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Learning How To

Learn
A Musical Number

LEARNING HOW TO LEARN | ASSIGNMENT 2

Table of Contents

Note ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Music Score........................................................................................................................... 4
Lyrics .................................................................................................................................... 9

Details On The Three Learning Techniques .........................................................................12


Bibliography & Image Credits ................................................................................................15

NOTE:
If you have trouble reading the lyrics on the
score, you may read the "Lyrics" on Page 9
instead.
If you would like more information on the
learning techniques, you may read "Details Of
The Three Learning Techniques" on Page 12 as
well.
Some rests in the music score may be covering up
notes, however this is something that could not
fixed with the music score editor.

Score

Learning How To Learn


D

Playful, joyful alternate bass


Alto

Prof. Oakley: Have you

A7

say

there's

on - ly

two modes

bused.

but

they

ne - ver
B7

Em

There's

Hm.

A7

la - tter's rare- ly used. In fact, the- for - mer's quite - o - ften - a D

Fo - cused's used for con - cen - tra - tion, a - na - ly - sis and com - pu - ta - tion,
D

Em

B7

are you going to do?

A7

time to use di - ffuse mode, get that

pro - blem off you're back, let your mind free, wan - der and es-

20

if you hit a road block? What

It's time to say to fo - cused - mode: Good - bye, a- di-os, a- dieu! Now it's

17

in - ter - link

14

quite a - lot of brain po- wer for pro - blem cal - cu - la - tion. But what

11

You see,
Huh?

fo - cused and di - ffuse modes but the

They
e - ver - rea - lly won - dered
a - bout the way you think?
Nope.
Zombie: What?
D

A Musical Number

pe - cia - lly re - lax.

A7

G
D
B7



I - de - as new and no - vel

Phew!

are

li - kely to

a - rise.

The

Learning How To Learn

rare - ly

tau - ght

how

had

pro - blem you

at

it

all

day

just

what

to learn.

ve - ry im - por - tant life

A7

To

Learn!

sim - ply could not

But

A sus

but you're

skill

to

Now have you

solve?

mind - set
B7

Of course!

di - didn't e - volve?
Uh
Em

Well you

huh

3
see, that's the pro- blem - you di - didn't change your views. They call it
"Ein- stell-ung" and it can
What?

A 7
D
D

block some cru-cial clues! You're first a - pproach sees one way but can lead you quite a - stray. BeHow?
Why?
G
D
D

cause you might be blo - cking an - swers found a di-fferent way. Ri - gi - di - ty and dog - ma
Oh.
D
B7
Em
A7

46

43

40

Lear - ning How

37

is

A7

Wor - king

this

e - ver

35

33

to learn.
A m6

B7

have and know and earn,

30

A7

an - swer might catch you by - sur - prise!


We're of - ten tau - ght
Pop!
Wow!
A7
D
G

27

Em

23

is

not the way to go! Wel - come new and bright i - dea - as, let them flow, flow, flow! Try and

Learning How To Learn

49

switch from

fo - cused

to

di - ffuse mode,

is

al - right,

and look

"Is this rea - lly right?" Use

in - ter - lea - ving prac - tice

A7

Em

B7

to

way for

A sus

what

to learn,

di - fferent con - cepts to


A7

B7

A7

Slowly

Finally... Have you

A7

A m6

time

to

to learn.

A7

have and know and earn,

this is

Lear - ning How To

accel.

e - ver felt you al - ways wan - ted dead - lines to be gone? So you

know it will stay there.

73

how

put a task off la - ter, thin - king: "All un - der con - trol." Well it's
Yeah.
A tempo
D
B7
Em
A7

70

67

We're

Learn!

to

grasped.

be

but rare - ly - tau - ght

ght

64

res - ting

back and try and ask your - self:

ve-ry im - por - tant life skill

61

of - ten

tau -

57

A7

mix and match your tasks

54

51

take some

on - ly tem - po - ra - ry;

Pro - cras - tin - a - tion's cau - sing your des - pair.

ac - tion

and

to

put

a - way

you

So it's

dis - trac - tions, take

Learning How To Learn

4
D

75

frac - tion

of

your time

to

sort

out

your

re - ac - tions

77

B7

to

the

four parts

A m6

A7

of pro - cras - tin - a - tion! It's what keeps you 'way from work! Here's what

80

81

A7

do:

First

83

The cue: watch for when and what makes you procrastinate; use will power to say no!

