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USMS

021616

In-Situ Geostatistical Oil Reserve Estimation, Zone 2 of


Carmopolis Oil Field, Brazil
M.J. De Souza, Ecole Polytechnique; Denis Marcotte, Ecole
Polytechnique

Copyright 1990 Society of Petroleum Engineers


This manuscript was provided to the Society of Petroleum Engineers for distribution
and possible publication in an SPE journal. The material is sUbject to correction
by the author(s). Permission to copy is restricted to an abstract of not more than
300 words. Write SPE Book Order Dept., Library Technician, P.O. Box 833836,
Richardson, TX 75083-3836 U.S.A. Telex 730989 SPEDAL.

REC'D
UNSOLICITED

AUG 2 0 1990
1

SPE
PUBLICATIONS

ZONE 2 OF CNHlIDLIS OIL FIElD, Bm\ZIL

v. 2.0

by

Milton Jose De SOUZa1

and Denis Marcotte1

for sul:mission to Journal of Petroleum Technology

august 1990

1)

Dept of Mineral EnJineering


Ecole Polytechni.que
C.P.6079, SUcc. A
Montreal, Quebec, lDA-3A7

SPE 2161 6

'!Wo inIportant parameters in reservoir simulation are the in-situ oil


reserves and the top of reservoir height. '!hese parameters are estimated by
geostatistical techniques for the cannopolis deposit. It is shown that taking
faults into account improves variogram estimation and 100deling and, accordingly,
geostatistical estimation of the "top of reservoir" variable, where a comparison
of kriging estimates with Petrobras geol<Jg'ical staff estimates obtained by
traditional methods shows significant agreement. On the other hand, oil thickness
variograms and estimates are relatively insensitive to the faults.

Global

estimates of oil reserves are very much in line with the estimates provide by
the company. Moreover, global precision estimates obtained by kriging for in-

situ reserves show that the qualifier "proven" used to describe the cannopolis
reserves

is appropriate. Advantages related to the use of geostatistical

teclmiques are threefold: a saving in time, an objective mapping of the

parameters and a measure of the precision of estimation. Also, variograms may


be of some help in better urrlerstanding the geology.

IN1'.RODUCTION

Offshore oil deposit exploitation and the adoption of new sophisticated


methcrls to improve oil recovery in old deposits always require increasing
invesbnents at an early stage of development. '!he potential profitability and
the economic risk of such ventures should be assessed as precisely as possible

SP.E 2161 6
3

based on infonnation available prior to the production stage. A precise in-situ

oil reserve estimation and a definition of the top-of-reservoir height are two
i.J:rportant elements in the assessment of a reservoir. Examples of other i.J:rportant

parameters are block penneability, internal pressure and oil viscosity (Jones,
1984).

Among the available methods for oil reserve estimation (Davis, 1988),

geostatistical techniques stand out because of their ability to quantify the


precision of the oil reserve estimate they provide. '!his is achieved through
the use of a stochastic model describing the spatial continuity of the studied
variable, it is then possible to fonn best (in the sense of minimum estimation
variance) linear unbiased estimators (BIDE) and to quantify the precision linked
to these estimators.
Although geostatistics are now widely used in the mining irrlustry,
geostatistical oil field characterization is still relatively uncormnon. Among
published papers, some have dealt with Well-logging (Delfiner et ale ,1983),
penneability estimation (Desbarats, 1987), (Deutsch, 1989), non-stationary topof-reservoir simulation (Dimitrakopoulos, 1990), seismic interpolation taking
into acx::ount faults (Marechal, 1984), (Galli and Meunier, 1987), and multifacies spatial simulation (Matheron et al., 1988)
New geostatistical methods have been developed to incorporate prior expert
knowledge in situations where very few wells are available (Ornre et al., 1988).
These techniques, or others which incorporates the seismic infonnation as an
external drift (Galli and Meunier, 1987), could prove very useful in estimating
offshore deposits. However, for typical onshore deposits, tens, if not hundreds,
ofwells are available. Classical geostatistical techniques, successfully applied

