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HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS
SOME

NOTES

PORTRAITS

SCOTLAND

BY

LONDON

YORK

STREET,

OF

CELEBRATED

GEORGE

COVENT

ENGLAND
IRELAND

AND

B.

HENRY

THE

OF

CHARACTERS

PAINTED

ON

WHEATLEY,

BELL

GARDEN,

F.S.A.

AND

SONS

MDCCCXCVII

"-T,

X-

-3

\,l:l

CHISWICK

PKESS

TOOKS

COURT,

:-

CHARLES

CHANCERY

WHITTINCHAM

LANK,

AND

LONDON.

CO.

PREFACE.

well

is

It

pi6lures,

known

spread
of

mansions

the

great

of

has

portraits

been

the

induce
the

drawn

has

the

published

by

Lord

Chancellor
colle6l

to

so

that

in

the

of

their
To

portraits

the

and

owners

the

of

Derby

of

interest

was

the

and

Lord

of

houses

great

5th
we

in

Derby

of

ventory
in-

an

been

and

indebted

the

man
Englishbut

Portraits,
of

hobby
be

to

the

as

national

National

suggested

Mr.

has

are

country

Portraits.
the

about

Portrait

first

this

in

as

chiefly

to

and

making

the

celebrities
the

made

which

Stanhope

National

founder

for

National

man

not

Earl
are

of

the

by

National

was

of

great

and

printers.

gallery

that

followed

few

form

Clarendon
a

engravings

portraits

system,

Queen

painted

treasures,

the

uniform

on

of
up

the

being

now

their

Dire6lor

catalogue

the

historical

of

of

compiled.
is

attempt

that

portraits

and

by

family

and

general

us

fine

of

the

in

them,

been

catalogue

to

Cust,

Gallery,

to

from

possessors

country

Lionel

known

have

organized

rich

compiled,

made

which

in

gentry,

No

past.

been

chiefly

are

catalogues
An

the

ever

have

that

of

and

specially

are

full

is

country

nobility

the

men

these

the

about

colle6lions

these

England

that

his,

found

ancestors

chara6lers.
the
for
Lord
Portrait

grand

Earl

14th
the

revival

Stanhope
Gallery,
Exhibitions

PREFACE

VI

of

Portraits

and

1867.

Kensington,

in its

home

new

the

has

been

and

more

visited

Portrait

this

subje6l,
collection

fine

realized

more

who

those

by

it.

gallerieshave
As

centres.

local colle6lions
the

of

one

revival, due

established

been

and

Dublin,

and
various

effe"5l of such

Gallery

in the

interest

revived

educational

and

have

has

1865, 1866,

in

Portrait

the National

re-opening of

The

in

South

at

praise

chief

should

at

burgh
Edinin

formed

instruments
be

given

to

Thomas

Carlyle.
In spite of all this no
portraitsof the country
the

present

this

vast

work

field,as

to

only

indicate

been

has

the

painted
published, and
to

been

cultivate
first attempt
to
distin"5l from articles and
papers
is the

in transa6lions, but
I have

handbook

in the

able

the

riches

for

them.

to

that

at

space

scratch
are

to

my

the
be

disposal,

surface, and

found

by

those

hope, therefore, that my


readers will excuse
shortcomings on the ground
my
h to some
that this book
extent
a
pioneer.
The
work
itself into two
pradlicallydivides
first seven
chat
The
a
chapters contain
parts.
and
notice
about
a
portraitsand portrait-painters,
has been
of what
colle6l and
done
to
bring the
works
together,as well as of the difficulties caused
by the misnaming of portraits. The
succeeding
five chapters contain
of the chief
notices of some
chara6lers, beginning with
portraitsof celebrated
the sovereigns and ending with the people.
The
biographic side of history is universally
and biography
recognized as the most
fascinating,
is incomplete without
for a good portrait
portraits,
the man
a
helps to make
or
woman
livingreality
who

to

seek

us.

am

greatly indebted

to

many

friends

who

PREFACE

kindly

have
the

assisted

thanks

due

are

Lionel

Mr.

and

of

who

the

allowed

authorities
their

portraits

have

who

galleries

the

the

are

fine
under

also

due

allowed

the
for

engraved

be

to

leian,
Bod-

club

that

kindly

to

J.

of

see

thanks

best

the

member
to

at

Mr.

to

of

me

bridge,
Cam-

Sayle,

Librarian
a

J.

colle6lion

Charles

Mr.

Knight,

My

of

the

in

Mr.

to

portraits,

to

able
valu-

University

much

Mr.

to

much

me

portraits,

of
so

dramatic

those

in

given

historical

Joseph

guidance.

portraits

kindly

Assistant-

Club,

Dillon,

Viscount

F.R.S.,

able

his

special

Cambridge

Mr.

to

colle6lion

to

of

Madan,

Garrick

My

done

Glaisher,

F.

published.

Lord

has

exhibition
L.

been

Registrary

who

W.

tions
exhibi-

on

Clark,

and

and

has

information
Willis

colle6lions

to

who

Cust,

of

compilers

the

to

portrait

have

which

and

me,

of

catalogues

VII

this

book.
In

conclusion
in

pages,

help
branch

to

spite
in

them
of

our

hope

of
the
National

readers

my

imperfe6lions,
study

of

large

will
to

find
be

and

of

these
some

important

History.
H.

B.

W.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

I.
PAGE

Introduction

CHAPTER

Spurious

H.

Misnamed

and

Portraits.
...

CHAPTER

British

HI.

Portrait-Painters
TO

from

24

IV.

Portrait-Painters
TO

from

MiLLAIS

Portrait-

V.

Painters

CHAPTER

Portrait

Exhibitions

113

VII.

Collections

126

CHAPTER

Sovereigns

loo

VI.

CHAPTER
Portrait

Hogarth
60

CHAPTER

Amateur

Holbein

HiGHMORE

CHAPTER

British

13

and

their

VIII.

Courts

135

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

IX.
PAGE

Professions:
Army

Law

Church,

and

Navy

and

189

CHAPTER

Science, Literature

and

CHAPTER
Actors

and

Index

X.
Art

213
XI.

Actresses

235

CHAPTER
Merchants

and

the

Medicine,

People

XII.
251

261

LIST

OF

PORTRAITS.

PORTRAIT.

PAINTER.

Graham

John

Viscount

HOUSE,

Unknown

Dundee

First

Clifford

Lord

Vandyck

Anthony

William

Frontispiece

of

Chudleigh
Sir

PAGE

Claver-

of

Lely

i6

Vandyck

38

Dobson

Dobson

40

....

Robert

Walter

Walker

44

....

Sir

Peter

Lely

Lely

....

Godfrey

Sir

Kneller

Kneller
.

Richardson
.

William

Thomas

Reynolds

Joshua

Gainsborough

George

Romney
....

Hoppner

John
Sir

Thomas

Bishop

54

Hogarth
.

Sir

50

......

Richardson

Jonathan

46

Lawrence

Hogarth

60

Reynolds

66

Zoffany

70

Romney

72

Hoppner

80

Lawrence

86

Mrs.

Hoadly

Hoadly

no
.

Sir

George

K.C.B.

Scharf,

W.

W.

Henry

VII

Unknown

Henry

VIH

Luke

Ouless, R.A.
Flemish

artist

146

Hornebolt

148

...

(aged

VI.

Edward

six

years)

Mary

Unknown

154

Joannes

Corvus
.

Elizabeth

F.
I.

James

(aged eight years)

Charles

158

"

Vandyck
R.
.

168

Walker

170

J. Greenhill

II

172

....

James

II

J. Riley

Mary

II

William

Anne

John

176

Wissing

George

II

T.

George

III

Allan

George

IV

Closterman

i8o

Laud

Archbishop

Tillotson

Chancellor

Worlidge
Ramsay

184

....

186
....

Fliccius

H.
.

Stone, after

Bacon

Mary
P.

Jeffreys

190

Vandyck

Beale
....

Vansomer

Chancellor

188

G.
.

....

Kneller

182

Lawrence

Archbishop

Lord

Kneller

Cranmer

Lord

178

...

George

Archbishop

156
166

Cromwell

Charles

Zucharo

Oliver

132

192
194

196
198

OF

LIST

xu

PORTRAITS

PORTRAIT.

painter.

Chancellor

Lord
Sir

Thurlow

T.

Coke

Edward

Phillips

Cornelis
.

200

Janssen

van

Ceulen
William

M.D.

Harvey,

204

....

Hunter

John

202

Unknown
after

Jackson,
L.

Nelson

Revnolds

Abbott

F.

(iEORGE

Duke

Monk,

206

.'

208
.

of

Albemarle

Lely

Duke

of

Marlborough.

Duke

of

Wellington

2X0

Kneller

210

Sir

Lsaac

Newton

Sir

Hans

Sloan

Count
.

Slaughter
The
Hon.
John
T. Phillips

212

214

218

*.

Faraday
....

Collier

220
222

....

(Chandos

Shakespeare

Vanderbank

J.

....

Michael

S.

Darwin

Charles

d'Orsay

trait)
porUnknown
.

Pieter

Milton

Alexander

Burns

Robert

P.

Coleridge

S. T.

John

\V. Hilton

Lord

Byron

T.

Wordsworth
.

Sir W.
.

230

230

Pickersgill

230

Allan

....

J.

....

Chambers,

Wren

Christopher

Lely

....

Mrs.

Siddons

of

Gresham
.

The

originalof

Vandyck,

Gallery, that
and

Lawrence

Art

Galleries

remainder

the

of
portrait

of Kneller

at

in the

234

234

236

236

240

244

in

the

248
250
252

I." and

More

Woolaston
.

Claverhouse

Bodleian

Stuart

Gainsborough

is in
Mrs.

that

of

256

privatecolle^ion

Siddons

Gallery,Oxford,

Royal Academy,
Glasgow, that of Burbage in
Natipnal Portrait Gallery.
-the

242

Sir Antonio

J.

Charles
Gainsborough,
at

Rigaud

Pond

Gilbert

Britton

Thomas

232

Kemble

Thomas

232

Sir

Arthur

Philip

E. Pine

R.

Woffington

John

Francis

Garrick

Peg

Kneller

Betterton

David

232

Whistler

Burbage

Gwyn

Nell

Kneller

Burbage.

Thomas

McNeil

John

Richard

Joseph

and

Wilton

Sir

230

William

Sir

Reynolds,

S. Laurence

Carlylk

Thomas

Scheffer

Ary

....

Thackeray

M.

226

Dickens

Charles
W.

W.

Scott

Walter

Sir

Phillips

H.

224

228

Vandyke

....

224

Plaas

Nasmyth

Keats

William

Vander

are

those

those

of

Hoppner
Corporation
Gallery, and of the

Carlylein the

Dulwich

in the National

BRITISH

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

I.

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

"

is

It

work

the

not

that

but

want
.

face

the

itself, nay,

might

one

In

help

of

likeness

of

these

too

of

brass,
In

gradual

growth
have

the

habit

observed
man

or

have

woman,

to

the

to

brasses,

artist

for

is

down

conventional

the

any

likeness

come
on

exceptions

the

of

than

and

mostly

have

to

seem

monuments

portraiture

evolution

the

nations,

which

Carlvle's

in
this

but
ment.
treat-

general

produced

the

monument,

window.

ancient

not

which

sometimes

tracing

is

is

representation

particular

are

true

the

or

as

"

nations

windows
be

there

and

specimen

true

artist, if there
can."

never

Portraits

to

appear

statement,

this

the

glass

Still

likeness,

the

conventional

sepulchral

stained

botcher

carefully

attempted.

in

us

sense,

in

a6lual

seldom

his

and

man

natural
which

most

women,
more

old

the

is much

in

and

with

period

thus

in

Ages

and

men

of

IL

satisfied

been

pi"5lure

a6lual

the

give,

to

Middle

the

truer

Friedrich

of

History

imaginary

untrue

the
of

least
late

the

beauty

interesting
years

art

fail

cannot

we

in

of

of
of

opened

to

out

the

notice

portraiture,
the

the

among

and

discoveries
before

the

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

of the

eyes

show

The

student.

remarkable

Greece's

during

charm

added

naturalness
artistic

most

the

the

ancient
all

however,

figureswere,

it is the

and

of

portraitstatues

These

monuments

portraiturein

of

power

the

do

sculptorsas
Egyptians.

Assyrian

of the

statues

which

period

ventional,
con-

gives

their

grandeur.
the Egyptians the portraitspainted on
Among
the coverings of mummies
were
evidently in many
an

instances

to

intended

likenesses

as

of the

closed
in-

person

within.*
Professor

Flinders

Hawara

of

in

painted
faces

the

in

Fay

of the

y dm,

panels placed

from

about

were

exhibited

them

are

We

in

of

the

portraiture,but
that

once

were

unable

to

writers

are

that

no

and

no

gems

and

work

of

Mr.

Lysippus.

If

coins

been

Hilton

must

we

Apelles

have

may

mould

Price

has

very

has

not

of

some

the

we

the

praises

we

paintings
therefore

are

the

Roman

and

and

his

should

one

but

stone

far

paint

in

These

a.d.

1889, and

destroyed

that Alexander

should

one

250

of Greek

common,

says

the

Museum.

beauties

judge how
justified.

Horace

in

has

that

asserts

to

140

year

British

time

the

on

panel portraitswas

London

in the

now

read

the

he

and

mummies,

of painting these
pracflice
vogue

wooden

on

wax

in the cemetery
series of portraits

found

Petrie

of

Great

classic

ordained

portraitbut Apelles,
his

head

are

to

in brass

judge by

deplore the

fa6l

down

to

come

fine, but

the

contributed

to

criticism

"

or

the

that the
us.^

It

of the

"

Archaeologia (vol.

two
liv.,p. 363), "Notes
Egyptian Portrait Mummy
upon
coverings, or Shrouds
belonging to the First Century, A.D."
One
of these
is figured,and
it apparently exhibits a speaking

likeness
^

"

of

woman.

lib.
Epistolae,"

ii. epist

i.

INTRODUCTION

classic writers

is

convincing. We do
hold
that the highest art
is that which
the spectatorinto supposing the painted
be a reality.
durable

The
enabled

us

charafter
realize

to

sculpture. The
great period of
Sophocles, now
about

the

Antonelli

not

Greek
in

the

Museum,

where

Caesar, of

Nero

and

Roman

the
and

life-size

of

busts

the
of

statue

found

was

of

Count
Roman

Hence

numerous.

very

has

portrait

remains

remains

to

scene

presented by

The

Pope.

of the

interest

these

Lateran, which

1859,

deceives

Greek

was

is the

art

the

portraitsculptureare
great

fine

how

now

marble

and

stone

grandest of

year
to

of

not

the

Gallery at

the

British

of

and

Julius
by the

Cicero

be
Trajan, can
to-day as these

seen

men
pleasure-seeker of
really
in life.
them
appeared to those who knew
Funeral
In a singularlyinterestingpaper
on
''^
in Europe
the Hon.
Masks
J. Abercromby has
information
respefting early porgiven us much
trait
**

masks.

refers also

He

kings which
destroyed at

the masks

to

preserved

were

at

St.

of French

Denis,

but

period of the great Revolution.


St. Louis
caused
of all the
effigiesto be made
buried
at
kings who
preceded him, and had been
St. Denis, but these were
not
supposed to be portraits.
The
of Philippe le Hardi
tomb
(d. 1285)
is said

to

the

have

contained

royal portraitstatue
We
those

owe

much

to

love

at

the

the

earliest

authentic

St. Denis.

portraitpainter who

and

admire

Folk

Lore,"

live

makes

again before our


With
fully
masterly insightCowper has beautieyes.
expressed the feelingsof all in those exquisite
lines written on
receivinga present of his mother's
and wishes
that
pidlure. At first he asks for more
the portraitcould speak to him, but ends with the
we

"

vol.

vii. p. 351.

HISTORICAL

feeling of

contented

has

presentment
"

And

And

the
view

can

has

but

much

for him

this mimic

thy

sitters with

free

of thee,

in his theft
soothe

to

power

in

painters succeed

their

show

half succeeded

counterfeit

this

fancy still are

of

wings

Thyself removed,

of

how

done

while

Time

Many

PORTRAITS

"

catching

wonderful

left."

me

likeness

the

skill, but

they

do

and
are
merely the rivals of the
nothing more,
photographer. But the great paintergathers into
his portrait the various
moods
of the one
man,
showing him not as he looks at any particulartime,
but with all the possibilities
of the face, and with
all the

inner
has

Tennyson
"Idylls of

when

Divinely

so

and

of

frivolous

finds

in

the

the

man

that his face

mind

and

life

its best

at

even

fullest."

that

generally supposed

often

this

face,

paints him,

colour

for his children

And

that

thro' all hindrance

shape

Lives

have

painterporing on

it,and

Behind

It is

form.

outward

King":

As

The

the

on

beautifully expressed

the

"

written

man

much

fancies

Nicolas

to

put

of their
the

Maes,

up

portrait painters
with
owing to the
There

sitters.
Dutch

is

tale

portrait painter

his

paintings. When
admiration
he had
Jordaens asked
what
the objefts he painted, and when
him
were
that he was
he answered
a
portraitpainter, Jordaens
I pity you
most
said,
sincerely,brother
that branch
of art,
to
artist, for being a martyr
visited

Jakob Jordaens
expressed his

to

see

**

where,
condemned

let your
to
as

number

of both

be

merit

suffer
well

as

the
the

sexes.'*

ever

so

the

great, you

are

pertinence
folly,the imignorance of so large a

whim,

INTRODUCTION

In

of this
consequence
painterwith courtly manners

trials and

make

himself

who

outstripin popular favour


more
abrupt in his manners.

with

William

succeeded
The

Kent,

who

Jervas as

the

profession

well

are

This

the

was

little artistic

with

favourite

difficulties attendant

sitters

painterwho

better

his

to

the

on

illustrated

that
these

bear

can

agreeable

will
is

find

sometimes

we

case

ability,

painter at Court.
portraitpainter s

in

good

story,

like other

which, however,

not
good stories, must
A
be too
striftlyinvestigatedas to its details.
certain artist was
instru6led
to
paint a pifture of
St Francis, but a difficulty
the habit in
to
arose
as
which
be
he was
to
painted, for the saint was
connected
with three
One
orders.
day the artist
the
received
three distinguishedvisitors,first came

head
of

of the

the

other

habit

of his order

The

latter

each

orders, and

two

followed

then

Franciscans,

of

went

bed

to

and

these

of the

for the assistance

heads

the

painter.

his

slept on

sent

trouble,

morning, he had solved


finished
it
the pifture was
difficulty.When
found
that the saint was
painted in bed with
three habits
hanging on the wall, and below

but when
his
was

the

he

there

was

know

which

the

arose

written

There

habit

is

**

to

next

When

saint arises

he will

which

has

been

be

true.

choose."
of Holbein

anecdote

an

the

or
variously reported, and may
may
The
painter was
privatelydrawing

for
himself
of
and

into the

masterful
then
to

till he

when

Henry VHL,

had

chamber.

man,

Holbein

learned

afterwards

lord

complaint,but suppressed

lord

forced

the

impetuosity

threw

him

downstairs,

king, whom
king bade
matter.

arrived
the

lady's portrait

With

the

of

more

the

The

great

the

dire6llyto
pardon him.

ran

not

and

he
him

sought
be-

wait

ately
Immedistated

his

provocation. Henry

You

have

Of

seven

not

one

"

with

do

to

not

peasants

but

Holbein,
as

adding

with

me.

lords, but

many

Lovelace

Richard

threw

this

(**Lucasta.")

verse.

When

of truth,

want

make

can

Holbein."

story into

his

the lord with

reproached
"

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

hufflingHenry there complained


stain*d
A grieved earl that thought his honour
safeties hast !
Away (frownedhe) for your own
In one
Til cast ;
cheap hour ten coronets
to

our

Holbein's

But

Onely

the

noble
of

pangs

an

Gainsborough was
outspoken, as when
there
of

was

end

no

to

lord

prodigiousworth
whole
age bring forth."

and

occasionallyvery
told

he
her

abrupt

story tells

Another

nose.

that

Siddons

Mrs.

and

sittingfor his portrait,


after elaborately composing himself
and
begged
the artist not
to overlook
a
dimple on the chin.
Confound
dimple," said Gainsborough, who
your
refused
stroke to the portrait.
to put another
Closterman
(1656-17 13) had disputes with the
he
Sarah
of Marlborough when
fiery Duchess
of
Duke
for the
painted a family group
great
Marlborough, and the latter said to the painter,
"It has given me
greater trouble to reconcile
my
wife and you than to fighta battle."
Some
wish
to be flattered by the
painter,while
a

pompous

who

was

**

others, like Cromwell, desire all their blemishes


forth.

This

Landor,

the

was

who

addressed

Walter

with

case

Savage

the

following verses
William
Fisher
the painter of his portrait,now
the
National
Portrait
Gallery, but which
originallypainted for John Kenyon.
"

Conceal

not

Time's

misdeeds, but
his mark

Retrace

Let

the

retiringhair
That

set

be
once

silverynow
was

dark

on

my

brow

to

in
was

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

Sotheby,
*'

six small

taining
catalogue as conlength figuresof Henry

whole

of

Duke

of Norfolk, Charles

Duke

Howard,

VIII., Thomas
Brandon,

in the

is described

and

Suffolk, Anne

Boleyn, Mary

Dowager Queen of France, and


of
Scotland, the
Queen
Dowager
with
Greenwich
dancing in a meadow

Margaret,
three
pair

Tudor,

the
that

It
background."
Sir George Scharf

denied

the

The

great, and

in

however,

added,
experts

entirely

of this

ascription.
family portraits are

of

that

those

other

and

correctness

vicissitudes

be

must

Palace

well

are

known

at

\ery

time

one

traits
Walpole writes : Porthat cost
twenty, thirty,sixty guineas, and
that proudly take possession of the drawing-room,
in the next
generation to those of the
give way
new-married
couple, descending into the parlour,
father s
where
as
they are slightlymentioned
my
mother's
and
they become
pictures. When
my
the
and
to
grandmother they mount
grandfather
two
pair of stairs, and then, unless despatched

forgottenat another,

are

to

the

into

mansion

the

broker's
On

in

house

housekeeper

lumber

the

of

shop

another

garrets
in the

"

as

the

room,

or

Seven

country,

or

crowded

they perish

flutter in rags
Dials." ^

among

before

occasion

Walpole wrote to Montagu,


I have
fine
a
given Lady Betty Germaine
very
at
portrait that I discovered
Drayton [her own
^
seat] in a wood-house."
The
of
decay of old families has been the cause
throwing portraitsupon the market, although it is
often that they are
distributed
in so reckless a
not
in the
that adopted by Charles
Surface
as
manner
School
for Scandal."
Most
of the great painters
have
been
in portraiture,
the picture
and
supreme
"

'*

"Anecdotes"

Walpole

to

(art.Jervas),ed. Wornum,
Montagu,

July 25th, 1763.

ii. 272.

INTRODUCTION

galleriesof Europe are filled with portraitswhich


are
portraitsand something more.
Many of the
old Italian picturesof Holy Families
fine
contain
figure portraitsof the patrons and donors of the
pictures,but it is only of late years that portraits
have
colle6led as portraits.
been
Our
National
own
Gallery contains some
larly
singufine
masters
as
portraits by such
great
Raffaelle,Holbein, Giovanni

Bellini,Lorenzo

Lotto,

Bonvicino
Alessandro
Bronzino,
(II
Agnolo
de Ponte
Moretto), G. B. Moroni, Giacomo
(II
and
Bassano), Vandyck, Velasquez, Rembrandt
Nicolas
Maes.
the
glories of the art
Among
the
are
Pope Julius II. of Raffaelle, the Doge
Leonardo

of Holbein,

Ambassadors

himself, the
and

the

be

to

All
be

Admiral

so-called

these

Rembrandt's

Pulido

Gevartius

Cornelis

pictureswhich

are

portraitof

Pareja of Velasquez,
of Vandyck, now
posed
sup-

portraitof

the

Bellini, the Two

of Giovanni

Loredano

Geest

vander

once

seen

never

can

forgotten.
That

remarkable

pi6lureby John Van Eyck, of


his wife,
and
Jan Arnolfini, a Bruges merchant
is not very
of
the personal appearance
to
flattering
the subje6ls,but on
looking at it the spectatoris
filled with

convicftion

This
vicissitudes.
surgeon

of

Regent
highly

of

one

the
she

passed
in

the

battle

of Waterloo.

The

in

fame

belonged to a barberpresented it to the Queen

1815

to

room

valued

She
the

into humbler

taken

some

it

pensioned

it in the

faithful likenesses.

passed through

Netherlands.

was

Gallery

has

time

Bruges, who

found

Hay

pi6lure
At

that
it

that it contains

at

donor.

hands, and
Brussels
from

recover

it

to

quently
SubseGeneral
he

which

his wounds

after

purchased for
1842 from General
Hayfor;^630.
of Giorgione is spread abroad, but
It

was

so

the

our

lO

HISTORICAL

National

colle6lion

when

of

pi6luresdoes

of his work.

good example
ago,

PORTRAITS

so-called

Therefore,

example

interest
was
gallerymuch
and
the disappointment was
The
was
seen.
pi6lure is

attributed

now

this
at

the

British

do.

before

the

eyes

found
"

When

he

of

fair

the

it difficult

to

They\'e pretty
Black

Such

of old

as

In ancient
And

like

so

best's

(The

look

were

by

when

They
stepp'd from

Or

leave

to

him

bound
spellgotten.
for-

gallery
he

that

so

brows, and
copied from

expression

sweet

the

little avail

ill;

of Titian's

it,if ye will,)

see

"

the

over

balcony.

pidlureby Giorgione."

to

on

to

attempt

greatest of all,for it would


agreement

still;

Grecians,

mimick'd

moderns

leaning
out

Venetians,

same

particularportrait painter and


universal

what

the

Byron's

It is of

it is

showed

which

yet, these

Florence

at

it

of

followed

Venuses

many

when

still exhibited, but

about

one

faces

arts

the

get away,

arch'd

eyes,

to

speftator stood
other
pictureswere

all

was

years

Giorgione. After
exhibited
portrait was

The

it,and

acquisition,

equally great

Institution

artist could

some

added

was

felt in the

school

exquisite female

an

the

the

to

contain

not

the

to

fix

hail

Beppo.

one

upon

him

as

the

be

impossible to obtain
point,and nothingwould

Possiblythe question as to
who
the greatest of portraitpainters would
was
itself into a discussion
resolve
of the respective
claims of Titian and Velasquez. Of the former
it
said :
To the Emperor Charles
V. he stood
was
the Great, the only man
as
Apelles to Alexander
and Reynolds
worthy to paint his royal master
;
affirmed
that
to possess
a
once
reallyfine pi6lure
I would
of that great master,
willinglyruin myself."
In April,1817, Byron wrote,
To-day I have been
be

gained if we

could.

**

"

**

'*

1 1

INTRODUCTION

the

over

Manfrini
them

Amongst

Palace, famous
there

is

for
of

portrait

pi6lures.
Ariosto
by

its

Titian/ surpassingall my

of the power
anticipation
of paintingor human
expression : it is the poetf y
of portraitand the portraitof poetry.
There
was
also one
of some
learned
lady centuries old, whose
I forget,but whose
features
name
must
always be
I never
remembered.
saw
beauty, or
greater
sweetness,
mad

wisdom

or

for, because

it is the

"

it

walk

cannot

kind

to go

of its frame."

out

Of

of face

all
are
we
Velasquez Reynolds said : What
attempting to do with great labour, Velasquez did
There
is a subtle feelingin the pictures
at once.''
which
of this great master
be experienced by
must
it is not
to explain. We
all,but which
can
easy
this any day by a walk
through the National
prove
Gallery. A few years ago two magnificentpi6lures
from
the Longford Colle6lion
added
to
were
our
national
No
treasures.
one
passing through the
but must
be arrested
and
rooms
by the brilliancy
Ambassadors'*
beauty of the. **Two
by Holbein.
of the most
attra(5live pi6lures in the
It is one
whole
colle6lion,and a splendid specimen of the
is the portraitof a
In an
master.
adjoining room
somewhat
which
unprepossessing figure,
any visitor
might be excused for overlooking in a cursory view.
When
however, the eyes of the speculator
once
seen,
it exerts
to
it, and
a
continuallyreturn
growing
This
fascination
him.
is the real triumph of
over
the
know
painter; possibly we
nothing of the
Spanish admiral, and there are no brilliant colours
the

on

*'

to

canvas

in the presence
few
who
have
can

are

after remain
'

Hall.

This

is

reallya

attra6l

us,

but

of the work

of

peers,

part of
copy

and

our

from

that

very
the

we

feel that

we

portraitpainter

picturewill

ever

life.

originalportraitat Cobham

HISTORICAL

12

Much

has

been

PORTRAITS

done

in the

past

in the

way

of

but little or nothing


cataloguingengraved portraits,
the produ6lion of a
has been
attempted towards
of English painted
catalogue of the large number
the country.
Mr.
portraitsspread over
George
P. Harding began, in 1804, ^o compile a catalogue
**of all historical Portraits in England*' classifying
them
of 350
according to localities. The contents
included,
picture colle6lions in Great Britain were
and the catalogueextended
volumes.
to four quarto
This
MS.
in the possession of Messrs.
was
Evans,
in 1858.
the printsellers,
ment
Suggestions have been made for the accomplishof this much-needed
work
by the late Lord
Way.
Braybrooke and by the late Mr. Albert
Lord
in 1851 a note
to
Braybrooke contributed
and
Notes
the portraits of distinguished
Queries'** on
he pointed out
Englishmen, in which
the want
of a general catalogue of the national
**

treasures.

