were taken into acx:ount but standardized error

variance too high when faults were not taken into account (Table 2). Also, mean

absolute estilnation error and squared estilnation error were much lower (a

reduction of respectively 25% and 45%) when faults were explicitly accounted for.

'!his irrlicates that, in contrast to oil thickness estilnation, top-of-reservoir

estilnation is significantly improved by due consideration of faults. 'Ibis is an

evidence that vertical displacement of faulted blocks is not negligible.

For illustrative purpose, we selected a sub-area of CPS-zone 2 containing

5 faulted blocks with 52 wells. Figures 9 to 11 present respectively the height

of the top of the reservoir estilnated by kriging without faults (Figure 9), by

kriging with faults (Figure 10) and the map produced by the company's geologists

(Figure 11). Both kriging operations were done with an elliptic search with axes .

of 960rn in the N80W direction and 650rn in the NI0E direction, with a maximum of

10

system.

geologists '

(in both cases faults were input at the contouring step). '!he discrepancy between

both kriging estilnates is particularly evident in the two southern blocks. On

SP.E 2161 6

13

am

am

11.

The adopted lOlNer variogram when faults are taken into account gave

theoretical kriging standard deviations reduced by a factor of 1.5.

'!Wo ilrportant variables used in reservoir evaluation are the in-situ oil

reserves

seismic studies). '!his continuously evolving process is time-consuming, errorprone

am

in the personnel)

one

am

subjectivity.

should not forget that these estilnates serve essentially as input for

am

to match historical

between actual production

am his model

am

(as it should be). The maps may not be better but they are deemed easier to

sustend because they rely on the

RE 21616

14

for the height of the top of the resmvoir, where taking faults into account

ilnproved estinlation substantially. '!he point is that expert geological knowledge

should not be wasted in tedious clerical tasks, such as contour drawing but

rather be used efficiently in interpreting geology and. modeling deposit.

widely acknowledged since the happening of geostatistics. '!his is finnly

reconfinned by our study and. should always be kept in mind. Here the preferential

directions

observed

on

our variograms

correspond

to

the

direction

of

paleochannels described by the geologists. Also, the fact that only top-ofreservoir height variograms and. estinlation were affected by faults indicates that

the relative movement of the faulted blocks has been essentially vertical,

othe:rwise thickness variograms and. estinlation would have also been affected.

At canropolis, good agreement was found to exist between the resmves as

documented by the company and. those obtained by geostatistics. '!he global

relative precision is very good at 1% (2% for an approx:i.nate 95% confidence

interval), a confinnation of the tenn "proven" attached by the company to its

resmve estinlate. A top-of-resmvoir map has been produced which closely matches

the one produced by experienced geologists. Estinlates and. estinlated precision

are available at each grid node which, in a resmvoir simulation study, obviates

the need to digitize map values to provide input on a regular grid. Updating

these maps with new'ly acquired infonnation or new' geological interpretation is

a routine task.

In

this

study,

only

"classical"

geostatistics

was

used.

other

RE 2161 6

15

prove useful. As an example, simulation to enhance estilnation of parameters like

penneability where

~rtant

1lCRNJWIEDGMENT

'!he data from canropolis and the financial support for this research has

been provided by Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PErnOBRAS. Software Geo-Eas from

u. S.

Enviromnental Protection Agency and software from Geostat Systems Inti (Montreal)

and Radian CO:rp. (Austin) has been used in this study.

standard variogram calculation programs

calculation may seem a tedious task. To sort data according to blocks defined

by faults, to calculate separate variogra:ms for each subset, and to combine these

'!he following simple trick may be used: assign different aroitrary large

x- and y-coordinate translations to samples from different blocks, but equal

translations to samples from the same block, and then calculate the variogra:ms

as usual.

RE 21616

16

am

University of calgary, calgary, Alberta, 132 p.

D.2\.VID, M., 1977, Geostatistical ore reserve estimation. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

D.2\.VIS, J.C., 1988, Spatial analysis in the assessment of petroleum reservoirs.

Geomathematics

am

am

Time

DELFINER, P., DEIHCMME, J. P.

am

reservoirs with well logs. 24th Ann. Logging SyIrp:>sium, SFWIA.

DESBARATS, A.J., 1987, Numerical estimation of effective penneability in sarrlshale fonnations. Water Resources Research, vol. 23, pp. 273-286.

DEUI'SaI, C., 1989, calculating effective absolute penneability in sarrlstone/shale

sequences. Transactions SPE 17264, SPEFE, sept., pp. 343-348.

