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PROJECT

IN
MATH
From: Salvador V santos iii
Section: iv-simeon
Submitted to: sr virgilio maranan

The remainder theorem


Definition:

the Remainder Theorem is useful for evaluating


polynomials at a given value of x, though it might not
seem so, at least at first blush. This is because the
tool is presented as a theorem with a proof, and you
probably don't feel ready for proofs at this stage in
your studies. Fortunately, you don't "have" to
understand the proof of the Theorem; you just need
to understand how touse the Theorem.
The Remainder Theorem starts with an unnamed
polynomial p(x), where "p(x)" just means "some
polynomial p whose variable is x". Then the Theorem
talks about dividing that polynomial by some linear
factor x a, where a is just some number. Then, as a
result of the long polynomial division, you end up
with some polynomial answer q(x) (the "q" standing
for "the quotient polynomial") and some polynomial
remainder r(x).

Example#1
Example: 2x2-5x-1 divided by x-3

f(x) is 2x2-5x-1

g(x) is x-3

After dividing we get the answer 2x+1, but


there is a remainder of 2.

q(x) is 2x+1

r(x) is 2

In the style f(x) = g(x)q(x) + r(x) we can


write:
2x2-5x-1 = (x-3)(2x+1) + 2

Example#2

as a concrete example of p, a, q, and r,


let's look at the polynomial p(x) = x3
7x 6, and let's divide by the linear
factor x 4 (so a = 4):

So we get a quotient of q(x) = x2 + 4x +


9 on top, with a remainder of r(x) = 30.

Example # 3
2x2-5x-1 divided by x-3
(Continuing our example from above)
We don't need to divide by (x-3) ... just
calculate f(3):
2(3)2-5(3)-1 = 2x9-5x3-1 = 18-15-1 = 2
And that is the remainder we got from our
calculations above.
We didn't need to do Long Division at all!

Example#4
Use the Remainder Theorem to evaluate f (x) =
6x3 5x2 + 4x 17 at x = 3.
First off, even though the Remainder Theorem refers
to the polynomial and to long division and to restating
the polynomial in terms of a quotient, a divisor, and a
remainder, that's not actually what I'm meant to be
doing. Instead, I'm supposed to be doing synthetic
division, using "3" as the divisor:

Since the remainder (the last entry in the bottom row)


is 112, then the Remainder Theorem says that:
f (3) = 112.

Example#5

Use the Remainder Theorem to determine


whether x = 4 is a solution of
x6 + 5x5 + 5x4 + 5x3 + 2x2 10x 8 = 0
For x = 4 to be a solution of f (x) = x6 + 5x5 + 5x4 +
5x3 + 2x2 10x 8 = 0, it must be that f (4) = 0. In
the context of the Remainder Theorem, this
means that the remainder, when dividing by x =
4, must be zero:

The remainder is zero. Then x = 4 is a


solution of the given equation.

NAME: SALVADOR V.

SANTOS III

NICKNAME: BOOGSIE
ADDRESS: #39 CHESTNUT STREET, WEST
FAIRVIEW QC
EMAIL ADD: SALBADORSANTOS@GMAIL.COM
CP#: 09055031513
NATIONALISM: FILIPINO
OCCUPATION: HIGH SCHOOL
AGE: 15
GENDER: MALE
BIRTH DATE: MAY 05, 1999
BIRTH PLACE: CHINESE GENERAL HOSPITAL
FATHERS NAME: SAVADOR SANTOS JR.
OCCUPATION: BUSINESS MAN
MOTHERS NAME: MARIBETH SANTOS
OCCUPATION: BUSINESS WOMEN
RELIGION: IGLESIA NI CRISTO
HOBBY: PLAYING COMPUTER, 2 FUSE
FAVORITE SUBJECT: SCIENCE, MATH
FAVORITE FOOD: BEEF STEAK