In

sirable
de**It would
be
wrote:
Way
to compile a descriptivecatalogueof painted
portraits,those especiallypreserved in the less
accessible
in England."^
A
private colleftions
proposal was
by the Index
subsequently made
index
of
Society to issue an
English painted
portraits referring to all the printed lists and

Mr.

1853

catalogues known

to

exist,but various

in the way
which
this case,
and
the

stood
in

found

were

work

to

be

difficulties

insuperable

still remains

to

be

done.^
^

First

"Notes

author

The

such

Series,iii. 233.
and Queries,"
index, and

an

catalogues
be

useful

and,

in

of this

some

Series,vii. 258.
book
still,
hopes to be able to prepare
is engaged in indexing the lists and

in his way.
showing where the

that

as

he

First

come

instances,how

they

This

pictures
have

be
may
been
have

work

changed

expedled to

hands.

exhibited,

CHAPTER

SPURIOUS

"On

investigations,

coins

pidtures

National

the

the

xl.

is the

much

be

supplied

with

in

more
"

England.'

J.

"

the

and

true

inserted

to

popular

book

by

go

be

of

mistaken

heads

known

the

erroneous

called

;
*

The

Archceologia^

Nichols,

G.

caution

or

portraits which
well

are

the

of

Some

their

forgeries

many

fabricated

many

Lodge

case

of

exercise

are

of

result

to

historical

of

and

Histor)'

are

the

as

there

engravings.

Galleries

same

Pi"5lorial

to

As

there

Houbrakcn

of

names

and

desire

portraits.

mis-named

and

necessary

we

so

PORTRAITS

perceived

be

is

if

medals,

and

will

it

that

historical

faithful

in

it

discrimination

and

MISNAMED

AND

whole

the

II.

80.

One

the

of

has

deal

to

frauds,

are

intended

and

class

his

Granger

tells

Jenny

from
the
from

same

lived

Reeks,

an

Of

the

Holbein,

which

Delawarr

to

the

without

was

of

and

South
This

is

is the

of

Roper

(Sir

Thomas

probably
More's

from

daughter

Kensington

(1866).

and

Devorgilla

the

by

the

Oxford.

drawn

Katharine

lent

re-named
In

College,

class

second

those

Balliol

apothecary's

as

(i)

authority

John

was

of

galleries

evidence.

Oxford,

at

(2) portraits

Balliol

that

number

kinds

two

Balliol

at

described

Knole,

Margaret

portraits

us

city.

and

the

historian

picture

painted
;

wife

who

blacksmith

in

insufficient

the

are

Devorgilla

being

from

or

of

the

in

exist
are

deceive

to

mistake

first

that

which

found

be

These

elsewhere.

which

by

will

with

portraits

spurious
and

difficulties

great

the

in

portrait

Aragon

by

Countess

of

Portrait

hibition
Ex-

likeness

daughter).

of

HISTORICAL

14

All

will remember

readers

descriptionof

by

up

the

Sir

altered

his

at

moustaches

The

own

and

features,"to the

and

tenants

Knight's Head,"

''

in the

de

Roger

his

of

one

PORTRAITS

as

but

Saracen's

Fleming

in

number)

named

was

James

the

which

little

apocryphal series
long galleryat Holy

ten

Coverley

expense,
**

"

Addison's

Sir

to

the

of

inn,

an

had

Roger

of

by the addition
aggravation of

the

Head."

of the

kings of Scotland
rood Palace (one hundred
painted in 1684, by

de

Witt, and

the government
to supply them
oil colours
is still in existence.
The
lent

portraitset

sign

with

Lothian

humorous

Stuart

Exhibition

his
on

contrail
in

canvas

Marquis
(1889)

of
six

U., Robert
HI.,
imaginary portraits of Robert
James I., James H., James HI., and James V.
supposed to have been painted by George Jameson.
When
Charles
I. visited
Edinburgh in 1633 he
welcomed
tion
was
by the magistrates with an exhibiof portraitsby Jameson, to whom
the king
for a whole-length portrait. According to the
sat
Black Book
of Taymouth, as quoted by Mr. Bullock
in his
Life of Jameson," 1885, p. 92, Sir Colin
Scottish Van
to
Campbell employed the
Dyck
paint sixteen portraits,and later nine more.
The
Item.
saide Coline
Campbell gave untoe
George Jameson, painter in Edinburgh, for King
and
Robert
land,
King David
Bruysses, Kings of Scotand Charles
ist King of Great
Britain, France
his Majesties Quein and for nine
and
Ireland
and
of the Queins of Scotland
their portraits,
more
"iuhilkare set up in the halles of Balloch, the sum
thrie scor
hundreth
of two
punds."
There
at Kensington Palace
was
a set of English
This was
said by
kings all painted by one hand.
from
Lord
Cornwallis's
Granger to have come
gallery at Culford in Suffolk, and to have been
"

*'

^'

"

HISTORICAL

Lexington.
in

the

Granger

that there

says

Lexington family that


the

painted at
the

of his

daughters.

haec talis fuit."

Junius, 1565,

is

that

and

verses,

At

it

the

Inthe"

More,

who

from

one

taken

was

bottom

tion
tradi-

portraitwas

the words

were

Hadrianus

Emblemata^'of

similar

the

was

of Sir Thomas

request

added

**

PORTRAITS

figure entitled

**

Uxorise

virtutes."
Lord

Lyttelton

lent

the

South

Kensington
Portrait Exhibition, 1866
(No. 36) a portraitof a
Sir Thomas
as
Lyttelton, K.B.,
judge, described
of the famous

author

to

treatise

**

on

who

Tenures,"

This

to be a copy
piftureis known
from
the pifture in the Inner
Pond
by Arthur
as
Temple Hall, also described
Judge Lyttelton,
but
the late Sir George Scharf
pointed out the
absurdity of the attribution, as the costume
proves
be the portrait of a man
who
lived
that it must

died

in

1481.

than

more

to

suppose

century later.
that

it

was

At

first he

portraitof

was

inclined

Sir

Edward

Lyttelton,Keeper of the Great Seal, who died in


comparing it with an undoubted
1645, ^^^ ^^
likeness, and
no
portraithe found that there was
he then
intended
suggested that the picture was
for Sir Timothy
Lyttelton, brother of the Lord
likeness to the portraitof that
a
Keeper, as he saw
judge by Michael Wright in the Guildhall courts
of law.^
Mr.

Charles

with
the

lent

to

the South

(No. 906) a
John Medina, containing a

Exhibition,
Sir

Winn

musical

1866

instruments,

left, which

was

Kensington
attributed
to
pi"5lure

of five persons
group
and
black servant
to
a

absurdly

catalogue as "the 'Cabal'


only represents a party of

Ministry."

in
It

the

really

musicians.

"Lyttelton Legal Portraits. Thomas,


Athenceum^ January 28th, 1893.
*

described

Edward,

and

Timothy.

'*

THOMAS,

LORD

CLIFFORD,

BY

SIR

P.

LELY.

SPURIOUS

AND

MISNAMED

PORTRAITS

Sir

the
aeum"
Athento
George Scharf contributed
teresting
incurious
and
(March nth, 1893) a most
article on
the misnaming of a series of
of the
portraitsof Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, one
of the Cabal
members
Ministry,which would have
been
supposed impossible if it had not been so
ledge.
clearlydescribed by an expert of such great know''

1865 the Trustees

In

Albans, and

the

it is

described

so

catalogue published

was

no

late

as

the

doubt

to

reason

in

another

Lauderdale,
noticed

the

the

ascriptionas
Grammont

at

another

the

it

was

He

then

the

Treasury,

names

visiting

was

Duke

the

of

Cabal, when
of

of

went

nine

styled the
to

the

10,

historical

but

the

the

one

house

"

seat

Scharf
of

Arlington,
portrait,but

of Monmouth."

Duke
the

First

Lord

Downing Street, where


portraits all inscribed
which

was

third

of

Clifford

of

the

sufficiently

behind,

Hall, formerly the


Cabal, the Earl

counterpart

this time

trait
por-

Memoirs,

was

remained

more

Euston
of

member

This

Maynard."

confusing, but
found

the

Long Gallery a counterpart


was
portrait,but on the frame

Lord

"

of the

member

of

There

1888.

as

in the

national

name

are

trait
Por-

in the edition

engraved
and other places,as that of Jermyn.
In July, 1876, Sir George Scharf
Ham
House, formerly the seat of
was

he

National

Gallery purchased a portrait by Lely which


supposed to represent Henry Jermyn, Earl of

was

St.

of the

counterpart

of

there
with
of

portrait. Scharf then referred to his


from
MS.
notes
a
by
catalogue of portraitsmade
George P. Harding in 1804, and here he found
both
the
and
Euston
Downing Street portraits
Clifford.
described
likenesses of Lord
as
Inquiries
at
Ugbrooke, Devonshire, the seat of the present
Clifford of Chudleigh, elicited the fa6l that
Lord
the

Clifford

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

there
of

there

were

them

settled, and
of

here

be

Clifford

as

that

noticed

Scharf, by

George

was

of the

naming
mis-

established.

portraitswas

It may

matter

instance

curious

most

the

so

one

National

the

of

being a counterpart
Gallery picture,and

Portrait

Lord

portraits of the first lord,

two

slip of
High

Lord

his

in

the

article

describes

pen,

Chancellor

Sir

he

"

was

Lord

that
It is rather curious
High Treasurer.
in the newly published catalogue of the Gallery
in
another
instance of corrected
ascription occurs
the article immediately next
that relating to
to
Clifford.
Lord
This refers to an interesting
portrait
of Cleveland, represented
by Knellerof the Duchess
the

as

of the

widow
The

in

1705.
mistress

in

idea

of

mourning

of Castlemaine,
Charles
for

ludicrous.

rather

appears

Earl

the

portraitof
viz, Rachel, Lady Russell.
as

due

to

Viscount

Ditchley

her
This

very

The

who

died

II.'s abandoned

injured husband
pifturewas
chased
purdifferent
true

Dillon, P.S.A., who

woman,

ascriptionis
possesses

at

replicaof this pifture.


As already stated there is no
authentic
painted
Thomas
Hollis told Granger
portrait of Hampden.
that he had made
particularinquiry after a genuine
portraitwith the obje6lof engraving it,but he could
find an
undoubted
never
original. At the South
two
Kensington Exhibition, 1866, there were
traits
porsaid to be of Hampden,
Earl
lent
the
one
by
of St. Germains
(No. 606) and the other by the
Bishop of Hereford
(No. 613).^
A very
remarkable
instance
of misnaming came
A
to
light about forty years ago.
portrait at
Holland
House
long passed for that of Addison,
and
studied
for
Westmacott
was
by Sir Richard
*

Mr.

Lionel

of

Hampden

Cust
at

informs
Windsor

the author
Castle.

that

there

is

ture
minia-

SPURIOUS

the

AND

of

Statue

MISNAMED

Addison

PORTRAITS

ere(!rled in

Westminster

Abbey, in 1809.
original,
belonging to Mr.

the

exhibited

was

that

the

in

portrait hitherto

Addison
Fountaine

(an intimate

Sir Isaac
The
the

the

at

shown

Winter

1896, and
the

867, there

the

Kit

and

went

and

is said

named

the

then

*'

in

The

Royal Academy,

Kit

the

Bristol, who

represents

*'

Lebeck."

No.

Club.

No.

is described

as

reallyrepresents
nothing to do
was
originally

It

man
ran

home

from

away

He

subsequently returned,

up

with

his old

master

an

Bristol, which

near

After

145, lent

as

his death

by

the Baroness

representing the
is attributed

painted by
Samuel

Richardson

he

the house

of

to

"Athenaeum,"

Odlober

of

Kneller.

Dutchmen,

sent

Windsor,

members

and

portraitof

Bradshaigh, which Mr. Leslie


possiblythe portraitafterwards
*

hibition,
Ex-

group
Kneller.

Lady

set

as

of misnaming

cases

Cat

had

This

Stapleton road,

Club, and

Cat

Club.

have

to

is described

was

with

America.

by

1813.^

Kit

exhibited

chaff-cutter, and the old inn, called


and Chaff-cutter," was
Lebeck
standing

taken

was

Mint.

picture of

was

serious

two

are

publican who

Cat

to

the

on

in

the

by Mrs. H. W. Hutton,
portraitof Christopher Catt.

apprentice

inn

of

ceeded
suc-

of the

lent

Lebeck,
an

Swift) who

which

of

Andrew

the

in connection

with

Sir

Leslie's

R.

that

be

to

of

found

catalogue it is described
portrait.
catalogue of the South Kensington

137,
the

then

was

of

House

Exhibition
in

Addison's
In

in C.

Corner,

Fountaine,

Warden

as

Holland

Library at

it

likeness

Newton

portraitis

Andrew

friend

1858, however,

supposed

reallythe

was

Poets'

^^

and

London,

the

It

really

was

not

himself

to

Stevens

thinks

in the

posses-

26th, 1867, p. 542.

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

20

sion

of

*'

long

who

had

and

christened

for

the

"

Robinson

Sir Thomas

star

riband

blue

and

it Sir

aristocratic

Robert

of

Rokeby,

painted

Walpole

company

it
upon
fit it
to

which

among

he

placed it.^
this great
of endless

For

evil

of

misnaming,

confusion, the

is the

which

satisfa6lory
remedy is the adoption of a practiceof writingthe
of the subje6l on
of the pifture.
the back
name
This
pra6licehas been frequently advocated, but
to
never
generallyadopted. Evelyn wrote
Pepys
(August 1 2th, 1689), Our painters take no care to
transmit
of the persons
to posteritythe names
they
represent." Locke, writingto Collins, says :
Pray
the back of my
Lady
get Sir Godfrey to write on
Masham's
the
and
on
pi6lure Lady Masham
back of mine
he did to Mr.
This
John Locke/
be done, or else the
to
Molyneux ; it is necessary
lost in two
three
are
or
pi6luresof private persons
generations."
awful
Lord
Braybrooke, in 1851, quotes an
example in support of the same
plea. He writes :
The
of the artist and
practiceof writing the name
of the frames
the backs
represented on
person
would
probably be better observed, and I may
mention, as a proof of this precaution being necessary,
the instance
of a baronet
in our
day having
old house
inherited
full of pi6lureswhich
an
were

cause

most

**

**

'

**

"

"

all described

and

one

fa6lory terms

**

as

in laconic

Portraits

of

and

Ladies

most

and

unsatismen
Gentle-

unknown."'*

of the value
back

Horner,

late Leonard

The

of this

of the frame

advice, and

of the

"

"Notes

Southey's Life
and

and

he

portraitof

M.P., painted by Raeburn


^

F.R.S.,

in

was

inscribed
Francis

18 12, which

Correspondence,"

Queries,"

First

sensible
on

Horner,
is

iii. 347.

Series,iii. 233.

the

now

HISTORICAL

22

Blandy

Mary

but

the French

the

of
illustrating
several

same

misnamed

that of

as

thing

has

books

who

Hackman,

been

done

in the

for instance, there


the

portraits in
Memoirs,

ordinary
perhaps

but

of

"

**

No
is

topographer

was

deception is the portrait


Blomefield
is
(1705
1752) which
oftavo
edition of his
History of
genuine portrait of this famous

the

Norfolk."

Pindar

portrait then sold


portraitof Lamothe,

the

Grammont

of Francis
to

Pond,

the

flagrantinstance

prefixed

for

duty

published in

was

of Peter

name

sold

standard

of the

most

have

Pond,

way

was

the

Sometimes

the

same

Spy,
Ray.

Miss

editions

Horse"

for Pond's, and

largely.^In

father, do

portrait of John

the
selling,

not

substituted

are

"

as

her

Howe.

usually known

shot

murder

to

Commodore

1787,

PORTRAITS

much

is said, however,

He

extant.

resembled

to

Flamsteed

John

(1646
Martin, preserved and
1 7 19) that his friend, Tom
valued
the Astronomer
a portraitof
Royal for no
so

other

In

reason.

Flamsteed's

When
after
the

Hogarth

the

to

which

Roubiliac
he

day,

it

in the
when

great

was

On

to

the
the

entrance

portrait of

photographs

Fielding
him

for

power

of

occasion, Garrick
of

sculptor
hall.

field.
Blome-

to

sat

a6lor

the

statue

British

likeness,

represent

another

for the

paid

his

to

death, Garrick

his face.

bequeathed
stands

so

used

drew

novelist's

likeness,

changing
sat

portraitwas

this

of

consequence

"

300

Shakespeare,

guineas.

Museum,
Even

in

and

the

it

for
He

now

present

plentiful,
portraitsare
which
taken
from the supposed
common
were
never
of the portraitsof
subje6ls. It is said that some
Prince
Bismarck
and
of the Emperor
William
I.
have
been
from a made-up double.
taken
^

Smith's

are

"Nollekens,"

i. 354.

SPURIOUS

When

be

to

generally

instance.

the

that

in
of

**Life

of

letter

to

unvirtuous

pi6lure

This

of

number

British

of

the

late

1774,

Kitty

Fisher

found

was

evidence,

portrait
Reynolds

which

Crewe's

Kensington

picture "^2

los!'

there

identical
was

then

portrait
in

1867

was

(No.

was

with

in the
also

613).

really

picture
lent
s

**Mr.
This

further

Cosin the

but

of this

Reynolds
entry:

the

appeared

who

this

but

is almost

in

the

not

by

but

it

exhibited

founded
un-

the
to

the
for

ledger

for

Crewe

pretty

proof,

Munro

an

was

was

another

of

presented
re-

still, that

The

Crewe,

and

and

"

disposed

Lord

in

portrait really

Athenaeum

assertions.

Institution,

April,

"

completely

string
of

the

Taylor's

circumstantial,

very

and,

afforded

was

Reynolds,

by

portrait

and

Stranger

painted

all looked

which

property

Fisher.

tion,
Institu-

the

be

Woolls,

named

lady

British

Leslie

the

that

stated

he

Reynolds,

proof

in

printed

this

to

in

such

while

virtuous

not

was

answer

Lord

Joshua

as

Kitty

following

strong

Sir

by

following

was

the

be

to

Athenaeum,"

**

In
at

become

to

the

which

1866.

many

possible

the

said

Times,"

The

"

of

pi6lure

Reynolds,"

way.

year,

course,

from

seen

those

as

apt

quite

letter

7th,

described

moreover,

is

be

of

are

exhibition

on

Fisher,

Kitty

it

may

July

was

that

but

journal
for

there

we

23

such

are,

correspondent

number

that

as

A
to

there

registered,

incredulous,

wrote

and

sceptical,

PORTRAITS

instances

over

above,

to

more

MISNAMED

think

we

referred

too

AND

for

the

Kitty

Colle6lion.
at

South

by

CHAPTER

III.'

FROM

PORTRAIT-PAINTERS

BRITISH

HOLBEIN

TO

HIGHMORE

Genius

"

of

is

painter

the

subje(5l.

heroes
that

it is in

best.

always

not

and

is

continuing

in

the

is

and

like

though

with

pride,

which

imply

covered

the

owner's

of

In

give

and

short

flourished
Holbein

to

the

that

no

names

works

ordinary

artist
of
of

of

little
the

of

be

is

than

chapter
chief

day.
merit

note

are

Most

will

names

have

been

have
available

great

Holbein,
centuries
been

has

is

attempt

Ireland

The

be

of

found
been
and
artists

left
to

out,

included
will
have

be

have
time

it is

but

omitted.

be

to

of

hoped
Some

because
found
at

of

number

large

made

the

from

of

too

who

portrait-painters

and

by

England

here

an

that

excellent,

in

It

Johnson.

"

name

shores.

of

use

complicated

however

painted

he

affedlion

of

it."

own

those

of

laudable

excite

nor

and

always

This

pi"5lures that,

the

importance
artists

sake

it is often

more

to

his

of

remembered.

actions

is

ing
renew-

is

need

the

for

the

absent,

consequence

Scotland,

slight

any

colle"5lions.

to

following

present

portrait-painters

but

were

of

England,

the

it

our

in

man

portrait-painters

on

account

in

little

therefore

of

fidtion,

any

the

of

Every

thedistinguished

landed

this

dead.

virtue,

portraits

he

before

the

with

to

diffusing friendship,
affecflions

pride

great

with

good

in

art

transfer

Reynolds
and

the

is greatest

what

splendour

human

such

life

see

reasonable

other

are

commences

but

hopes

and

even

series

The

he

all

yet

palaces

neither

desire

rational

has

can

whom

by

and

art

and

to

the

of

obscurity

the
"

empty

presence

nor

it is in

as

and

pi"5lures,
in

lost

grieve

quickening

himself,

resemblance,

to

historical

often

employed

now

the

to

loves,

should

tenderness,

present

painting

goddesses,

which

art

is

portraits

of

But

in

exerted

chiefly

some

the
in

the
time

FROM

much

HOLBEIN

fashion

the

TO

HIGHMORE

2$

that

pi6lures
the work
of foreigners. The
were
inquiryinto the
artistic labours
of our
has been
ancestors
too
long
but at last there are
negle"5led,
signs that inquirers
are
man
arisingwho will be able to place the Englishin his proper
artist.
It is
position as an
that

strange

to

the

suppose

should

idea

these

have

abroad
gone
in this island

all

that

early paintings of any merit


the
it has
were
production of foreigners,when
long been
acknowledged that the Englishman
stood

the

at

of the

producers
fa6l,

in

truthful
the best
the

to

MS.
we

of
under

are

and

script
manu-

Ages. We have,
manuscripts for the most
Thus
early celebrities.

portraits of our
portraitwe possess

(4866),and
The

miniaturists

Middle

the

to

go

Harleian

scribe

of the

head

of Chaucer

the
a

**

is found

Canterbury
of

debt

Tales"

gratitudeto

produced it.
Society of Antiquaries gathered

in

the

who

in

the

interestingcolle6lion of
the
early paintingsand MSS.
a
as
help towards
settlement
of this question of how
far the piftures
the
produced in England
were
produ6lion of
Englishmen. On June i ith last Mr. W. R. Lethaby
read
the Westminster
most
a
important paper on
School
in which
of Painting,"
he gave
particulars
respecting the picturespainted and the amounts
He
able to say definitely
not
paid for them.
was
that the fine portraitof Richard
1 1, in Westminster
Abbey was
painted by an
Englishman, and we
wait for further lighton
this point. If it can
must
of

summer

1896

most

**

painted portraits,but
painters,and their names
of
National

known

this

have
that

chapter

experts, has

"

made

not

omitted.
work

contains

"

the

them
In

portrait-

the

tion
compila"Di6lionary of

of excellent
large number
written
wellportrait-painters,
by
used
the
fa"5ls.
to
verify
largely

British

been

been

noble

which

"

Biography
biographies of

has

that

26

HISTORICAL

be

that this

proved

PORTRAITS

native

produ6lion,we may
satisfied with the Englishman's artistic position
rest
in the fourteenth
as
a great portrait-painter
century.
Our
obtained
earlier sovereigns appear
to have
the services
but

of the best

of them

none

was

until Charles

artists that

showed

I.,who

artistic

marked

any

the great

was

available,

were

art

taste

colle6lor

of

his time.

Jean

de

is

abuse

supposed by

have

to

some

reign of Henry VII.,


is said to have
and
painted portraitsof the king,
of the royal family,and
of the nobility. Horace
himself
Walpole committed
unreservedly to this
of too penurious
view, and wrote
Henry VII. was
charafter
find that
to
a
patronise artists,and we
visited

in

England

the

**

Mabuse

was

he
a

to

that

received

residence
of

little satisfied with

so

England

quitted
only."
*

of

these

he

one

year

the fa6l of

remarks,
has

been

the ment
encourageEngland after
ever,
spite,how-

In

visit

Mabuse's
The

disputed.

grounds

for

never
believingin it were
very substantial, and
when
it was
proved that the portraitsof three
children
at
Court, supposed to have
Hampton
the children
been
of
not
painted by him, were
Henry VII. but of Christian II., King of Denmark,
they almost entirelydisappeared.*
Hans
Holbein
(1497 1543) arrived in England
the beginning of the year
with letters of
at
1527
"

introduction
in whose
first

from

house

Erasmus

he

was

Sir Thomas

to

domiciled

for

More,

time.

of the

The

king is
in 1536, the date when
the portraitof Lady Jane
Vienna,
at
was
Seymour, now
painted, but it is
of his
until 1538 that there is direA evidence
not
trace

official

of his

being

in the service

position.

"Anecdotes,"

For

ed. Womum,

fuller notice

of this

i.

iii.

pidturesee

chapter

viii.

FROM

In

HOLBEIN

W.

Mr.

1861

of

TO

H.

HIGHMORE

Black

2^

communicated

the

to

discovery of the will


of Holbein,
described
as
**John Holbein, servant
the Kings
to
Majesty," which
proved that the
stead
inNovember,
or
painter died in Oftober
1543,
of 1554, as had
previously been believed.*
Society

Mr.

**

Black

the

traced

Carel

to

Antiquaries

his

origin of

Mander's

van

'*

the

Schilder

of

Lives

with

some

seen

that

of

amount

number

would

Holbein

have

"

of

(or

in 1618.

first received

at

as
incredulity,

considerable

date

Boeck

Vienna

Painters/')published at
important discovery was

This

incorreft

it

at

was

once

buted
pi6lures attri-

given up, and


other paintersfound for them, especially
the pi6lure
VI. as delivering
at Bridewell, representing Edward
the Mayor
the royal charter of endowment
to
(1552). Mr. Wornum
suggested that Guillim
have
Stretes, painter to Edward
VI., may
painted
the pifture,but this is nothing more
than a conjefture.
It does
credit to Dr. Waagen's critical acumen
that, although he had no suspicion that 1554 was
to

incorreft

to

the

as

of death,
the

change

in

Holbein

which

in

Even

date

of

National

he

noticed

first of the

Portraits

held

was

the

painter.
attributed
could

not

The
time

same

In
to

name,

he

consequence,
Holbein
in

possiblyhave

influence
was

as

South

at

of

enormous,
^

"

several
that

been

Holbein
and

his

exhibition

the

style was

Archaeologia,"xxxix.

that
man
as

portraits were

272.

which

him.

painted by
upon

been

described

not

was

hibitions
Ex-

three

Kensington, Mr. Blacks


discovery had not
hinted
unhesitatinglyaccepted, and it was
the will might have
referred
other
to some
with

siderable
con-

buted
style of the pifturesattriwere
painted after 1543.
the

1866, when

be

to

men

of

his

copied by

28

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

all his
the
the
at

that
was
contemporaries. The consequence
fame
of these
by
painters has been obscured
Experts
exceeding lustre of Holbein's name.

once

set

work

to

to

draw

attention

to

the

help to the discovery of


the
who
men
painted the portraitsafter 1543,
which
Mr.
are
generally attributed to Holbein.
to the Society
John Gough Nichols communicated
of Antiquariesa valuable
entitled
Notices
paper
of the Contemporaries and Successors
of Holbein,"*
in which
Andrew
he proves
that John Browne,
Toto
Wright, and
were
successively
Anthony
I. Nicholas
to Henry VH
serjeant-painters
Lyzarde
VI.
second
(died 1570) was
painter to Edward
when
and
he himself
Toto
was
serjeant-painter,
became
successivelyserjeant-painterto Queens
is no
Elizabeth.
There
evidence,
Mary and
R.
W.
that he
however,
painted portraits. Mr.
ing
Lethaby has found that he received ;^57 for paintthe great vane
[at Windsor] with the king's
Also for
and
with a great crown.
queen's arms,
painting,priming,stopping,gildingand varnishing
lion holding up the said vane,
first primed
a great
with
soden
soden
oil,secondly with red lead and
oil,then stopped with oils and red lead, then primed
twice
and
wrought three times in colours, and so
Also
giltwith fine gold in oil,and so varnished.
the beasts, arms,
for painting in the same
way
painters of

the

time

as

"

**

freezes

and

cornices."

These

part

were

of

the

corded
regularduties of a serjeant-painter.It is also reof the history
that Lyzarde painted **a table
which
he presented to Queen
of Ahasuerus,"
Elizabeth
a
as
new
Terling (or
year s gift. Levina
of the time,
miniaturist
a
Terlinck) of Bungay was
andJohannesCorvus,Gerbicus(orGerlach)Fliccius,
Stretes were
able portrait-painters.
and Guillim
"

"

xxxix.
Archaeologia,"

19.

"

be

to
"

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

30

photographed,

Holbein
The

in Windsor/*
artist

next

foremost
of Sir

and

to

fine

has

be

entitled

volume

been

published.

mentioned

was

of the

one

The
portraitpainters of the world.
More
Anthony
1 581) has so
(15 12

name
tially
essen-

"

English sound
might easily be deluded
native
of England.
a

The

however,

Anthonis

an

name,

Moro.

Moro

are
was

born

careless

that

the

into

supposing
correft

him

to

of

forms

Mor

Utrecht,

at

student

his

Antonio

or

and

be

served

as

When
he was
sent
pupil of Jan Schorel.^
young
Charles
V., and
to Spain to paint for the Emperor
he
from
to
came
England with a commission
Philip II. to paint the portrait of Queen Mary,
in the Prado
which
is now
He
Gallery at Madrid.
painted portraitsof Gresham, Sir Henry Lee, and
short a time in England that
others, but he was
so
could
he
have
not
painted all the portraitsof
It is said that
English patrons attributed to him.
Moro
received
hundred
one
pounds and a chain of
gold for his portraitof the queen.
We
Elizabeth,
to the reign of Queen
now
come
when
of
a
large number
foreign and
English
flourished.
to have
painters appear
Lucas
d'Heere
(1534
1584) having been
a

"

banished

from

Ghent

on

of his heretical

account

opinions, took refuge in England in 1568, and


his pi6lure of the queen
with the three
goddesses
Court
at
was
Hampton
painted in the following
in 1577.
There
is
to Ghent
year.^ He returned
the
dates
of the
of many
some
difficultyabout

portraitsattributed
*

There

is

possessionof
^

"

Mr.

portraitof

the

Lionel

this

painter by

apparently

his

Cust, F.S.A., contributed


"

of Lucas

but

pupil,Moro,

he

in the

Society of Antiquaries.

