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Fall 2009

OBJECTIVES

tapering horizontal tube to determine if the total pressure head remains constant

along the length of the tube as the equation predicts.

To determine if the variations in static pressure head along the length of the tube

can be predicted with Bernoullis equation

APPROACH

Establish a constant flow rate (Q) through the tube and measure it. Use a pitot probe

and static probe to measure the total pressure head hTm and static pressure head hSm at

six locations along the length of the tube. The values of hTm will show if total pressure

head remains constant along the length of the tube as required by the

Bernoulli

Equation. Using the flow rate and cross sectional area of the tube, calculate the velocity

head hVc at each location. Use Bernoullis Equation, hTm and hVc to predict the variations

in static pressure head hSt expected along the tube. Compare the calculated and

measured values of static pressure head to determine if the variations in fluid pressure

along the length of the tube can be predicted with Bernoullis Equation.

EQUIPMENT

Hydraulic bench with Bernoulli apparatus, stop watch

THEORY

Considering flow at any two positions on the central streamline of the tube

(Fig. 1), Bernoulli's equation may be written as

V12 p1

V22 p 2

+

+ z1 =

+

+ z2

2g

2g

(1)

Bernoullis equation indicates that the sum of the velocity head (V2/2g), pressure head

(p/), and elevation (z) are constant along the central streamline. As explained in the

Appendix 1, Eq. 1 can be simplified for this apparatus. The tube is horizontal so z1=z2,

and the pressure heads h1= p1/ and h2 = p2/ can be measured from a common

arbitrary datum so that Bernoullis Equation simplifies to

V12

V2

+ h1 = 2 + h2

2g

2g

(2)

Note that the sum on either side of the equal sign is the total pressure head hT. If

Bernoullis Eq. is correct, the total pressure head (hT)has the same value at all locations

on the central streamline. This is not obvious since the narrowing tube causes the

velocity to vary along the length of the tube. For Bernoullis Eq. to be true the pressure

head must decrease as much as the velocity head increases in moving from point 1 to

point 2.

The pitot probe you will use measures the total pressure head hT of the fluid a short

distance upstream of the probes tip. The probes tip must be positioned about 3mm

downstream from point where the measurement is desired and oriented so that it opens

directly into the flow (Fig.1).

The piezometers installed along the side of the tube measure static pressure head hSm.

PROCEDURE

A. Familiarize yourself with the apparatus.

B. Level the apparatus.

C. Carefully fill the manometer tubes with water to flush all air pockets from the

system and ensure all connecting pipes are free of air. With the pump on and the

flow control valve closed, the top of the water columns in the manometer tubes

should all be at the same elevation. For best results, this level should be set at

approximately 150 mm. To lower the levels, attach the hand pump to the inlet

valve and increase the air pressure (poa) in the chamber at the top of the

manometer tubes. To raise the levels, lower poa by releasing air at the inlet valve.

D. Make sure that all of the manometer tubes have their zero readings at the

same elevation. If not, get help from your TA.

E. The pitot probe can be positioned by loosening the gland nut and carefully

moving the probe to the desired position. Before a reading is taken, the gland nut

should be re-tightened by hand.

F. Carefully adjust the bench supply control valve and the Bernoulli apparatus

flow control valve to provide the combination of flow rate and system pressure

(poa) which will give the largest convenient difference between the highest and

lowest manometer levels.

G. For a given valve setting (flow rate), do the following:

1. Measure volume and time so that you can determine flow rate.

2. With the pitot probe removed entirely from the tubes test section,

3. Record each piezometers manometer reading. This is hSm.

4. Move the tip of the pitot probe to a position about 3mm downstream of

each piezometer tap and record the reading of the pitot probe manometer

at each location. This is hTm.

5. Repeat your measurements of volume and time to show that the flow rate

has remained constant while you were making your measurements.

6. Repeat steps 1 to 4 for each of the three flow rates.

7. When finished, drain the apparatus. Make sure the pitot probe is

completely inserted into the tube and the gland nut is tightened before

leaving.