DIMITRAKOroJI.OS, R.,

GALLI, A.

am

am

case

JONES, T.A., 1984, Problems in using geostatistics for petroleum applications.

Geostatistics for Natural Resources Olaracterization, Part 1, Ed. G. Verly

et al., D.Reidel Publ.

SPE 2161 6

17

Iorrlon, 600 p.

MAREaIAL, A., 1984, Kriging seismic data in presence of faults. Geostatistics

Reidel Publ. camp., pp. 271-294.

MA'I'HERON, G., 1963, Principles of geostatistics. Economic Geology, vol. 58, pp.

1246-1266.

MA'I'HERON, G., BEUCHER, H., de FOUQUEI', 01., GAIU, A. am RAVENNE, 01., 1988,

simulation corrlitionnelle

GOOstatistiques

a trois facies

se.minaire

C.F.S.G.

sur

la

GOOstatistique,

G1RE, H., HALVORSEN, K.B. and BERI'EIG, V., 1988, Prediction of hydrocarbon pore

Applied to Space am Tilne Dependent Data, in sci. de la Terre, sere Inf.,

Nancy, vol. 27, pp. 381-398.

SABXJRIN, R.L., 1984, Application of a geostatistical method to quantitatiVely

Olaracterization, Part 1, G. Verly et ale (eds), D. Reidel Publ. camp.,

pp. 201-215.

seE

2161 6

18

FIGURE CAPl'IONS

Fig. 1:

map.

Fig. 2:

CPS-2 production zone. Coordinates in m.

Fig. 3:

elementary statistics.

Fig. 4:

and adopted theoretical model when faults are not taken into account.

Nlnnber of pairs for each variogram point is imicated. Distances in

ref,

Fig. 5:

0=0.40

ref

and a=700 m.

and adopted theoretical model when faults are taken into accotmt.

Nlnnber of pairs for each variogram point is imicated. Distances in

ref,

Fig. 6:

0=0.49

ref

and a=750 m.

statistics.

seE

2161 6

19

Fig. 7:

am

adopted theoretical model when faults are not taken into account.

Ntnnber of pairs for each variogram point is indicated. Distances in

2

rrr,

Fig. 8:

0=1725

rrr

am

..

am adopted theoretical model when faults are not taken into account.

Ntnnber of pairs for each variogram point is indicated. Distances in

rrr,

Fig. 9:

0=740 m

am

(m)

in m.

Fig. 10:

m.

Fig. 11:

-seE

2161 6

20

TABLE 1

statistic

Table 1:

without faults

with faults

-0.01

0.87

0.28 m

0.14 nt

0.87

-0.01

0.74

0.31 m

0.17 mZ

0.84

error,

is the

coefficient, mean and fi- are respectiVely the mean and the variance

of the starrlardized kriging error.

TABLE 2

statistic

without faults

mean

SZ

r

Table 2:

Top-of-reservoir

-0.09

3.38

7.74 m

133.5 mZ

0.98

height

-0.02

0.89

5.77 m

74.6 nt

0.99

cross-validation

error,

With faults

I I

results.

is

the

coefficient. mean and fi- are respectiVely the mean and the variance

of the starrlardized kriging error.

I!E 2161 6

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SERGIPE - ALAGOAS

+ BASIN

+.

~-.,

+ 7 ~

+ /.

+ /:

+ /

+//

+/

+ I

jv'U

.v

+/

.,

+:V~S.ARMOPOllS

+1

ARlcAJU

'-j

+

+ + !.

DIVINA

PASTORA

LOW

CAMORIM

1- i G

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01

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SPE 2161 6

SPE 2161 6

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S tat i

tic s

98.

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r-r--

68.

r--

Yo

r--

38.

Minimm

25th Yo

Median

1h

8.

8.

1.

2.

Hean

Uariance:

Std. Dev:

Coer. Uar :

Skewness:

Ilurtosis:

1.747

.582

.763

43.663

.287

2.728

r--

r---

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529

3.

75th

Yo

Haxil'lU.l'I

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1.788

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seE

21616

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0.6

0.5

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J!E 2161 6

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Mean

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Std. De\!:

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Skewness:

Kurtosis:

1.538

.448

.669

43.504

.138

2.186

MinitlUl'l

25th :I.

Median

75th :I.

ttaxitul.tl

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1.823

1.519

2.054

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SPE 2161 6

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1.4

SEE 2161 6

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1.7

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

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1.4

21616

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