Archaeologia (liv.59-80)

Works

him,

to

D'Heere,

entitled

Poet

and

"Notice
Painter

valuable
of

the

of Ghent."

to
paper
Life and

the

was

of

of

painter

Holbein,

and

his

HIGHMORE

those

of

some

is attached

name

attributed

-to

full-length
Lodge at Trinity

Master's

in the

VHI.

Henry

TO

HOLBEIN

FROM

to

College,Cambridge.
Marcus

Gheeraerts,

Protestant

was

the

outbreak

Marcus

after
in

of

took

the

refuge in England at
persecution in 1568.
Garrard) the younger
to England in 1580

Alvan

Gheeraerts

born

was

who

at

Zucharo

elder,

the

Garrard

or

(or Mark
Bruges, and came
had
quitted the

died

He

country.

1635.
Cornelius
in

Ketel

(1548

and

1573

was

of

one

portraitpainters of his
Elizabeth
to
Queen
Hatton,

and

He

back

was

worked

in

again

Federigo

the

time.

by

Zucharo,

to

most

able
remark-

Chancellor

for

eight years.

1581.

(1543

Zucchero

or

duced
intro-

was

Lord

in

land
Eng-

came

He

London

Holland

in

6)

161

"

employed by Pope Gregory XHL,


i'6o9)was
having quarrelled with the Pope's servants,
returned

to

of Cardinal
and
the chief

France,

he

where

Lorraine.

In

painted Queen

Court.

signed his works, so


of portraitsis always
him
residing here a few years
he

when

Luke,
Frans

the

son

He

was

to

founded
which

the
he

Pourbus
of Peter
considered

the

open

to

he

bequeathed
elder

Pourbus,
to

be

He

under
one

but
he

service

land,
Eng-

to

came

that

well-known

the

he

1574

Elizabeth, and

of her

persons

the

entered

"

of

many

ever,
how-

never,

ascriptionto
doubt.

returned

to

academy

After

Rome,
of St.

all his property.

(1540
whom
of the

"

1580)
he
most

was

studied.
guished
distin-

He
is
portrait-paintersof his time.
supposed to have painted a portraitof Knox, and
of George Buchanan
one
by him is in the Royal
When
Society Colleftion.
the authenticity
of the

Carlylewas
ing
investigatKnox
he tried
portrait,

HISTORICAL

32
to

all the

see

he

and

PORTRAITS

examples
much

was

of Pourbus

interested

the

in

he

work

could,

portrait

of

Buchanan.
George
about

1575
painter in
him

to

to

or

of

the

cutt

being cutt
exception

in

was

sole

of

our
or

same

flourished

Majesty's serjeantproposed to grant


make,
privilegeto
'*

all

of

maner

pur-

phisiognomy
person
body in oyle cullers on
our

to

grave
in woode
or

copper

have

to

all and

pi6luers
canvas

or

the

made

proporcon

boardes

it

deputy
be

to

appears
her

was

oil, and

trai(5ls and
and

1585,

"

his

or

cause

or

who

Gower,

the

to

or

woode

in copper

same

printe

same,

otherwise,"

or

an

this order

in favour
of
being made
Milliard in respeftto portraits in small
in lymnynge only, and not
otherwise."

Nicholas

to

"

compasse

There

is, however,

evidence

no

that

patent

was

reallyexecuted.
Meres

in

his

remarkably valuable and


course
Comparative Disinterestinglittle work entitled
of our
English Poets"
(1598),written at
the end of Elizabeth's
reign,gives a list of some
of England's great painters. After
mentioning
and
Parrhasius
he
writes
As
:
Apelles, Zeuxis,
skilful Greece
had
and
these
learned
excellently
for their limning,so England hath these
renowned
Milliard, Isaac Oliver, and
John de Creetes,
for painting." Further
he adds :
famous
on
very
had these painters
As Greece, moreover,
so
have
also
in England
these
William
and
we
and John Bettes,
Francis
Segar, brothers, Thomas
cus,
Lockey, Lyne, Peake, Peter Cole, Arnolde, MarJacques de Bray. Cornelius, Peter Golchis,
Van
Peter
de
Velde."
of
Some
Hieronymus,
still held in high respe6l,but of
these names
are
Francis

**

"

"

"

...

"

and

See

communication

from

Sir

Queries,"First Series,vi. 238.

Frederick

Madden,

"Notes

HOLBEIN

FROM

Others

know

we

TO

HIGHMORE

little.

but

33

portraitby John

Bettes, dated

added
the National
to
1545, was
the colle6lion
of the late
1897 from

Gallery in
The
R.A.
of the painter,
name
George Richmond,
in the writing of the time, is on
a
portionof the
down
cut
at
panel which, when the pifture was
unknown
is
some
period, was
preserved, and
fastened to the back of the pi6lure. The
tion
inscripfai6l par
Bettes
:
runs
Johan
Anglois."
The
of
the
identified
portraitwas
subje6l
by the
late Sir George Scharf
that of Edmund
as
Butts,
of Sir William
third son
Butts, physicianto Henry
"

VIII.

In

the

Garrard, and

list, Marcus

above

Hieronymus

for

De

stands

for

Richard

Bye.

in the service of
was
Lyne, painterand engraver,
The name
of Richard
Stevens,
Archbishop Parker.
sculptor,painter,and medallist, might have been
added
to his list.
by Meres
We

to

come

now

the

of the

name

first

English

of note, viz. Nicholas


Milliard,
portrait-painter
the miniaturist
(1537 1619). He was very precocious,
ture
and at the age of thirteen painted a miniais signed and dated,
N. H.
of himself,which
of himself in mature
life is at
A miniature
1 550."
Ronald
Gower
Penshurst.
Lord
reproduces in
Galleries
his
of
Great
Historic
England" a
series of miniatures
by Hilliard of Henry VII.,
VI., and
Lady Jane Seymour
Henry VIII., Edward
Castle.
also
Windsor
He
from
painted
portraitsof Elizabeth, and Mary, Queen of Scots,
"

"

**

and

refers

Donne

Storm,"

1597

On

May

grant

his

"

The

James

I.

poem,

:
"

By
By

in

him

to

Hilliard
a

worse

5th,

giving

drawn

or

eye

is worth

history

painter made."

161 7, he

him

hand

for

received
twelve
D

from

years

an

exclusive

HISTORICAL

34

PORTRAITS

and
imprint any
right to invent, make, grave
pi6lureor pi6lures of our image or other representation
of our
person."^ By this authority Hilliard
could grant licences or seize upon
such portraits
as
not
were
duly authorized.
the Manchester
Art
Treasures
(1857)
Among
a
was
portraitof Sir Oliver Wallop by Hilliard
It is
lent by the Earl of Portsmouth.
which
was
noted
in the catalogue as
a
rare
specimen in large
miniature
of this celebrated
painter."
"

"

successful

Another

miniaturist

Oliver

Isaac

was

It is generally
1617),a pupil of Hilliard.
an
Englishman of French
supposed that he was
believe
been
him
have
to
a
origin, but some

(1556

"

and

Frenchman,
Olivier

his

written

is sometimes

name

Ollivier.

or

(flourished1590
1610) was
in oilin limning,and
a pupil of Hilliard, "skilful
and
works
perspe6lives,"and is reputed to have
painted a portraitpiece of Sir John More, and Sir
in terms
and
More
his family,described
Thomas
Lockey

Rowland

which

from

it would

Holbein,

to

"

the

be

to
appear
but
dates

group
make
to

seem

assumption rather improbable.^


The
surviving painters of Elizabeth's
of James I. as we
found
favour at the Court
in the

seen

of Mark

case

of Hilliard.

Garrard

the

Rymer's "Foedera,"

*'*

As

rule, the

names

The

younger,

same

and

xvii. 15.
of miniaturists

are

not

this

reign
have
be said

may

John

buted
attri-

de

Critz.

included

this

in

is a
chapter, as the subjedt of miniature
portrait-painting
of
these
but some
large one, and requires separate treatment,
miniaturists
also painted in large,and
it is impossible to leave
of Hilliard and Oliver, as they are
the names
of the greatest
out
interest in the history of portraiture in England, and
prove
that
much
native bom
not
so
triumphantly
Englishmen were
behind

in the

supposed.

art

production

of

the

country

as

is sometimes

HOLBEIN

FROM

Garrard

TO

HIGHMORE

35

appointed Court Painter to James I'


and
of Denmark,
Anne
and
painted portraits of
Charles.
Prince
His
Henry and Prince
portrait
of Camden
(1609) is in the Bodleian
Library.
The
of English and
pi6lureof the Conference
in 1604, bought at the
Spanish Plenipotentiaries
Hamilton
Sale for the National
Portrait
Gallery
for ;^2,520, then
bore
the name
of a Spanish
painter Pantoja de la Cruz, but Sir George Scharf
bears
assigned the work to Garrard, and it now
his

was

name.

(d. 1641), a Flemish


painter,
was
Walsingham
subsequently
by
I.
He
serjeant-painterto James I. and Charles
from
painted a few portraitsand scenes
masques.
Miereveldt
Michel
(1567
Janszen
1641)
Critz

John de
patronised

"

born

was

Delft, and

at

several

was

visit this country, but there


done
Portraits by him
so.

times

proof

is no

invited

to

of his

having
of Elizabeth, Queen
of
Bohemia, the Earl of Southampton, and Sir Ralph
in the National
Portrait Gallery.
Winwood,
are
Paul
Vansomer,
to
1621) came
(about 1576
He
painted porEngland about the year 1606.
traits
of Denmark,
the Lord
of James I.,and Anne
"

of their

members
Earl

the

Castle,

buried

was

Janszoon

of

about

by

Wars,

16

twenty
of
he

Vandyck.
retired

to

Arundel,
died

in

at

him

of

Arundel

London,

and

Ceulen

van

or

Cornelis

1665) is said to
London.
He
pra6lised in
was
engaged in the service
fashionable
a
painter for

was

years,

portraitsby

(1590

18, and
He

other

many

of St. Martin-in-the-Fields.

in

born

in

that

He

8.

Keulen

van

James

161

Janssen

been

London

of

in the church

Cornelius

have

Good

Court.

dated

and

Pembroke,

Countess

and

are

of

Earl

Chamberlain,

but

his fame

On

the

Amsterdam.

"

was

overshadowed

outbreak

of the

Civil

36

HISTORICAL

Daniel

PORTRAITS

Mytens
to
over
(1590 1656) came
with
161
earlier
works
before
8.
His
are
England
from those of Vansomer.
distinguished
difficulty
He received the grant of a house in St. Martin's
Lane, and was appointedKing'sPainter to Charles
I. in 1625,but when Vandyck arrived in England,
he felthimself to be overmatched, and he begged
the king to give him leave to return
to Holland,
quently
without success.
He did,however, go back subseand died there.
Adriaen
Hanneman
who was
(1601 ? 1668 ?),
born at the Hague, was
and
assistant
of
a
pupil
Mytens,and he may have accompaniedhis master
when he came
He remained here
to this country.
for some
and
returned
the
to
Hague in 1640.
years,
His portraits
of Charles H. and the Duke
of
in
Hamilton, painted 1650,are at Windsor Castle.
He was
of Mary, Princess of
the favourite painter
of
Orange,daughterof Charles I.,and his portrait
her,dated 1660, is at St. James s Palace. Portraits
of Charles I. and Vandyck by him are at Vienna.
A likeness of William HI. when a boy,painted
in
1664, is at Hampton Court.
Sir Balthasar
Gerbier, the architeft and prosomewhat
of a painter. In 1623 he
was
jeftor,
followed Prince Charles and Buckinghamto Spain,
where he painteda portrait
of the Infanta,which
I.
he sent
Lord Ronald Gower
to
over
James
in a very charming
believes he has found this portrait
Newnham
Earl
of Denbigh's
at the
pifture
seat,
Paddox, a fine photographof which he givesin his
"Great
Historic Galleries of England." If he is
have been
correft in this ascription,
Gerbier must
a
good artist. In the Jones colleftion (South
of
KensingtonMuseum) is a miniature portrait
Charles I.,done by him en grisaille.
Robert
Peake the father of the better known
"

"

38

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

reign,is supposed to have been of


he
where
Dutch
origin,although it is not known
of
There
is a pi6lure by him
born.
at Knole
was
Richard
and
Edward
Sackville, signed and dated
is dated
1644, and
1637. His portraitof Ashmole
the portraitof the painter himself at the Ashmolean

the

Second's

Museum

is inscribed

"Mr.

painter." At Petworth
pifturesby him, one of
other

there

are

two

famous

companion

the artist,his wife, and

son,

eight children.
George
Geldorp
1660), was
(flourished1611
to
England
apprenticed in Antwerp, and came
friend of Vana
apparently before 1623. He was
He
was
dyck and had a quarrel with Gerbier.
Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury,
employed by William
to
paint portraitsof his family,and a portraitby
is in the
Earl of Totnes,
him
of George Carew,
National
Portrait Gallery. Geldorp was
severely
he is probably
criticised by his contemporaries,and
Piftures
of
the
of
known
better
as
Keeper
I. than as a portrait-painter.
Charles
love of art exhibited
The
an
by Charles I. was
noisseur
absorbing passion, and his judgment as a conequalled his desire of possession,so that
in collecting
in about
he succeeded
twenty
years
of pifturesever
of the finest galleries
one
brought
together,a coUeftion which, unfortunately,
owing to
the piftures
broken
troubles, was
political
up and
sold at much
below
their value, as might be expefted from a forced sale. Charles patronised the
and

the

Neve,

Le

of his

"

artists

of whose

fame

he

heard,

but it was

not

until

cessful
thoroughly sucemployed Vandyck that he was
in obtaining the services
of one
who
was
worthy to paint himself and his Court
Laniere
Nicholas
1 666), a musicianand
( 1 588
attached
of art, one
of a familyof musicians
amateur
for several
the royal household
to
generations.

he

"

SIR

ANTHONY

VANDYCK,

BY

HIMSELF.

FROM

HOLBEIN

TO

HIGHMORE

39

colle6led

for Charles
I.,and
pi6luresand statues
There
was
is
a
keeper of the king s miniatures.
portraitof him, painted by himself, at Oxford, but
his skill as a portrait-painter
alone scarcelyentitles
him
to
a
place in this list. His association with
Vandyck, however, deserves specialnotice. That
much
so
great painter painted his portrait,which
the
artist to
pleased the king that he induced
remain
in this country.
is alluded
Laniere
to by
in a poem
Herrick
addressed
to
Henry Lawes.
Sir
Anthony
Vandyck
to
(1599
1641) came
England in 162 1 and again in 1631, but it was
"

not

until

1632, when

of Laniere

that

Charles
he

I. had

determined

seen

to

the
attach

trait
por-

him

there a
Never
was
permanently to his person.
of
the fame
more
appropriate appointment, and
Charles
has gained immeasurably by his painter's
labours.
It seems
impossible,when looking upon
noble
features
the
of the king as
delineated
by
Vandyck, to discover the signs of those weaknesses
dissimulations
laid
and
which
are
so
persistently
The
his charge by his enemies.
to
advantage to
the royalcause
of such a painter has been immense,
the continued
and
popularity of the royalistshas
been
one
largelydue to his pencil. Vandyck was
of the world's greatest portrait-painters,
and it is a
of natural
source
pride to Englishmen that so
of his works
are
portraitsof noble Englishmen
many
and
He
Englishwomen.
placed the land of
his adoption under
a
heavy debt of gratitudewhen
he painted those who
made
the history of their
been
successful
more
day. No painter has ever
in giving an air of distindlion to all his sitters than
all as
If his subjedls were
tinguished
diswas.
Vandyck
looking in real life as they appear on
and
his canvases,
the men
of that period
women
far surpassed those of any
have
other period
must

HISTORICAL

40
in

personal

Mr.

admirable

Cook's

National
as

Gallery,compares
representative Flemish

he

writes,

the

Ruskin,

Mr.

appearance.

T.

E.

PORTRAITS

Handbook

artists.

gentle at

"

the

to

with

Vandyck

in

quoted

as

Teniers

lived/'

They

the

simple in the
could
indeed
pothouse, and
paint according to
their habitation
nobleman
boor, but wholly
a
a
or
wishful to conceive
un
anything natural or supernatural,
beyond the precin6ls of the Presence
or
the

**

tavern."

would

These

are

have

court,

hard

and
words,
one
**distin(?lion,"
Vandyck's

thought that
characteristic
quality, is sadly wanting in the
School
Dutch
generally,and distinction certainly
does include some
of those higher qualities
which
Mr.
finds wanting in Vandyck.
Ruskin
To
his best
visit
must
at
see
Vandyck
we
Windsor
houses

Castle, but
of the

Kensington
Exhibition.
also

contain

country
large number

art.

been

of

most

the great historical


fine examples of his

shown

were

Exhibitions

Portrait

Specialexhibitions
held.

The

only contains
one
Digby), although

of
there

National
his

at

and

the

at

the Stuart

of his works
Portrait

several

have

Gallery

piClures (Sir

are

South

Kenelm

by painters of

his school.
Time
and

has dealt

in many

lady,who

cases

in her

tenderlywith Vandyck*s
has

youth

mellowed

their

canvases

charms.

Vandyck, and in her


told the latter painter,that she
age to Richardson,
considered
Vandyck's pictures had improved by
age, as she always thought that the colours of the
sat

to

too
picturesin his studio were
raw.
hands,
Vandyck
possessed beautifullyformed
and he paid specialattention to that feature.
When
Margaret de Bourbon, daughter of Henry IV. of
him
France
the painter,she asked
sat
to
why he
attention to the painting of her
more
gave so much

WII.I.IAM

DOBSON,

BY

HIMSELF.

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

42

who
of the latter,
introduced him to the notice of
Charles I On the death of Vandyck,in 1 64 1 he was
the
and accompanied
appointedsergeant-painter,
him
I.
the
called
Oxford.
Charles
to
English
king
overwhelmed
time he was
Tintoretto. At one
with commissions,and endeavoured
to check them
the
his
sitters
half
to pay
by obliging
priceof the
a
picturebefore he began the portrait,
practice
which he is said to have been the firstto introduce.
Dobson's work has been highly
by his
appreciated
work ^
countrymen, and J. Elsum's well-known
This is what
contains epigramson his portraits.
he says of two of them :
,

"A

PORTRAIT
"

OF

Tell

With
What

K.

ChARLES

I.

BY

DOBSON.

Eptg. 79.

what modern pidlure


can
me
compare
and majestick
air.
this for sweetness
tintsand touches strike the eye.
lively

do descry
a Vandykish manner
like.
Nothing's more
nicelyfollowed or more
In every stroke you see the great Vandyke."

And

"

Portrait
"

of

an

old

gentleman

by

Dobson.

Epig,

147.

like paintbut flesh and blood.


And not to praise
Dobson below his merit.
This flesh and blood is quicknedwith a spirit."
A

Edward

not
portrait

in the
portrait-painter
reign of Charles I.,who paintedLord Finch in
of Lord Fairfax
1640, and an equestrian
portrait
in 1647. He also painteda picture
of the king

seated

at

Bower

was

his trial.

of Taylorthe water-poet,
in
Oxford
the
middle of the seventeenth
at
praftised
paintedby himself,is in the
century. His portrait,
Bodleian Library,
well as two portraits
of the
as
by him.
water-poet painted

John Taylor, nephew

"

Epigramsupon

antient and modern,"

the

of the most eminent


Paintings
by J. E., Esq. London, 1700.

masters

HOLBEIN

FROM

The

miniaturists

beautiful

the

have

Hilliard

which

art

and

here

noticed, and

already been

43

HIGHMORE

TO

these

great

continued

who

those

artists adorned

passing notice.
Peter
Oliver
(i6oi 1660) son of Isaac
the equal of his
considered
to be almost

must

"

was

He

did

in water-colours
in the collec^Uon

several

Petitot

(1607

"

Oliver
father.
to

the

employed in copying
the principal
pi6lures

was

of

of Charles

labours

his

confine

however,

not,

production of portraits,but

John

have

Oliver

Isaac

I.

1691) has

called

been

the

born at
He
was
painting in enamel.
under
the patronage
Geneva, and came
to England
of his countryman
Sir Theodore
sician
Mayerne* phyCharles
I.
He
to
painted the portraitsof
Charles
I. and the royal family several times, and
of Vandyck's
portraits,but on the
copied some
He
execution
of the king he went
Paris.
to
was
recommended
XIV.
Louis
to
by Charles II., and
from
received
the former
king a pension and a

inventor

residence
the
he

Edict

of

in the

Louvre, but
of Nantes,
being

escaped

to

dier, assisted

Geneva.
him

at
a

His

the

revocation

zealous

of

Protestant,

brother-in-law, Bor-

by painting the

hair

and

the

Bordier
ployed
emwas
backgrounds on his enamels.
to
by the Parliament
paint a pictureof the
Battle of Naseby, which
was
presented to Fairfax.
One
of Petitot s many
children
became
a
majorgeneral in the English service.
miniaturist
of
John Hoskins
a
(died 1664) was
Treat
I.,
painted portraits of Charles
repute, who
and
lis queen,
of his Court, as Digby, Falkmany
left a son,
He
and, and others.
John Hoskins
the
II. and
who
Sir
painted James
younger,
Edmund
Berry Godfrey.
Cooper
Samuel
(1609
1672), the nephew of
"

the

elder

Hoskins,

was

the

most

famous

of minia-

HISTORICAL

44

PORTRAITS

turists, and

him

of

the epithetapplied
richly deserved
Vandyck in little." Walpole, who was

"

admirer

to
a

of

marked,
Cooper's work, very justly reIf a glasscould expand Cooper's pidiures
to the size of Vandyck
to have
s, they would
appear
been
painted for that proportion. If his portrait
of Cromwell
could
be so
enlarged,I do not know
but Vandyck
less great by the comwould
parison."
appear

great

**

The

death

Diary, May
the

of

1672, thus:

5,

famous

most

is

Cooper
limner

**

Mr.

of the

Beale's

in

registered
Samuel

Cooper,
for

world,

face,

died."
Arts

be

cannot

expelled

to

flourish

in

country

in unsettled
but even
by civil wars,
times
portraits are
required, and
during the
Commonwealth
period, several
good portraitRobert
Of these the chief was
painters flourished.
devastated

(died 1660), who was called "Cromwell's


painter,"and was employed by the Parliamentarians
in opposition to
Dobson,
distinguished as the
Royalist painter. A portraitby him of Cromwell
Walker

is

Pitti

the

in

now

to
wrongly attributed
bought by the Grand
from a lady who
fixed

did

not

the

demand

wish

to

of

where

Palace, Florence,

that
with

part
such

an

This

picture was
of Tuscany for ;^500
she
high price,because
it, and
thought that

Lely.
Duke

amount

would
"

in his
Travels
negotiations. Misson
Earl
this portraitand that of Thomas,
the only portraitsof Englishmen
were
"

in the

galleryof
Evelyn asserts

it is

close
tells
of

us

the
that

Ossory,

in his time

illustrious
that the

generals at Florence.
of Cromwell,
best portrait

by Walker, is the double one with his son Richard,


his sash, the idea of which
a
youth trying on
from
borrowed
was
Vandyck's portraitof Lord
*

"

Anecdotes,"

ed.

Womum,

ii. 145.

ROBERT

WALKER,

BY

HIMSELF.

FROxM

It

Goring.
lettered

**

HOLBEIN

Cromwell

Lambert,
him

sat

Elsum's

epigram on a
be quoted
may

"

to

sword

The

feet

Henrietta
of

copy
at

and

Court.

as

of whom

wrote

Design

work

is

Vandyck, now
well,
patronised by Crom-

was

favourite

"

poem

did

nature

might

she denied

To

him, for

at

the

court

Baptist."

He

also

There

coUeClion

is

fled,
to frame

this little dame."

Gaspars

Lely

wive,

seemed

Heaven

out

after

contrive
Adam

of the

little bed

whom

Baptist

Marriage

others

this match

her

measure

to

makes

well have

as

As

the
thus

chance

or

Eve

and

On

commences

But

Lambert,

in the

and

from

queen

became

which

And

Kneller.

admired

most

of three

Charles

to

page

He

dwarf

1690),a

as
Shepherd, his wife, was
himself, but they had nine children, five
of full height.
lived to maturity and
were

Dwarfs,"

assistant

great, the pencil good."

Anne

H.

Waller

"

Fleetwood.

"

His

afterwards

of Charles

John

here
him

of the

head

Walker

absurdly
painted,

line of
July, 1648. One
portrait of Cromwell,
by

(1616
high, was

Maria.

Hampton

short

in

made

has

inches

ten

and

Ireton, and

Gibson

Richard

45

Lambert."

and

Evelyn
Walker,

HIGHMORE

engraved by Lombart,

was

others,

among

TO

Restoration,

the
and

for

worked

he

nicknamed

General
a(5led

as

Lely's
was
similarlyemployed by
a
portraitof Hobbes
by him

of the

was

"

Royal Society,which

was

presented by Aubrey.
Edward
to

whom

Mascall

Cromwell

was

painter of
He

sat.

made

some
some

drawings for Dugdale's Monasticon," and


is an etching of Viscount
Falconberg, dated
"

merit,
of

the

there

1643.

46

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

of his
engraving by James Gammon
own
portraitby himself.
Lely
Peter
Sir
(1617
1680) was
essentially
the painter of the Restoration
period, although he
earlier.
He
to
came
England in
began his career
in the train of William, Prince
of Orange,
1 64 1,
married
In
who
I.
Mary, daughter of Charles
the
a
king was
1647, when
captive at Hampton
Court, he was
painted by Lely as holding a note,
just received from the hands of his son, the youthful
offers him
of York, who
Duke
a
penknife to cut
introduced
the strings. Lely was
Charles
to
by

There

is

an

"

Earl

the

Sion

at

now

Northumberland,

of

in the

House,

who

Northumberland,

of

in

received

referringto this, says,


hand

the

of Fuller

Sir

unlike

The

former.

his

than

latter

have
It is

It has
the

! what

See

it commands

How

So

sacred

To

this

May

he

had

eyes

Anecdotes,"
my

Hampton

out

Court."

scome

show

wheele) below.
this shaded

by
proudest,

ed. Wornum,

worthy friend
Majesty and

sweet

so

adorne

of all the

their

doth

that others

contempt,

(oth*height

coppy

pidlure of his
at

face !

mightiest monarchs

That

"To

the

happy misery

did

Never

tenance
coun-

specialverses

some

their mist

the

of all his

tempests

majesty, and

glory through

And

"

clouded

of

brighter rise !
humble
! what
an
bravery doth shine.
griefstriumphant breaking through each line.

Whose

is stronger

sterner

it for

certainly
very

king has none


Vandyck alone,

experienced.*' Lovelace wrote


this pi"5lure
on
commencing :
See

taken

and

manner,

melancholy grace which


painters,always gave him.
and
expressive of

"

pi6lure is

piflure. VValpole,

Dobson.

or

Peter's

the

I should

"

this

possession of the Duke


has the receipt for ;^30

for

payment

and

Mr.

the

richest

booke
looke."

ii. 94.

Lilly,on

Peter

Duke

of

Yorke,

that
drawne

excellent

by

him

HOLBEIN

FROM

TO

HIGHMORE

47

attributed
Although the portraitof Cromwell
was
really by Walker, there
Lely at Florence

painter.

Captain

Cromwell's

which

Lely,

I desire

remark

all these

sat

to

the

is

former

Winde

reported a speech of
frequently quoted : "Mr.

is

you

pifturelike

my

Proteftor

the

that

doubt

no

to

would

use

and

not

me,

all your skill to paint


flatter me
at all ; but

roughnesses, pimples, warts,

and

I will never
otherwise
everything as you see
me,
^
pay a farthing for it."
works
The
Lely is best known
are
by which
portraitsof the beauties of the Court of Charles IL,
Castle, and now
at
formerly at Windsor
Hampton
Palace.
These
Court
portraitswere
painted for
of York.
Anne
Hyde, Duchess
Although they
admired
be considered
much
they cannot
are
as
all so
much
altogether satisfaftory. They are
and
alike as
when
be positivelymonotonous,
to
of the
looking at them we are naturally reminded
fine piftures,
remark
that
painted many
Lely
but few good portraits." It is said that he kept a
with the faces blank, to
stock of paintingsin hand
This
be filled in according to choice.
was
really
fraud, for a good portraitconsists of somea
thing
gross
than
accurate
an
more
presentation of the
with popular opinion,
It is not in accordance
face.
that Lely
truth in the assertion
but there is some
than
in painting men
successful
was
more
women.
excellent.
of the former
Some
of his portraits
are
Lely occupied for several years an unchallenged
position as the chief painter of his day, although
he
rivals.
without
not
Shortly before his
was
**

'

annotating Walpole, notices "a portrait of


in Bedfordshire, which
taken after
Cromwell
at Chicksands
was
he was
Protedlor,as a present to Sir J.Danvers, one of Charles I.'s
Sir J. Osbome."
judges, whose
daughter married
Walpole's
"

Dallaway,

Anecdotes,"

in

ed. Wornum,

ii. 94

(note).

48

HISTORICAL

death,

PORTRAITS

he

however,

greatly

was

affefled

by

the

of Kneller.

success

in
buried
Garden, and was
Lely died in Covent
of St. Paul.
the parish church
sale of his
The
effefts in 1682
occupied forty days, and realized

;^2 6,000,
The

of

number

vast

is

country

of his

in

time

to
Lely for a
greatlyindebted
fine portraitsillustrating
the history

remarkable

As

manner.

to

his

decidedly inferior to
position as an artist,he was
Vandyck, and as decidedly superior to Kneller.
pupils and followers, and Mrs.
Lely had many
the
Mary Beale and John Greenhill were
among
of them.

foremost

(1632
Vandyck

Mary

Beale

the works

of

have

to

She

painted

day,

and

for

for

studied

her

most

time

of

the

charges

and

Society Collection,
Tillotson, and
Portrait

6th

Duke

for

of

by

Paget

and

Walker.

