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CE 321

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

Fall 2009

LABORATORY 3: THE BERNOULLI EQUATION


OBJECTIVES


To investigate the validity of Bernoulli's Equation as applied to the flow of water in a


tapering horizontal tube to determine if the total pressure head remains constant
along the length of the tube as the equation predicts.

To determine if the variations in static pressure head along the length of the tube
can be predicted with Bernoullis equation

APPROACH
Establish a constant flow rate (Q) through the tube and measure it. Use a pitot probe
and static probe to measure the total pressure head hTm and static pressure head hSm at
six locations along the length of the tube. The values of hTm will show if total pressure
head remains constant along the length of the tube as required by the

Bernoulli

Equation. Using the flow rate and cross sectional area of the tube, calculate the velocity
head hVc at each location. Use Bernoullis Equation, hTm and hVc to predict the variations
in static pressure head hSt expected along the tube. Compare the calculated and
measured values of static pressure head to determine if the variations in fluid pressure
along the length of the tube can be predicted with Bernoullis Equation.
EQUIPMENT
Hydraulic bench with Bernoulli apparatus, stop watch
THEORY
Considering flow at any two positions on the central streamline of the tube
(Fig. 1), Bernoulli's equation may be written as

V12 p1
V22 p 2
+
+ z1 =
+
+ z2
2g
2g

(1)

Bernoullis equation indicates that the sum of the velocity head (V2/2g), pressure head
(p/), and elevation (z) are constant along the central streamline. As explained in the
Appendix 1, Eq. 1 can be simplified for this apparatus. The tube is horizontal so z1=z2,
and the pressure heads h1= p1/ and h2 = p2/ can be measured from a common
arbitrary datum so that Bernoullis Equation simplifies to

V12
V2
+ h1 = 2 + h2
2g
2g

(2)

Note that the sum on either side of the equal sign is the total pressure head hT. If
Bernoullis Eq. is correct, the total pressure head (hT)has the same value at all locations
on the central streamline. This is not obvious since the narrowing tube causes the
velocity to vary along the length of the tube. For Bernoullis Eq. to be true the pressure
head must decrease as much as the velocity head increases in moving from point 1 to
point 2.
The pitot probe you will use measures the total pressure head hT of the fluid a short
distance upstream of the probes tip. The probes tip must be positioned about 3mm
downstream from point where the measurement is desired and oriented so that it opens
directly into the flow (Fig.1).

Fig.1. Test section and manometer tubes

The piezometers installed along the side of the tube measure static pressure head hSm.
PROCEDURE
A. Familiarize yourself with the apparatus.
B. Level the apparatus.
C. Carefully fill the manometer tubes with water to flush all air pockets from the
system and ensure all connecting pipes are free of air. With the pump on and the
flow control valve closed, the top of the water columns in the manometer tubes
should all be at the same elevation. For best results, this level should be set at
approximately 150 mm. To lower the levels, attach the hand pump to the inlet
valve and increase the air pressure (poa) in the chamber at the top of the
manometer tubes. To raise the levels, lower poa by releasing air at the inlet valve.

D. Make sure that all of the manometer tubes have their zero readings at the
same elevation. If not, get help from your TA.
E. The pitot probe can be positioned by loosening the gland nut and carefully
moving the probe to the desired position. Before a reading is taken, the gland nut
should be re-tightened by hand.
F. Carefully adjust the bench supply control valve and the Bernoulli apparatus
flow control valve to provide the combination of flow rate and system pressure
(poa) which will give the largest convenient difference between the highest and
lowest manometer levels.
G. For a given valve setting (flow rate), do the following:
1. Measure volume and time so that you can determine flow rate.
2. With the pitot probe removed entirely from the tubes test section,
3. Record each piezometers manometer reading. This is hSm.
4. Move the tip of the pitot probe to a position about 3mm downstream of
each piezometer tap and record the reading of the pitot probe manometer
at each location. This is hTm.
5. Repeat your measurements of volume and time to show that the flow rate
has remained constant while you were making your measurements.
6. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for each of the three flow rates.
7. When finished, drain the apparatus. Make sure the pitot probe is
completely inserted into the tube and the gland nut is tightened before
leaving.

ANALYSIS
A. Determine the three flow rates.
Use the volume-time data.