SP.E 2161 5

for decades in the mining irrlustty and now in many other areas of human activity,
can therefore be used in this context to advantage.
In this paper, geostatistical techniques are used. to obtain an estimate

(and its associated precision) of the in-situ hydrocaJ:bon volume

in production

zone CPS 2 of the CCum:>polis oil field, Sergipe-Alagoas basin, Brazil. Also,
local estimation of the height of top of reservoir is perfonned. Prior geological
infornation such as known reservoir limits and faults is explicitly taken into
account in the estimation process. A corrparison with the oil reserve estimates
obtained by the company (Petrobras) geologists and engineers is provided.
Possible advantages of using geostatistics are discussed.

'mE CMMJ:POLIS OIL FIEID

The CCum:>polis oil field, located in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin (Figure


1), is one of the largest onshore oil deposits in Brazil. since its discovery

in 1963, more than one thousand production or injection wells have been drilled
over a total surface area in the order of 75 km2

The productive area encompasses

two different geological envirornnents, one consisting of fractured rocks

in the

precambrian basement and the other defined by Jurassic sandstones and IDwer
cretaceous sandstones and conglomerates (candido, 1984).
Up to 1969, the oil recuperation process relied on the natural internal

pressure of the reservoir. since then, fluid injection projects have been set
up in order to maintain pressure

and to increase recovery. However, the poor

physical characteristics of the oil (oil gravities between 18 and 28 API degrees
and viscosities between 30 and 80 centipoise) and extremely high penneability

SPE 216 t

6'
5

contrasts of the rcx::ks resulted in weak efficiency of these methods. More


recently new assisted recuperation methods involving polymer injection, vapor
cyclic or continuous injection and in-situ combustion have been implemented.

Arr:l reliable analysis of the efficiency of these sophisticated recuperation


methods must start with a detailed and precise description of the main reservoir
characteristics, including that of the in-situ oil reserve.

PRODUCTION ZONES

various subdivisions of the canoopolis field have been proposed over the
years. '!he subdivision used by the company was proposed by Baungarten in 1980
(carrlido, 1984). According to Baungarten, the IDwer Cretaceous reservoirs should
:be subdivided into six production zones (CPS lA,lB,2,3A,3B and 4), each separated
by more or less laterally continuous shales. The CPS 2 zone is studied in this

paper. '!his 34.6 knt zone includes 747 wells fully or partially saturated with
oil. Of these 747 wells, 529 were the object of well-logging interpretation to
obtain measures for porosity, net pay and water saturation (Figure 2). 'Ihe
spacing :between wells varies from 100m, where assisted recuperation projects
have been installed, to 200m elsewhere (Figure 2).

IN-SITU HmROCAROON VOUlME

'Ihe in-situ hydrocarbon vohnne corresponds physically to a spatial integral


over the area of the reservoir of the hydrocarl:X:>n thickness:

seE

2161 6

(1)

with
A

the area under study

design a location in the plane

htt y (x)

= hex) <$lex)

(1~

(x

(2)

where
h

is the exploitable thickness

<$l

is the average porosity over this thickness

Sw

is the mean water saturation

Traditional estimation begins with hand drafted contour maps of the


hydrocarlX:>n thickness prepared by experienced geologists which are then
integrated with a

planimeter.

''Measures'' of uncertainty are provided by

assigning, more or less arbitrarily, a distance of influence to each well. Volume


under this area is considered proven whilst the rest is considered probable or
possible reserves.