ANALYSIS

A. Determine the three flow rates.

Use the volume-time data.

Use each flow rate and the six cross-sectional areas of the tube to determine

the average fluid velocity (Va=Q/A) at each measurement position along the

length of the tube. The tube diameters at measurement sections are in Fig.3

Appendix2

C. Calculate the best estimate of the true value of hT in the tube.

Use the value of hTm at point A in the converging section.

D. Predict the variation of static pressure head hSt along the length of the tube.

Use Bernoullis Equation to predict hSt.

Use the measured values of total pressure head hTm.

Use the calculated values of velocity head hVc.

Make one graph for each flow rate.

Make each graph the same size.

Use identical scales on all three graphs.

Show the measured values of total pressure head hTm, static pressure head hSm,

and calculated values of velocity head hVc on each graph.

Show the theoretical variation of hT.

Label the graphs so that the different heads are clearly identifiable.

F. Consider what the measurements show happened in the converging section of the

tube.

Look at the graphs and tables.

5

Describe how measured total pressure head hTm varied with distance in this

region.

Compare the variation of hTm with the theoretical variation of hTt that Bernoullis

Equation predicts.

Comment on whether this suggests that the assumptions made in deriving

Bernoullis Equation are satisfied in this part of the tube.

Describe how measured static pressure head varied with distance in this

region.

Compare the variation of measured static pressure head hSm with the theoretical

variation hST that you predicted using Bernoullis Equation.

Comment on what this comparison suggests about the ability to predict fluid

pressure in the converging section of the tube using Bernoullis Equation if you

know only the flow rate and the geometry of the tube.

G. Consider what the measurements show happened in the diverging section of the

tube.

Look at the graphs and tables.

Describe how measured total pressure head hTm varied with distance in this

region.

Compare the variation of hTm with the theoretical variation of hTt that Bernoullis

Equation predicts.

Considering the assumptions made to derive Bernoullis Equation, offer an

explanation for why the variation in total pressure head that you measured

agrees or disagrees with what Bernoullis Equation predicts.

Describe how measured static pressure head hSm varied with distance in this

region. Where are the lowest static pressure heads?

Compare the variation of measured static pressure head hSm with the theoretical

variation hST that you predicted using Bernoullis Equation.

H. Consider what the measurements show happened as the flow rate increased.

Describe how the increase in flow influenced the total pressure head in the

converging region.

Describe how the increase in flow influenced the total pressure head in the

diverging region.

Describe how the increase in flow influenced the measured static pressure

head in the converging region.

I. Comment on the apparent validity of Bernoullis Equation for convergent and

divergent flows in general

APPENDIX1

JUSTIFICATION FOR EQ.2

Some justification for the simplifications made to obtain Eq. 2 are required. First, in Eq.

1 both elevations (z1,z2) must be measured from a common horizontal datum for

elevation. In setting up the apparatus for this experiment, the tube is leveled so that the

central streamline is also horizontal. Thus the elevation(z) is forced to remain constant

(z1 = z2) so there is no need to determine its actual value in order to evaluate whether

Bernoullis equation correctly describes conditions along the streamline where the

velocity is changing. Second, the pressures in Eq. 1 may be measured as indicated

above (p=h) by employing a special pressure datum (Fig. 1) that is selected to simplify

measurement. The absolute pressure of the datum is pda=p0a+z. Pressures p1=h1

and p2=h2 are the portion of the absolute pressure of the water at locations 1 and 2 that

is in excess of the datum pressure pda. To show this we need to first determine the

absolute pressure at 1 and then subtract the pressure datum pda. We obtain the

absolute pressure p1a by analyzing the manometer column at 1 (Fig. 1) which shows

that

p1a = p 0 a + (h1 + z )

(3)

Subtracting the datum pressure (pda=p0a+z) leads to the desired result for pressure

p1 = p1a p da = [ p 0 a + (h1 + z )] [( p 0 a + z )] = h1

(4)

p1

= h1

(5)

The same approach works at point 2 or any other point on the central streamline. Note

that the pressures that you are working with (p1=h1 and p2=h2) are neither absolute

pressures nor gage pressures because we have selected a special datum. We can pick

any pressure datum that we want with Bernoullis equation so long as we use it all of the

time, because, as Eq. 1 shows, we are only concerned with how the pressure varies

from one point to the other.

