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leakage reactance

Leakage inductance derives from the electrical property of an imperfectly-coupled


transformer whereby each winding behaves as a self-inductance constant in series
with the winding's respective ohmic resistance constant, these four winding
constants also interacting with the transformer's mutual inductance constant. The
winding self-inductance constant and associated leakage inductance is due to
leakage flux not linking with all turns of each imperfectly-coupled winding.
The leakage flux alternately stores and discharges magnetic energy with each
electrical cycle acting as an inductor in series with each of the primary and
secondary circuits. Leakage inductance depends on the geometry of the core and
the windings. Voltage drop across the leakage reactance results in often undesirable
supply regulation with varying transformer load. But it can also be useful for
harmonic isolation (attenuating higher frequencies) of some loads. Although
discussed exclusively in relation to transformers in this article, leakage inductance
applies to any imperfectly-coupled magnetic circuit device including especially
motors
Leakage Flux in Transformer

In ideal transformer, all the flux will link with both primary and secondary windings
but in reality, it is impossible to link all the flux in transformer with both primary and
secondary windings. Although maximum flux will link with both windings through
the core of transformer but still there will be a small amount of flux which will link
either winding but not both. This flux is called leakage flux which will pass through
the winding insulation and transformer insulating oil instead of passing through
core. Due to this leakage flux in transformer, both primary and secondary windings
have leakage reactance. The reactance of transformer is nothing but leakage
reactance of transformer. This phenomenon in transformer is known as Magnetic
leakage.
Leakage reactance in Synchronous machine
It is the reactance due to flux setup by armature windings, but not crossing the air
gap. It can be divided into end-winding leakage and slot leakage. A convenient way
of picturing the reactance is to view these in terms of permeances of various
magnetic paths in the machine, which are functions of dimensions of iron and
copper circuits and independent of the flux density or the current loading. The
permeances thus calculated can be multipliedby a factor to consider the flux
density and current. For example, the leakage reactance is mainly given by the slot
permeance and the end-coil permeance
Leakage reactance in Synchronous machine

Next, we consider the reactance pertaining to the armature winding. First, the
leakage reactance is caused by the leakage fluxes linking the armature conductors
only because of the currents in the conductors. These fluxes do not link with the
field winding and are therefore not mutual fluxes. As in an induction motor, for
convenience in calculation, the leakage reactance is divided into (1) end-connection
leakage reactance, (2) slot-Leakage reactance, (3) tooth- top and zigzag leakage
reactance, and (4) belt-leakage reactance. All of these components are not
significant in every synchronous machine. In most large machines the last two
reactance are a small portion of the total leakage reactance.