GOOS'mTISTIC2\L FSrDmTION OF THE IN-SITU HmROCAREION VOLtlME

'!he theory of geostatistics has been developed by G. Matheron (Matheron,


1963). '!he reader interested in technical details is urged to refer to wellk:nown textbooks on the subject (David, 1977; Journel

Here, only the main theoretical

am practical

am

Huijbreghts, 1978).

elements of geostatistics will be

sketched.
Geostatistics adopt a stochastic view of a deposit. '!he particular

RE 21616

characteristic under study at a measured point is seen as the outcome of a random


variable. '!he collection of these random variables throughout the deposit fonn
a random function. Umer secom order stationarity asstIllptions (or a slightly
relaxed version of it, called the intrinsic hypothesis, which requires secom
order stationarity only for the increments of the variable studied) it is
poSsible to characterize the two first moments of this random function by a
variogram that depicts the degree of correlation (or smlarity) between values
as a function of the geographical distance

(am

possibly, direction) between

observations.
Once the variogram is knovm (in practice, an experilnental variogram is

calculated

am

then modeled by a function that will be considered as the true

variogram), it is possible to derive linear unbiased nd.niJnum variance of error


estimators. '!his estimation process is knovm as kriging. 'Iheoretical estimation
variances for

any

'!he basic
the estimation

linear estimator (including kriging) are then available.

am most

iIrportant step in

am modelization of the

any geostatistical

study is therefore

spatial structure or continuity function

(the variogram under the secom order stationarity assunption, the generaliZed

covariance (Matheron, 1973) under the weaker asstIllption of stationarity for


higher order increments of the variable studied).

STRtJC'I'URAL (VARIOGRAM) AlmLYSIS OF H:YI>1IDCAROON mICKNESS

The hydrocartx:>n thickness histogram (Figure 3) shows a distribution of


values smlar to a nomal distribution. Although this is not a prerequisite
for kriging, it is usually a desirable property since the variograms are usually

"RE 21616
8

less erratic

am

easier to IOOde1led.

'!he hydrocart>on thickness variograms were calculated along various


directions. Figure 4

sh~

the onmidirectional experimental variogram obtained

with all available pairs, while Figure 5

sh~

the omidirectional variogram

obtained with pairs crossing known faults removed. '!he variograms are sinri.lari
both are well adjusted by an isotropic spherical IOOdeI with a small nugget effect
(Journel

am

Huijbreghts, 1978). No clear evidence of anisotropy was found on

the directional variograms (not shown here) computed along (N80W)

am

across

(N10E) the directions of the paleochannels as described by Candido (1984).


'!he spherical IOOdel equation for "1 (h) is

"1

(h) = 0.01

nf+

C*[1.5 (h/a)-0.5 (h3 /a3

)]

(3)

where

a is 700 m

am

0=0.4

a is 750 m

am

0=0.49

nf
nf

(Figure 4)
(Figure 5)

'!he theoretical IOOdeI is drawn in Figures 4

am 5.

cross-validation kriging

(Table 1) by removal of sample points one at a time gave starrlardized errors with
mean

am

starrlard deviations reasonably close to their theoretical expected

values of 0 and 1 (although their variance obtained when faults are taken into
account is slightly too low). It can be observed that limitation of the kriging
neighbo:rhood by faults decreases the quality of the estimation as irrlicated by
bigger mean absolute

am

mean square errors. '!his occurs because taking faults

into account reduces the number of points in the neighbortlood used for kriging
which results in less precise estimation. '!hus, for oil thickness, taking faults

SPE 2161 &

into account is detrimental. '!his is an irrlication that the lateral displacement


of faulted blocks should be rather weak.

The estimation of thickness is done by ordi.nal:y kriging

(Jot1n1el arrl

Huijbreghts, 1978) on a regular 200m x 200m grid, with a circular search. of


radius 800m. A maxiJnum of 10 samples were used in each kriging system.

Elementary statistics for the kriged values are presented in Figure 6.


CcJrrparison with well statistics shows a decrease in the overall average
thickness, a feature due to the fact that the wells were preferably clustered

in thicker areas (kriging is thus automatically weighting samples following their


zone of influence), arrl a decrease in the variance of the kriged values due to
the smoothing effect of kriging (David, 1977).

'!he total hydrocarbon voltnne estimated by kriging is 49.6 x 106 m3 of oil,


a value very closed to the estimate of 49.0 x 106 m3 obtained by the Petrobras
company using traditional methods. '!heir estimate is considered as being all
proven reserves.