The routine: without using will power, let your usual habits help you to do your work
B

The reward: always reward yourself after you have completed your goal

The belief: change the way you think about your task and make it
more enjoyable!



of - ten

tau - ght

A sus

what

to learn,

We're

A7

but rare - ly

ve-ry im - por - tant life skill

to

tau - ght

B7

89

ly:

85

you can aim to

A7

84

82

have and know and earn,

how
A m6

to learn.

A7

this is

Lear - ning How To

A m6

Learn!

97

A7

92

Learning How To Learn

Learn!

This is Lear - ning How To


Amazing!

Learn!

A m6

I love
D

This is Lear - ning


learning!

How

To

Lyrics
Prof. Oakley:

Have you
ever really wondered

Zombie:

What?

Prof. Oakley:

about the way you think?

Zombie:

Nope.

Prof Oakley:

They
say there's only two modes but they never interlink.

Zombie:

Hm.

Prof Oakley:

There's
focused and diffuse modes but the latter's rarely used, in
fact, the former's quite often abused.

Zombie:

Huh?

Prof. Oakley:

You see,
Focused's used in concentration, analysis, and computation,
quite a lot of brain power for problem calculation. But what
if you hit a roadblock? What are you going to do? It's
time to say to focused mode: goodbye, adios, adieu! Now it's
time to use diffuse mode, get that problem off your back, let your
mind free, wander, and especially relax.

Zombie:

Phew!

Prof. Oakley:

I
deas new and novel, are likely to arise, the
answer (Pop!) may catch you by surprise!

Zombie:

Wow!

Prof. Oakley:

Were
often taught what to learn, but

rarely taught how to learn.


A very important life skill, to have and know and earn, this is
Learning How To Learn! Now have you
ever had a problem you just simply could not solve?
Zombie:

Of course!

Prof. Oakley:

Working at it all day but your mindset didn't evolve?

Zombie:

Uh huh.

Prof. Oakley:

Well you see, that's the problem

Zombie:

What?

Prof. Oakley:

you didn't change your views.


They call it "Einstellung", and it can block some crucial clues!

Zombie:

How?

Prof. Oakley:

You're
first approach sees one way, but can lead you quite astray.

Zombie:

Why?

Prof. Oakley:

Be
cause you might be blocking answers found a different way.

Zombie:

Oh.

Prof. Oakley:

Rigidity and dogma is not the way to go! Welcome


new and bright ideas, let them flow, flow, flow! Try and
switch from focused to diffuse mode, resting is alright, and look
back and try and ask yourself: "Is this really right?" Use
interleaving practice to mix and match your tasks, a way for
different concepts to be grasped. We're
often taught what to learn, but
rarely taught how to learn.
A very important life skill, to have and know and earn, this is
Learning How To Learn! Finally Have you
ever always felt you wanted deadlines to be gone? So you
put a task off later thinking: "all under control"?

Zombie:

Yeah.

Prof. Oakley:

Well it's
only temporary, you know it will stay there.
Procrastination's causing your despair. So it's
time to take some action and to put away distractions, take a
fraction of your time to sort out your reactions to the four parts
of procrastination it's what keeps you 'way from work, here's what
you can aim to do: Firstly:
The cue: watch for when and what makes you procrastinate; use
will power to say no!
The routine: without using will power, let your usual habits help
you to do your work
The reward: always reward yourself after you have completed your
goal
The belief: change the way you think about your task and make it
more enjoyable!
We're
often taught what to learn, but
rarely taught how to learn.
A very important life skill, to have and know and earn, this is
Learning How To Learn!

Zombie:

Amazing!

Prof. Oakley:

This is
Learning How To Learn!

Zombie:

I love learning!

Prof. Oakley:

This is
Learning How To Learn!

