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SPE 94941

SPE 94941 Well Succeeded Examples of Mature Waterflood Project Revitalization M.A.F.S. Dória, A.W. da Silva, C.A.

Well Succeeded Examples of Mature Waterflood Project Revitalization

M.A.F.S. Dória, A.W. da Silva, C.A.C. Franco, M. do S.M.S. Batista, and J.A.M. de C. Júnior, Petrobras S.A.

Copyright 2005, Society of Petroleum Engineers

This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20 – 23 June 2005.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in a proposal submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to a proposal of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The proposal must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836, U.S.A., fax 01-972-952-

9435.

Abstract Carmópolis, Siririzinho and Riachuelo oil fields, located onshore Northeast region of Brazil, were discovered in the sixties and quickly put into primary production. Waterflooding followed in the seventies, trying to restore reservoir pressure and well productivity. For more than twenty years, oil production in these fields was maintainned under infill drilling and addition of new areas to the waterflood projects. Since production has reached its technical and profitable limits, oil rates has reversed to a deep decline. A strategic IOR project conducted by PETROBRAS focused on improving waterflooding efficiency in Carmópolis field, led to significant changes on the management of that field and Siririzinho and Riachuelo fields as well, and supported the revitalization process of these fields. The results were not only a total reversion but also an increasing in oil production profile that was declining for more than ten years. This work presents the results of the revitalization program in the mature waterflooding projects of Carmópolis, Siririzinho and Riachuelo fields, showing the importance and influence of each decision made during the project implementations.

Introduction

Carmópolis, Siririzinho and Riachuelo oil fields are located in Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, in Northeast Brazil, near Aracaju (figure 1). Discovered in 1963, Carmopólis field was quickly put into primary production. In the end of sixties, oil production started up in Siririzinho and Riachuelo fields, enlarged the oil production potential of the area.

Production comes mainly from sandstone and conglomerates of Muribeca/Carmópolis formation, which presents a high degreee of heterogeneity. Average oil density varies from 23 to 28 API and average oil viscosity from 13 cp to 28 cp at reservoir conditions. Deep primary production decline of those three fields led to the implementation of water injection projects in the seventies, even considering the non-favorable conditions of rocks and fluids of the producing reservoirs.

BRAZIL CARMÓPOLIS SIRIRIZINHO RIACHUELO Figure 1- Location of Carmópolis, Siririzinho and Riachuelo fields
BRAZIL
CARMÓPOLIS
SIRIRIZINHO
RIACHUELO
Figure 1-
Location of Carmópolis, Siririzinho and Riachuelo
fields

In the nineties production profile of those fields showed a deep decline and reservoir pressure presented a significant depletion. Production forecast pointed to a very long project life, but low oil prices and the existence of technical paradigms did not make possible the implementation of any action to antecipate production. In 1993, PETROBRAS started a strategic IOR project (called PRAVAP #1) to improve efficiency of the waterflood project in Carmópolis field. For five years, this project targeted the proposal of technical solutions to water injection profile optimization as well as maximizing

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revenues to match strategic goals in different exploitation forecasts. Several existing old paradigms were broken. New technologies and operational efficiency improvement led to significant changes on the management of Carmópolis, Siririzinho and Riachuelo. The result was not only attenuation but also total reversion and increase of the oil production profile that was declining for over ten years. Every forecast from this point on shows a significant increase in the ultimate oil recovery factor. This work is a report of well succeeded revitalization of waterflooding projects in the mature oil fields of Carmópolis, Siririzinho and Riachuelo. The importance and influence of each decision made during the project implementation, such as increase in injection rates, improvement in the selectivity of water injection profile, reducing of well spacing in field´s borders and stimulations in producing wells, will be discussed for each one of those fields.

Carmópolis Oil Field

Carmópolis is the largest onshore oil accumulation in Brazil, with 268 million m³ of OOIP and a current oil production of 3,637 m³/d in January/2005. Discovered in 1963, Carmópolis field has experienced several pilot projects for IOR methods in forty years of production, such as waterflooding, polymer flooding, steamflooding, in-situ combustion and also Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovey (MEOR). Waterflooding and steamflooding are under way in different zones and areas. Production comes mainly from waterflooding at present, which comprises 70% of the total production of the field, with 570 producing wells and 226 injectors in operation. Remaining production comes from steam flooding projects (20%) and primary production

(10%).