An estimate of the global precision can be obtained either by global

kriging or by combining local block kriging. However, both approaches stumble


on practical problems: the size of the kriging system for global kriging, arrl

SPE 2161 5

10

the necessity of taking into account correlation between kriging errors with
the local approach. An approximate solution is, hOW'ever, easily obtainable by
the method

of composition

of

elementary extension errors

(Journel

arrl

Huijbreghts, 1978) when a ramam stratified grid is available.

Here, we dealt with 529 wells spread ItDre or less unifonnly over a 34.6
millions m2 area. Making the assumption that these samples can be considered as
the product of a ramam stratified sampling plan, an area of 65.4 thousarrl
(a square with sides 256 m)

ref

is typically associated with each well. '!he

dispersion variance of a point in such an area is easily calculated with charts


(Journel arrl Huijbreghts, 1978) or with the aid of a canp.Iter program.

We find

rf (.IV)

2 for the hydrocarl:lon thickness.

= 0.12 m

'Ihus

if t hie k n e s s ~ 0.12/529

arrl

O'volume

= 0.0002 m

~ (0.0002)1/2 * 34.6*106 = 0.52 * 10

m3

'!he relative precision is (0.52/49.6), that is, a 1% precision which amply


justifies the tenn "proven" used by geologists to describe their reseJ:Ve
estimate.

Although not necessa1Y here where reseJ:Ves are very precisely k:r1OW'n, the
use of kriging (estimation) error standard deviation as a basis for defining
proven, probable arrl possible reseJ:Ves has been advocated in same instances
(Sabourin, 1984) for the mining i.n:lustry arrl could also be envisaged for the
petroleum i.n:lustry.

RE 21616

11

In the above calculation,

the surface to be estilnated was defined in

advance and was considered known. If this were not the case, an additionnal
error term associated with the surface estilnation should be included. Here this
term would be negligible due to the dense grid of wells.

TOP-OF-RESERVOIR FSl'IMM'IClN

A similar procedure

reservoir.

was followed for the variable height of the top of the

All the available data (747 wells) were used. Figures 7 and 8 show

the directional variograms with all pairs (Figure 7) and with pairs not crossing
faults (Figure 8). variograms obtained when faults are taken into ac:::x::ount (Figure
8)

present better continuity with a sill less than half the one obtained

othet:wise. In contrast with oil thicJmess, top-of-reservoir height variograms


present a geometric anisotropy with the main axes of anisotropy along (N80W) and
perperrli.cular (NlOE) to the paleochannel direction.

'!he models (of the gaussian type) adopted were

i.

not taking faults into consideration:

where

a,. is

960 m if r=N80W
650 m if r=NIOE

SEE 2161 6
12

ii.

taking faults into consideration:

where

a,. is 790 m if 1"=N80W

430 m if 1"=NI0E

Cross-validation was perfonned in both cases and provided acceptable


standardized results when faults were taken into acx:ount but standardized error
variance too high when faults were not taken into account (Table 2). Also, mean
absolute estilnation error and squared estilnation error were much lower (a
reduction of respectively 25% and 45%) when faults were explicitly accounted for.
'!his irrlicates that, in contrast to oil thickness estilnation, top-of-reservoir
estilnation is significantly improved by due consideration of faults. 'Ibis is an
evidence that vertical displacement of faulted blocks is not negligible.
For illustrative purpose, we selected a sub-area of CPS-zone 2 containing
5 faulted blocks with 52 wells. Figures 9 to 11 present respectively the height
of the top of the reservoir estilnated by kriging without faults (Figure 9), by
kriging with faults (Figure 10) and the map produced by the company's geologists
(Figure 11). Both kriging operations were done with an elliptic search with axes .
of 960rn in the N80W direction and 650rn in the NI0E direction, with a maximum of
10

sanples per kriging

system.

A map much closer to the

geologists '

interpretation is produced when fault infonnation is included at the kriging step


(in both cases faults were input at the contouring step). '!he discrepancy between
both kriging estilnates is particularly evident in the two southern blocks. On

SP.E 2161 6
13

Figure 9 is apparent a maximum in one block

am

other one which are not present in Figures 10

a rather steep gradient in the

am

11.