B. Calculate the velocity head hvc ( Va2 / 2 g ) at each cross section.


Use each flow rate and the six cross-sectional areas of the tube to determine
the average fluid velocity (Va=Q/A) at each measurement position along the
length of the tube. The tube diameters at measurement sections are in Fig.3
Appendix2
C. Calculate the best estimate of the true value of hT in the tube.
Use the value of hTm at point A in the converging section.

D. Predict the variation of static pressure head hSt along the length of the tube.
Use Bernoullis Equation to predict hSt.
Use the measured values of total pressure head hTm.
Use the calculated values of velocity head hVc.

E. Graph the values as a function of position along the tube.


Make one graph for each flow rate.
Make each graph the same size.
Use identical scales on all three graphs.
Show the measured values of total pressure head hTm, static pressure head hSm,
and calculated values of velocity head hVc on each graph.
Show the theoretical variation of hT.
Label the graphs so that the different heads are clearly identifiable.

F. Consider what the measurements show happened in the converging section of the
tube.
Look at the graphs and tables.
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Describe how measured total pressure head hTm varied with distance in this
region.
Compare the variation of hTm with the theoretical variation of hTt that Bernoullis
Equation predicts.
Comment on whether this suggests that the assumptions made in deriving
Bernoullis Equation are satisfied in this part of the tube.
Describe how measured static pressure head varied with distance in this
region.
Compare the variation of measured static pressure head hSm with the theoretical
variation hST that you predicted using Bernoullis Equation.
Comment on what this comparison suggests about the ability to predict fluid
pressure in the converging section of the tube using Bernoullis Equation if you
know only the flow rate and the geometry of the tube.
G. Consider what the measurements show happened in the diverging section of the
tube.
Look at the graphs and tables.
Describe how measured total pressure head hTm varied with distance in this
region.
Compare the variation of hTm with the theoretical variation of hTt that Bernoullis
Equation predicts.
Considering the assumptions made to derive Bernoullis Equation, offer an
explanation for why the variation in total pressure head that you measured
agrees or disagrees with what Bernoullis Equation predicts.
Describe how measured static pressure head hSm varied with distance in this
region. Where are the lowest static pressure heads?
Compare the variation of measured static pressure head hSm with the theoretical
variation hST that you predicted using Bernoullis Equation.
H. Consider what the measurements show happened as the flow rate increased.

Describe how the increase in flow influenced the total pressure head in the
converging region.
Describe how the increase in flow influenced the total pressure head in the
diverging region.
Describe how the increase in flow influenced the measured static pressure
head in the converging region.
I. Comment on the apparent validity of Bernoullis Equation for convergent and
divergent flows in general

APPENDIX1
JUSTIFICATION FOR EQ.2
Some justification for the simplifications made to obtain Eq. 2 are required. First, in Eq.
1 both elevations (z1,z2) must be measured from a common horizontal datum for
elevation. In setting up the apparatus for this experiment, the tube is leveled so that the
central streamline is also horizontal. Thus the elevation(z) is forced to remain constant
(z1 = z2) so there is no need to determine its actual value in order to evaluate whether
Bernoullis equation correctly describes conditions along the streamline where the
velocity is changing. Second, the pressures in Eq. 1 may be measured as indicated
above (p=h) by employing a special pressure datum (Fig. 1) that is selected to simplify
measurement. The absolute pressure of the datum is pda=p0a+z. Pressures p1=h1
and p2=h2 are the portion of the absolute pressure of the water at locations 1 and 2 that
is in excess of the datum pressure pda. To show this we need to first determine the
absolute pressure at 1 and then subtract the pressure datum pda. We obtain the
absolute pressure p1a by analyzing the manometer column at 1 (Fig. 1) which shows
that
p1a = p 0 a + (h1 + z )

(3)

Subtracting the datum pressure (pda=p0a+z) leads to the desired result for pressure

p1 = p1a p da = [ p 0 a + (h1 + z )] [( p 0 a + z )] = h1

(4)

Thus the pressure head at 1 based on the special pressure datum is


p1

= h1

(5)

The same approach works at point 2 or any other point on the central streamline. Note

that the pressures that you are working with (p1=h1 and p2=h2) are neither absolute
pressures nor gage pressures because we have selected a special datum. We can pick
any pressure datum that we want with Bernoullis equation so long as we use it all of the
time, because, as Eq. 1 shows, we are only concerned with how the pressure varies
from one point to the other.