The field is divided into two distincts areas separated by Carmópolis Fault (figure 2). Basement Area is located in the Southern, covering an area of 100 km². The production of this area comes mainly from naturally fractured basement rocks and represents only 8% of the total production of the field. Bloco Principal Area is located in Northeast, covering an area of around 42 km² and comprising 92% of the total production of the field. Structurally, Bloco Principal Area is an elongated dome, oriented from Southwest to Northeast. The main reservoirs are sandstones and conglomerates of the Muribeca/Carmópolis formation (figure 3), which is divided into four zones: CPS-1, CPS-2, CPS-3 and CPS-4. The reservoirs occur at depths from 550 to 800 m, with average porosity of 17% and permeability of 200 mD. Waterflooding project comprises all Bloco Principal

of

Area

Muribeca/Carmópolis formation.

and

targets

zones

CPS-1,

CPS-2

and

CPS-3

Bloco Principal Area Basement Area Carmópolis Oil Field Structural Map Figure 2 - Structural Map
Bloco
Principal
Area
Basement
Area
Carmópolis Oil Field
Structural Map
Figure 2 - Structural Map of Carmópolis field
PETROBRAS 9-CP-564-SE A ESCALA: 1/1000 RHOB GR 2 ILD 3 0 150 550 0,2 2000
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9-CP-564-SE
A
ESCALA: 1/1000
RHOB
GR
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3
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2 water injection
3A
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4
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780

Figura 3 – Typical log of Muribeca Carmópolis formation

Waterflooding was first initiated in 1968, on a pilot scale on a 160 acre (0.64 km²) inverted nine-spot pattern, located in the southern part of Bloco Principal Area. The deep production decline observed led to the expansion of waterflooding to the central part of Bloco Principal Area, in 1971, with nine inverted nine-spot pattern of 40 acre (0.16 km²). Even considering the complexity and heterogeneity of the reservoirs, represented by faults and lithologic variations (figure 4), and the adverse fluid mobility ratio, waterflooding was implemented because of low costs involved when compared with other methods, and due to the capacity of pressure maintenance.

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Carmópolis Oil Field Structural Section
Carmópolis Oil Field
Structural Section

Figure 4 - Structural Section (SW – NE) of Carmópolis field

From this point on the project has been experienced several changes, trying to maintain oil production and to shorten project life In 1978, an infill drilling program was implemented in the central part of Bloco Principal area, converting the original nine-spot into a 20 acre (0.08 km²) five-spot pattern. In addition, water injection rate was significantly raised. After a prompt response, oil production profile showed a deep decline followed by an elevated WOR in producing wells. The general perception was that under high injection rates, water breakthrough was acelerated by the high mobility ratio of the displacement fluid and high permeability strikes, which create the belief that “high water rates result in early breakthrough and reduce the ultimate recovery factor”. Water injection rate was then reduced and a massive effort in well profile modification, using acidizing and plugging treatments, was implemented in injectors to mitigate the problem. Nevertheless, when these treatments have lost their effectiveness, oil production showed a significant decline. In 1983 waterflood was first expanded toward field´s borders, targeting areas to East and West of Bloco Principal Area, in five-spot patterns of 40 acre (0.16 km²). The good results obtained led to another expansion of the project to South and Far East areas of Bloco Principal Area. For more than twenty years oil production was kept under infill drilling and addition of new areas to the waterflood projects. In the nineties combination of low injection rate and the lack of proper selectivity injection led to a deep production decline. Significant reservoir depletion was observed and common pratices used before to maintain production have reached their technical and profitable limits In 1993, PETROBRAS started a strategic IOR project (called PRAVAP #1) to improve efficiency of waterflood project in Carmópolis field. Many studies were carried out for five years, with the proposal of technical solutions to water injection profile optimizations, such as review of waterflooding operations, improvements in reservoir and fluid characterization, stratigraphy and structural analysis and flow simulation. Waterflooding project of Carmópolis field was then divided into fifteen regions (figure 5) with the purpose of helping project management and improving the efficiency of this method, considering the distinct characteristics of

geological structures and rock and fluid properties of each one of these regions. These regions present different behavior under waterflooding. In a general way, regions located in the central area show better response to waterflooding than those located in the borders, because of their more favorable rock and fluids characteristics.

of their more favorable rock and fluids characteristics. Figure 5 - Regions of water injection project