The adopted lOlNer variogram when faults are taken into account gave
theoretical kriging standard deviations reduced by a factor of 1.5.

DISCUSSION AND OONCLUSION

'!Wo ilrportant variables used in reservoir evaluation are the in-situ oil
reserves

am the top-of-reservoir height.

In <::annopolis, these have traditionally

been estilnated by experienced geologists. Constant remodeling of the deposit is

perfonned upon acquisition of l1lOre complete knOlNledge (additional drilling,


seismic studies). '!his continuously evolving process is time-consuming, errorprone

am

subject to human factors that are often uncontrollable (e.g. change

in the personnel)

one

am

subjectivity.

should not forget that these estilnates serve essentially as input for

reservoir engineers to simulate reservoir perfonnance

am

to match historical

production. The reservoir engineer may be l1lOre prone to associating discrepancies


between actual production

am his model

of infonnation by the geologist,

as resulting from the misinterpretation

especially since some subj ectivity is

unavoidable when harrl-drawing contours.

The need for an automatic mapping

tedmique is two-fold: an ilrportant time (am l1lOney) saving am a quantitative

am

objective justification for the maps produced, making any subsequent

arbitrary modification by another person unaceptable without strong justification


(as it should be). The maps may not be better but they are deemed easier to
sustend because they rely on the

quantitative assessment of continuity while

RE 21616

14

still incorporating geological infonnation as was demonstrated here, especially


for the height of the top of the resmvoir, where taking faults into account
ilnproved estinlation substantially. '!he point is that expert geological knowledge
should not be wasted in tedious clerical tasks, such as contour drawing but
rather be used efficiently in interpreting geology and. modeling deposit.

'!hat geological knowledge is invaluable in geostatistical study has been


widely acknowledged since the happening of geostatistics. '!his is finnly
reconfinned by our study and. should always be kept in mind. Here the preferential
directions

observed

on

our variograms

correspond

to

the

direction

of

paleochannels described by the geologists. Also, the fact that only top-ofreservoir height variograms and. estinlation were affected by faults indicates that
the relative movement of the faulted blocks has been essentially vertical,
othe:rwise thickness variograms and. estinlation would have also been affected.
At canropolis, good agreement was found to exist between the resmves as
documented by the company and. those obtained by geostatistics. '!he global
relative precision is very good at 1% (2% for an approx:i.nate 95% confidence
interval), a confinnation of the tenn "proven" attached by the company to its
resmve estinlate. A top-of-resmvoir map has been produced which closely matches
the one produced by experienced geologists. Estinlates and. estinlated precision
are available at each grid node which, in a resmvoir simulation study, obviates
the need to digitize map values to provide input on a regular grid. Updating
these maps with new'ly acquired infonnation or new' geological interpretation is

a routine task.

In

this

study,

only

"classical"

geostatistics

was

used.

other

RE 2161 6
15

geostatistical teclmiques such as simulation and non-linear estilnation could also


prove useful. As an example, simulation to enhance estilnation of parameters like
penneability where

~rtant

problems asscx:::iated with change of support occur

due to the essential non-additive nature of this variable.

1lCRNJWIEDGMENT

'!he data from canropolis and the financial support for this research has
been provided by Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PErnOBRAS. Software Geo-Eas from

u. S.

Enviromnental Protection Agency and software from Geostat Systems Inti (Montreal)
and Radian CO:rp. (Austin) has been used in this study.

A simple trick to calculate 2-D variogra:ms in the presence of faults with


standard variogram calculation programs

At a first glance, the necessity of taking faults into account in variogram


calculation may seem a tedious task. To sort data according to blocks defined
by faults, to calculate separate variogra:ms for each subset, and to combine these

values is certainly ti.me-consuming.


'!he following simple trick may be used: assign different aroitrary large
x- and y-coordinate translations to samples from different blocks, but equal

translations to samples from the same block, and then calculate the variogra:ms
as usual.