Robert

dignifiedclergy of

Portraits

Thomas

Dr.

under

;^5

were

half-length.

Wilkins

1697) copied successfully


and
Lely, and is supposed

"

are

Charles

of Norfolk

head
her

and

her

;^io

of

Bishop
in the Royal
IL, Cowley,

in the

National

Gallery.

(1649 1676), like so many


his studies by
commenced
other portrait-painters,
of Vandyck.
of his works
Two
copying the works
portraitsof Charles IL and Lord Shaftesbury
in the National
Portrait Gallery,and there is a
are
Gallery. Mrs.
portraitof himself in the Dulwich
Other
Behn
wrote
an
elegy on his death.
pupils
be mentioned
William
of Lely that may
Claret,
are
Jeremiah Davison, John Dixon, Sir John Gawdie,
Matthew
Meele, Thomas
Sadler, Henry Tilson,
and William
Wissing.
phalia,
Soest
Gerard
(1637 1681), born in WestJohn

Greenhill

"

"

"

"

came

to

London

about

1656, and

obtained

FROM

much

employment.
by him in the

Blood

of Dr.

one

HOLBEIN

he

Wallis

TO

There

is

National

portraitof

Colonel

Gallery,and
Royal Society. Walpole

the

at

49

HIGHMORE

Portrait

himself, but
only an able master
formed
Mr. Riley."
James Gandy
1689) is said to have been
(1619
a
pupilof Vandyck, and copied his piftures. He

says

"

not

was

"

went

to

over

Ireland with the Duke

and

of Ormonde,

his

principalportraitswere
paintedin that country.
Thomas
both
Flatman
a
(1637 1688) was
miniature
a
painter. Granger affirms
poet and
"

that

"

of

one

his

Pindarics,"but
and

Joseph
and

Wright

He

afterwards

painted

for Guildhall

series

in

to

came

spent

his

poet,

in Scotland

born

was

Jameson.

and

young,
Italy. He

of

ream

altogethera bad
lighterpieces are elegant.

under

when

not

was

Michael

studied

judges

he

of his

some

is worth

heads

some

England
years

in

portraitsof the
Lely, who refused

of

place of

His
chambers.
judges at their own
well-known
portraitof Lacy the aftor, in three
at
charafters, is now
Hampton Court, and there is
fine portraitby him of Hobbes
in the National
a
Portrait Gallery.
Robert
Streater
appointed
(1624 1680) was
He
painted
serjeant-painterat the Restoration.
portraitsas well as history,landscape,architefture,
to

wait

on

the

"

and

stilllife.

(1606 1672) resided for some


and portime at Oxford, and painted altar-pieces,
traits
Kenelm
of Samuel
Sir
Butler, Ogilvy,
Digby,
His own
etc.
portraitis in the Bodleian Library.
his
That
his work
in high repute among
not
was
Elsum's
be
contemporaries may
guessed from
epigram :
Isaac

Fuller

"

"

"

His

His

On

head
eyes

are

Drunken

does
sunk

Sot.

his shoulder

on

and
E

hardly

seen

lean,
;

HISTORICAL

50
Who

sees

PORTRAITS

this sot in his own


colour,
*
Twas
done by Fuller.'"

Is apt to say,

pupilof Soest
and Fuller,and after the death of Lely he was
He painted
employedas portrait-painter.
largely
Charles II., James II. and his queen, and was
appointedCourt Painter to William and Mary.
Portraits by him of Bishop Burnet, James II.,
Waller, Lord Crewe, Bishop
William,Lord Russell,
of Durham, are in the National Portrait Gallery.
Kerseboom
Friedrich
(1632 1690)was born
and studied under Lebrun in Paris.
at Solingen,
he settledin Englandand
After a residence at Rome
obtained considerable employment as a portraitpainter.
known by the
John Hayls (died1679)is chiefly
in
him
allusions to
Pepys'sDiary. He painted
when
and this
the diarist'sportrait
a
man,
young
in the National Portrait Gallery.
is now
preserved
He was
of the chief rivals of Lely,and had
one
Some
fair praclice.
of his best portraits
a
are
those of the Russell family,
which are preserved
at
Woburn
Abbey.
Largilliere
Nicholas
to
(1656 1746) came
and painted
several
Englandat the age of eighteen,
Charles
f
or
II.
He
returned to France,
pictures
but came
He left this
to England againtwice.
and settled in
at the Revolution,
country finally
Paris where he was
largely
employedas a portraitpainter.He issaid to have painted1,500 pictures.
of Prince Charles Edward
and
There are portraits
John

Riley

(1646 1691)was

"

"

"

Cardinal York attributed to him in the National


Portrait Gallery.
John Scougall is supposedto have been born
in Leith,and to have paintedin the latterhalf of
the seventeenth century, but no particulars
are
Sir
known
him
of
of his life. A portrait
by

SIR

GODFREY

KNELLER,

BY

HIMSELF.

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

52
the

by

Denmark.

He

succeeded

his

to

rival

the

was

pra6lice.

of admirals

Prince

and

Anne

Princess

which

He

are

Wissing

of

George

of

Kneller,

and

painted many
traits
porwich.
Greenpreserved at

born
at
(1656
1687) was
and
to
Amsterdam,
came
England in 1680, when
he was
employed by Lely. After the death of the
much
latter he was
midable
forpatronised and became
a
Kneller.
rival to
Portraits
by him of
William

Lord

the

Cutts,

Duke

George

of Denmark,

U.,

in

are

wrote

"

the

Mary

National

addressed

poem

of

of

Modena

Portrait
to

Prince

Monmouth,
and

Gallery.

the Countess

Mary
Prior

of Devonshire

Wissing's last picture which represented


all her grandchildren.
Closterman
to
(1656
John
17 13) came
England in 1681, and painted draperiesfor Riley.
the latter painter died, he finished
When
of
many
his
went
to
Spain in 1696, but
portraits. He
returned
He
to
painted portraits of
England.
and his wife, Sir William
Dryden, GrinlingGibbons
Blackmore.
His
Petty and Sir Richard
portraits
and
the Duke
of Queen Anne
of Marlborough are
Portrait Gallery.
in the National
Simon
DuBois
to
(died 1708) came
England
on

"

the patronage
of Lord
Somers.
Elsum
wrote
an
epigram on his portraitof the great
is at
lawyer. His portraitof Archbishop Tenison
in

1685

and

Lambeth,
Knole.

secured

and
He

of

Wilmot,

lived in Covent

Earl

of

Garden

Rochester,
with

at

his elder

the

landscape painter.
Verelst
Simon
was
a
distinguished Flemish
whose
flower painter,
pictureswere
greatlyadmired
He
was
immensely vain and called
by Pepys.
brother

Edward

himself

the

vanity, and

God
Prior

of Flowers.
wrote

Others

flattered this

FROM

"

When

Flora

HOLBEIN

fam'd

53

this little wonder

Verelst

drew,

growing work to view,


Finding the painter'sscience at a stand,
The
goddess snatched the pencil from his hand.
And
finishingthe piece, she smiling said,
*

The

vouchsafd

HIGHMORE

TO

Behold

of
that

suggested
the

result

and

flowers,

of mine

work

one

Duke

the

that

Buckingham patronised him and


he should
paint his portrait,with

he

crowded

the

became
says

the

fashion

that he

and

jured
in-

paid ;^i lo

was

munificent

to

circumstance
of the

settle

(1660
1686.

Earl

of

who

from

of the

name

17 11) a
found
He

Arran,

Edinburgh,
the

"

**

duced
in-

which
Kneller

North/'

696),was a
was

in

he obtained

often

Jacob Huysman,
and

in the

patron

him

fruit

shown
it was
king to whom
flower
piece. Although his

half-length.
Baptist
Sir
Medina
John
to
Fleming, came
England in

with

canvas

that the

so

supposed it to be a
he
bad
portraitswere
Lely. Walpole
for

"

shall fade.'

that ne'er

of

native

said

by

an

called

who

Antwerp
admirer

Houseman

to

came

unite

(1656
to

"

England

the power
and
and feelingof

Vandyck with the grace


Catherine
Gorat
Lely. His portrait of Queen
considered
by the artist as his best
hambury was
His
work.
a
as
painting of the same
queen
at
Buckingham Palace, and in
shepherdess is now
of having painted so many
honour
portraitsof her,
he styled himself
queen's painter. His full-length
freedom

of the

of

Duchess

of

Richmond

as

Pallas

of Richmond
and
possession of the Duke
The
portraitof Lady Belasyse at Hampton
as
Lady Byron, was
traditionallyknown
to
assigned to
Huysman, but is now
the authority of an old catalogue. A good
is in the National
by him of Isaac Walton

is in the

Gordon.

Court,
cribed
long asLely, on
portrait
Gallery.

HISTORICAL

54

Thomas

Riley and
Portraits

Murray

(1666

him

1724)

"

afterwards

by

PORTRAITS

of

became

Chief

Lord

Pratt, father

Camden,

Portrait

Gallery,of

Society, and
Physicians,
Thomas
W.

Hill

Faithorne

London.
in

of Sir

the

The
Portrait

Edmund
Hans

painter.

William

circumnavigator and
of Lord

under

successful

Captain

studied

Dampier, the
Justice,Sir John
in the

are

Halley
Sloane

at

at

the

National
the

Royal

College of

a
(1661 1734) was
pupil of
in
and
praftised portrait-painting
fine portrait of Bishop Hooper
"

Exhibition

of

1867

at

South

Kensington (No. 229) attributed to Hogarth was


reallyby Hill.
Cassana
NicoLO
(1659 1713), born at Genoa,
painted historical subje6lsand portraits. He came
and
to
England and painted Queen Anne
many
of the nobility. His portraitof James H.'s distinguished
natural
of
James Fitzjames, Duke
son,
shown
South
the
Berwick,
at
was
Kensington
Exhibition
of 1867 (No. 21).
Richardson
a
Jonathan
(1665 1745) was
of Hudson
who
pupil of Riley and the master
served
married
of his daughters, so that M alone obone
that he was
the
pictorial
grandfather of
Sir Joshua Reynolds.
There
several portraits
are
Portrait Gallery,one
of them
by him in the National
likeness.
There
were
some
good
being his own
the South
at
examples of his work
Kensington
Exhibition
of 1867, viz. : Edward
Colston
(No.
54) belonging to the Corporation of Bristol, Lady
Mary Wortley Montague (No. 250), and William
Cheselden
(No. 237), belonging to the College of
better known
Surgeons. Johnson said he was
by
his books
than his pi6lures,
but this is not the case
for his portraits
now
are
highly appreciatedand he
himself
will always hold
a
high position in the
"

"

"

"

JONATHAN

RICHARDSON,

BY

HIMSELF.

HOLBEIN

FROM

TO

historyof English art, while


Even
in his own
forgfotten.'

55

his books

almost

are

day the
asked
by him

satirised, for Prior, when


he

HIGHMORE

latter

were

title

what

should

The
g^ve one of his books, replied:
memoirs
of yourself and
son
Jonathan with a
your
word
about painting." We
two
or
ought, however,
that both Hogarth and Reynolds were
to remember
stimulated
by the reading of the
Essay on the
whole
of Criticism
it relates to Painting,"
art
as
"

"

1719.
in London
born
John Woolaston,
happy in his likenesses, but he

about

1672,

good
portrait-painter.
According to Walpole his charge
was
only five guineas for a three-quarter length.
He
and performed at the concerts
was
a musician,
of Thomas
His portrait
Britton the small coalman.
of Britton is in the National
Portrait Gallery.
William
of James
Gandy
(died 1729), son
Gandy already alluded to, is said to have settled at
was

Exeter

about

the

year

700.

For

of itinerant

was

some

not

years

he

and
portrait-painter
many
in
him
exist
of
the west
good pifturesby
England.
in his youth
that he was
Reynolds has recorded
much
impressed by the work of Gandy.
Sir James Thornhill
chiefly
1734) was
(1676
employed in the decoration of ceilingswith designs
in the grand style,but he also painted some
very
uncle
his
the
good portraits. He was
placed by
celebrated
Dr. Sydenham, as a pupil with Thomas
him as serjeant-painter.
Highmore, and succeeded
Gibson
Thomas
(1680 1 75 1 )pra6lisedportraitpainting in London
during the first part of the
to
eighteenth century, but retired about
1730
He
Oxford.
to
London,
subsequently returned
died.
of
he
where
is a portrait by him
There
Portrait
National
hibition,
Exin the
Archbishop Wake
of Archbishop
and
an
one
anonymous
was

sort

"

"

56

HISTORICAL

Potter
South
His

from

Christ

PORTRAITS

Church

Oxford,

Kensington Exhibition
is at
portraitof Vertue
that

and

at

1867 (No. 380).

of
the

of Antiquaries

Society

Flamsteed

of

shown

was

the

at

Royal

Society.
William
and

on

Aikman
his

pra6lice of
settled

in

Duke

of

(1682

return

Sir

to

Medina

John

London

1)studied

73
Scotland
1

"

at

succeeded

in

Rome,
the

to

He

Edinburgh.

in

the
1723 on
He
became

of

advice

John,

Argyll.
acquainted with
Kneller, whose
style he imitated, and to whose
Portraits
practicehe largelysucceeded.
by him
and
of Duncan
Forbes
the Duke
of Argyll are
in
the
National
Portrait
Gallery. At the South
shown
of 1867 were
his
Kensington Exhibition
Carstares
portraitsof the Rev. William
(No. 1 1 ),
in the catalogue
John Gay (No. 173, attributed
the poet (No. 245), and
to
Boll),Allan Ramsay
James Thomson
(No. 333). His own
portrait is
National
in the Scottish
Portrait
Gallery (Edinburgh),
the National
Galleryof Scotland, and also
Florence.
in the Gallery of Painters
at
Edmund
Ashfield
a
was
pupil of Wright and
in crayons.
excelled
He
copied Vandyck.
Charles
Jervas or Jarvis (1675
1739) was
"

in

born

visited
He

Ireland

and

Italyand

studied

returned

Kneller,

succeeded

to
on

England
that

principalpainter to George
with a
widow
large fortune,
heard

that

horses

he cried

draw

he

better

as

had
**

he

journey'send."
well
Jervas was
obtained

Swift, and

the

set

Ah

mine

does

he

received

about

artist's

I.

He

and

when

He
1

709.

death,

as

married

Kneller

carriage and

four

cot, if his horses

don't

will

in

never

get

to

his

literarysociety and

uncritical

somewhat

Arbuthnot

up

Kneller.

under

praisesof Pope,

58

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

the
Jeremiah Davidson
(died 1745) studied
of Lely and obtained
works
a
large pra6lice as a
both
portrait-painter
The

fine

statue

of

in Scotland

Duncan

and

in

London.

in the

Forbes

ment
Parlia-

modelled
by
Edinburgh, was
Roubiliac
after a portraitby Davidson.
Vanloo
Jean Baptiste
(1684 1746) was born
Aix
in Provence.
He
at
painted altar-piecesin
his youth and
in
studied
Rome.
He
to
came
England in 1737 and became
popular as a
very
in 1742
France
to
portrait-painter. He returned
and
in his native
died
Portraits
town.
by him
of
and
Richard
Viscount
Cobham,
Temple,
National
Portrait
in the
John Lord
Hervey are
Sir
is at
Burrow
of
one
Gallery, and
James
the Royal
also painted portraits
Society. He
of Horace
Walpole, CoUey Gibber, and
Peg
Woffington.
bom
Haaken
at
Joseph Van
(died 1749) was
his profession. He
he studied
Antwerp where
and painted the figureand background
to England
came
for several painters. He painted draperies

House,

"

for

Vanloo

others, and

among

it is said

that

the

to
canvases
complete
brought him
from
all parts of England.
Two
paintersoffered
him
800
only for them.
guineas a year to work
sketched
the supposed funeral
Hogarth satirically
attended
of Van
Haaken
by the artists he worked
exhibited
their grief and
for, who
despair at his

stage

coach

death.
Vanderbank

John

born
1739) was
(1694
in
largely employed
reigns of Queen Anne
"

was
England, and
in the
portrait-painting
He
headed
and
George I.
academy,
James Thornhill's

in

of

his

model.

own

in

which

he

the
and

seceders

from

established

introduced

the

Sir
one

living

TO

HOLBEIN

FROM

(1692

Highmore

Joseph

59

HIGHMORE

studied

1780)

at

the

"

Painters'

of

Academy
Kneller.

was

noticed

by

and

painted

portraits

There
him
of

are

in

the

Richardson

two

Great

portraits

National
and

had

He
of

the
of

wife

of

Samuel

at

the

Richardson

Gallery,
Stationers'

and

and

praftice,

large

Knights

Portrait
his

Street,

Queen

Bath.

by

portraits
Hall.

IV.

CHAPTER

PORTRAIT-PAINTERS

BRITISH

HOGARTH

FROM

TO

MILLAIS

William

Hogarth

portrait-painters,

greatest

something

Royal
Portrait
is also

Gallery
well

sister,

family

Mary

received

more

received

for

When

John

the

25th,

Sept.

in

instance,

public

how
:

wished

for

and

malevolence

made

known

comparable
in-

the

of

proud

was

of

Garrick

before

ever

"The

of

the

of

(No.

la

his

be

untrue

attempt
mind

ing
follow'

Mode
of

17,

made

the

was

prints

the

attack

savage

to

Marriage

"

Wilkes

false

of

in

Briton"

have

made

the

and

as

article

series

by
of

acquaintance

monstrously
After

He

art

print

this

must

Hogarth

marriage.
rancour

In

he

"

passage

his

"North

the

1762).

which

assertions

who

the

Peachum,

artist

old

an

at

(;^40o).

published

Wilkes,

painter

"

the

Gallery

portrait

portrait

offended

his

He

English

any

of

well

as

at

National

himself

of

the

for

**

single

and

k la Mode."

than

he

notorious

for

said

the

Polly

as

Strodes,

Hogarth

Times"

on

Fenton

the

at

National

the

at

Marriage

and

success

examples

Hogarth,
of

group

"

and

"

Folkes

Lovat

fine

are

Lavinia

"

his

Lord

**

our

that

was

Coram*'

Martin

**

represented
of

portraits
his

and

Society,

he

"Captain

Hospital,

of

one

was

although

His

more.

Foundling

1764)

(1697"

the

happy

but
made

the
him

WILLIAM

HOC.ARTH,

BY

HLMSKLF.

FROM

very

of

so

with

turn

soon

HOGARTH

envy

and

disgustfrom
dwell

pleasingcontemplation to

others

of

found

hateful

them

cast,

MILLAIS

TO

which

he

and

objefts
feast

pursued,

on

for he

unabaitcongenialwith the most


ing zeal and unrelentinggall." Churchill followed
with
An
Epistle to William
Hogarth," but the
had
little cause
attackers
selves.
to
congratulatethemhard
hit and
he felt the
Hogarth was
cruel words
severely,but he had a bitter revenge.
Comparatively few read Churchill, and scarcely
more

'*

anyone

reads

the

pages

of the

"

North

Briton," but

Hogarth's portraitsof Wilkes and


Churchill, and the reputations of these two
men
will never
from
the blow
recover
given by the
publicationof their portraits.
Wilkes
that Hogarth's Sigismunda" was
wrote
taken
and as the figurewas
from the
human,
not
tasteful.
particularlydispainter'swife this criticism was
everyone

knows

"

It
made

will

be

remembered

that

Horace

unflatteringremarks
the figure of Sigismunda.
on
Fortunately now
have
hand
in the
the pi6lure at
National
we
the beauty of the figure
admire
Gallery and can
the merits of the pi6lureas a whole.
and
We
can
Sir
Richard
Grosvenor
was
only feel surprisethat
of repudiatinghis bargain with Hogarth.
desirous
his wife that she
artist left injunctionswith
The
sell the piftureunder
should
;^500. At the
not
sale of her effefts it fetched
only /^^S guineas. In
sold at Christie's for 400 guineas, and
1807 it was
received
National
in 1879 it was
at the
Gallery,
a
as
bequest from Mr. J. H. Anderdon.
his brother-in-law
John
Hogarth succeeded
in 1757.
Thornhill
as
serjeant-painter
Nollekens
(1702 1748),the
Joseph Francis
the sculptor,was
father of Joseph Nollekens
a
and
Castle there is a
at Windsor
portrait-painter,
Walpole

some

very

"

"

62

HISTORICAL

good portraitgroup
of Wales,

PORTRAITS

him

by

of Frederick

Prince

his sisters.

and

Winstanley

(1700 1761),son of the


projector of the Eddystone lighthouse,studied
under
of
Kneller, went
to
Italy and copied some
the finest pi6lures in the galleries
of that country
for the Earl of Derby.
Several
portraitsby him
will be
found
He
at
subsequently
Knowsley.
himself
devoted
chiefly to engraving, and
lished
pubthe
ings
Knowsley Gallery consistingof etchof family portraitsand pictures.
George
Knapton
a
(1698 1778) was
pupil of
and
Richardson
became
portrait-painterto the
is a portraitby him
There
Society of Dilettanti.
of Leeds, in the National
of Francis, 5th Duke
of the family of
Portrait Gallery,and a poor group
Frederick
Prince of Wales
Court.
at
Hampton
Francis
Cotes, R.A.
a pupil
(1726 1770) was
Like
of Knapton and soon
outstripped his master.
Hamlet

"

"

"

"

"

his

he

master

was

very

successful

in crayons,
and
better painter than

a
Hogarth declared that he was
lived
No.
Cavendish
at
Reynolds. Cotes
32,
Square, the house afterwards
occupied by Romney
and then by Sir M. A. Shee.
R. Bockman
was
a
portrait-painterand mezzotint

engraver
to have
appears
and

to

have

of

to

come

worked

and

at

Bartholomew

in the

There

known.

from

England

here

eighteenth century.
by him of Naval
Court

little is

whom

Amsterdam

early part
several

are

Commanders

He

at

of the

good portraits
Hampton

Greenwich.

Dandridge,

who

was

the

son

of

considerable
a
painter,obtained
pra6lice
his facility
from
in taking a
a
as
portrait-painter
He
excellent
likeness.
painted an
portrait of
which
was
George Edwards, F.R.S., the zoologist,
His portraitof
engraved by J. S. Millar in 1754.
a

house

64

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

is in the
National
bed-ridden
Woffington when
Portrait Gallery and engraved in this volume.
R.A.
William
Hoare,
(1707?
1792) studied
"

Grisoni,

under

London

at

went

to

nine

he

settled

years

and

Bath,

at

There

1867

(No. 95)

Thomas

Pelham

John Holies,
and

Pownall

"

native

the

of

then
Bath."

National
of

him

of

which

that of his uncle


Portraits
Samuel

in the

are

of

of Newcastle,

Nash,

Beau

and

portrait by

catalogue as

Corporation of Bath.
a
James Latham,
art
at
Antwerp and
1725

was

of

Exhibition

of Newcastle.

Duke

Governor

Portrait

Holies, Duke

Chatham,

of

Earl

portraitsin

the

there

in the

described

was

At

absence

an

Hoare

**

as

of his

Gallery.

Portrait

artist, and

first in London

at

known

was

several

are

After

Rome.

afterwards

Italian

an

of the

Derrick,

possession of

the

Tipperary,

studied

Ireland

about

practised in

the honourable
obtained
nation
desig1740, and
He
Irish
of the
Vandyck."
pra6lised for
"

time

His

in London,

but

which
portraits,
with

met

died

much

are

in

in Dublin

Irish

about

esteemed,

mansions, and

are

1750.
quently
fre-

some

of

excellent
engraved. He produced an
portraitof Peg Woffington.
R.A.
Francis
Hayman,
a
(1708 1776) was
whose
successful
pictures have
portrait-painter
for Hogarth^s. He was
mistaken
been
sometimes
and an illustrator
scene-painterat Drury Lane Theatre

them

are

"

of

books.

He

the

was

first librarian

pointed
ap-

His portraitof
Royal Academy.
while
himself, shown
painting a portrait of Sir
Portrait
Robert
Walpole, is in the National
Gallery.
Philips
Charles
(1708 1747),son of Richard
also, painted many
Philips,a portrait-painter
sons
per-

by

the

"

of distin6lion, among

them

Frederick, Prince

FROM

of

HOGARTH

Wales, and

Some

good

Augusta
pieces by him

conversation

him

portrait by
National

Rome.

Richardson
He

and

held

and

he

did

need

not

famed

was

and

at

Charles

for
chalk

drew

Edward,

the death

on

continue

to

(1713

of

the work

at

of

the

Gentle

"

and

He

years.

after

painter

of
the

to

held

Briton," and

Churchill,

his

in

the

equivocallyto
"Thence

came

Of whom

one

Johnson

him

of

Prophecy
painter:

Ramsay,

conversation

"

in the

Famine

is

on

more

these
"

North

contempt.
alludes

will

You

there

for

under

of worthy
Ramsays, names
paints,as well as t'other wrote."

of

in

appointed

public

to

up

"

born

Bute, and

Lord

fellfoul of him

the

for three

the

said

in whose

he remained

he was
George HL
king.
Naturally

Wilkes

circumstances

where

of

son

Shepherd," was
studying in London

patronised by

was

accession

1784), the

"

time, he visited Rome

man

property

some

Ramsay

Edinburgh,

studied

profession.

author

Dr.

of

pupil

some

into

came

Allan

the

the

theories respe6lparticular
principlesof beauty and resented

brother, and
of his

is in

afterwards

ing the true


He
public indifference to them.
his skill in catching likenesses
drawings of the young Pretender,
but

be

to

are

Knole.

Bishop Warburton
Gallery.
(i 710"1788) was

Hussey

Jonathan

Castle

Wales.

of

of

Portrait

Giles

65

MILLAIS

Princess

Windsor, Warwick

at

seen

the

TO

"

note

not

find

tion,
instruc-

elegance than in
Ramsay's." There is a portraitby him of David
Hume
in the National
Gallery of Scotland, and
portraitsof George III., Queen Charlotte, Earl
of Bute, and
Monro
Alexander
primtis in the
Scottish National
also
Portrait Gallery. There
are
more

information,

or

more

66

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

several

portraitsof his in the


Gallery, as George III., Queen
Chesterfield,
There

are

Scottish
Alexander

Mansfield,

and

Portrait

Charlotte, Lord
Dr.

and

Mead.

three

portraits of the painter in


Portrait Gallery,one
by Lilie, another
Nasmyth and the third by himself.
Robinson

John
Bath

Lord

National

studied

(171 5
under

"

1745)

He

Court, and
Jervas'shouse in Cleveland
extensive
pra6lice during the few

by

born

was

Vanderbank.

the

at

took

obtained
years

of

an

his

a"ftive life.

John

Shackleton

Kent
(died 1767) succeeded
There
George IL in 1749.
the Foundling Hospital
at

principalpainter to
are
portraitsby him
and Fishmongers' Hall.
as

Thomas

Lawranson

was

Irish

an

artist

who

the
of the
middle
about
pra6lised in London
eighteenth century and died after 1778. There is
a
portraitby him of John O'Keefe, the dramatist
and
Portrait Gallery.
aftor, in the National
Nathaniel
R.A.
Hone,
(1718 1784) was
in Dublin
born
but came
to
England early in life
a"fted for a time
and
itinerant painter. He
as
an
subsequently married a lady of fortune and settled
in St. James's Place.
and of
Portraits of himself
Wesley and Horace
Walpole are in the National
Portrait Gallery. He
fell into disgracein consequence
of his
The
Conjuror,"
pidlure entitled
which
satire upon
a
was
Reynolds.
Mason
R.A.
Chamberlin,
a
(died 1787) was
and
became
a
good
Hay man,
pupil of Francis
portrait-painter. His
portrait of Dr. William
is in the Diploma
Hunter
Gallery of the Royal
and
the
an
Royal Society possess
Academy,
excellent likeness by him of Dr. Chandler.
F.R.S.
Wilson,
1788) was
Benjamin
(1721
and
Leeds
London
born
to
at
came
early in life.
"

**

"

SIR

JOSHUA

REYNOLDS,

BY

HIMSELF.

FROM

from

but

1748

Ireland.

to

became

he

1750

Great

in

67

MILLAIS

painted portraitsin
he returned

to

where

Street,

Queen

London

he

fashionable

Hogarth
Richard

ceeded
portrait-painter.He sucserjeant-painter.
a
pupil of
(died 1782) was

as

Brompton
Wilson

Benjamin
under

TO

In the latter year

settled

and

HOGARTH

in Rome

studied

afterwards

and

good portraitof the


which
was
presented by
great Earl of Chatham,
Earl of Stanhope, and it
the subject to Philip,2nd
is
of
at
now
Chevening. A portrait by him
He

Mengs.

Admiral

painted

is

Saunders

difficulties and

Greenwich.

at

released

was

He
the

from

who
by the Empress of Russia
portrait-painterextraordinary.