Figure 5 - Regions of water injection project - Carmópolis field

These regions are also in distinct stages of explotation. While regions located in central area were in advanced stage of oil recovery and cumulative injection, regions located in the borders showed a slow rate of oil recovery and water injection. A simplified model based on log (WOR) versus oil recovery factor (figure 6) was developed with the purpose of obtaining oil prediction forecasts in waterflooding project of Carmópolis field. This model consists in history matching a representative log (WOR) versus oil recovery factor of the field with one of the four typical curves obtained from simulation runs, using typical characteristics of rock and fluid of the field, for different oil viscosities. The extrapolation of the oil production trend until a WOR limit of 25 m³/m³ pointed to an ultimate oil recovery of 29% for waterflooding, higher than the ultimate recovery previous used of 23.5%. It also indicates a very long project life, considering current water injection rates of the field. The low oil prices, the existence of technical paradigms and the technical and operational limitations, did not make possible to implement any action to antecipate production, at this point. The results obtained during strategic IOR Project (PRAVAP) have promoted significant changes in the management of the field and have supported the revitalization process. Several existing old technical paradigms were broken, new technologies and operational efficiency was improved. Searching for restoring reservoir pressure, attenuating the deep decline trend, as well as anticipating production, many actions have been implemented in the field, such as increase in water injection rates, improvements in the selective injection, infill drilling and producing well stimulation.

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100.0

10.0

WOR (m /m )

1.0

0.1

WOR = 25 m³/m³ oil viscosity = 14,7 cp oil viscosity = 26,0 cp oil
WOR = 25 m³/m³
oil viscosity = 14,7 cp
oil viscosity = 26,0 cp
oil viscosity = 49,2 cp
oil viscosity = 85,9 cp
RF = 29%
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

Oil Recovery Factor (%)

Figure 6 - log (WOR) versus oil recovery factor – Carmópolis field

Increase in water injection rates The results of many reservoir studies carried out during strategic IOR project (PRAVAP) have made possible the increase ine water injection rates in Carmópolis field. The major findings of these studies were:

Water injection rate that was currently used in the field were far below in comparison with practical recommended values.

Higher water injection rate do not imply in significant reducing in final recovery factor.

Water injection selectivity plays an important role in the results of waterflooding project of Carmópolis field.

There was not significant effect of capilary pressure in the final recovery factor, even under higher water injection rates.

New water injection quota has been calculated for each injector, based on these conclusions, considering the cumulative injection of 1.25 pore volume per pattern for each reservoir and trying to reach the ultimate predicted recovery at a WOR limit of 25 m³/m³, until the end of the concession period (2025). Increase in water injection rates was implemented in two stages (figure 7): In the first stage (1995-1999), increase in water injection rates was implemented mostly in the central part of the Bloco Principal Area, where the available injection pressure was high enough to provide the designed water injection quota. Water injection rate of the field rose from 10,000 m³/d to 14,000 m³/d, at this time. In a second stage (2000-2004), the increase in water injection rates was implemented mainly in the field´s borders and was preceeded by improvements in operacional conditions to increase injection pressure of the system.

Water injection rate rose from 14,000 m³/d to 18,000 m³/d, at this time. It is important to notice that this significant increase that has been implemented in water injection rate of Carmópolis field, since 1995 has been followed by an intensive effort to promote the proper selective injection and assure the optimum injection quota for each zone. Oil producing wells were also converted into injectors, searching for improvements in waterflooding efficiency of some patterns.

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Figure 7 – Injection History – Carmópolis field

Improvements in selectivity

The high variation observed in permeability profile of Muribeca Carmópolis formation has affected significantly the vertical sweep efficiency of waterflooding. Early efforts to increase water injection rate in Carmópolis field, without the proper selective injection, resulted in premature breakthrough. New reservoirs studies using flow simulation have showed that selective injection plays an important hole in the eficiency of waterflooding project of Carmópolis field. Thus, it has been necessary to a take a great effort to promote the proper selective injection. On that purpose, injectivity logs have been run periodically to evaluate the distribution of water injected and also to define the best way the injectors must be packed. These logs also allow evaluating the necessity of performing any injection profile modification, in order to assure a good seal between zones, to enhance injectivity in zones with low permeability and to control injection rates in zones with high permeability. New technologies and operational efficiencies were implemented, looking for best results. Small induced fractures, carefully dimensioned, have been done by hydraulic fraturing to improve injectivity in low permeability zones, instead of acidizing, with better technical and profitable results. Selective injection completion has been used to promote the proper selectivity in injectors. Zones with distinct injectivity index where packed selectivily by using “packers” and flow regulators. Selective plugging has been used only in extreme cases, to isolate a high permeability zone.

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Cementing corrections were done when necessary, to assure a good seal between zones with distinct injectivity. A new technic, called “micro-squeeze”, was developed to execute cementing corrections, without damage adjacents zones, even with a small distance in between.