Details On The
Three Learning Techniques

Focused and diffuse modes


Research has shown that when it comes to thinking, humans can be in one of two modes,
but not both: a "focused" mode and a "diffuse" mode of thinking (Immordino-Yang, 2012).
Perhaps the mode of thinking which people have most often experienced, focused mode
is used when one is concentrating. For example, solving a homework problem will require
a focused mode of thinking as one is trying to analyse, compute, and problem-solve a
single problem. This mode of thinking uses a lot of energy, and continuing to be in focused
mode can be quite draining and exhausting. When one comes to a point where they are
facing a problem they can't solve despite using the focused mode, most people will often
simply continue to tackle the problem, often with no result, exhausting themselves. It is at
this point that one should switch to the other mode of thinking: diffuse.
Diffuse mode thinking refers to a relaxed and resting mental state. As opposed to focused
mode, diffuse mode requires one not to intently concentrate on any problem. In this state,
it is as though many thoughts are free and wandering. One can find themselves in a diffuse
mode of thinking in a situation where no or very little focus is needed, such as doing an
exercise routine, taking a shower, and even sleeping. Going back to the problem after
sometime in the diffuse mode, one will often find themselves looking at the problem in a
fresh perspective, with new ideas; this is because the diffuse mode encourages creativity.
As a result, switching to the diffuse mode and coming back to the problem may help one
to solve the problem.
Focused and diffuse mode, neuroscientifically, has to do with the activity of neurons in
the brain. In the focused mode, groups of neurons that have established circuits activate
to rapidly transmit a familiar thought pattern. Different, but also familiar problem-solving
techniques, strategies, and thought-patterns use different groups of neurons in the brain
that can also activate rapidly. However if a problem requires a thought-pattern that is
unfamiliar, then the focused mode is not ideal to use in this situation because it tends to
only activate the groups of neurons that are strongly circuited and activate rapidly (familiar
thought patterns). On the other hand, the diffuse mode allows neurons to be in resting
states, which can not only restrengthen the 'tired' and 'used' neurons in the focused mode,
but it can also strengthen other groups of neurons which relate to the unfamiliar thought
pattern needed to solve the problem (Immordino-Yang, 2012).

Einstellung
Another reason why people who are stuck on a problem can't solve the problem despite
working on it longer is because of what is called the "Einstellung effect". Einstellung
describes how one's initial approach to a problem their perspective or 'way of looking' at
the problem is blocking access to more effective and efficient solutions. Therefore, if
one's initial approach to a problem is the wrong approach that will not lead to the solution,
then no matter how long or hard they work, the solution will not be reached.
To be under Einstellung can be quite dangerous and time-wasting, however there are many
techniques that can help overcome it. One of the most easiest and basic ways is to switch
from focused to diffuse mode. The focused mode tends to reinforce patterns of thinking
that are strong and fast, however if those patterns of thinking don't relate to the patterns
of thinking that are necessary to reach the solution to a problem, then this is precisely
Einstellung. Switching to diffuse mode not only allows the neurons used in focused mode
to rest, but it also allows other groups of neurons in the brain to strengthen. Those groups
may be related to a different thought pattern that is needed to solve the problem.
A study technique that can be used to overcome Einstellung is called "interleaving
practice". Interleaving practice is creating as much variety as possible in homework
problems that one studies and tests themselves on. This is in contrast to, for example,
"mass studying", which is devoting one study session to only one type of problem. If, for
example, one is studying the four arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division), interleaving practice will involve studying a little bit of every
type of operation problem, rather than studying many addition problems, or division
problems, in one study session. Interleaving practice is helpful in overcoming Einstellung
because it encourages changes in approach and perspectives to solving problems, rather
than tackling problems with the same approach. Interleaving practice has also been shown
to be a far more effective study technique than mass studying (Dunlosky, 2013).
Finally, studying in groups can also be very effective in preventing Einstellung. When one
studies in groups, they can present their ideas about a problem to the group, but in addition,
the group can see any faulty insights or approaches to the problem and correct them.
Working in groups also means seeing everyone's unique approach to a problem, and each
member can also discuss what may be wrong with an approach. Best of all, the group, as
a whole, can choose the best and most efficient approach to solve a problem. This comes
from the variety and uniqueness of each approach presented by each member.
Apart from these three recommendations, there are many other techniques and strategies
one can use to overcome Einstellung, as common and dangerous a problem it may be.