Petersburg.
Sir
Joshua

got into

King's Bench
him

made
He

died

her
St.

at

(1723 1792) is England's


late years
greatest portrait-painter. Of
the
rather
there
been
has
a
tendency among
general public to set Gainsborough before him,
be the opinion of the connoisseur.
but this can
never
said that Gainsborough's work
It has been
is essenis more
than
feminine
tially
Reynolds's which
masculine.
more
Reynolds was
powerful
than
varied
and
more
Gainsborough, in faft, the
Reynolds

latter's exclamation

him, how
weakness
some

with

he

in the
of

our

former's

the

work,

is,"exa6lly sums
There

charm.

to

powers

of

various

on

"

beautiful

artists,but

is often
and
this

for in his work

"

Damn

his great
element
of

up
an

elegantconceptions
was

never

the

case

elegance was always


ing
with strength. How
combined
elegantand charmis that picturein the National
Gallery of two
the Rev. George Huddesford
connoisseurs
young
but there is no weakness
and John C. W.
Bampfylde
there.
Again, there is nothing forced in the
the "Tragic Muse,"
as
great pi6lureof Mrs. Siddons
Reynolds,

"

"

68

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

with

the

behind
the
figuresof Crime and Remorse
is a triumphant example of strength
chair, which
and
beauty. In the present age allegory is out of
in Reynolds's pictures
fashion, but the allegorical
is always pleasing.
Some

of

Reynolds
said

to

"

least

and
Reynolds
the engravings
his

of

human
the

as

and

but

neither

of them

did

in

minor

and

when

the

entered

consider

you

yet

conceived

and

childish

and

with

colours

the

around

be

and

that with

by
Dutch

prevailingtypes
himself
of

masters

strong,
Paths.

was

you
so

at

Italy,and

their thrones.
art

of

black

I know

once

arose

not

Dresden

the

and

the

as

from

climate,

principal

colourist

the

Venetians

for the

of the

that in the whole

noble."

who

day,

feet of the great


their feet to share

produce another
unaided, so unerring an
pure

him, he

China

can

true,

temper;

ventionality
frightfulcon-

saloons

the
at

and

of

even

in

art

subjefts,
Sir Joshua

northern

and

and

nobler

of all feminine

in

none,

the

paints

all around

that

white

be

it is,

as

Titian

him, he yet became

crushed

threw

habitude

even

heart

simplest types

and

gray

of

that, with

loveliness

can

that

him,

subtlyas

so

varieties

of social

of

I think

mind,

portrait-painters.
pi6lures,and Vandyck had

nobler

the

with

"

of

prince

he

is familiar

help loving him ? must


judicious and yet unmeasured
Ruskin
gives him.
in
a
painter of individuality

Mr.

form

them, and

love

paintings and

his

knows

all who

To

can

the

Considered

"

understand

not

painting."

that

from

life

delighted at
praise which

in

who

"

fa6ls

did

Jack Ellys the portrait-painter


This
will never
do, you don't paint
in
like Sir Godfrey : Shakespeare

Kneller

and

poetry

school

first.

at

him

the

in

old

the

"

instance

history
of

so

instindl

for all

Ruskin's

Two

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

70
them

have

to

of the

bust

ideas
the

to

Duchess

National

judgment

the

as

to treatment

as

the

We

but

mater,

my

by a visit
Reynolds's

see

can

far better

Walpole s. There
the three daughters

than

was

famous

fancy piftureof
of Sir William
Montgomery
of Hymen.
statue
a
pi6lure,but it cannot
compare
is the

adorning

graces

magna

adopted."^
Gallery how

not

were

like

drawn

Graces,

the

as

This

is

with

beautiful

the

corating
de-

exquisite

Waldegraves. The latter pi6lure


was
bought at the Strawberry Hill sale by Lord
how
All know
different
Waldegrave for "^^^ lor.
the
and
women's
are
prices realized for men's
be cited
but a very strikingexample may
portraits,
from
the Strawberry Hill sale. Walpole possessed
of
fine companion portraitsby Reynolds
two
one
the other
James, 2nd Earl of Waldegrave, and
of his wife Maria, daughter of Sir Edward
Walpole
naturalness

of the

"

afterwards

and
of

Waldegrave bought
husband

the

for

^73

1,550 guineas, the


of his pi6lures.
one
1

rival of

Reynolds,
level

was

seriouslysupposed
Mr.
colourist

at

had

never

master

s,

be

to

realised

1788)

"

and

Reynolds

he

other

Sometimes

painter.
^

"

they

Letters,"vol. vii.,
p.

prices
never

was

"

the

It is difficult to

is

which

for

equal.

Gainsborough

them

for

the

was

his

raised

of Gainsborough's
pervading charm
portraits;they appeal to all, and there
in

got

Christie's

the

that

he

give
Reynolds's portrait

(1727

Rubens."

since

sold

he

to

calls

Ruskin

he

largest price ever

but

that

of

but

1894

Gainsborough

Thomas

the

In

the sale

pair at

10^.,

;^735 for the wife.


of Lady
Betty Delm6

to

the

Earl

The

of Gloucester.

Duchess

are

370.

greatest

explain
female
is

unlike
too

doubtedly
un-

any

sketchy,

THOMAS

GAINSBOROUGH,

BY

J.

ZOFFANY.

HOGARTH

FROM

for

but

beauty

and

quiet

MILLAIS

TO

purity and
containingthe
of

sense

domesticitythe pi6lure at Dulwich


Tickell
is
and
Mrs.
portraits of Mrs. Sheridan
above
all praise. His
are
portraits of men
very
fine ones
at
two
are
Hampton
powerful. There
Colonel
St. Leger, in his red coat, is the
Court
most
popular, but Johann Christian Fischer, the
oboe
player,is the better pifture.
In
Bath, and
to
1760 Gainsborough removed
raised his price for portraitsto 8 and
ultimately
to
guineas for a full-length.
guineas, or 100
40
exhibited
He
at the
Royal Academy, and sent his
by the Bath carrier, named
piftures to London
lover of pi6luresand refused
Wiltshire, who was
a
for conveying them, so the painter
take money
to
in Gainsboroughs instead of cash.
used to pay him
This
painter is well represented at the National
his magnificent portraits of
are
Gallery, where
Edward
Orpin, the parish clerk of Bradford-onAvon
(one of the pictures
given to Wiltshire),the
"

Mrs.
H. Bate
Siddons, and the fine Rev.
florious
is
surprised
)udley. One
Gainsborough's
not

last words

to

and

heaven,

at

Reynolds :
Vandyck is

We

**

of

are

the

all

going
party," for

to

his

of that great
give evidence of his admiration
Blue
could
Boy
scarcely have
painter. The
been
painted had Vandyck not lived.
George
1802),a Lancashire
Romney(i 734
man,
in 1762, and
obtained
settled in London
premiums
visited
the Society of Arts.
He
Rome
in
from
with Ozias
in i 'j'ji,and on his
Humphrey
company
works

"

**

"

return

to

London,

Cavendish

in

1775,
He

he

established

himself

charged 15 guineas
for a head
life-size,and proportionatelyfor whole
and soon
obtained
and half-lengths,
a largepradlice.
In 1785 he had raised his prices to 80 guineas for
60
guineas for half whole-length, 40
full-length,
in

Square.

72

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

guineas for half-length,


30 guineas for a kit-cat,and
20
guineas for a head.
Romney painted with a simple palette,and was
careful in the seleftion of his pigments, so that his
portraits now

often

outvalue

Reynolds and Gainsborough. Some


if they were
as
painted yesterday.
said

that

his

three

rivals

of his

those

of them

look

It has

been

charadleristics

chief

"

are

(i)

taste, (2) manly drawing, and (3)feelingfor


charafter.
The
appreciationof his beautiful work
severe

has

largelygrown

realize

of

immense

her
and

in the

same

year

of Maria

and

of Lord

Thurlow,

Lord

artist,and

painted

his

pictures
taining
pi6lure conSpencer and
for

;^ 11,025,

pidlurecontainingportraits
Thurlow, the two
daughters
;^ 2,6 7 7.

only

Gower

his fame

1896

Clifden, sold

fetched
not

was

and

Elizabeth

Lady

Catherine

Ronald

In

prices.

of
portraits
sister,Viscountess

Romney

late years,

portrait-painter
; and

writes
would

stand

"He

high

true

was

he

had

never

portrait."

Peter

Vandyke

(born 1729)

was

native

of

Holland
invited
from
by
Antwerp, and was
over
Sir Joshua Reynolds
in
assist him
to
particularly
his draperies. He
settled in Bristol,
afterwards
and
praftised as a portrait-painter.He painted a
ridge
Hall, and his portraitsof Coleportraitof Robert
and
Portrait
Southey are in the National
Gallery.
Gavin
Hamilton
1 797), the connoisseur
(1 730
and classical painter,resided chiefly
where
in Rome,
he died.
He
painted some
portraits,the best
known
being those of the two Gunning beauties
"

"

the

Duchess

of

Coventry.
Astley
John
Hudson,

and

Hamilton

(1730?
a

fellow

and

"

1787)
student

the

was

at

of

Countess

Rome

pupil

of

with

GKORCK

ROMNEY,

BY

HIMSELF.

74

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

obtained

considerable

Arkwright
in the

are

Hugh

National
Douglas

1806) was
practice as
his

up

where

Irish

and

he

returned

He

worked
Sir

181

London,

he

painted

visitors
and

in

years

settled

Dance
under

He

Many

amateur.

after

where

1791

he

died.

(1735

R.A.

Holland,

"

and
for
Hayman,
acquired a large fortune

He

relinquishedhis

and

his

and

Parliament

continued

but

of

English

the

Soon

went

crayons.

entered

baronet,

of

many

Dublin,

widow,

1778 he

in

but

took

Francis

Italy.
with

by marriage
profession.
a

afterwards

city.

in

in
principally

studied

created

that

to

Nathaniel

1)

some

in

"

he commenced

portrait-painter.He

(1734

R.H.A.

of Dublin, where

native

Gallery.

Hamilton,

residence

Rome,

to

Portrait

himself

of

and

Darwin,

Erasmus

and

portraits of

His

success.

to

portraitsare

was

paint as an
exceedingly

of
for the work
mistaken
good, and are sometimes
There
National
in
several
the
Reynolds.
are
Portrait Gallery.
R.A.
Copley,
John Singleton
(1737 181 5)
of portraitsin America
before
painted a multitude
"

he

England.

to

came

Fields

in

afterwards
where

1777,
to

25,

he remained

and

removed

in

the

end

or

year

Inn
two

Hanover

Square,

of his life,and

where

George Street,
to

in Lincoln's

settled

He

his

distinguishedson, Lord Lyndhurst, lived and


died.
well off was
Copley when
glad to leave
for subje6lpiftures,
but in all his
portrait-painting
historical pieces he spared no
pains in adding to
their interest
of adlual
by the introdu6lion
traiture
por;

in order

for this purpose


houses
he visited country
of the family pi6luresas he
such
to copy

required for
are

the

called

"

two

Death

his purpose.
His
in the
National
of Chatham"

best

known

pictures

Gallery, of the somore


properly, After
**

"

FROM

his

Last

HOGARTH

Speech

Peirson."

Mrs.

the

and

Death

"

of

Major

pi6lure he introduced
Copley, his son (afterwards Lord

Lyndhurst), and
was
presented to
1828,

the

and

"

latter

the

In

portraitsof

"

75

MILLAIS

TO

their
the

The

nurse.

nation

by

**Peirson''

was

Chatham"

**

Liverpool in
bought at Lord
Copleys
;^ 1,600.
Lord

Lyndhurst's sale in 1864 for


industry never
flagged, and he is said to
painted at least 290 oil paintings,40 crayon
and
His portraitsof
miniatures.
19
Heathfield

and

National

He

Gallerj'.

Martin

(1737

afterwards

settled

but

in the

are

of

pupil

to

Rome.

returned

to

in Edinburgh, where
1775, settling
till his death
(with the exception of

he
period when
was
appointed

lived

Raeburn

instru6lion

from

National

in Dean

limner

Scotland.

to

His

him.

Gallery

Copley's birth,
settlement

but

to

have

he

received

portrait by

for
some

himself

is

of Scotland.

(1738
1820) was
Philadelphiaa year after
preceded the latter in his

P.R.A.

Springfieldnear

at

of Wales

Prince

He

Street, Soho).

the

is said

West,

Benjamin
bom

London,

portraits,
Lord

about

he remained

in the

in

Mansfield

1797) was
accompanied

"

he

whom

Ramsay,

Scotland

of

Portrait

David
Allan

Earl

the

have

"

in

England.
West
the
was
a
painter, and
good portraitportraitsby him of the royal family at Hampton
is a good portraitof
Court
excellent.
There
are
Dr. Price at the Royal Society, and
of Samuel
one
More
is nothing by
There
at the
Society of Arts.
him
in the National
Portrait
Gallery. Equally
and
appreciated in his own
day by his compeers
scoffed at and his works
by the public,his art is now
of sight. His
Death
the Pale
are
on
put out
and
Horse
of the sights of London
was
one
"

"

became

the talk of the

town.

The

British

Institu-

^6

HISTORICAL

tion
**

his death

at

his

"

claim

The

pidures.
of

Death

rather

pitlure
Temple/'

and

twenty
for

tea-boardy

"

for

English

"

honourable
is that

art

the

for the
after

;^8oo

was

West

;^io.

Anne's

drawingis entirelydevoted
of Bayard
and
Death
the
are
pleasing, but certainly
in appearance.^
chief
West's
mention
in the
history of
"

**

"

Wolfe

of

years

for which

by public au6lion
to
advantage in Queen
Court, which
Hampton

seen

to

it

Annunciation,"

**

his

sold

paid, was
room

his

for

sick in the

healing the
of engraving

purpose

is

guineas

3,000

gave
Saviour

PORTRAITS

he

the

was

first

to

introduce

picturesof modern
history.
Kettle
Tilly
creditable
a
(1740" 1786) was
taken
been mispictureshave sometimes
painter,whose
India
for Reynolds's. He
in 1770
went
to
H e returned
there.
and made
to England
a fortune
in 1777, but not
he started
meeting with success
again for the East, and died at Aleppo. H is portrait
Portrait
of Warren
Hastings is in the National
best portraits
of Admiral
are
Gallery. His two
in
down
the
went
Royal
Kempenfelt, who
Blackstone, the former
George," and Sir William
modern

into

costume

"

Greenwich

at

and

the

painted portraitsof
other

a6lors

and
Beach

Thomas

Reynolds

in

Mrs.

at

Oxford.

Yates,

Mr.

1806)

became

He

also

Powell, and

a6lresses.

(1738

"

1760, and

allusion

latter

contained

exhibited

in this

pupilof
portraitsat the
a

expression can
scarcely be
tea-boards
(or teaappreciatedby
present generation,as no
seen
trays)covered with pictures are now
except in colle6lions.
smooth
Some
of these pidlures were
well painted, although too
is a good story of one
and pretty.
There
of the artists whose
At last
by the tradesman.
constantly being cut down
pay was
the latter complained that the pi"5lurewas
nothing but smoke,
down
and the artist replied, As you
cut
price I reduced
my
I can
for the
the details of the battle,and now
only give smoke
*

The

the

**

pay

you

allow."

FROM

TO

HOGARTH

MILLAIS

^^

Royal Academy from 1 785 to 1 790, and again in


He
and
painted portraits of Mrs. Siddons
1797.
in the dagger scene
in
Macbeth
John Kemble
of which
Mrs. Siddons
herself said, My brother's
"

**

**

head
of

is the

the

two."

horse

the

finest

the

His

dealer,

Exhibition

I have

of

ever

lent

that

and

1867

parliamentary
Portrait Gallery.

Tattersall

the South

to

earliest

Richard

Richard

portrait of

was

the likest

and

seen,

Kensington

of William

Woodfall,

reporter, is in the

tional
Na-

(1740" 182 i) studied


under
Hudson
and
became
soon
cessful
exceedingly sucfashionable
made
his
people, who
among
studio a morning lounge.
lived in Stratford
He
Street with the
Place, at the house
facing Oxford
He was
sculpturedlions above the doorway.
very
and one
ridiculous and affefted in his manners,
day
the followinglines,supposed to have
been
written
by Dr. Wolcot
(Peter Pindar),were
posted on his
R.A.

Cosway,

door:
"

When

Tis

usual

But

here

For

the

This

old

lion's

there is

at

the

is said

two

Society

on

monkey's

within."

Cosway

sent

in

now

in the

great

request,

National

Portrait

good portraitsin

of Arts, viz., William

Templeman.
(1741
James Barry

from

street.

same

are

tie

is seen.

have

to

in the

are

brings a lion,

oils

by

Shipley

Dr.

and

"

1766 with
his

the

without, and

20

show

reversed

of himself

one

signpost to

custom

No.

There

Gallery.

the

miniatures

Cosway's

him

the

to

fair for

monkey

epigram

this house

and

to

man

an

brother.

1774,
with
deemed

but
a

from

allowance
He

painted

his enthusiasm

contempt
the

1806)

for

lower

went

Edmund

to

Italy in

Burke

portraitof

Burke

and
in

for historic art, combined


followed
all who
he
what

branches

of

the

profession.

78

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

who
made
especially those
large profits like
Reynolds out of portrait-painting,
kept him poor.
When
in the
asked
to
paint a portrait he was
habit of saying,
Go
the fellow in Leicester
to
It is pleasant to
know
that at last
Square."
these two
men
reconciled, and when
were
Reynolds
in 1782 Barry went
died
and
the Academy
to
pronounced a glowing eulogium on him as a man
"

and

artist.

an

as

portraitswhich

The

in

room

the

value, and

of

Adelphi

of

are

and

we

from

see

can

"

'*

if he

had

and

Romney
female

he

chosen

in the delineation

Hoppner

Falconet

(1741

St.

at

as
years
of twelve
portraits

some

the

Peter

in

bom

1766, where

about

of Etienne

of

statue

Petersburg, was

London

to

came

rivalled
of beautiful

1791),son

"

Falconet, sculptor of the great


Great

have

might

figures.

Pierre

for

interest

great

the pose of the elegant


in the foreground of the
Village Festival

dancer
that

walls

the

pi6lureson

into his
Barry introduced
the Society of Arts* great

Paris, but

he

pra6lised

He
portrait-painter.

the

drew

artists,which

of the best-known

engraved, and the portraitof the Rev. James


Granger the author of the
Biographical History
Falconet
of England."
returned
before
to France
were

"

his death.

"

Maria

Anna

1807)

was

arrived

in

born
London

at

in

of

One
Brunswick
Her

Adam
her

Chur,

Her

portraitof

infant

her

Novosielski

Majesty's Theatre
National
Gallery

in

the

of Scotland.

at

(i741
and

works

were

subjedls,and the
to paint ceilings.

employed her
best portraitsis

and

R.A.

Switzerland,

1766.

classical

chiefly portraits and


brothers

Kauffmann,

Angelica

of

the

Princess

Court.

Hampton

the architeft

Haymarket,

of

of

Her

is in the

FROM

OziAS
a

time

He
in

HOGARTH

R.A.

Humphry,
India

to

went

At

1788.

Knole

which

Dorset

portraitin
R.A."

It

in

1785,
is

MILLAIS

(1742
lodged

he

Bath, where

at

TO

is inscribed

and

with

returned

also

of

Duke
The

**

first

Ozias

is

(1 7 44

England

the
:

for

Linleys.

to

back

the

painted by
begun in May and

Knole
At
June, 1 791.
Humphry
by Romney.
R.A.
Russell,
J OHN

the

portrait of
on

lived

1810)

"

crayons
was

79

Humphry,
finished early in
fine portrait of

"

806)

worked
,

he excelled.
in which
He was
in crayons,
chiefly
pointed
apin ordinary to George III.,
portrait-painter
of Wales.
His portraitsof Dr. Dodd,
and Prince

Sheridan
Portrait
David

and

went

there

Wilberforce

in

the

(1744 1796) was


study in Italyin 1 764.

born

and

Allan
to

till 1777,

"

when

he

came

is

to

He

London
he

1780

at

Alloa,

remained
and

tised
prac-

settled

in

popular for his paintings


domestic
subje6ls,which gained him the name
His
the Scottish
Hogarth.
portraitby himself
His
in the National
Gallery of Scotland.
trait
porand

Edinburgh,
of

National

Gallery.

portrait-painting. In
of

are

of
National

became

William

Sir

Portrait

Hamilton,

K.B.,

is in

the

Gallery.

Northcote,

R.A.

a
1831) was
devoted
pupil of Reynolds, and painted many
well as largeand uninteresting
as
men
portraitsof eminent
pi6lureson historical subje6ls. Hoppner
I can
be fond
said :
of his
to
fancy a man
once
who
art
paints like Reynolds, but how any man
be fond of his art who
can
paints like that fellow
heaven
He
Northcote
only knows."
was
ful
successof children
and angels.
in paintingthe heads
18 19) painted in
William
Lane
(1746
crayons
of Mrs. Siddons
in 1785.
a portrait
R.A.
William
Hamilton,
(1751 1801) first

James

(1746

"

"

"

"

8o

HISTORICAL

exhibited

the

historical

an

was

at

PORTRAITS

in 1 774.
He
Royal Academy
painter,but occasionallypainted

of
portraits,
especially

being

of Mrs.

Sir

stars,

of these

one

Siddons.

William

exhibited

theatrical

R.A.

Beechey,

portraits in

some

(1753

"

and
from
1775,
with fair success.

1839)
that

He
pra6lisedin London
painted a portraitof Queen Charlotte, which
cured
prohim
the appointment of portrait-painter
to
After painting his successful
her majesty.
trian
equesof George HI. with the Prince of Wales
group
of York, now
and the Duke
at
Hampton Court, he
a
was
knighted. He was
good painter,but his
fame
There
is a
paled before that of Lawrence.
in the National
portraitby him of Mrs. Siddons
Portrait
Gallery, and portraits of John Kemble,
Charles
S. Pybus and
Sir Francis
Bourgeois at
Dulwich.
Sir William
Beechey's son, George D.
and
brought up as a portrait-painter,
Beechey, was
sitters.
during the life of his father he had many
R.A.
Henry
Sir
Raeburn,
(1756 1823) was
of our
he
but
as
one
greatest portrait-painters,
in Edinburgh he scarcelytook the position
resided
served.
in general esteem
during his lifetime that he deHis fame was
locallyvery great, but it was
less widely spread in the great world.
By the advice
in early life,
of Reynolds he proceeded to Rome
and
the great painter offered
to
help him with
time

he

"

Raeburn

funds, but

studying
in

two
1

787.

years

did
in

not

need

Italy,he

assistance.
settled

in

After
burgh
Edin-

It is said that later in life Lawrence

fixinghis residence in London.


full of
lived at a time when
He
Edinburgh was
he painted them
all.
In 1822
and
he
great men,
appointed his
was
knighted, and in 1823 was
How
majesty's limner for Scotland.
great was
be seen
from
of portraiture
the fa6l
his power
may
dissuaded

him

from

HOGARTH

FROM

when

that

the

in

Wilkie

studied

gallery at

Raeburn.

TO

the

Madrid

MILLAIS

of

work

he

Velasquez
of

reminded

was

Of the
Henley writes :
portraiture the giftof perceiving

Mr.

W.

E.

**

capacityof
and representingindividual
character
and form
he had more
that
perhaps than any portrait-painter
mere

"

"

has

lived."

Doubtless

it may
of men's
lives

this

and

secret

claim

Scotsmen

Reynolds, and
view.

and

said

pictureswere
Gallery contains
Murdo
by him,

of
in

gathered together.

325

canvas.

place after
said

be

another

held, and

was

to

exhibition

an

his

on

the second

is much

his death

acteristic,
his great charthe
that he read
it

wrote

for Raeburn
there

After

of his works

be

was

this

for

fifty-seven
1876, when

The

National

fine portrait of Colonel


and a beautiful portraitof

Mac-

lady
He
which
reminds
of Hoppner.
is represented
one
the National
Portrait
at
Gallery by portraitsof
Francis
Sir John
Horner, the Rev. John Home,
Sinclair, Prof. Playfair,Hugh W.
Williams, and
Henry Mackenzie.
brated
Alexander
Nasmyth
(1758 1840), the celeborn
at
landscape painter,was
Edinburgh,
Allan
London
he came
but
to
to
study under
On
his return
to Edinburgh he at first
Ramsay.
of his portraits
pra6lisedas a portrait-painter
; one
the most
trustworthy likeness of the poet
was
a

"

Burns.

HI.

R.A.

Hoppner,

John

chorister

made

him

at
a

the

small

(1758 1810) was originally


Chapel Royal, but George
"

allowance

to

enable

him

to

painter. In 1780 he
began to exhibit at the Royal Academy, and in
1784 he was
livingin Charles Street, St. James's
his studio
was
Square, where
besieged by the
his studies

commence

'

"Sir

Henry

as

Raeburn"
G

(1890),pp.

11-12.

82

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

fashionable

those

of

in 1810

"

will be

powerful competitor, he
I have
acknowledged as
the grave

to

whom

The

revived

were

Lawrence
hear

to

sorry

in

wrote

it,my

most

only (to

friends)
sinking
Hoppner."

my
rival,is I fear

my

of

I mean,

"

rival of Lawrence.

Romney
Hoppner.

and

You

of
daring plagiarist

and

Reynolds

of Lawrence

was

the boldest

and

Reynolds,
fadlions

He

crowd.

course,

portraitpainter to the Prince of


of the
Wales, and painted many
royal family.
His
best works
in St. James's Palace.
He
are
of Wellington, and
painted Nelson, Rodney, Duke
Pitt,also Mrs. Gwyn
(Goldsmith'sJessamy Bride),
and
Mrs.
Draper (Sterne's Eliza). His female
at the present
portraitsare in high estimation
day.
Hugh
Robinson
1790),an artist
(about 1760
of great promise, was
the eldest
of Henry
son
He
Robinson,
early
Esq., of Malton, Yorkshire.
Hoppner

was

"

pra6lisedart,

in

and

Gentleman"

the

to

"

Portrait

of

Re(5lor

Cleaver,

painted, was
to

but

he

in the

him

send

and

to

the

ship

entitled

true

780

the

"

the

sent

Royal

later he contributed
a

Academy;

Head

of

Gentleman."
of

friend

Italy. He
pictures he

that foundered

to

whose

had

home
him
A

sea.

and

helped

in 1790,
lost
were

fine

pifture,

Piping Boy," was


painted before he
His masterpiece is
was
twenty-four years of age.
beautiful portraitof Thomas
Teesdale, a boy in
a
is in the
tugging at a kite string, which
green
Hall,
at Downe
possession of Mr. J. M. Teesdale
Ronald
Gower
and was
s
photographed for Lord
Galleries of England."
"Great
Historic
Abbott
Lemuel
Francis
(1760 1803) at the
a pupil of Francis
Hayman.
age of fourteen became
in Caroline
In 1780 he set up as a portrait-painter
"

The

years

John
portrait he
and

with

Rev.

Robinson

returned

at

two

Beggar"

The

Malton,

of

Portrait

**

"

FROM

Street, and
his in the

several
these
and

1788

the
is

Royal
portrait

Gallery (Henry Byne) and


Portrait Gallery. Among

National

Sir William

Herschel,

Nollekens.

(1761

Opie

mathematical

by

There

1800.

to

Nelson, Vancouver,

are

83

MILLAIS

occasionally at

National

in the

John
a

TO

exhibited

from

Academy
of

HOGARTH

uncle

an

claimed

"

bent

as

the young
for her

**

him

1807) had, curiouslyenough,


called
a
boy, so that he was
Sir

several

patrons, and

attention
obtained

soon

the

as

ling
travel-

the

He

known

was

was

attracted

(Peter Pindar).

Wolcot

Art, however,

he

and

own,

till he
portrait-painter
of Dr.

Isaac."

"

Cornish

Wonder."
told Northcote,

Reynolds
like,

was

in one.*'

like

Why,

"

Burke,

etc.

On

Exeter

native

to

Samuel

gave

that tuneful

to

short

Jackson

Drummond,

at

the

to

the

swain

him

laurel

I form

and
a

the

head

shone

Sun.

it,

on

sonnet"

(died 1807) was

praftisedas
time

wrote

bred.
diamond,

him

Royal Academy
He

Opie.
for

tin mines

Chamberlain

of the

sat

that matchless

"

William

was

formed

Jackson's portrait put

Whilst

of

William

genius,like her

secret, tillchance

Tis

who

Cathedral, Wolcot

Speak, Muse, who


The
Cornish boy in
In

Opie
Velasquez

and

Caravaggio

portrait of

"

Whose

what

Fox, Southey, Jack Bannister, Girtin,

his

organistof

asked

the celebrities

Amongst

were

who

afterwards

dent
stu-

pupil
and
portrait-painter,
a

Hull.
A.R.A.

(1763 1844) was


the portraitsin the
piflure "Admiral
"

on
employed for some
years
Magazine." His
European
De Winter"
Duncan
receivingthe sword of Admiral
His
Isamis at Greenwich.
portraitsof Sir Marc
Brunei
Mrs.
and
bard
Fry are in the National
Portrait Gallery.
**

84

historical

Joseph, A.R.A.
(1764 1846)
and in 1834
a
portrait-painter,

Francis

George

portraits

"

pra6lisedchieflyas
he died.
he retired to Cambridge, where
by him of Spencer Perceval, painted from

Henry

day

Raffles, are

Gallery.
(1766
1839) had

Singleton

his

mask

Portrait

National

in the

in

of Sir Stamford

after death, and

taken

Portraits

his

of

account

on

fame

some

"

historical

pictures.

of 1867 his
Kensington Exhibition
of James Boswell, wife and three children
portraits
Sandby, R.A. (No. 516),and
(No. 549), Thomas
the General
Assembly of the Royal Academy with
in the
Chair
West
President
(No. 520), were
is in the
His
shown.
portraitof Earl Howe
National
Portrait Gallery.
Gainsborough
Dupont(i767
1797), maternal
he
of
Thomas
Gainsborough (whom
nephew
the Royal Academy.
His
exhibited
at
assisted),
South

the

In

"

chief

work

was

group
for which

Trinity House,
is

in the

now

of

P.R.S.A.
in

Overmains

at

he

Room

Watson,

George
born

Court

of

the

;^5oo. It
the Corporation.
(1767 1837) was
"

Berwickshire,

afterwards

He

maintained

and

an

the

received

after

and

elementary instru6lion
receiving some
London
and
to
came
Nasmyth

Reynolds's studio.

of

Masters

ander
Alex-

from

painted

in

settled in Edinburgh

honourable

rivalrywith

Raeburn.