Hydraulic fracturing in producing wells

In the nineties, the results obtained by hydraulic fracturing in producing wells were far below forecast production. Low reservoir pressure was partly responsible for these poor results. In addition, high costs envolved and low oil prices, led to a long period without executing any hydraulic fracturing in the field. The significant increase in water injection rate that has been implemented in the field has restored reservoir pressure and become one of the main factors to restart hydrauling fracturing in producing wells. A very successful campaign of hydraulic fracturing has been done in the field, since 2000, searching for restoring productivity in producing wells. Figure 8 shows the change obtained in the production profile of 147 producing wells that were stimulated by hydraulic fracturing from 2000 to 2004. Oil production has risen almost four times. Utilization of new techniques, operational optimization and cost reduction actions, have also contribuited to economical and technical successful results of these operations.

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Qo (m /d)

Figure 8 - Results of hydraulic fracturing in producing wells of Carmópolis field

Infill drilling in the borders

Water injection in the field´s borders was implemented using larger well spancing than that used in the central part of Bloco Principal Area. The combination of worse rock characterisctics, smaller net-pay of the reservoirs and higher oil viscosity stopped the implementation of an infill drilling program in this areas, for a long time. In addition, the low injection rates led to a very long project life.

New reservoir studies carried out in the 2000’s showed the feasibility of anticipating production in these areas, with

an intensive program of infill drilling to reduce well spacing, followed by an increase in water injection rates, and improvements in selective injection.

An infill drilling program has been implemented in the borders since the end of 2001, togheter with an increase in water injection rate. Figure 9 shows oil production of the 54 wells drilled in Carmópolis from 2001 to 2004. Almost all drilled wells are located in the borders of the field.

500 400 300 200 100 0 Qo (m /d)
500
400
300
200
100
0
Qo (m /d)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Figure 9 - Results of producing wells drilled from 2001 to 2004 in Carmópolis field

Results

Figure 10 presents the excellent results obtained with the revitalization program of waterflooding project in Carmópolis field.

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Figure 10 – Water Injection and oil production history of Carmópolis field showing the results of revitalization program.

Increase in water injection rates followed by the proper selective injection, hydraulic fracturing in producing wells and infill drilling in the borders were the main reasons for the increase in oil production rate. It is also important to notice that technical and operational improvements play an important hole in this revitalization process.

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Focusing on the last period of oil production history of Carmópolis field, one can see that oil production rate has been raised since 2000, reverting a declining trend that has been observed for over ten years ( figure 11). Current oil production is 40% higher than that predicted production without revitalization.

This revitalization process also provided an enhanced in ultimate recovery factor (RF) from 23.5% to
This revitalization process also provided an enhanced in
ultimate recovery factor (RF) from 23.5% to 29%.
Production forecast shows a reduction of 30 years in the
project life, when compared with previous predictions.
3000
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1000
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Qo (m /d)

Figure 11 – Oil production history of Carmópolis field showing the results of revitalization program

Siririzinho field

Siririzinho field was discovered in 1964 and waterflooding project started up in 1972, on a pilot scale, with eight five spot pattern. The target is the oil of Muribeca Carmópolis formation with an average density of 25 API and oil viscosity of 13 cp. The reservoirs occur at an average depth of 500 m, with average porosity of 18% and permeability of 230 mD. Waterflooding project comprises 191 producing wells and 116 injectors in operation, at present. Current oil production was 877 m³/d and water injection rate reaches 4138 m³/d in January/2005. This project has experienced several changes such as addition of new areas and infill drilling, in order to oil production maintenance and production antecipation. As production has reached its technical and profitable limits, oil rates has reversed to a deep decline. In the nineties, Sirizinho field showed a deep decline in oil production. Injectivity loss, caused by progressive plugging in perforatings, has frequently been reported in the field. Frequent workover operations for acidizing, were required in injectors in order to maintain injectivity and water injection rate. In the middle nineties, high cost of acidizing, low oil price and recurrent problems with reinjected water treatment led to a high injectivity decline. Following the results obtained by the strategic IOR program (PRAVAP) focused on Carmópolis field, a revitalization program was started up in Siririzinho field in middle nineties.

A complete review of geological structural map and cutt-

off parameters were carried out in the beggining of ninities, supported by a 3-D seimic. The results led to an infill drilling program started in 1996. In the last four years 27 producing wells were drilled. Oil production forecast based on log (WOR) versus oil recovery pointed to a very long project life considering current water injection rate, at this time. Increase in injection rates was implemented, trying to revert the production decline and antecipate production. Hydraulic fracturing, properly designed to generate small induced fractures in injectors, were largely used to restore well injectivity and also to improve injectivity in zones with low permeability. Progressive cavity pumps (PCP) have been installed in injectors, when necessary, to provide an injection pressure above fracturing conditions and thus, promote the injectivity required to reach water injection quota. A successful campaing of 54 hydraulic fracturing in producing wells was done from 1999 to 2004, searching for restoring productivity in producing wells.