RE 21616
16

CANDIOO, A., 1984, stratigraphy

am

reservoir geology of the cannopolis oil

field, Brazil. 'Ihesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate studies of the


University of calgary, calgary, Alberta, 132 p.
D.2\.VID, M., 1977, Geostatistical ore reserve estimation. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
D.2\.VIS, J.C., 1988, Spatial analysis in the assessment of petroleum reservoirs.
Geomathematics

am

Geostatistics Analysis Applied to Space

am

Time

Deperrlent Data, in Sci. de la Terre, Sere Inf., Nancy, pp. 367-380.


DELFINER, P., DEIHCMME, J. P.

am

PELISSIER-(X)MBESClJR'E, J., 1983,

Application of geostatistical analysis to the evaluation of petroleum


reservoirs with well logs. 24th Ann. Logging SyIrp:>sium, SFWIA.
DESBARATS, A.J., 1987, Numerical estimation of effective penneability in sarrlshale fonnations. Water Resources Research, vol. 23, pp. 273-286.
DEUI'SaI, C., 1989, calculating effective absolute penneability in sarrlstone/shale
sequences. Transactions SPE 17264, SPEFE, sept., pp. 343-348.
DIMITRAKOroJI.OS, R.,

1990, conditional simulation of the intrinsic random

ftmctions of order k. Mathematical Geology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 361-380.


GALLI, A.

am

MEUNIER, G., 1987, study of a gas reservoir using the exten1e1

drift method. G. Matheron

am

M. AnnstroI'l (005.), Geostatistical

case

Studies, D. Reidel Publishing Company, pp. 105-119.


JONES, T.A., 1984, Problems in using geostatistics for petroleum applications.
Geostatistics for Natural Resources Olaracterization, Part 1, Ed. G. Verly
et al., D.Reidel Publ.

camp., pp. 651-667.

SPE 2161 6
17

JaJRNEL, A.G. am HULJBRmI'S, C.J., 1978, Mining geostatistics. Academic Press,


Iorrlon, 600 p.
MAREaIAL, A., 1984, Kriging seismic data in presence of faults. Geostatistics

for Natural Resources O1aracterization, Part I, G. Verlyet al. (eds), D.


Reidel Publ. camp., pp. 271-294.
MA'I'HERON, G., 1963, Principles of geostatistics. Economic Geology, vol. 58, pp.
1246-1266.

MA'I'HERON, G., BEUCHER, H., de FOUQUEI', 01., GAIU, A. am RAVENNE, 01., 1988,

simulation corrlitionnelle
GOOstatistiques

a trois facies

se.minaire

dans une falaise du Brent. Etudes

C.F.S.G.

sur

la

GOOstatistique,

Fontainebleau, SCi. de la Terre, Sere Inf., Nancy, pp. 213-249.


G1RE, H., HALVORSEN, K.B. and BERI'EIG, V., 1988, Prediction of hydrocarbon pore

volume in petroleum reservoirs. Geomathematics am Geostatistics Analysis


Applied to Space am Tilne Dependent Data, in sci. de la Terre, sere Inf.,
Nancy, vol. 27, pp. 381-398.
SABXJRIN, R.L., 1984, Application of a geostatistical method to quantitatiVely

define various categories of resources. Geostatistics for Natural Resources


Olaracterization, Part 1, G. Verly et ale (eds), D. Reidel Publ. camp.,
pp. 201-215.

seE

2161 6
18

FIGURE CAPl'IONS

Fig. 1:

Set:gipe-Alagoas basin and cannopolis oil field location

map.

Fig. 2:

Major areas of assisted recuperation projects of the


CPS-2 production zone. Coordinates in m.

Fig. 3:

Hydrocartx:m thiclmess (m) wells data - histogram. and


elementary statistics.

Fig. 4:

Hydrocarbon thickness (m) experimental (omnidirectional) variogram


and adopted theoretical model when faults are not taken into account.
Nlnnber of pairs for each variogram point is imicated. Distances in

m., variogram values in m2 Theoretical model: Spherical with Co =0.01

ref,

Fig. 5:

0=0.40

ref

and a=700 m.