Brown

Mather

(died 1 831) was

England

in

born

America,

when

and
studied
young
considerable
He obtained
West.
under
patronage
and
HI.
and
as
a
Queen
portrait-painter, George

but

to

came

Caroline

were

his sitters.

among

He

continued

to

had
deserted
his powers
him, and pictures
him.
around
accumulated
C. R. Leslie, R.A.,

paint after
visited
number

in

his

that he

had

him

decay,
on

and

his hands.

remarked
His

on

the

portrait of

FROM

HOGARTH

85

MILLAIS

TO

John Howard,

Popham
Jodge Duller,and Admiral
National
Portrait Gallery.
R.A.
Owen,
(1769 1825) was

in the

are

William

"

Charles

pupil of
of

notice

Cotton,
He

Reynolds.
the

painter to

appointed portrait-

was

of Wales

Prince

the

attracted

R.A., and

in 18

wards
after-

and

10,

Prince
principal portrait-painter to the
He
refused
Regent.
knighthood, although his
income

average
is in the
Sir

of

him

portraitby

National

ThoxMas

his

was

Bath, which
and

fashion

was

the

we

learn

one

of that

P. R.A.

that after
him

(1769
When

studio

at

favourite

city.

We

of himself

fascination

pressed

poet

Gallery.

long triumph.
a

Rosslyn,

of

with

the

was

Earl

year.

in contaft

came

old he had

years

;^3,ooo

Wedderburn,

Lawrence,

all who

career

be

to

Portrait

fascinated

twelve

said

was

2,

resort

"

1830)

him, and
he

was

Alfred

Place,

of the

beauty

how
guess
and of his art

can

great
when

painting Cowper's portraitthe


him
at
to
Olney.
stay with

Campbell said, this is the merit of Lawrence's


have got into a
to
one
seem
painting: he makes
of the blest, and
to
drawing-room in the mansions
be looking at oneself in the mirrors."
fashion turned
After his death
against him for a
time, and he has been described
an
as
exceedingly
clever but thoroughly vicious artist." This is much
too
criticism, for although there can be no
a
severe
that the decay for a time
doubt
of English portraiture
"

**

with

commenced

and

men

however
leave

women

are

contented
the

assistants

but

some

and
satisfactory,
favour.
at

This

Christie's

trulyexcellent.
to paint the face

of the

rest

is
on

Lawrence,

pictureto

be

of his work
fashion

has

was
now

faces

his
He
with

was

of

often

skill and

finished

by

his

in every
way
turned
in his

strikinglyillustrated by the sale


6th, 1897, of
Saturday, March

86

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

portraitof Miss Farren


(afterwardsCountess
of Derby), in a white silk dress lined with fur, for
same
pi6lure sold at Sir
guineas. This
2415
in
Francis
Grant's
sale
1863, for 79 guineas.
in the
There
fine portraits by him
some
are
National
particularlythat of the
Gallery, more
founder
of the gallery John
JuliusAngerstein.
In 1806
he raised his prices from 30 to 50 guineas
for a three-quarter
length. In 1 808 he again raised
them, the smallest size from 80 to 106 guineas, and
from
to 400
200
full-lengths
guineas. In 181 7 he
sent
was
by the Prince Regent to Aix-la-Chapelle
were
assembled) to
(where the European Powers
sor.
paint portraitsfor the Waterloo
Gallery at Windhis

"

He

allowed

was

and

expenses
the

;^ 1,000

paid

was

for

tingent
con-

terms

for

year

his usual

portraits.

Lawrence,

not

contented

we

read

be

merely a portraitpainter,attempted a subject piece, and exhibited


Satan
in 1 797
was
callinghis legions,"which
highly praised. In the guide to the exhibition
to

"

of

this

date

hitherto

"Mr.

branch

in this

of the

as

the

with

art

Satan

is

attendant

fiend

Beelzebub

poet

framed.
.

first artists of the

Satan
it ;

answered

my

thought
a

are

second

success

accident

path

strong.

circle of

my
in

with

My

taste, and

he

school."
to

motives

fortune;

no

the
of

this formance
perthe
among

painter

Lee

"

The

attempting

longer

if I have

it is because

honour

are

and

in

of

mind

The

Miss

portraitswill

claims

the

whole

the

wrote

secret

or

that

and

Lawrence

Mr.

The

success.

is all that

English

well satisfied,and

was

greatest

Upon

place

must

truly sublime,

figure of
the

been

portrait-painter
; he
pi6luresoared into the higher

chiefly known

has, however,

has

Lawrence

my

be

trod
limbs

acknowledged by the
undisputed by competitors
are

FROM

HOGARTH

rivals."

and
"it

was

damned

devil/'

He

he

as

Bristol

by

Martin

Sir

from

paintings.
now

appears

on

the

leading to

inclined

to

with

agree

in Dublin

born

was

he

He

Burke.

and

in

Lawrence

succeeded

and

London

Reynolds

to

published verses

"

to

came

introduced

was

(1769

P.R.A.

Shee,

Archer

1788, where
8 14,

will be

at

criticism.

Fuseli's

his

pi6lureas it
Royal Academy

Gallery,

Diploma

taken

was

of

rock

rence
Law-

taken

position on

Satan

from

for

was

had

he

this

the

at

of

rowed
bor-

friends, but

which

the

was

there

two

wild

not

see

staircase

1850)

and

who

Those

the

said

not

idea

consequence

idea

his

himself

in

the

that

sketch

stood

that

Fuseli

the

In

between

proved
Fuseli

further

him.

coolness

Fuseli, however,

thing certainly,but

added

from
time

friend

His

87

MILLAIS

TO

1805, 1809,
President

as

in

by
and

of

of the
in 1830;
this union
Royal Academy
low
in his professionwith a very
highest honour
poetic position,gave rise to an uncomplimentary
epigram :
the

"

See

The

Thomas

Denman,
himself,
of
"

is all astonished

world

portraits of

His

"Gentleman"

is also

colleftion
William
Henry

"

fine
of
IV.

the

National

in the

as

at

him

is Sh^e /

"

Pi6lon, Lord
dramatist, and

of

Portrait
the

Gallery, and
marquis in the

Gallery.

of the

Royal Academy,

Windsor

Howard,

So

National

portraitby
the

Poesy

Thomas

Lewis

Hour

Midnight

Sir
Morton

in the

are

sister

her

Paintingcrowns

queen

and

There
in the

one

of

Castle.
R.A.

(1769

"

pupil of Philip Reinagle, R.A.,and in


medals
silver
the gold and
both
at
Between
1798 and 1824
Academy.

1847)
1790

the
he

was

gained
Royal

exhibited

88

HISTORICAL

considerable

There

number

portraitsat the Academy.


portraitsby him of James Watt, Hayley,

are

Flaxman,

and

Portrait

PORTRAITS

of

Mrs.

Trimmer

in

National

the

Gallery.

George

Clint,

A.R.A.

(1770 1854) portraitwas


painter and engraver,
highly successful in the
portraitureof a(5lors. At the South
Kensington
his portraits of Charles
Museum
are
Young as
Hamlet, and Miss Glover
as
Ophelia ; and scenes
from
Paul
and
the
Pry," the
Honeymoon,"
Clandestine
Marriage."
Thomas
to
Phillips, R.A. (1770
1845) came
"

**

**

**

"

London

in

1786

and

became

At

first he

which

in

he

portraits of
Faraday, Lord
all of which

in the

are

Saxon

the

Royal

settled
years
about
of

time

Sir

in
in

Wilkie

born

was

His

Walter

best

and

In

He

work

the

Gallery,

John

Clark

Sir Richard

Scottish

in the

London

portrait
large dog, with a
it was
engraved by

is in

Portrait

^^

is his

1803

in

died

holding
landscape background (1 805)
His portraitof
James Heath.
of Eldin

tised
prac-

for several

afterwards

known

Scott

National

Gallery.

is in the National

1795-96.

Edinburgh, and
St. Petersburg,

181 7.

Portrait

exhibitingportraitsat

in

Academy

Burdett,

Manchester

at

London,

in

Sir Francis

National

Sir David

portraitof
Gallery.
for

and

Thurlow,

His

James

the

at

attempted historical
afterwards
took
to
portrait-painting,
He
painted
gained great success.
William
Blake, Byron, Chantrey,

Royal Academy.

subje6ls,but

student

Phillips

and

National

one

of
trait
Por-

Gallery.
a
pupil of
(1777 1839) was
James Lonsdale
himself with great success
devoted
He
Romney.
Street
and took the house in Berners
to portraiture,
He
of
where
was
one
Opie had formerly lived.
"

FROM

the

founders

Several

HOGARTH

of

of his

Society of
portraitsare in the
1

"

he

British

Artists.

National

Portrait

the

Gallery.
John Jackson, R. A. (1 778
of his boyish associates.
His
whom

89

MILLAIS

TO

83 1 ) drew
father

portraits
a

was

tailor,

ness
apprenticed,and through the kindof Sir George Beaumont,
enabled
he was
to
leave a business
he disliked
and
to
study at the
He first exhibited
there in 1804,
Royal Academy.

to

between
than

was

which

and

year

830 he exhibited

less

no

a
pi6lures. He was
Wesleyan, and for
gelical
Evanexecuted
the monthly portraitin the
years
Magazine/* Although a first-rate artist he
did not charge more
than fifty
guineas for a portrait,
and
is supposed
than
have
made
not
to
more
;^i,500 a year by the practiceof his profession.
His
finest female
portraitis that of Lady Dover,
his best
and
man's
portrait that of Flaxman,
At the Academy
dinner
painted for Lord Dover.

145

**

in

1827

Lawrence

pi6lure which
himself

own

chara6lerized

born

in 1801.

spent

South

He

went

Associate

ablest

In

and

Paris

in

his native

to

in the

(1780

Emperor

to

Alexander,

was

In

Russia
and

"

18

as

became
on

18, and

His

portrait
Gallery.

one

of

the

1829) began life


he painted a
16

0*Neil

and

18

an

assistants.

(1781

R.A.

in

Portrait

Lawrence's

in colours

went

to

afterwards
ele6led

was

country.

1859)

"

engraver.
portraitof Miss

he

proud

(1779 1843)
to
England

1804 ^md

National

mezzotint

8 19

came

Italy. He
Royal Academy

Dawe,

engraved

"

in

of Sir Thomas

charming
was

to

Lane

George
as

Carolina

years
of the

returned
finally
of Coleridge is
Samuel

A.R.A.

Allston,

in

four

felt

"

as

author/'

the

Washington
was

have

might

Vandyck

latter

the

the

painted

which
Juliet,
very popular.

invitation
400

of the

portraitsof

90

HISTORICAL

Russian
St.

at

of these

officers.

PORTRAITS

galleryin
ere6led

Petersburg was
portraits.

Thomas

Stewardson

the

Palace

Winter

for the

exhibition

a pupil
1859) was
of Romney,
and first exhibited
at the
Academy in
He was
1 804.
to Queen
appointed portrait-painter
Caroline.
His portraitof George Grote
the historian
is in the National
Portrait Gallery.
Sir
William
Allan.
P.R.S.A., R.A.
(1782
in
born
1850) was
Edinburgh, but after being
in that city,came
to
apprenticed to a coachbuilder
London
of the
to
study in the schools
Royal
He
burg,
subsequently settled in St. PetersAcademy.
where
he painted many
turned
reportraits. He
dent
Presito
Edinburgh in 18 14, and became
of the Royal Scottish
Academy in 1838. On

(1781

"

"

Wilkie

death

in Scotland,

by

himself

he

and

was

William

1842.

to

the

His

queen

portrait

National

portraitof Scott in
painted in 1832, is in the
Henry

in

knighted

is in the

His

limner

made

Gallery of Scotland.
his study at Abbotsford,
National
Portrait Gallery.

Pickersgill,

R.A.

(1782
portrait"

Phillipsas the fashionable


1875) succeeded
worth,
painter of his day. Portraits by him of WordsMonk"
Godwin,
Lewis,
Jeremy Bentham,
Hannah
More, George. Stephenson, and Talfourd,
in the National
Portrait Gallery,and
of Mr.
are
Vernon
in the National
Gallery.
Derby
William
bom
at
(1786 1847) was
London
He
in 1808.
to
Birmingham, and came
made
drawings for Lodge's Portraits when William
He
Hilton, R.A. relinquished the work.
painted
in water-colours
of the Stanley
a series of portraits
family,copied from the great colle6lions, and these
an
Derby was
equal
are
preserved at Knowsley.
proficientin oils,water-colours, and in miniature
painting.
"

"

HOGARTH

FROM

Ramsay

James

TO

(1784

"

MILLAIS

1854)

commenced
and

in London,
pra6liceportrait-painting

sitters.

eminent

exhibited

He

to

had

many

for the first time

at

retired
in
He
to
Royal Academy
1803.
Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1847, and died in that city.
is in the National
His portraitof Thomas
Bewick
Portrait Gallery.

the

a
(1787 18 19) was
pupil of Lawrence, and a highly successful portraitthe painting of the
painter. One of his feats was
portraitof a Mr. Hare after his death, although he
He
him in the street.
is chiefly
had only once
met
of the Kemble
remembered
family
by his portraits
Trial of Queen
Katharine"
in the piftureof the
in the play of
Henry VHL"
Sir
Gordon,
R.A., P.R.S.A.
John Watson
native
of Edinburgh, and
a
(1788 1864) was
settled there
as
a
painted
portrait-painter.He
in 182 1, John Wilson
in 1822.
Lockhart
Scott and
Many distinguishedEnglishmen visited Edinburgh
of them
in order to be painted by him, one
being
He
David
Cox.
began to exhibit at the Royal
in 1827, and
painted Dr. Chalmers's
Academy
He
was
appointed queens
portrait in 1844.
in Scotland, and
limner
was
knighted. In the
National
Portrait Gallery there are portraitsby him
De
of the Marquis of Dalhousie,
Quincey, John

Henry

George

Harlow

"

**

"

"

Wilson,
in the

Sir

and

David

Brewster,

and

are

National

John

Glasgow,

Gallery of Scotland.
Partridge
(1790 1872)

several

"

and

came

under

to

Thomas

London

was

about

Phillips,R.A.
Italy he settled

born
18 14

at

when

After

he

studied

few

in London
years*residence in
was
a
highly successful.
portrait-painterand
was
appointed portrait-painter
extraordinary
Several
of his portraits
in 1845.
the queen
Portrait Gallery.
in the National

as

He
to
are

portraits

historical

92

1844)
(1793
from
exhibited
regularlyat the Royal Academy
18 14 portraits and
historical
ture
subje6ls. His picof
board
the
Howe
on
George HI. and Lord
His portraitof Admiral
Vi6lory is at Greenwich.
Sir Edward
Portrait
Codringtonis in the National
Dulwich
Kemble
at
Gallery, and that of Charles
Mrs.
is an
excellent
likeness.
and
John Kemble
Henry

Perronet

Briggs,

R.A.

"

**

"

Siddons
Sir

also

sat

to

George

him.

Hayter

(1792 1871) was


pointed
apportraitand historical painter in ordinary
her majesty, 1837, and knighted in 1842.
On
to
the death of Wilkie
in 1841 he
became
principal
His pifturesof
painter in ordinary to the queen.
the
Trial of Queen
Caroline"
and the
Meeting
"

'*

**

of

the

first

National

Portrait

Mrs.

wife

Prints

in

the

the

Carpenter

(1793

Carpenter, Keeper
Museum,
painted

of

Sarah

of W.

in

are

Gallery.

Margaret

1872),

Parliament*'

Reformed

H.

British

"

the

large
being

portraits,that of Dr. Whewell


her last work.
Fraser
Her
portraits of Patrick
Tytler the historian, John Gibson, R.A., and
Richard
Parkes
Bonington the painter,are in the
National
Portrait Gallery.
Sir William
Ross
(1794
1860) painted some
portraitsin large,although his fame rests upon his
of Lord
miniatures.
There
is a portrait by him
number

of

"

Erskine

]oHN

in oils in the

Graham

National

Gilbert

Gallery.
born
1866) was

Portrait

(1794

"

he entered
to
London, when
Glasgow, and came
he
the
Schools, where
Royal Academy
gained
hibitions
portraitsto the exprizes. He contributed
many
to
went
1 823, and
1 820Italy,where he
spent two years in study. He settled in Edinburgh
in 1827 and
obtained
a
good pra6licein portraitGorpainting. His portraitsof Sir John Watson
at

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

94

in Bruton
Sir
born

in

London

to

came

He

1842.

took

Briggs'shouse

Street.
Box

William

Oxford

at

R.A.

all,

and

(1800

Schools

the

entered

1879)

"

was

of

the

in 1827, and
He
went
to Rome
Royal Academy.
Director
He
two
was
stayed there about
years.
of the National
Gallery from 1865 to 1874, when
he resigned owing to ill-health,
and was
knighted
in 1867.
He
exhibited
86 portraitsat the Royal
The
Portrait Gallery contains
National
Academy.
his portraitof Copley Fielding,and that of Richard
is in the Diploma Gallery of the Royal
Gibson
Academy.
1870) painted portraitsin
John Wood
(1801
is a portraitby
of Lawrence.
There
the manner
in
National
Portrait
him
Britton
the
of John
"

Gallery,and
Sir

one

Edwin

of Stothard

at

Dulwich.

Landseer

R.A.

(1802

1873)

"

painted his first portrait in 1823, and continued


is
occasionallyto paint them
through life. There
in the National
Portrait Gallery a good likeness of
prise
Allen). It may surJohn Allen (Lord Holland's
to

some

the well-known
asked
answered
do

this

**

Is

pi6lures"
and

"Ascot

"

being

for
justification

is sufficient

Grant,

R.A.

(1803

for many

P.R.A.

Breakfast

Hunt,"

at

Melton,"

contain

portraits. In the National


portraitsby him of Lord

"

his
"

"

years

(1803

sporting subjefts, and

in

on

portrait painted by Landseer,


a
thy servant
dog that he should

thing?"

Francis

list,but

his

being here.
Prescott
Knight,
John
and was
was
a pupil of Clint
portrait-painter.
Sir

in this

name

story of the celebritywho,

have

to

Landseer

see

Melton

its

1881)
a

cessful
suc-

1878)

celled
ex-

favourite

Hunt,"

of
large number
Portrait
Gallery are
Campbell, Sir Edwin
a

HOGARTH

FROM

MILLAIS

TO

95

Macaulay,
Hardinge, Lord
and
Grant.
Sir J. Hope
his brother
A.R.A.
Thomas
Duncan,
1845) studied
(1807
Sir
in the Trustees'
Edinburgh, under
Academy,
Allan.
His portraits,
William
especiallyof female
much
beauties, were
portrait
appreciated. His own
Gallery of Scotland.
by himself is in the National
Stephen
Catterson
Smith, P.R.H.A.
(1807
an
1872) was
Englishman by birth, and a student
of the Royal Academy,
but he settled as a portraitin Dublin, where
painter in Derry, and afterwards
is in the
he
His
died.
portrait of the queen
Viscount

Landseer,

"

"

Dublin
the

City Hall,

the

Castle.

of

Daniel

0*Connell

in

of various

Lord-

Lieutenants

in

House,

Mansion
and

of

him

portrait by

the

Earl

of

Royal Society.
R.A.
George
Richmond,
(1809
a
1896) was
produced
reportrait-painterof great charm, who brilliantly
P.R.S., is

Rosse,

at

the

"

his time.
between

features

of

He

is said

to

have

Cardwell,

most

of the

great

drawn

and

have

of

men

painted

of
portraits,hundreds
been
engraved. His portraitsof Lords
and
Cranworth,
Hatherley, as well as
and

2,000

which

some

the

heads

in

3,000

chalk,

Gallery. Many

in

are

of his

the

National

Portrait

in crayons

portraitsare

and

water-colours.
Daniel

R.A.

Maclise,

(181 i

1870)

"

historical
well as an
as
portrait-painter,
painter and his two grand pi6lures

and
"

"

of
and

Wellington

"The

Death

and
of

Blucher

Nelson"

after
"

was

contain

subje6l

The

ing
Meet-

Waterloo"

portraits.

also

of
name
produced under the assumed
Alfred
Eraser s Magazine
markable
reCroquis, for
a
of portraits of the literaryand
series
of his day.
scientific men
Samuel
Laurence
intimate
1884) ^m
(1812
friend of James Spedding, was
brought into close
He

"

*'

"

96

HISTORICAL

relations

with

of whom

were

Charles

the

PORTRAITS

of his time, many


his sitters.

literarymen

among
Lucy
(1814

"

commissioned
1873) ^^
to paint portraitsof John

by Sir Joshua Walmsley


Bright,Cobden, W. E. Gladstone,
Nelson,

Cromwell,

and

bequeathed to the
South
Kensington
Sir
William

Frederic
Boxall

Garibaldi.

nation, and

Disraeli,

These
are

now

were

in

the

Museum.

Burton
as

Hume,

Dire6lor

(b. 1816)

succeeded

of the National

Sir

Gallery
resigned

knighted in 1884, and


He
of
painted a large number
and a drawing by him of
portraits,
George Eliot,"
Portrait Gallery.
is in the National
John Phillip, R.A. (1817
1867), although his
fame
the beauty of his Spanish
rests
on
great
pi6lures and interiors of cathedrals, also painted
some
good portraits.
Henry
Knight
William
(1823 1863) excelled
in the painting of children's portraits.
Edwin
Long, R.A.
(1829 1891). Besides his
good portraits.
subje6lpi6lureshe painted some
1893),although his great
John Pettie(i839
from
his historical and
fame
romantic
arose
tures,
picoccasionallypainted portraits.
Frank
R.A.
Holl,
(1845" 1888). After the
death
of this excellent portrait-painter,
the Royal
collefted
of his
a
special exhibition
Academy
pi6lures.
P. R.A.
Lord
Leighton,
(1830 1895) cannot
be called a portrait-painter,
although he painted
be found
in the
few
to
were
portraits. Some
a
exhibition
the
which
noble
at
Royal Academy
showed
his life's work
to such
advantage, and the
Burton
was
specially
portrait of Sir Richard
both
remarkable
a
as
portrait and as a pi6lure.
Portrait Gallery.
the National
is now
This
in
1874; he was
office in 1894.
in

"

"

"

"

"

"

FROM

Here

ends

this

and

HOGARTH

the

be

the

the effe6ls of the

of

proper
in the

changes
in England.
portrait-painting
has

stillto be written, and

calendar
formed

of

artists

school

and
After

him

existed

portraitpainters,
place to sum
up
artistic history of
The
early history

therefore

the consecutive

Holbein,

with

commences

affe6led

which

9/

MHXAIS

catalogue

to

seems

TO

for many
series of

all his

who

poraries,
contem-

after his death.

years

long
foreignersfound this
a
profitablefield for their labours, but
country
the larger portion of the
although they obtained
pra6lice, Englishmen were
ready to fight for a
place. In miniature
painting Englishmen always
and
held the first position,
Hilliard was
the earliest
the
prominent English painter. Vandyck was
greatest painterEurope had lent to England since
the days of Holbein, and, like Holbein, he founded
school
which
influenced
a
succeeding painters.
excellent native
Then
arose
some
painters as, for
a

and

instance, Dobson

Vandyck

there

Walker.

the

time

of

gradual fall in artistic talent.


equal of Vandyck, and Kneller
the equal of
not
instances) was

was

the
not
Lely was
(except in a few
It is difficult
Lely.
revivals

From

understand

to

how

about, for they often

artistic

arise

entirely
from
without
of some
the advent
warning
genius
he
sometimes
is
followed
or
expe6lation,and
by
other geniuses, but the appearance
after a period
of darkness
of such paintersas Hogarth, Reynolds,
remain
explained,
unever
Gainsborough, and Romney must
for no natural laws apply here.
of the eighteenth
We
of the deadness
hear much
century, and of the revival originatedby the French
come

Revolution,
revival

in

originated
middle

and

there

poetry
at

of the

that

was

time

can

be

no

doubt

largely caused
;

but

art

eighteenthcentury,
H

that

by hopes

revived
and

the

the

in

the

French

98

HISTORICAL

Revolution

killed
One

France.
method

whatever

men,

account

of the fame
that

see

are

of

left in

was

the

the

of

in dark

even

have

who

those

who

art

chronological
these
chapters is that the
on
likelyto be overlooked
the great ones, get a hearing,

in

adopted

we

little

advantage

smaller

and

PORTRAITS

times

torch

there

of

been

have

alight.
We
allow, however, that the English have
must
much
behind
in the
been
produ6lion of a
very
school
of painting. Little or nothing in the way
of subjeftpaintingwas
produced in England before
all we
and
After
the time of Thornhill
Hogarth.
say, there

may

given
removed

their

art

that the ment


encouragefar
motive
has
a
portrait-painting
be

can

to

from

and

men

kept

doubt

no

artistic

for centuries

women

desired

have

been

have

portraits painted, and

of

large number

feeling. A

to

have

willingto

with the result that the succession


privilege,
level of
The
of painters has never
failed.
artistic merit has greatlyvaried, but painters have
always been found to do the work required of them.
Happily, we are livingin a time of artistic wealth.
pay

for the

has

Never
rate

there

painters have
This

now.

Clausen,

Hon.

Frederick

A.R.A.,

from

Herman

G.

Frank

many

R.

A.,

Herkomer,

the

Dicksee,

A., Phil Morris, William

R.A.,

Frith, R.A.,

Arthur
Hubert

Holman
R.A.,
J. C. Hook,
Robert
W.
Lucas, A.R.A.,
Seymour

R.A.,

A.R.

first-

portraits as

on

Powell

William

Goodall,

so

markable
following reBramley, A.R.A., George
S.
John Collier, Arthur

Dickinson,

Fildes, R.A.,

when

working

seen

Frank

A.R.A.,

Lowes

Cope,

time

been
be

may

list:

Luke

been

Hacker,
Herkomer,
Hunt,

J.

Macbeth,

QuillerOrchardson,
William
R.A., Walter
Ouless, R.A., Sir E. J.
Poynter, P.R.A., Sir George Reid, P.R.S.A.
(who
has painted all the celebrated
of the last
Scotsmen

FROM

three

HOGARTH

Briton

R.A.,

K.C.B.,

S.

John

R.A.,

Tadema,

Henry

men

them

disdain
and

ideal,

lay

to

J.

J.

Alma

Frederick

Watts,

R.A.,

Tanworth

Wells,

R.A.,

for

aside

produce

Shannon,
L.

A.R.A.,

Few

for

us

portraits

all

cannot

be

these
of

none

the

time

of

but

portrait-painters,

exclusively

are

Sant,

James

Whistler.

McNeill

Abbott

James

the

George

Weigall,

Henry

R.A.,

J. Solomon,

R.A.,

Richmond,

R.A.,

Riviere,

Sargent,

Solomon

A.R.A.,

99

Blake

William

Sir

decades),

MILLAIS

TO

of

study
that

are

pi6lures.
Sad

that

list.

this
the

His

is

dead.

that

mention

brightened
his

by

brush.

the

and

portrait-painter,
his

works,
brother

can

is," and
be

feel

we

applied

how

on

John

Everett

his

his

we

Reynolds
appropriately
Millais.

our

of

that

the

1896,

was

of

with

the

numerous

portrait
his

and

to

he

on

do

of

Hook,

children,

remark

Gainsborough's

C.

and

produ6ls

to

Trumps,"
J.

beautiful

of

3rd,

several

think

so

that

last, and

only

we

are

Academician,

pi6lures
he

here
as

Hearts

*'

of

presence

is

worthy

seem

August

on

have

We

the

at

men

expatiate

does

it

alone

realize

to

to

to

closed

living

most

in

Millais

of

effort

but

worked

which

exhibition

included

stand

art

needful

that

he

of

painful

not

all feel

for

loss,

life

the

is

It

The

chapter.

it is

that

women

therefore

must

with

intertwined

of

name

this

of

end

chief

the

call
"

how
this

to

of

many
mind
various
remark

CHAPTER

PORTRAIT-PAINTERS

AMATEUR

Born

"

the

to

would

One
To

the

To
For

can

next

realm

Painture

near

adjoining

Dryden,

of

number
but

great,

who

the

courtiers

the

has

included

the

names

several

early

the

from

of

Marquis

Exeter

imprisoned
was

released
who

is

with

his

from

with

said

at

Walpole
many

slender

he

and

arts,

grounds,

painters.
the

Courtenay,
in

prisoner

father

this

advance

to

the

very

Earl

the

is

those

associate

to

was

and

Ode.

of

country.
"

He

the

amusement.

much

this

twelve

of

An

out

their

done

Edward

age

made

for

on

was

in

excellent

Painting,

amateur

as

old.

years

seven

be

age

book,

Devonshire,

of

Mary,

past

his

in

and

Anecdotes

**

Accomplished

Kiiiigreu'^

can

in

the

of

portrait-painters

not

arts

unfortunate

Earl

was

have

of

of

The

He

his

in

attempted
of

list

the

of

position

Anne

painting

they

that

It is true

Memory

amateur

small

followed

have

prey."

of Poetry

good

sway,

alluring

Mrs,

Arts

lay,

pious

Lad}\

sister

two

not

the

To

Young

The

and

confine

her

content

souls

stretch'd

province,

been

government

ambitious
she

have

should

she

mighty

young

plenteous

that

nine,

the

of

empire

thought

well

what

But

spacious

have

manage

V.