Procrastination
Many people are familiar with procrastination; it is putting important work off later to do
something more pleasurable instead. If this is repeated over time, the work adds and piles
up, until it is left to the last minute and the workload is stressful and overwhelming.
Procrastination can also prevent the time needed to memorise information that is studied.
Procrastination is very damaging, however overcoming it relates to overcoming a habit in
general.
A habit consists of four parts: a cue, a routine, a reward, and a belief. The cue is a signal
that is responded to in an unconscious manner, which activates the habit. The cue itself
also depends on four factors: the location, the time, how one feels, and their reaction. For
example, the cue can be something like a certain time of day, which might be the time to
watch television. Next, the routine is the habitual behaviour. When it comes to
procrastination, a homework problem, which might seem unpleasant, is the cue to activate
the routine: switching attention from what is unpleasant to something more pleasant. This
is only temporary, however, unlike the long-term effort put into finishing goals. Then, the
reward comes as a result of the routine. In procrastination, one is rewarding themselves
with the more pleasurable thing to switch to from the unpleasant task. Lastly, there is a
belief that justifies the habit. Procrastinators may believe that, "there is nothing that can
be done to overcome the habit", or that they, "have it all under control". The belief is the
backbone of a habit, and it is why a person will continue their habit.
In order to overcome procrastination, first one must face the cue. Cues are usually
distractions that activate habitual behaviours. These distractions are, for example, phones
ringing and E-mails arriving. Cues can be avoided by removing these distractions. In
addition, the transition from the cue to the routine in other words, the reaction to the
cue is what is most important to control in procrastination. This is the most important
time to use willpower and discipline to choose how to react to the activation of a habit,
such as choosing not to answer phones or read E-mails, for example. Once the routine
begins, it can still be hard for procrastinators to continue working on important, but
perhaps unpleasant tasks. This is because the unpleasant task activates pain the insular
cortex of the brain, encouraging procrastination (Lyons, 2012). The key here is to focus
on the process of the task, rather than the product. The process means the 'flow' of work
when doing a task, while the product means what specific goals need to be accomplished.
During the routine, focusing on the progression of the work rather than the goals that need
to be accomplish will prevent the feeling of pain and discomfort (Lyons, 2012). After the
habitual routine is complete, one should reward themselves with whatever they enjoy or
makes them happy. This is the psychological set-up for classical conditioning of the
completion of a task, which is unpleasant, associated with something pleasant, which
reduces the chances of procrastination and makes the task enjoyable (Wright, 2012). Lastly,
but most importantly, one should have the belief that procrastination is manageable that
it can be done through self-disciple. Also, one should have belief, trust, and confidence in
overcoming procrastination.

Bibliography

Immordino-Yang, M. H., J. A. Christodoulou, and V. Singh. "Rest Is Not Idleness:


Implications of the Brain's Default Mode for Human Development and
Education." Perspectives on Psychological Science 7, no. 4 (2012): 352-64.
Dunlosky, J. (2013). Strengthening the Student Toolbox: Study Strategies to
Boost Learning. American Educator, 12-21.
Lyons, I.M., and S.L. Beilock. "When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain
Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math." PLoS ONE 7, no. 10 (2012):
e48076.
Robert Wright, (April 21, 2012). "How to Break the Procrastination Habit" The
Atlantic.

Image Credits

Glam, Yulia. Music-thinking. Digital image. Psmag. Shutterstock, n.d. Web. 26


Jan. 2015.
<http://a1.files.psmag.com/image/upload/c_fit,dpr_1.0,q_80,w_620/MTI3NT
gxOTgzNjYzNzU2NTYy.jpg>.
Oakley, Barbara. Barbara Oakley lecturing. Digital image. Learning How To
Learn: Powerful Mental Tools to Help You Master Tough Subjects. Coursera,
n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2015.
Mendez, Kevin. Zombie. Digital image. Learning How To Learn: Powerful
Mental Tools to Help You Master Tough Subjects. Coursera, n.d. Web. 26 Jan.
2015.