APPENDIX2

DESCRIPTION OF THE BERNOULLI APPARATUS

Fig. 2 shows the location of each of the main elements of the apparatus. The test

section (5) is a machined tube of varying circular cross section provided with pressure

tappings so that static pressures can be measured simultaneously at each of 6

locations. Fig. 3 provides the location and dimension of each cross section.

A pitot probe (7) is provided which can be positioned to read the total head at any

section of the tube. The probe can be moved after loosening the gland nut (6); this nut

should be re-tightened by hand. (To prevent damage, the probe should be fully inserted

during storage.) All eight pressure tappings are connected to a bank of pressurized

manometer tubes (3). The pressure in the air chamber (2) can be increased by

connecting a hand pump to the inlet valve (4). Pressure can be reduced by depressing

the valve (4).

The inlet pipe (1) should be connected directly to the bench supply. A flexible hose

attached to the outlet pipe should cause water flowing from the apparatus to empty

directly into the volumetric measuring tank. The apparatus should be leveled with the

adjustable feet (8). Flow rate and pressure in

the apparatus can be varied by adjusting the flow control valve (9) and the bench supply

control valve. Opening the flow control valve will increase flow rate through the tube and

decrease fluid pressure throughout the tube. Whereas, opening the bench supply

control valve will increase flow rate and fluid pressure throughout the tube. By use of the

two valves, it is possible to vary flow rate and pressure independently.

1. Inlet pipe

2. Air chamber

3. Manometer tubes

4. Inlet valve

5. Test section

6. Gland nut

7. Pitot probe

8. Adjustable feet

9. Flow control valve

10

11

APPENDIX 3

CHECK LIST FOR BERNOULLI EXPERIMENT

DATA APPEAR TO BE REASONABLY ACCURATE

2.You employed a method of measurement that is expected to give a flow rate with an

In the Discussion and Results Section make sure of the following

1.Your observations are correct, clearly stated, and supported by the data you present.

2.Your logical arguments are correct and clearly stated.

3.Your graphs are in the form requested

Show the measured values of total pressure head hTm, static pressure head hSm, and

calculated values of velocity head hVc on each graph.

Label the graphs so that the different heads are clearly identifiable.

Described how measured total pressure head hTm varied with distance in this

region.

Compared the variation of hTm with the theoretical variation of hTt that Bernoullis

Equation predicts.

deriving Bernoullis Equation are satisfied in this part of the tube.

Described how measured static pressure head varied with distance in this region.

12

Compared the variation of measured static pressure head hSm with the theoretical

variation hSt that you predicted using Bernoullis Equation.

Commented on what this comparison suggests about the ability to predict fluid

pressure in the converging section of the tube using Bernoullis Equation if you

know only the flow rate and the geometry of the tube.

Described how measured total pressure head hTm varied with distance in this

region Compared the variation of hTm with the theoretical variation of hTt that

Bernoullis Equation predicts

explanation for why the variation in total pressure head that you measured

agrees or disagrees with what Bernoullis Equation predicts.

Described how measured static pressure head hSm varied with distance in this

region. Where are the lowest static pressure heads?

Compared the variation of measured static pressure head hSm with the theoretical

variation hSt that you predicted using Bernoullis equation

Described how the increase in flow influenced the total pressure head in the

converging region.

Described how the increase in flow influenced the total pressure head in the

diverging region.

Described how the increase in flow influenced the measured static pressure head

in the converging section.

7.You commented on the apparent validity of Bernoullis Equation for convergent and

Make sure the important results and conclusions are restated in the Conclusions

Section and summarized in the Abstract

13

14

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