Tower
time

until

he

the

son

of

the

Tower

twenty-

was

of

Henry,
and

Devonshire,

and

mother
in

to

553

have

last

in

1538.

by Queen
wished

to

HISTORICAL

I02

the after, whose

PORTRAITS

Taylor

it was.

property

left the

it was
death
portraitto Betterton, at whose
bought
of the Temple for fortyguineas. At
by Mr. Keck
sale (it came
the Stowe
into
the possession of
the

Grenvilles

of
Eliza, Duchess
through Anne
of Chandos,
Buckingham, daughter of the Duke
who
possessed it for a time) it was
bought by the
Earl
for 355
of Ellesmere
guineas, and he presented
it to the National
Portrait Gallery in March,
in
Whilst
Betterton's
1856.
possession it was
to
a
copied by Kneller
as
Dryden, who
present
acknowledged the giftin the followinglines,written

between

and

1683
"

1692

Shakespeare, thy gift,I place

With

His

to

soul

be

his

on

less, but

while

Epist,
Kneller

Yorkshire,
There
a

as

'tis a

several
In

painter.

read

we

To

xiv.

Kneller,

is now
worth Woodhouse,
at Went
copy
in the collection of Earl FitzWilliam.

are

Excellent

majestic face,
godlike man,
thy praise I write."

of his

inspiresme,

sight ;

my

I write

blessingere

look

reverence

Proud

his

I ask

awe,

With

before

references

Overbury's

A6lor," which
Hee

*'

to

affe6led
that

whether

question

chara6ler

is known

is much

Burbage's skill

to

to

refer

to

'*

An

him,

painting,and

him

make

of

excellent

an

his

playing an exquisite painter." In


Funeral
of the
A
Famous
Elegy on the Death
A6lor, Richard
Burbage," quoted by J. Payne
Collier from
MS.
a
formerly in the possessionof

player,or
*'

Mr.

Heber,
"

sad

Alas,

Collier's

1846, p. 52.

he

"

help

tragedian
's gone,

a6t my

And

skilful limner

Some

Some

'

read

we

Memoirs

to

that

grief
of

express

could
."

me

If not

my

woe

so.

the

best,both

limn

in

Shakespeare's

A6lors

Plays,"

PORTRAIT-PAINTERS

AMATEUR

IO3

in his book
Walpole includes Sir Toby Matthew
under
a
misapprehension, for his
piftures were
in letters.
In a letter from
the
merely included
Duchess
of Buckingham she tells him
to the Duke
that she
has
*'the pifture" which
not
yet seen
had drawn
of the Infanta
and sent
Toby Matthew
"

**

oven

Sir

William

Burlase

(of

is

to have
known). appears
he sent
Ben
Jonson, which
verse
commencing :
poor

of
some

"

this

which

he

The

"

**

But

poet

knows

Yet

when

are

he

of

all

The

to

black

but

and

but

draw

of
he

Had

date, and
Francis

paintersafter
seventh

baronet

made

Nicholas,

the

of

one

Holbein.
son

of

light.

would

place

artists

amateur

creditable

did very
made

him

to

be

of his

instead

Sir

by James I.,who
He
Lord
Keeper.

nephew.
would

portrait-

Bacon,
was

half-

Bacon

Nathaniel

Nicholas

the

he

supposes,
earliest
native

Sir

mistake

Walpole

what

been

been

have

Bacon,

verses

the face,

the

who

supposed

his

self
him-

Burlase."

interestingamong
Bacon,

likens

write

false

or

in

answer

white,

and

large heart

I will write

it."

ends
thus

can

friendship I would

Nathaniel

his

brother

Sir

paint, I

Unfortunately, Walpole

work.

the

"

colours,
flattering

posterity;

most

Sir

can

an

He

Painter

the

more

no

he

lettered mind,

To

as

to

hath

Ne

was

Poet

poet

size, and

own

Heidelberg.

at

you

his

on

it,

shew

returned

Jonson

remarks

the Tun

to

from

Ben

with

poet

know

thing
no-

or

portrait

the

to

I would

Ben,

To

painted

paint thy worth, if rightlyI did


but painterhalf like thee,
were

To

And

little

whom

the

eldest
entered

was

son

first
of

Corpus

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

I04

College,Cambridge, in 1621, and took his


He studied paintingin Italy,
M. A. degree in 1 628.
considerable
skill in pra6lice. His own
and
showed
at Gorhambury,
portrait(a drawing on paper),now
Christi

has

several

times

been

exhibited, and

his mother

also by him, is considered


equallygood. He
portrait,
with
dead
painted in oil a picture of a cookmaid
has been
fowl, which
highly praised. He lived at
Culford
in Suffolk, on
estate
an
given him by his
him
in the parish
father.
On
the monument
to
church

he

is described

as

**

well

skilled

history of plants,and in delineatingthem


created
a
pencil." He was
Knight of the
the

coronation
His

1648.

Charles

of

daughter

I., and

the

with

his

Bath

at

living in

was

heiress, Anne,

and

in

married

and
this
from
Grimston,
secondly Sir Harbottle
the Earl of Verulam,
owner
marriage is descended
of Gorhambury.
Edward
Norgate describes the
with
colours used by Bacon
enthusiasm, and
some
usefull and hard
writes, pinke which is colour soe
late deare
occasion
to
to
get good, as
gave
my
friend Sir N. Bacon, K.B.
(agentleman whose rare
excellent
disposition,whose
parts and
generous
serves
learning and great skill in this and good art, definde a
a
or
never
dyinge memory), to make
cousinell
P. Oliver
pinke, so very good, as my
excellent
(without disparagement to any the most
in this art), making proofe of some
that I gave
other
him, did highly commend
it,and used none
his dyinge day."
to
in his
Henry Peacham
Compleat Gentleman
(ofdrawing, limning,and painting,p. 126) writes:
in my
but none
deserveth
opinion, who
more
for his skill and
respe6l and admiration
praftice
**

"

"

**

herein
Suffolke
and

than

Nathaniel

Master

(younger

bountifull

sonne

minded

to

Bacon
the

Sir Nicholas

of Broome

most

in

honourable

Bacon,

Knight

AMATEUR

and

eldest
to

Barronet)
Peach

in oil,and
he

sat

in

ment
judge-

my

taken

is said

have

to

likeness

of

painted
James I. as

dinner.

Samuel

the

Butler,
the

that

Ralph

Durham,

**his

an

and

his

the
pencil was
Cooper."
1704), M.P.for
(1625?

Bart.

"

studied

artist,who

amateur

placed
Johnson

music

were

of

the inimitable

Cole,

was

amusements

been

and

Walpole,

reward

the

also

poet, has

painters by

painting,and
friendship of
Sir

himself

am

have

to

at

among
remarks

inferiour

not

skillfullest masters."

our

Henry

IO5

PORTRAIT-PAINTERS

under

Vandyck, and painted in 1677 a portraitof Thomas


is at Petworth, and was
F.R.S., which
Wyndham,
His own
by R. Tompson.
engraved in mezzotint
painted by Lely. He retained several
portraitwas
Italian painters in his service
of
the expense
at
fortune
in
500 guineas a year, and
spent his whole
for painting.
of his enthusiasm
consequence
Sir
Bart.
(1639
John Gawdie,
1708). the
"

second

of Sir William

son

ing, Norfolk,

was

deaf

and

of West

Gawdie

dumb,

and

Harl-

entered

self
him-

a
pupil of Lely, as he intended to become
ever,
professionalportraitpainter. On the death, howof his elder brother, he succeeded
to the family
when
he continued
the practiceof his art
estate,
amusement.
as
an
Evelyn refers to him in his
Diary under date September 7th, 1677, as follows :
There
din'd
this day at my
Lord's
[the Earl
some
handof Arlington's]
Sir John Gaudy, a very
one
but
quite dumb, yet very intelligent
person,
civil
so
by signs,and a very fine painter : he was
well bred
and
it was
not
as
possible to discerne
His
imperfeftion in him.
lady and children
any
as

**

also

were

morning
The

there, and

with

he

was*

at

church

in

the

sister

the

us."

Electress

Sophia

and

her

I06

HISTORICAL

Princess

PORTRAITS

taught painting by Gerard


Honthorst
(1592
1660),the favourite painter of
their mother, the Queen
A portrait
of Bohemia.
by Sophia of her son
(afterwards George I.) as
Art
the Manchester
Treasures
to
sent
Cupid was
Exhibition
several
portraitsby
are
(244). There
the Princess
Louise
Combe
at
Abbey, the seat of
Louise

were

"

the

Earl

of Craven.

Mary

More
of herself

the Bodleian

of

Earl

of this
Anne

her

to

verses

from
copy
hall
WhiteRobert

probably

Essex.

in

( 1 660

1674,

her

on

tion
presentaMore.

685),daughter
the Savoy, and

"

to

intended

be

to

pidlureof Sir Thomas

supposed

Killigrew

of

traits
por-

presented

is said

is

but

More,

amusement

She

portraitwhich

Cromwell,

wrote

her

husband.

and

for Sir Thomas


one

for

painted

of Dr.

Maidof
Henry Killigrew,master
of-Honour
of York,
Duchess
to
Mary of Modena,
was
a
bright and pure spiritin a corrupt court.
into
The
crabbed
Wood
warmed
was
Anthony
enthusiasm
of her accomplishby the consideration
ments.
He
calls her **a grace
for beauty and
a
for wit," and
there is nothing spoken
muse
adds,
of her, which
she was
not
equal to, if not superior."
Dryden, in the ode referred to at the head of this
enthusiastic
her portraitsof
on
chapter, becomes
the king and queen
:
**

"

The

Our

martial

For

not

hand

His

warlike

As

Our

chang'd, with bold,


king the sight with reverence

content

Her

His

then

scene

call'd out

Were

express

the

his outward

queen

was

strook

part,

were

made

figuredthere,
appear.

portray 'd, too,

so

bright,

beauty take so right:


dress,
shape, her matchless
grace.
well
all observ'd
as
as
heavenly face.
her

could

of his heart ;
of fear,
devoid

high designing thoughts


by magic ghosts are

when

look

image

mind, his soul

phoenix
Beauty alone
Her

to

ere6led

With

in that

As

Before

train of heroines

beauty foremost,

In

These

said

are

if

but

peerless majesty she


day she took the crown

such

from

hands

sacred

seen,

queen."

II. and

James

be

to

was

stands,

in rank, the

as

Mistress

so

lOJ

PORTRAIT-PAIXTERS

AMATEUR

his

have

Killigrew must

queen,

painted

of York.
Duke
and Duchess
they were
Jervas, the painter,instru6led Pope to draw and
wards
Murray (afterpaint. The
poet presented Mr.
Lord
Mansfield) with a head of Betterton,
is now
Caen
which
Wood.
It was
at
copied from
in the
Kneller
National
Portrait
s
portrait,now
Gallery. Pope also copied from Vandyck a head
of the
Earl
of Strafford, thought to have
some
merit.
He
Blount, which
painted a fan for Martha
Reynolds is said to have bought and lost. Writing
thrown
I have
to
Gay in 1 7 1 3 he says :
away
of
three
each
which
Swifts,
was
once
vanity,
my
of Montague,
two
Lady Bridgewaters, a Duchess
half-a-dozen
Earls, and a Knight of the Garter.'*
them

when

"

This

shows,

Tillemans

least,that he

at

Lord

Radnor

into which

some

strokes

which

Lady

The

Dorothy
of

Marquis
"

great

paintinga landscape for


Pope, by stealth, inserted
prudent painter did not
little proud
no
poet was

the

to observe.
appear
of this circumstance.

Savile,

Halifax,

Trimmer,"

Peter

in

engaged

was

industrious.

was

and

daughter of William,
granddaughter of the

married

the

archite6l

Earl

she
to
Burlington in 1721, and
appears
thoroughly sympathized with her husband's
for

the

said
A

to

fine
be

arts.

very

portrait

the

daughter of George
Lady Burlington,was

have
love

drew

She

successful
of

of

in crayons,
and was
in catching likenesses.

Princess

Amelia

II.),in hunting
shown

at

the

(second

cosfume,

Guelph

by
Ex-

I08

hibition.
and

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

The

is signed
D. Burlington/'
picflure
the portrait:
under
painter wrote

the

Let

"

**

others

Emilia

what

See

of

Another

the

seek

Maid

Royal

prize,

to

is in Saville's eyes."

has
a
Burlington's works
patheticinterest. It was a portraitof her daughter,
Lady Dorothy Boyle, who married George, Earl of

Euston,
died

in

her

distributed

mother

family copies of
of the Duke

the

Lady

**

She

the comfort

was

all who

delight of
the

admiration

was

married

"*

print

memory

the

and

and
She

delivered

1742.

picture drawn
death
by her

her

after

weeks

seven

by Pope

1724.
her parents, the

loth, 1741,

from

taken

in session
posthe following

angelick temper,
her beauty.
saw

misery,
May the 2nd,

was

affe6lionate

her

of all who

(by death) from


This

14th,
joy of

and

knew

06lober

of

Bovle,

the

May

with
written

been

Dorothy

**Born

tality,
bru-

portraitof her, now

have

to

She

the friends

to

of Devonshire,

said
inscription,
"

charafter.

odious

most

the effects of her husband's

from

742,

and
the

of the

man

Lady

by
most

mother,
**

Dorothy

Burlington."

Another

accomplishment of Lady
Burlington
in paper,
been
the cutting of figures
to have
appears
mildly satirical :
respectingwhich Pope was
"

Pallas

Either
Nor

sure
sense

The

the

"

Pallas, you
But

do

and

once,

odd,

least

right thing,
goddess or for god,
work, nor play, nor paint, nor
sing.
not

for

"

The

vapourish

grew
would

She

name

"

"

"

give yourself strange airs,


you'llfind
and

taste

of

it hard
one

of Saville and

to

that
of

spoil
bears

Boyle."

no

HISTORICAL

and

Gray,
a

the

of Horace

friend

considerable

of

PORTRAITS

for

taste

art,

Walpole, possessed
and
painted portraits

of his friends.

some

Miss

Frances

the youngest

Reynolds,

surviving
his housekeeper, painted
sister of Sir Joshua, and
much
miniatures, and found
pleasure in copying
her brother s pictures. In 1758 Dr. Johnson wrote,
is much
Miss
in miniatures," and
employed
I sat for
twenty-five years later (1783) he said :
picture,a three-quarterpainted in oil, to Miss
my
Reynolds, perhaps for the tenth time, and I sat for
three hours
with the patience of mortal
born
near
**

**

to

seems

her

it

was

offended

think

mad
exa6l

it fine."

Miss

than
that

it

finished, and

The

she

them.

North-

*'

of all his defedls.

obliged to keep them


(jestingly)
they made
cry!"
Mary

understood

Sir Joshua
nothing made
Reynolds s portraits,which were

imitation

Mrs.

declared

patient himself told


Johnson's grimly ghost." Goldsmith
the artist by tellingher that she loved

affirmed
as

she

"

pi6lures better
cote

last

At

bear.

to

Delany

of

out

Indeed, she

his

way.

else

everyone

laugh

so

an
was

He

said

and

him

biography
1788), whose autois most
a
interestingreading,was
very
and she copied very cleverly
accomplished woman,
these she painted
portraitsin oil. Besides
many
said to be good ; one
are
some
originals,which
of the famous
Duchess
of these was
of Queensberry Gay's duchess.
Diana
Beauclerk
Lady
(1734"1808) is wellknown
artist,for the reception of
amateur
an
as
whose
Walpole built a closet at
drawings Horace
a
Strawberry Hill. She made
drawing of her two
L' Allegro
and
II Penseroso,"
daughters as
which
was
engraved by Bartolozzi.

(1700

"

"

"

"

The

Hon.

Anne

Seymour

**

Dawson

Damer

BISHOP

HOADLY,

BY

MRS.

HOADLY.

(1748

1828), widow

"

a
a

and

Conway
well

was

John
cousin

known

as

an

with
the brush
proficient
well as with the chisel.
At Panshanger there is
pidlurepainted by her representingwitches round
bourne,
contains
cauldron, which
portraitsof Lady Mel-

amateur
as

who

Hon.

worthless

Marshal

Walpole,
sculptor,was

Horace

of

of the

of

daughter

Darner,

I 1 I

PORTRAIT-PAINTERS

AMATKUR

of

wife

of Devonshire,

Duchess

herself.

and

Countess

Margaret,

of

beautiful

the

first Viscount,

the

Lucan,

clever

was

Hoskins, Oliver,
copyistof the early miniaturists
and also painted some
and Cooper,
good originals.
Dr.
caused
Walpole praised her highly, which
"

"

Wolcot

him

address

to
"

Do

wisdom

Her

endeavour

By swearing
Lady

wife

was

of Sir

clever

Academy
been

has

William

the

as

son,

who

from

by her
Joshua

Sir

some

"

Venetian

said

had
he

to

in

portrait of

senator,
his

was

this
had

in vain

heard

the

portrait

the National
Crabb

attempt.

picturein

obtained

had

last

father.

his
the

at

now

exhibited

1802

for literature,and

art

Hazlitt
He

artist,and

Academy

refers

painter.

of London,

instru6led

was

assistance

an

as

Gallery,
:

R.A.,

Hamilton,

**

Royal

Robinson

368

"

Portrait

p.

She

made

life

of Lamb

fort

Bell, Sheriff

some

She

abandoned

He

court,

good copies of oil


of them
being A Holy Family," by
busts
exhibited
and
the
two
at
Royal
in 1819.
Her
portrait of her husband
engraved.
the
Hazlitt,
essayist (1778
1830),

commenced
at

Thomas

had

Reynolds.
paintings,one
Rubens,

she

amateur.

brother, and

such

pay

of William

sister

Bell,

and

that

surely thank thee


thus
to dupe her
ecjualsCooper."

will not

1 don't

Ah

Lucan

Lady

to

not

thus

his

Diary, vol. i.,

striven

to

patronage

Hazlitt

was

become

of Clarkmore

able

to

HISTORICAL

said

had

Titianesque
only

pleasure."

would

and

"

It

picture.

painted

latter

the

the

sion
expres-

in

use

con-

belonged

once

Mr.

of

with

last

to

to

portraits

Wordsworth,

the

now

is

seen

ever

is about

afterwards

and

have

had
this

certainly

likely

be

this

with

also

Titianesque

**

anyone

Hazlitt

Hazlitt

by

Coleridge,

And

one
some-

Lamb

of

portrait

it.

about

air

painter

living

any

this

that

painting

ne6lion

than

Titian

like

paint

PORTRAITS

Gillman.

J.

Hartley

being

to

Coleridge

destroyed

as

unsatisfactory.
The

last
is

Fellow
his

college

sixty-five

and

on

is

said

March
He

years.

friends

many

College,

Caius

and
to

have

who

Cambridge,
20th,

1845,

painted

the

distinguished
excelled

in

be

to

M.D.,

Woodhouse,

Thomas

John

of

portrait-painter

amateur

^^

^^^

portraits

tioned
men-

senior

died
^S^

of

contemporaries,
his

art.

at

of
his

CHAPTER

VI.

PORTRAIT

We

"

read

never

without

imagine

often

expression
recollection

and

in

these

as

Pine

There
^

sold

was

There
exhibition
for
the

the

of

on

the
for
the

his

two

of

three

of

Shipley,

Hermione.
the

but

admission,

the

among

logue
cata-

party
the

at

artists

after

continued

to

Society

Spring

Gardens.

of the

Pictures,

Sculptures,

Artists,

present

Encouragement

21st

all, and

portrait

as

to

the

his

760.

portraits

four

sent

Pritchard

One

1760.
or

in

and

Cosway

for

year

6d.

division

went

Society

Commerce,

for

year

Catalogue

Prints, "c.,
of

of

others

"A

was

Mrs.

under

Reynolds,

portraits by

charge

no

in the
works

Hayman

of

popular,

opened

Arts

130

III.,

eighteenth

the

was

by Highmore,

Richard
his

was

four

Cotes.

by

of

Historical

the

to

lively

became

exhibition

shown

three

of

exhibitions

Society

were

Wilson,

Garrick
and

the

here

crayons

of

corre"5l

minds

our

the

Institution),

half

second

public

were

among

the

in

man
more

Preface

"

{British

1820

in

keeping

We

person.

the

of

retain

we

appearance."

pi6lure

auspices

There

by

general

first

the

B.

actions

his

and

his

of

charadter

the

trace

individual

distinguished

any

resemblance

countenance

that

century

of

see

can

until

not

anions
to

of Portraits^

was

by

we

his

of

Catalogue

the

that

of

impression

It

desire

his

of

the

of

feeling

EXHIBITIONS

of

April,
I

exhibited
of

1760."

Arts,

of

Arts,

Out

Models,
at

the

of

the
hibit
ex-

and
this

Drawings,
Great

Manufadlures

Room

and

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

114

feud

the

grew
in

Royal

which

Academy,

tuted
insti-

was

1768.

in England to get together


first attempt
colleftion of National
Portraits
for exhibition
was
The

in 1820,

when

British

the

183

fine

exhibited

portraitswere

at

Institution.'

Bacon,
interestingportraitof Sir Nathaniel
lent to this
already referred to (see p. 103), was
The

exhibition
series
the

Kit

of

William

Mr.

Cat

authorities

enough,
make

an

the
have

to

seem

for

excuse

valuable

the

portraitsby Kneller, but


British
Institution, oddly

Club

of

lent

Baker

thought

their

it

to

necessary
"

appearance

These

public as the
of the art
of painting, but we
could
could
omit
the best representation we
not
find of these men
of genius and good breeding.'*
In 1846
second
made
was
a
by the
attempt
British
Institution, when
hibited,
exportraitswere
215
but these were
not
exclusivelyEnglish.^
As early as 1 8 1 3 the Governors
of the Institution
formed
exhibition
of 143 pictures by Sir Joshua
an
Reynolds, and in the following year they opened
exhibition
of pictures by Hogarth, Richard
an
In
Wilson, Gainsborough, and
1823
Zoffany.
exhibited
sixty-four pi6lures by Reynolds were
;
in 1830 ninety-one pictures by Sir Thomas
and
are
portraits
highest specimens
.

offered

not

to

the

selection

of

Lawrence.

In

Sir

Reynolds, Benjamin

Joshua

Thomas
the

Lawrence

Royal
here

were

"An

Kingdom.
in

"

"the

"

Academy**

"

works

West,
last

three

the

and

Sir

presidentsof

exhibited.

was

of

There

fiftypicturesby Reynolds, fifty-oneby

Historical
Persons

1833

London

in
:

tinguished
Catalogue of Portraits representing disthe History and
Literature
of the United
W.

Catalogue
History, Literature,and

Bulmer

of Portraits

and

W.

of Illustrious
Art.

1846."

Nicol,
and

1820."

Eminent

Persons

Il6

HISTORICAL

read, and

PORTRAITS

of

made

be
interpretation

human

some

them."

Carlyle went

to

on

the great picture


of Bartholomew,

in

that

say

he has found
galleries
Flayings
Flayings of Marsyas, Rapes of the Sabines," but
of the earth ;
few, if any, portraitsof the great ones
how
exhibition
he then pointed out
of historical
an
portraitsshould be selected, and laid specialstress
should
of the catalogue which
the value
on
give
of the subjeft'shistory,connot
densed
only the essence
but also the history of
to the very
utmost,
the pi6lureas far as known.
he made:
in one
statement
Carlyle was
wrong
**

'*

unlike

Scotland,

history of

other

some

readable

very

countries, has
and

nature,

has

in 1795
Scottish

"

"

At

the

Art

in

Treasures

1857,

Exhibition,
effort

strenuous

in Manchester

held
was

never

national

an
engraved series of
published even
portraits" for John Pinkerton
published
an
Iconographia Scotica," and, in 1 799, a
Gallery of Portraits."
"

made

to

collection of British Portraits,


satisfactory
the work
and
hands
was
placed in the competent
of the late Mr.
Peter Cunningham.
claimed
He
that "anything like so large and
important series"
before been
had
never
brought together." At no
time" had
no
so
Vandycks been under one
many
Hill and
roof."
Edge
Naseby did not see so
form

**

"

"

"

Cavaliers

many

buff and
Windsor

Lely
smile

armour

and

and

as

upon

Cunningham

Roundheads

Court

beauties

central
the

of

here assembled

are

Hampton

Kneller

(in the

and

cannot

of the

hall of the
heroes

of

note

in real

upon canvas.
vie with the

Restoration

that

Manchester

hibition)
Ex-

the

Civil

War."

which
he
explained the plan upon
thus :
worked
"In
coUeCling and arranging a
portraitgalleryof persons
distinguishedin British

PORTRAIT

history,or

II7

British

siduously
biography, I have sought asobtain
class of
to
specimens of every
(in Fuller s largeacceptation of the term) :

worthies

call the

to

EXHIBITIONS

illustrious

speftator

in

them

chronological order,

in

together
ceased

their

on

habits

canvas

dead

infamous

or

they lived,

as

and

to

the

group
friends

bring

wall, who

one

upon

before

have

long
*

sit

room.
together in the flesh in the same
In this portraitgallerythere were
386 piftures
in all, and
all the great portraitpainters were
colledlion
Besides
these there was
a
represented
of miniatures
and
lent by the Duke
enamels
of

to

Portland, the
An

Duke

Exhibition
of

etc.,

Edward

John
in

About

R.

A.,

period

of miniatures.

The

of the

works

fine exhibitions

held

in the

had

South

the

Society

exhibitions

formed

of Arts

of Sir William

Ross

of historical

miniatures

International

special

no

several

were

Kensington

The

1865.

there

Society

Two

and

arranged by

was

Alfred

and

R.A.,

1855.

this

leftion

Chalon,

James

others.

and

Drawings, Sketches,

of Pictures,

Chalon,

of Arts

of Buccleuch,

colle6lion

in i860.

Exhibition

of

were

in

Museum

col-

1862

of 1862

portraits,but

there

sion
picturesin the British diviby Hogarth, Reynolds, Gainsborough, Copley^

were

many

Raeburn.
also

were

In

the

portraitsamong

suggestion

Earl

that

Portraits

Boxall,

Shee,

Lawrence,

1865 the

National

the

among

of

Derby

series
should

of
be

There

etc.

water-colours.
made
loan
held.
I have

the

excellent

exhibitions

of

In his letter,

long thought
that a National
Portrait Exhibition, chronologically
arranged, might not only possess
great historical,
interest by bringing together portraitsof all the
eminent
most
contemporaries of their respective
illustrate the progress
but might also serve
to
eras,

dated

6th

May,

he

wrote

**

Il8

HISTORICAL

condition,

and

PORTRAITS

idea, therefore, would


of

British Art.

periods,of

various

at

be

admit

to

My

portraits

either

artists, or

though by inferior or unknown


artists, though
portraitsby eminent

obscure

unknown

eminent

no

or

colledlions

in

many
about

scattered

and

ones

private families, the owners


they could not be persuaded
public obje^."
approval of the
Council

exhibitions

from

In

from

1867

the

and

i8cK);

of earlier

supplement

last exhibition.

the

in 1866,
than

in

866

2,842

the

for

months

of

Committee
result

three

that

with

years

exhibited

the

with

met

the

were

portraits
in

of

to

from

1868

threes

of the

reign

in

few

successive

in

1866

the end

to

52

to

of

with

held

were

success.
1 1

Lords

very

and

which, though
them,
part with

proposal

Education,

on

great

This

large

the
are

twos

of

for

them

willinglyspare

course,

country

there

houses,

in

would

of

exclusive

of

number

in the

exist

great

by

have, of

estimating, the

knowing, or
portraitswhich
may
am
persuaded that,

of such

many

individuals.

of

means

but

men,

reignof James II.;


William
and
Mary
1800

1867, and

to

in this
included
portraitswas
exhibited
Avere
1,030 portraits
and

1867,

portraits

946

in 1868,

portrait

or

or

no

in

groups

less
the

three

years.
These
exhibitions

and

value, and

of
were
are

many

revived.
most

with

authorized
The

visitors the great artistic


before
Never
had been
seen
to

critics

care

to
were

the

and
portraits,
almost
portrait-painters,
The
catalogues of these

valuable

of these
used

revealed

indication

an

as

portraits. They
the

because

dispute
not

interest

greatest

of the country.
colle6lion of fine

riches
such

of the

were

the

so

forgotten,
exhibitions
the

of

must,

tion
reputa-

possessors
be

however,

compilers

ascriptionof

considerate, and

were

not

the lenders.
several

of

PORTRAIT

the

portraits were

and

attributed

EXHIBITIONS

with

This
painting them.
in respe6l to
Holbein, to
portraitspainted after his
It is

not

false

various

given.

In
a

Cabal

1866

party

of

Members

'*

as

party

if

few

years.
In
1868

Portraits

which,
has

the

has

held

was

be

described

within

the

the

of

next

Local

catalogue

Heath

valuable

**a

as

public benefit

Exhibition

Charles

Mr.

(No.

exhibitions

these

arranged

The

1867

Club"

great

Glasgow,

at

compiled by

been

be

"

described

was

Cat

be

senting
repre-

the

in

the

may

picture
styled

was

since

interesting

an

instances

two

Kit

passed

could

series

new

speciallyto

Dutchmen

it would

held, and

refer

to

musicians

of

^45)A generation
were

death.

exhibition,

of

attributed

were

(No, :9o6), and

Ministry"

exhibition

whom

but
ascriptions,

the

wrongly named,
had
nothing to do
especiallythe case

was

here

necessary

19

be

proved to
painters who

to

of

Wilson,
of

summary

Glasgow family history.'*


In
was
1869 a very
interesting Exhibition
fine collection of miniatures
held
A
Leeds.
at
was

the
was

of

and

there

portraitsamong
pidluresof British painters; but a new departure
made
by the colle6lion of 281 painted portraits
The
worthies.
Yorkshire
catalogue was
fixed
preextra6l
from
a
sermon
preached by
by an

Dr.

hath
and

shown,

George Hickes
pleased to make
nursery

of

in

many

were

some

1682, where

he

'*

says,

God

it [the county] the

great

men."

birthplace
the
Among

natives
of
were
distinguished Englishmen who
Yorkshire
Sir Henry
Savile, John Wycliffe,
are
Dr.
General
Lambert,
George
John Gower,
Marvell. Dr. RadHickes,
Roger Gale, Andrew
Dr. Fothergill,
cliffe,Captain Cook, Dr. Priestley,

I20

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

Dr.