APPENDIX2
DESCRIPTION OF THE BERNOULLI APPARATUS
Fig. 2 shows the location of each of the main elements of the apparatus. The test
section (5) is a machined tube of varying circular cross section provided with pressure
tappings so that static pressures can be measured simultaneously at each of 6
locations. Fig. 3 provides the location and dimension of each cross section.
A pitot probe (7) is provided which can be positioned to read the total head at any
section of the tube. The probe can be moved after loosening the gland nut (6); this nut
should be re-tightened by hand. (To prevent damage, the probe should be fully inserted
during storage.) All eight pressure tappings are connected to a bank of pressurized
manometer tubes (3). The pressure in the air chamber (2) can be increased by
connecting a hand pump to the inlet valve (4). Pressure can be reduced by depressing
the valve (4).
The inlet pipe (1) should be connected directly to the bench supply. A flexible hose
attached to the outlet pipe should cause water flowing from the apparatus to empty
directly into the volumetric measuring tank. The apparatus should be leveled with the
adjustable feet (8). Flow rate and pressure in
the apparatus can be varied by adjusting the flow control valve (9) and the bench supply
control valve. Opening the flow control valve will increase flow rate through the tube and
decrease fluid pressure throughout the tube. Whereas, opening the bench supply
control valve will increase flow rate and fluid pressure throughout the tube. By use of the
two valves, it is possible to vary flow rate and pressure independently.
1. Inlet pipe
2. Air chamber
3. Manometer tubes
4. Inlet valve
5. Test section
6. Gland nut
7. Pitot probe
8. Adjustable feet
9. Flow control valve

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Fig.2. Different elements of Bernoulli apparatus

Fig.3. Measurement section locations and dimensions in mm

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APPENDIX 3
CHECK LIST FOR BERNOULLI EXPERIMENT
DATA APPEAR TO BE REASONABLY ACCURATE

1.Your plots show smooth variations of head with distance.


2.You employed a method of measurement that is expected to give a flow rate with an

uncertainty less than 5%.


In the Discussion and Results Section make sure of the following
1.Your observations are correct, clearly stated, and supported by the data you present.
2.Your logical arguments are correct and clearly stated.
3.Your graphs are in the form requested

Graph values as a function of position along the tube.

Make one graph for each flow rate.

Make each graph the same size.

Use identical scales on all three graphs.

Show the measured values of total pressure head hTm, static pressure head hSm, and
calculated values of velocity head hVc on each graph.

Show the theoretical variation of hT.

Label the graphs so that the different heads are clearly identifiable.

4. You described what happened in the converging Section:

Described how measured total pressure head hTm varied with distance in this
region.

Compared the variation of hTm with the theoretical variation of hTt that Bernoullis
Equation predicts.

Commented on whether this comparison suggests that the assumptions made in


deriving Bernoullis Equation are satisfied in this part of the tube.

Described how measured static pressure head varied with distance in this region.

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Compared the variation of measured static pressure head hSm with the theoretical
variation hSt that you predicted using Bernoullis Equation.

Commented on what this comparison suggests about the ability to predict fluid
pressure in the converging section of the tube using Bernoullis Equation if you
know only the flow rate and the geometry of the tube.

5.You described what happened in the diverging section of the tube:

Described how measured total pressure head hTm varied with distance in this
region Compared the variation of hTm with the theoretical variation of hTt that
Bernoullis Equation predicts

Considering the assumptions made to derive Bernoullis Equation, offer an


explanation for why the variation in total pressure head that you measured
agrees or disagrees with what Bernoullis Equation predicts.

Described how measured static pressure head hSm varied with distance in this
region. Where are the lowest static pressure heads?

Compared the variation of measured static pressure head hSm with the theoretical
variation hSt that you predicted using Bernoullis equation

6.You described what happened as the flow rate increased:

Described how the increase in flow influenced the total pressure head in the
converging region.

Described how the increase in flow influenced the total pressure head in the
diverging region.

Described how the increase in flow influenced the measured static pressure head
in the converging section.

7.You commented on the apparent validity of Bernoullis Equation for convergent and

divergent flows in general


Make sure the important results and conclusions are restated in the Conclusions
Section and summarized in the Abstract

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