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Polinukleotida

(Struktur DNA)
copyright cmassengale

DNA
Material genetik pada
mahluk hidup adalah Asam
nukleat (DNA atau RNA)
yaitu suatu polimer
nukleotida yg berperanan
dlm penyimpanan serta
pemindahan informasi
genetik

Bukti bahwa DNA


adalah material
genetik

Transformation
Fred Griffith menggunakan strain
bakteri S.pneumoniae virulen tipe
S and nonvirulent tipe R
Smooth Streptococcus
pneumoniae (pneumococci)

Rough Streptococcus
pneumoniae (pneumococci)

Griffiths transformation experiment


Chapter 2 slide 5
20000
Peter J.601
Russell,
iGenetics: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Transformation
Dia menemukan bhw strain tipe R
dapat menjadi virulent ketika
mengambil DNA (transformasi) dari
strain tipe S yg sudah mati
Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa DNA
adalah adalah material genetik

Oswald T. Averys Transformation Experiment - 1944


Determined that IIIS DNA was the genetic material
responsible for Griffiths results (not RNA).

Peter J. Russell, iGenetics: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

DNA/RNA
Asam nukleat terdapat dlm 2 bentuk,
yaitu asam deoksiribosa (DNA) dan asam
ribosa (RNA).
Pd sel eukariot, DNA terdapat di dlm
nukleus,
pada sel prokariot, terdpt dlm
sitoplasma dalam bentuk nukleoid.

Struktur
DNA

DNA
Tersusun atas subunit yg
disebut nukleotida
Nukleotida terdiri atas:
Gugus phosphate
Gula berkarbon-5
Basa Nitrogen

DNA
Gula pentose (Deoxyribose)
terikat ke gugus phosphat
(PO4) groups melalui ikatan
phosphodiester
Ikatan antara molekul
deoxiribosa dengan basa-basa
nitrogen disebut ikatan
glikosida

Nukleotida DNA

Phosphate
Group
O

O=P-O
O

CH2
O
N
C1

C4
Sugar
(deoxyribose)

C3

C2

Nitrogenous base
(A, G, C, or T)
12

Gula Pentosa
Tersusun atas 5 atom karbon yg
dinotasi 1 - 5
5

CH2

O
C1

C4
Sugar
(deoxyribose)

C3

C2
13

Basa2 Nitrogen
Double ring PURIN
Adenine (A)
Guanine (G)

A or G

Single ring PYRIMIDIN


Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C)
T or C
14

Pasangan-basa
Purin hanya berpasangan
dgn Pirimidin
Pasangan antara Guanin &
sitosin membentuk tiga
ikatan hidrogen
3 H-bonds

Pasangan antara Timin


& Adenin membentuk
dua ikatan hidrogen
T

16

Ikatan Hidrogen
H
H

H
C

Timin

C
N

Adenin

H
H
N

Sitosin
H

C
N

C
N

C
H

N
H

Guanin

Perbedaan DNA dan RNA

5 end

3 end

DNA (Polinukleotida)
5

P
5

O
O

P
5

O
3

19

Three Dimensional Structure


of DNA
Rosalind Franklin- X-ray
crystallography of DNA- showed that
DNA was in a helix with PO4 and sugars
to the outside.
James Watson and Francis Cricktook Franklins data- in April 23, 1953,
and deduced the structure of DNA.
Won the Nobel Prize along with Maurice
Wilkins.

1962: Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine

James D.
Watson

Francis H.
Crick

Maurice H. F.
Wilkins

What about?
Rosalind Franklin

Untai ganda yg
bersifat Antiparalel
Satu untai
tumbuh dari
5 ke 3 (gula)
Untai yang lain
memiliki arah yg
berlawanan dari
3 ke 5

23

5 end

3 end

DNA Double Helix


Rungs of ladder
Nitrogenous
Base (A,T,G or C)

Legs of ladder

Phosphate &
Sugar Backbone
26

Type A, B, and Z conformations of DNA

Type B-DNA

Other DNA forms


include:
A-DNA:
Right-handed double
helix with 11 bases
per turn; shorter and
wider at 2.2 nm
diameter. Exists in
some DNA-protein
complexes.

Z-DNA:
Left-handed double
helix with 12 bases
per turn; longer and
thinner at 1.8 nm
diameter.

Characteristics of DNA
All chains of DNA and RNA have a
5 PO4 end and a 3 OH end.
Base sequences are written in a 5
to 3 direction.
Ex. 5 pGpTpCpCpApT-OH 3 or
- GTCCAT -

Characteristics of DNA
Base pairs stabilize the
molecule by forming H-bonds.
Antiparallel Strands5----------------3
3----------------5
Strands are complementary.

Discovery of DNA
Structure
Erwin Chargaff menunjukkan
jumlah dari basa penyusun
DNA ( A,T,C,G)
Pada sel somatik:
A = 30.3%
T = 30.3%
G = 19.5%
C = 19.9%

Genome:
Keseluruhan gen/DNA yang ada di
dalam sel hidup.

Gene:
Urutan nukleotida yang mengkode
suatu protein.

Two types of organism:


Eukaryotes;
cells contain membrane-bound
compartments, including a nucleus and organelles.
Eukaryotes include: animals, plants, fungi, and
protozoa.
Prokaryotes: Lack internal compartments
extensively.
Divided into two groups: bacteria and archaea.]

upstream

exonintronexon
Initiation codon

5
3

downstream

termination codon

3
5

Gene organization in genomes

Circular shape of microbial DNA


601 20000

Chapter 2 slide 38

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