Hydrocartx:m thickness (m) experimental (omnidirectional) variogram


and adopted theoretical model when faults are taken into accotmt.
Nlnnber of pairs for each variogram point is imicated. Distances in

m., variogram values in m2 Theoretical model: Spherical with Co =0.01

ref,

Fig. 6:

0=0.49

ref

and a=750 m.

Hydroca.:rbon thickness (m) kriged values - histogram arrl elementary


statistics.

seE

2161 6
19

Fig. 7:

Top-of-reservoir height (m) experimental directional variograms

am

adopted theoretical model when faults are not taken into account.
Ntnnber of pairs for each variogram point is indicated. Distances in
2

m., variogram values in m

rrr,

Fig. 8:

0=1725

rrr

am

Theoretical model: Gaussian with Co=20

~8ow=960 m, ~10E=650 mi geometrical anisotropy.

Top-of-reservoir height (m) experimental (directional) variograms

..

am adopted theoretical model when faults are not taken into account.
Ntnnber of pairs for each variogram point is indicated. Distances in

m., variogram values in m2

rrr,

Fig. 9:

0=740 m

am

'Iheoretical model: Gaussian with Co=20

~8ow=790 m, ~10E=430 mi geometrical anisotropy.

Wes1:enl part of the CPS-2 production zone. Top-of-reservoir height


(m)

estimated by kriging not taking faults into account. Coordinates

in m.

Fig. 10:

Wes1:enl part of the CPS-2 production zone. Top-of-reservoir height

(m) estimated by kriging taking faults into account. Coordinates in

m.

Fig. 11:

Wes1:enl part of the CPS-2 production zone. Top-of-reservoir height

estimated by company's geologists. Coordinates in m.

-seE

2161 6

20
TABLE 1

statistic

Table 1:

without faults

with faults

-0.01
0.87
0.28 m
0.14 nt
0.87

-0.01
0.74
0.31 m
0.17 mZ
0.84

Hydrocarbon oil thicJmess cross-validation results.

starrlardized kriging error,


error,

is the

I I starns for the mean absolute kriging

is the mean squared kriging error and r is the correlation

coefficient, mean and fi- are respectiVely the mean and the variance
of the starrlardized kriging error.

TABLE 2

statistic

without faults
mean

SZ

r
Table 2:

Top-of-reservoir

-0.09
3.38
7.74 m
133.5 mZ
0.98
height

-0.02
0.89
5.77 m
74.6 nt
0.99

cross-validation

starrlardized kriging error,


error,

With faults

I I

results.

is

the

stands for mean absolute kriging

is the mean squared kriging error and r is the correlation

coefficient. mean and fi- are respectiVely the mean and the variance
of the starrlardized kriging error.

I!E 2161 6

\\

SERGIPE - ALAGOAS
+ BASIN
+.

~-.,

+ 7 ~
+ /.
+ /:
+ /

+//
+/
+ I

jv'U

.v

+/

.,

+:V~S.ARMOPOllS

+1

ARlcAJU

'-j

+
+ + !.

DIVINA
PASTORA
LOW

~~~j;'1 OIL FIELDS

CAMORIM

1- i G
)

1..

01

lSI
lSI
lSI
Ln
CD
CD

lSI
lSI
lSI

CT1
01
CD
CD

o.

i.

~.

lSI
lSI
lSI

.......

(J\

lSI
lSI
lSI

01

.......
CD
CD

z
o

I-f

CD
CD

o
.....
I:::J

en
I:
o
:::J
I-

I-f

I-f

t-:l

Z
I-f

0::
W
I:

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0..

.J

z
o

I-f

.J

I<I

....

I:

:::J

I-

CD
CD

........

(J\

CD

lSI .......
lSI l '
lSI

CD

lSI
lSI
lSI .

lSI
lSI
lSI
01
01
l'

lSI
lSI
lSI
ill
01
l'

lSI
lSI
lSI

(!)

CI

I-f

o
o

I:
<I
W
I-

D~

.J
I.L.
0::
W
I<I
3

IU
W

lSI
lSI
lSI
CD

-..

__

..
. ~~
..... \\~. .. .

.-.LJ

0a--,

--"-y-I' :...:.-.--

..~

O~~

lSI
lSI
lSI

CD
CD

.......
01

..~~~~~~~~
.
.
~. .~''(
~.
. .... -. ~
. .. -.. -:
. ..: ...
. .-::.
..
. . .
..

..
...

- I

.... " .

s::..-:
. o. ::=.:.
..... _o~.oSO-

'0,

CT1

CD
CD

01

lSI
lSI
lSI