Results

Figure 12 presents the results obtained by the revitalization program of waterflooding project in Siririzinho field. The major reasons for these good results were increase and maintenance of water injection rates followed by the proper selective injection, hydraulic fracturing in producing wells and infill drilling program

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Figure 12 – Water Injection and oil production history of Siririzinho field showing the results of revitalization program

It is also important to notice that the implementation of

water injection above fracturing pressure, using progressive cavity pumps (PCP) in injectors, plays an important hole in this revitalization process. Focusing on the last period of oil production history (figure 13) one can see that oil production rate has been raised, reverting a declining trend that has been observed for more than ten years. Current oil production is four times higher than that predicted production without revitalization. This revitalization process also provided an increase of 20% in the OOIP and in oil reserves of the field. Production

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forecast shows a reduction of 30 years in the project life, when compared with previous predictions.

1000 800 600 400 200 0 1992 1996 2000 2004 Qo (m /d)
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Qo (m /d)

Figure 13 – Oil production history of Siririzinho field showing the results of revitalization program

Riachuelo Field

Riachuelo field was discovered in 1961 but was only put into production in 1968. Waterflooding project has started up in 1977, targeting the oil of Muribeca Carmópolis formation, wich has an average density of 28 API and an average viscosity of 15 cp at reservoir conditions. The reservoirs occur at an average depth of 400 m, with average porosity of 19% and permeability of 60 mD. Waterflooding project comprises 200 producing wells and 90 injectors in operation, at present. Current oil production was 437 m³/d and water injection rate reaches 2619 m³/d in January/2005. This project thas been experienced several changes all over the years, as occurred in Carmópolis and Siririzinho fields, such as addition of new areas and infill driling programs. In the nineties oil production was showed a deep decline. A revitalization program was started up in Riachuelo field in middle nineties, based on the results obtained by the strategic IOR program (PRAVAP). Oil production forecast based on log (WOR) versus oil recovery pointed to a higher ultimate recovery factor than that used in previous prediction. An increase in injection rates was implemented, trying to revert the production decline and antecipate production. From 1999 to 2004, 35 producing wells were drilled and 21 hydraulic fracturing were done. Progressive cavity pumps (PCP) have been installed in injectors, when necessary, to provide an injection pressure above fracturing conditions and thus, promote the injectivity required to reach water injection quota.

Results

The results obtained with the revitalization program of waterflooding project in Riachuelo field are presented in figure 14. The major reasons for the good results that have been obtained were increase in water injection rates,

hydraulic fracturing in producing wells and infill drilling program. It is also important to notice that the implementation of water injection above fracturing pressure, using progressive cavity pumps (PCP) in injectors, plays an important hole in this revitalization process.

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Figure 14 – Water injection and oil production history of Riachuelo field showing the results of revitalization

Focusing on last period (figure 15) of oil production history one can see that oil production rate has been raised, reverting a declining trend that has been observed for more than ten years. Current oil production is twice higher than that predicted production without revitalization. This revitalization process also provided an enhanced in ultimate recovery factor (RF), from 19.2% to 29%.

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Figure 15 – Oil production history of Riachuelo field showing the results of revitalization program

Conclusions The revitalization process of mature waterflooding projects of Carmópolis, Siririzinho and Riachuelo field were supported by the results of a strategic IOR program, which broke old technical paradigms, implemented new tecnology and promoted a total review in the development plan of these fields. The results obtained were increase in oil production, antecipation of oil production and improvements in ultimate oil recovery factor.

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The major reasons for these successful results that have been obtained were increase in water injection rates followed by the proper selective injection, hydraulic fracturing in producing wells and infill drilling program.

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge Petrobras for authorizing the publication

of this paper.

Nomenclature

OOIP = original oil in place

IOR = improved oil recovery

Qo = oil production rate

Qwi = water injection rate

WOR = water oil ratio

3D = Three dimensional

mD = milliDarcy

cP = centipoise

PCP = progressive cavity pump

Conversion Factors

Meters (m) = 3.281 feet (ft)

Cubic meters (m³) = 6.290 barrels (bbl)

Cubic meters (m³) = 0,028 cubic feet (ft³)

References

1- Mezzomo, R. F., Luvizotto, J.M., Palagi, C.L. “Improved Oil Recovery in Carmópolis Field: R&D and Field Implementations”, paper SPE 59280 presented at 2000 SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, April

3-5.