~~~O

,~~~~?--

~':":~.,
~~~

01
l'

~~:-~
~"'~~

01
l'

.......

lSI
lSI
lSI
CD

l'

lSI
lSI
lSI
Ln

01

CD
CD

SPE 2161 6

SPE 2161 6

Hydrocarhon thickness - saMple values

1-----Ic::r=J--------i

S tat i

tic s

98.
N ,.

r-r--

68.

r--

Yo

r--

38.

Minimm
25th Yo
Median

1h

8.
8.

1.

2.

Hean
Uariance:
Std. Dev:
Coer. Uar :
Skewness:
Ilurtosis:

1.747
.582
.763
43.663
.287
2.728

r--

r---

'--

529

3.

75th

Yo

Haxil'lU.l'I

.188
1.288
1.788
2.388
4.288

4.

5.

fib. '3

....

....'0

aI

Jj

......

.
to
0

t")

0
N

00

0
0
N

o
o

go

...q-

lO

.
0

WD.J6opDA

..-

~I

l'l

..-

00

lO

.
...q-

Q)

U
C

....o

4'1
Q

F1 0.

~I

seE

21616

0.7

-,

0.6

0.5

"en

0.4

l-

1209

1318
n

1378

'454

._

908

'i:

"

0.3

>

6~

0.2 --I

/
11~

"7

0.1 -1

II

I i i

0.2

0.4

0.6

(\

<5'

VI

Dlsto nee (km)

0.8

1.2

J!E 2161 6

Hydrocarbon thickness - kriged values

t----c=E

S tat i s tic s

168.
N

128.

r-r--

.,l:
~

.,'d

I---

88.

r--

I---

SIlt
I---

48.

I---

---..-.

8.

0.

1.

2.

3.

4.

865

Mean
Uariance:
Std. De\!:
:I. Coer .Uar:
Skewness:
Kurtosis:

1.538
.448
.669
43.504
.138
2.186

MinitlUl'l
25th :I.
Median
75th :I.
ttaxitul.tl

.241
1.823
1.519
2.054

3.335

SPE 2161 6

<>
~---------

/~/

780

/~~ 0854

/
<>//

;<lOS

/
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rt)

I::"'C
I:

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<>

93"

t"""'\.

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art)

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......"

896

('01086

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qa{/

/45
m065

0)H12

<>

O~
/~./
617

4.3.~
10/

12

/'
~5

,)
~

-J

1.2

N 80 W

Dlstonce ( km )
0

N 10 E

1.4

SEE 2161 6

1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2

"'"
E~

64

1.1

<)

"to.. 0
:

OIl/)

:::s

'i: 0

".c
>1-

'...,;

0.9
139

211
~------------_
..

0.8

u/
337
o

0.7
0.6

0.5
0.4

0.3

D259

--

~~57

34
~>

0.2

~530

0'~1~
o

0.2

II

o
60

0.8

0.4

N 80 W

Dlstance ( km )
.()

1.2
N 10 E

1.4

21616

"""

'"

"u">

'"

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

. 3000

3500:---

'1000

.....
.

RE 21616

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

.,.

.'

tOOO

f /6 lo - .
I

RE 21616

o
o

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o
o
o

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o
o

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:::

o
o
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L-..,------.------,---.-.-----T-----.,---------,------.,---------.-J
500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

1000

r if, II

.,

I ~