James
Paley, Flaxman,
Jesse Ramsden,
WilberMontgomery, John Jackson, R. A., William
The
force, the two
portraitsof
Scoresbys, etc.
in the
also
included
were
Archbishops of York
series.
In

annual
the

of old

of exhibitions

series

winter,

in

held

masters,

exhibitions

which

in

the

commenced

Royal Academy

the

1870

considerable

portraitshave been
A
shown.
general index to the catalogues of the
that during
exhibition
from
1870 to 1879 shows
of paintingsby
that period the following numbers
the great portrait-painters
exhibited
were
: Reynolds,
Vandyck, 126; Gainsborough, 103;
175;
Romney, 46 ; ^ Raeburn,
29 (twelve of these were
in 1877); Hogarth, 27;
exhibited
Lawrence,
14;
Opie, 14; Zoffany, 12; and Hoppner, 9.
the
works
of Charles
Of
special exhibitions
number

of

Robert

in

several

were

sele6lion

Holbein

of

In

in

1880

his school

and

1896-97

works

the
In

colle6lion

and

of the works

of Lord

President

Millais, late

was

exhibited.

were

which
among
and
this year
the winter
portraits,
the works
be entirely devoted
to
to
Everett

there

Callcott

W.

exhibited,

were

Edwin

Sir

there

1875

seleftion

choice

bition
exhi-

articles

532

of Sir A.

works

Maclise, and

of

works

among

portraits.

of the

Stanfield, R.A.,

1874 the whole

in

the

to

R.A., and

Landseer,

and

1870,

devoted

was

D.

Clarkson

Leslie, R.A., and


shown

were

historical

important

Leighton's
were

few

exhibition
Sir

of

of

the

is

John

Royal

Academy.
*

Romney
Academy, and
"

in the

Romney
years

refused
Mr.

Walter

Dictionaryof
's

was

send

to

seen

after his death."

on

of

Armstrong

National
the

any

his

works

the

in his life of the

Biography," says,
academy

to

walls

"

no

till 187 1,

Royal

painter

pi"^reof
sixty-nine

PORTRAIT

An

of the worksof

exhibition

R.A.,

06lober

in

was,

Edinburgh

National

much

attention.

R.

he

who

heretical

ago.

neither

late

about

too

for

these

who

lady
after

old

of my

of

great
of

quarter

glories of

said,

the

day

found

they

until I

see

none

into

went

"

all there.*

them

who

the
^

the first

last and

of the

Edinburgh

I could

who

story of

to

century,

present
Modern

people

I hear

"

other

of the end

men

The

two

chosen,

yet ancestors,

sixty years

Gallery,and

The

adds,

friends,'she

Raeburn

not

the

well

was

of

of

Scotchmen

early.

He

returned
absence

an

the

pi6lures are

Scotchman

the

moment
too

stillrelations."

are

Ladies/'

and

generation of good

and

among

nor

of

one

was

Lords

"

whole

The

attra6led

do6lors, hanging judges

resuscitated

society was
to-day walked
generations
sat

Stevenson

and
a

1876, held

Gallery,and

L.

divines,

Henry Raeburn,

November

praises.

soldiers

"

wrote,

and

its

sang

Sir

and

in the

those

121

EXHIBITIONS

the

were

lived

Athens,"

again in
of one
the canvases
of Scotland's
greatest painters.
On
the walls of the Royal Scottish Academy
were
cipal
the faithful portraiture of Hugh
Blair, Prinseen
Robertson,
Scott,
John Playfair,Sir Walter
Francis
Jeffrey,Henry Cockburn, Francis Horner,
Sir

the

David

of

Some

Archibald

Brewster,
of

others

many

**

more

and

less fame.

or

Raeburn's

Constable,

miniatures

included

were

in

this exhibition.
In

1882

held

was

Worcestershire
interesting

an

Worcester.

at

Here

local collections
that

at

the

fine series

famous
of

the

town

county
one

was

that

had

Leeds

portraitsof

been

of

or

the

got

rather

city of

perfe6l
together since
most

Exhibition

in

Worcestershire

"Virginibus Puerisque," 1887,

tion
Exhibi-

p. 206.

869.

worthies

122

HISTORICAL

hung

was

exhibition
of

on

PORTRAITS

the

walls, and

an

extensive

was

portraitsof

the

leading feature
and

Bishops

of the

collection

valuable

of Worcester

arranged

in

chronologicalorder.
The
Grosvenor
Bond
Street,
Gallery, in New
afterwards
winter
was
opened in 1877, and soon
exhibitions
the
were
10
arranged, in addition
In
exhibitions.
the winter
of
ordinary summer
collection
of
a
1 88 1-2
pictures by G. F.
204
Watts,

R.A.,

was

exhibited,

painter'sportraitswere

great

the

In

following year
piftures by L.

130

these

among
In
to

the

the

works

Alma

several

were

1883-4

there

of

was

exhibition

an

Tadema,

of

R.A., and

portraits.
exhibition

winter
Sir

of this
many
in the show.
included
and

Joshua

devoted

was

Reynolds,

which

of the
paintings, and consisted
and
famous
valued
most
examples of the master.
the
nine
portraits of the
pi6lures were
Among
that he painted
It is known
painter by himself.
it is proat least eighteen portraitsof himself, and
bable
that he painted more.
This
the
was
largest
of Reynolds's works
collection
gathered into one
of great interest from
gallery,and it was
many
view.
in a
ofof
Many
the;.pi6twreswere
points
of preservation, but
others
fine state
had
faded,
and one
a
pi6tureat least was
perfe6twreck.
In the following year
fine colledtion
of 216
a
exhibited, which
pi6tures by Gainsborough were
of landscapes as well as portraits. The
consisted
Duke
of Westminster
Blue Boy
was
s beautiful
of the painter's
here, as well as a large number
numbered

209

"

**

finest works.
In
of the
Sir

1886

Sir

Grosvenor

John

Lindsay and
an
Gallery formed

Coutts

Millais'

portraitspainted

works,
up

to

Diredtors

the

containing all
that

date.

of

exhibition
his

Here

finest
was

HISTORICAL

124

"

PORTRAITS

well

English) were
Galleries.
held at the Grafton
Holbein, My tens,
Lucas
de
Somer,
Heere,
Moro,
Vandyck, Van
Lely, Kneller, Hogarth, Allan Ramsay, Cosway,
Hoppner,
Reynolds, Gainsborough, Romney,
Shee, Harlow, Watts, Millais, HerkoLawrence,

**

Fair

Women

W.

mer,

With

respe6l
felt

have

to

and

Richmond,

B.

appear

(foreign as

as

more

many

doubts

some

appropriateness,for they wrote


certain
included
pi6luresof women
celebrated
or

for

historical

their

has

been

taken

the

to

direftors, however, do

The

there

As

**

are

possiblymore

ence
interest, their influ-

for their

their wit, than

its entire

to

as

sented.
repre-

direftors

title,the

the

to

were

beauty, some

title of the
know

not

tion
excepexhibition.
fixed

of any

by which such pifturescan be judged, and


further, they believe that in the eyes of some
one

standard

least, almost
at
person,
fair."
considered
In

held

1895

an

the

at

exhibition
Grafton

has

woman

every

been

Children"

of *'Fair

Galleries, and

was

such

here

celebrated

portraitpainters as Vandyck, Kneller,


Hudson,
John Wootton,
Singleton, Reynolds,
Lawrence,
Northcote,
Gainsborough, Hoppner,
Raeburn,
Zoffany, Opie, Millais,Watts, Sant, W.
B. Richmond,
others
and
were
represented. In
find another
the preface of the cataloguewe
excuse
:
**

As

the

to

the

same
'

dire6lors

been
but

case,

without

they

inevitable

much

after

many

woman
thinking that every
they feel they are

present

have

suggestionsdecided on using
hibition
epithet as last year, and callingthe exChildren.*
Fair
If they were
right in
and

discussion

title,the

cannot

as

has

They

had

that

on

the

no

almost

help feelingdoubt

laudation

mirer,
ad-

one

doubly justifiedin

it is obvious

two.

least

at

child

written
as

part of the

whether
nurse

the
has

three,
the

is in

PORTRAIT

every
In

the

case

the

of

of

painters,

including

the

William

Aikman,

Scougall

(1654),
Martin,

Gordon,

Sir

George

P.

of

the

Society
the

above

complete.

this

exhibition

Galleries

Other

of

expression

winter

interesting

David

EXHIBITIONS

works

Sir
Daniel

Society
Miniature

(1653),

Sir

John

D.

Ramsay,
Watson

John

Phillip,

W.

Dyce,

etc.

be

Portrait

Painters,
of

Jameson,

Allan

Raeburn,

might
of

portrait-

George
Sanders

Macnee,

Chalmers,

list

of

very

Grafton

Scottish

Hamilton,

H.

the

at

old

the

Hercules

exhibitions

of

held

works

Gavin

(1895)

year

same

of

convi6lion."

honest

an

was

25

portrait

mentioned,
and

Painters
but

it

exhibitions

those

as

is

of

hoped
is

the
that

fairly

CHAPTER

VII.

PORTRAIT

"

has

It

in

pictures

whatever

refledion,

joyful

is

country

but

there

at

Louis-Philippe

left

him,

by

asunder,

in

attempt
all

attempt

of

groping
in

is,

hunting

Letter

to

Essays,"

Villiers,

George
formed
many

ally by
many
Peter

of

portraits.
the
of

Lely,

however,

real

he

as

into
the

was

by

owner

to

no

Scottish
cellaneous
Mis-

and

Buckingham^

among
were

required
the

which

were

sold

graduand

money,

of

possession
of

Vandyck-and

attempt,

inquire
of

the

gent
intelli-

the

("Critical

of

These,

portraits
first

Duke

duke,

by

like

129-137.)

piftures,

came

who

p.

of

second
them

vii.,

vol.

ist

colle6lion

valuable
The

1872,

dividual
in-

except

Exhibition

1854.

traits
porany

and

you

National

second

no

where

among

acquaintance,

fell

gallery

historical

were,

even

brave

discover

it
:

Laitig^

been

are,

can

as

manner

your

and

has

stand,

or

much

memorial

best

house

torical
his-

worth

made

they

knows

David

his

no

What

French

if

the

there

where

FrojeHofa

Carlvle,

"

Portraits^

but

(underground

among

see

matters

; but

desperate

learned

purpose."

As

man

of

way

proved

yet

as

of.

the

found.

Clarendon
;

and

no

almost

an

and

way

be

in

that

one,

to

not

have

might

England

them

and

I)

mole

can

did

England

hear

in

abound

in

Chancellor

for

sad

that

it

not)

kind

that

thing

coUecfted,

day.

one

in

such

Versailles

at

mournful

the

it is not

and

many

among

as

possessions

of

(for

exist

to

country

every

extremely

have

it is

hear

in

far

galleries

colle(5lions

national

ought

national

an

portrait

of

they

weight)

present

may

portraits,
(which

fa6t

cherished

and

popular

most

in

of

degrees

kinds

other

that

historical

that

me

all

worth

all

of

reasons

struck

always

transcend

COLLECTIONS

however,

large

Sir

number

others.
to

form

PORTRAIT

colle6lion

national

12/

COLLECTIONS

of

that

portraitswas

whose
the great Earl of Clarendon,
life was
for the society of eminent
that

**

to

say

himself

he

good

so

never
a

was

"

in the company

man

knew

world

the

who

made

choice

or

of

inferior, or

qualitieswere
superior to

he

degree

any

conversation

or

company

at

He

men.

the

was

"

worst
never

of

reputation in
delighted in the

those

who

in

in their parts not


The
taste
same

himself."

used

thought

or

further, that he

and

arrive

man

when

as

man

by
through

taste

proud

so

made

their
much

guided
in the sele6lion
of his portrait gallery,
Clarendon
he
and
careful
obtain
to
was
good portraits of
if they were
also fine pi6lures.
not
even
great men,
Evelyn helped him with suggestions, and in 1667
list of celebrities
he
the
sent
a
arranged under
of

heads

three

Rather

*'

Politicians,Souldiers.'*

Learned,
Clarendon

later,when

had

fled the country,


dined
with
my

I
in his Diary,
Evelyn wrote
Lord
House, now
Cornbury at Clarendon
bravely
of
furnished, especially with the pifturesof most
"

ancient

our

of the

learned

and

famous

Chancellor

Lordship

his

modern

and

The

witts, poets, philosophers,

Englishmen

I much

Lord

second

which

colle6lion

commended

Catalogue

of

more

Dartmouth

to

and
be

and

gave

added."
first earl of

of sharp
750) accused Clarendon
but little weight
prafticein obtaining his portraits,
is due to this lord's opinion, for, as Hallam
says of
whom
makes
him, he was
one
splenetichumour
no
good witness againstany one."

that title (1672

"

**

On

the

demolition
removed

pictureswere
Oxfordshire
succeeded

"

to

the

Clarendon

House

the

family

House.

Lord

to

Cornbury

title and

his extravagance
Executions
were
put

but

of

property

involved
in his

him

the

residence

of

in

Cornbury
his

father,

in difficulties.

house, and

several

of

128

HISTORICAL

the

sacrificed

portraitswere

others

saved

were

Henry,

Earl

of

of

Earl

the

by

Rochester,

between

arrangement

an

his brother

and

which

by

of the latter

The

creditors.

the

to

Clarendon,

property

elder

of the

PORTRAITS

ence,
Laurcame
be-

Cornbury

during

the lifetime

brother.

Henry, 4th

Clarendon,

of

Earl

more

even

was

spendthriftthan the second earl,and again the


in danger of dispersion. To prevent
portraitswere
transferred
this calamity the property
was
by the
earl to his son,
Lord
Hyde, who wished to retain
the
portraits as heirlooms.
Subsequently, the
of Queensberry, daughter of the earl,
Duchess
far
so
disputed the will and deed poll,and was
between
successful
divided
that the portraitswere
the
the duchess
and
representativesof another
the
of Essex.
had
Earl
married
daughter, who
half went
Lord
Duchess's
The
to
Douglas, and
of

now

are

in the

*'

The

possessionof

daughter
heiress

other

half

of Clarendon

at

Such
national

Earl

of the
of the

of

whose

Essex,

in

and

Hydes,

countess

1776

he

was

of Clarendon.
vicissitudes

the

are

last century a younger


Earl of Jersey,married

Villiers,2nd

Earl

created

of the

the middle

of William

was

Earl

the

the

Grove,** Watford.

About
son

Castle, while

Bothwell

at

are

portraits,which

of the
is

noble

described

galleryof
by Lady

charming book, entitled


Chancellor
Friends
and Contemporaries of Lord
Clarendon,"
1852 (3 vols.).
in

Lewis

Theresa

^*

It

was

":entury had
the
men.

made

until the

not

second

half of the

that the Nation

commenced

present

awoke

to

of its great
necessityof colleftingthe portraits
In March,
1856, the late Earl Stanhope
a

foundation

in

motion
of

the

National

House

of

Portrait

Lords

for

Gallery.

the
Pre-

PORTRAIT

COLLECTIONS

129

viously,that is, on February 27th, after giving


late Prince
the
to
nqtiqe of motion, he wrote
Consort, requesting his support in these words
:
**

It

to

seems

obtained

that

me

if

at

were

space

once

yearlygrant of ;^500 in the estimates


would
suffice for purchases,and that the seIe6lion
might be most
properly confided to the present
Fine

Art

Commissioners

which

over

or

commission

new

any

Royal Highness might be prevailed


The
to preside/*
prince at once
cordially
in Lord
Stanhope s scheme.

on

concurred

your

It would

from

appear,

written

by Sir Charles
January, 1856, which

an

extra6l

Eastlake

from

letter

Lord

Stanhope
in
is printed in the catalogue
of the National
Portrait Gallery (1888),that the
from
the then President
originalsuggestioncame
Eastlake
of the
Sir Charles
Royal Academy.
I cannot
wrote
:
help wishing that a gallerycould
be formed
exclusivelyfor authentic likenesses of
celebrated
ence
individuals,not necessarily with referto

"

to

of the works

the merits

of

I believe

art.

with catalogues
gallery of portraits,
short
biographical
containing good and
be useful in many
and especinotices, would
ally
ways,
not
as
a
unimportant element of education."
that

extensive

an

In the debate

in the

of Lords

House

on

March

Ellenborough expressed a hope


[would] studiously and
management

4th, 1856, Lord


that

"the

to
secure
carefullyendeavour
unworthy persons." This

mistaken

view, and

one

been

adopted.

What

that

would

in which

be

"

persons

The

the

first

earliest

appears

exclusion
be

to

of all
a

very

happily,has not
strange historyof England
of
all account
unworthy
which,

"

omitted.

was

portrait of

the

purchase

Sir

Walter

donation

made

by

the

trustees

was

Raleigh, in March, 1857,


having been the celebrated
K

130

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

Chandos
Shakespeare,presentedby the Earl of
Ellesmere.
Temporary apartments for the reception
of the piftures
were
providedat 29, Great
George Street,Westminster, and the day of opening
for the public
the 15thof January,1859.
was
In 1869, when
amounted
the portraits
to 288,
the collection was
removed
the
at
to
longbuilding
South Kensington,
tion
exhibithe
which, during
great
of 1862,had formed the southern boundaryof
In this provisional
the Horticultural Gardens.
the gallery
of
remained tillthe autumn
building
Inn
1885. In 1882 the accessions from Serjeant's
and the British Museum
united with the
were
in chronological
order.
rest of the pi(!:l;ures
A small firein the Inventions Exhibition caused
considerable alarm for the safety
of the portraits,
and their temporary removal to the Bethnal Green
Museum
decided upon.
There theyremained
was
till 1895, when
removed
to the new
they were
in St. Martin's Place, presentedby Mr.
gallery
W. H. Alexander, which was
opened April,1896.
Several portraits
obtained duringthe ten
were
the
colledlion
remained at Bethnal Green"
years
and these were
housed in the lower
temporarily
in Trafalgar
at the National Gallery
rooms
Square,
in the temporary offices at 20, Great George
or
Street.
The new
is not very satisfaftory,
the
as
gallery
in some
of the rooms
and
is quiteinsufficient,
light
the amount
of space is inadequatefor the proper
the
of
have the
that we
colleftion,
so
housing
o
f
the
cult
is diffidire6lor
for
that
it
authority
saying
tions.
for some
of the most recent addito find room
In spite,
however, of the defers of the new
lection,
the Nation may well be proud of the colbuilding,
which forms one of the most instructiveand
exhibitions in the country.
interesting

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

132

has

devoted

been

the

to

of
.portraits

interestingcoIle"5lion
the University of Glasgow, where
those
which
formerly belonged to
There

Dr.

is

an

William

Hunter.

contains

London

advantage
Gallery.

be

are

transferred

to

celebrated

Gallery in
might with

National

the

Portrait

difficulties

however,

are,

portraitsin
preserved

the

portraitswhich

some

There

of

National

The

men.
Irish-

eminent

in

the

for the

masterpieces of Hogarth, Reynolds,


fine
remain
as
Copley must
Gainsborough, and

way,

illustrations of the

English school of painting. The


South
also contains
some
Kensington Museum
good portraitswhich should not be overlooked.
Having referred to the chief public colle6lions, it
is necessary
to
mention, though in a somewhat
the more
specialcolle6lions of
manner,
summary
the country.
The
portraits of royal personages
their
and
in the
courts
are
mostly to be found
of interesting
royal palaces. A large number
housed
in St. James s
Palace
and
portraits are
Castle is filled with
Buckingham Palace ; Windsor
magnificentpicturesby Holbein, Rubens, Vandyck,
and
Lawrence
others, but probably those
most
with
that splendid palace,
intimatelyassociated
and
the
best
remembered
the
by visitors, are
Vandycks.
of portraits,
Hampton Court is a very museum
many

of them

while

others

The

Lely

among

palace.
queens

"

fine
are

of

chief

valuable

to

Beauties," and

the

is

of great historical value,


doubtful
chara6ler.
somewhat

and

treasures

be found

series
in the

those

by Kneller,

are

this

charming old
of portraitsof kings and
colleftion of the Society
of

of

Antiquaries.
In
continuing, the
classes of portraitsin

references
the

order

to

the

in which

various

they

are

SIR

GEORGE

SCHARF,

K.C.B.,

BY

W.

W.

OULESS,

R.A.

PORTRAIT

in

I33

COLLECTIONS

followingchapters, attention may


first be drawn
the dignitariesof the Church.
to
A fine galleryof portraitsis preserved at Lambeth
contains
of the archbishops
Palace, which
most
from
Warham
is said
(whose likeness by Holbein
remarkable
to be
by Wornum
a
specimen of the
well as a portrait)
painter's powers
a
as
picfture
down
There
time.
to the present
are
portraitsof
earlier
but
they are
archbishops than Warham,
of much
that of Archbishop
not
authority,save
be a likeness.
Chicheley (died 1443), which may
There
also portraitsof other churchmen
are
more
arranged

the

"

or

less connected
Other

dioceses
and

Lambeth.

with

palaces

series of

contain

of

deaneries

and

the

portraitsof

the

various

bishops

deans.
The

said to form
are
portraitsat Chichester
are
complete coUecftion, but the early ones
very
no
authority,as they were
painted by Theodor
Dirk

Barentsen

century,
to

have

and

the

been

of

Inns

Bernardi)in

earliest authentic

that of

Portraits
different

(inLatin

lawyers

of Court, and

be

to

are

of
or

the sixteenth

likeness

is said

(1508-36).

Sherburn

Bishop

found

of medical

men

at
at

the
the

wich
At GreenColleges of Physicians and Surgeons.
tion
fine collecHospital is to be seen
a singularly
This gallery
of portraits of naval commanders.
form
founded
in 1823, and
to
it, portraits
was
Castle
and
taken
from
Windsor
were
Hampton
is no such
There
Court, the giftof George IV.
collection
of portraits of soldiers, although there
some
are
Hospital. Portraits
portraitsat Chelsea
of

soldiers

United
The

and

Service

sailors

will also

be

found

at

the

Clubs.

Royal Society possesses

of scientific men,
and
portraits
of painters are
preserved at

many

the

fine colleftion

of

good portraits
Royal Academy.

PORTRAITS

HISTOklCAL

134

Oriental

The

contains

Club

series

of

of

portraits

Orientalists.
The
at

the

formed

famous,
old

and

there

aftors'

Oxford

It
School

old

curious

and

fine

the

The

of

the

noticed

be

It

Oxford

as

is

impossible

fine

colleftions

the

great

will

be

subsequent

to

to

give

of

chapters.

any

family
of

the

in

the

contents

some

Museum,

halls

leian.
Bod-

the

to

to

are

Colleges.
London

of

their

must

adequate

halls.
account

preserved

some

of
in

reference

but

country,
of

ber
num-

various

portraits

be

lodges

and

considerable

interest

mansions
made

City

the

Music

are

portraits
the

of

the

Cambridge

the

At

Schools.

There

in

possessing

of

portraits

of

to

of

and

of

colleftion

the

in

attached

is

preserved

companies

great

also

those

is

Ashmolean

collecflions

finer

various

the

in

Mathews)

portraits

attached

gallery

portrait

than

of

Library.

portraits

Few

found

Bodleian

was

Gallery.

preserved

years

many

the

at

Duhvich

collection
still

is

for

was

the

in

interesting

musicians

curious

which

of

Charles

also

is

portraits

an

older

elder

a6lresses

and

foundation

(the
the

by

atlors

of

portraits

Club

Garrick

that

of

of

gallery

of

these

in

CHAPTER

VIII.

SOVEREIGNS

**

Let

certainly
find

it

read

man
never

The

by

demand

them

of

of

produ6lions
other

and

which

from

of

value

from

reigns

of

he

VI.,

Henry

Vn.,and

the
of

President

his

of

See

Scotland

Chapter
at

the

little

after

the

the
Palace

the

"

first
or

as

apocryphal
is mentioned.

he

and

of

James

In

short

of

wrote

7th,

1773,

West,
I

and

V.

Henry

Henry

V.,

April

pictures

his

of

VHL,
on

of

Anecdotes,*

Holyrood

being
of

are

Henry

property

families,

II., where

ending

long

proud

Society

Royal

my

mencing
com-

from

they

represent

Cole
of

portraits

and

interesting

very

pictures

two

in

the

their

and

VIII.

sale

of

Conqueror

Henry

William

Rev.

coins,

on

Alleyn,

painted

was

to

re-

monarchs.

these

supposed

respecting

bought

of

series

Edward

been

many

merely

heads

otherwise

but

but

purely imaginary.^

are

Walpole

which

the

are

and

kings

being

are

the

having

Horace

by

person

supply,

some

These

I.

most

will

he

same

early

our

tombs,

by

William

antiquity,

some

to

while

purchased

Mary

kind

that

the

value,

on

College

with
with

little

figures

sources,

were

of

produced

very

Dulvvich

At

of

pidlure

and

Clarendon,

in

painter

portraits

naturally

are

Lord

my

Richardson.

for

has

queens

COURTS

in

better

seeing

Jonathan

"

THEIR

charadler

there

was

improved

Vandyck."

AND

Henry

which
the

series

have

is

graved
en-

catalogue
of

the

Kings

136

HISTORICAL

says,

engraved by
described

second
and

last

the

there.

guineas.
marriages of Henry
of

Gothic

the

House

house

H.

Mr.

"S4y though

it for six

suite

PORTRAITS

But
VI.

of

The
I knew

Walpole/
first
Mr.

in fa6l these

cost

West
two,

the

and

/^^S

me

bought
with

my

such

VII., compose
enrich
Lancaster, and
and

my

completely,that I would not deny


and
much
as
myself. The
Henry VII. cost me
is less curious : the price of antiquities
is so exceedingly
risen too at present, that I expe6led to
I have
have
paid more.
bought much cheaper at
the
and
sale, a picture of Henry VIII.
same
Charles V. in one
than
piece,both much
younger
I saw
ever
portraitof either.'*
any
of the first to take an
interest
one
Walpole was
in pictures of this character, and
his critical
as
he
in respect to art
not
was
acute,
power
very
he wished
to be the history
was
apt to believe what
of his treasures.
Thedefeoriptionof thiese *pi"5lures
dotes
occupiesan important positionin Walpole's Anecof Painting,"in which
book
made
the author
available the researches
of Vertue
by placing them
before
the public in a readable
form.
It is unfortunate
that his editors have not
pointed out the
character
of his various
erroneous
ascriptions.
The first of these picturescame
from Tart
Hall,
St. James's Park, where
it was
sold in 1719, and
Vertue's
as
manuscripts it is described
among
consistingof
kneeling,
5 princes and
4 ladies
St. George on
horseback."
It was
Walpole who
asserted
that it represented Henry V., and
stated
and
that it was
at Shene,
an
altar-piece
originally
in all probabilitywas
painted by order of Henry
VII. for the chapel of his palace there."
Nichols
in the
Mr.
pointed out
John Gough
so

**

**

"

Walpole's

"

Letters,"ed. Cunningham,

vol. v., p. 455.

138

HISTORICAL

pifture,and
Painting," as
his family.

PORTRAITS

Anecdotes
of
engraved in the
is the painting of Henry
VII.
and
It was
bought for ;^200 by Henrietta
of Pomfret, and
Louisa, Countess
hung for some
The
Neston, Northamptonshire.
at Easton
years
Earl
of Oxford
(according to Walpole) offered
not
cepted
ac;^500 for the pifture, but his offer was
Walpole bought it at Lord Pomfret's
; and
sale for ;^84.
Mr.
J. Dent
bought it at the
Strawberry Hill Sale in 1842 for ^178 10^., and
Dent
of Sudeley lent it to the Tudor
bition
ExhiMrs.
in

**

is

1890.

is

This

reallyno marriage at all, but the arms


Elizabeth
that Henry and
are
(ifgenuine) show
the
saint walking with
represented in it. The
appears

queen

Apostle,and
Canterbury.
have

arms

Mr.

Cust

madonna
been

to

be

for St.

intended

Thomas

the

of
figure for St. Thomas
It is probable, however,
that the
been
added, and the figuresconverted.
believes
been
the original to have
a

and

painted

the

other

saints, of which

the

central

part has

out.

supposed to represent Princess


WaIpole*spi6lure,
Margaret, Prince Arthur, and Prince Henry, the
three children
of Henry
to
VII., and attributed
tion
Mabuse,
was
bought by Walpole from the collecof Richard
Cosway : at the Strawberry Hill
it was
Sale
bought for thirty guineas by Mr. J.
Dent.
There

several

copies of this picliurein


England, one at Hampton Court ; and Sir George
Scharf
proved by reference to an old catalogue of
the time of Henry VIII., that the pi6lure really
of Christian
II.,
represented the three children
the niece of
wife
whose
was
King of Denmark,
are

Katharine
to

the

of

Tudor

Aragon.

Mrs.

Exhibition,

Dent
but

in

lent this

the

pifture
description

SOVEREIGNS

The

and

THEIR

COURTS

39

her belief in the old

asserted
**

AND

:
ascription,and wrote
being four replicasin England

fa(fl of there
not

the

favours

figuresare

those

There

can,

however,

is

correal, and

Scharf

opinion that the


the children
of Henry
VII.
be no
that Sir George
doubt
his description is generally

abroad

one

of

accepted.
By far the most
early kings is the

possiblyis

of the portraits
of our
interesting
beautiful full-length
sittingfigure
which
II. in Westminster
Abbey,
of an
the work
English artist. It may

almost

said

of

Richard

be

that

historical

English

is the

this

portraits,and

very

instructive

chief

particularsthat

it will

its

as

well

be

valuable

most

history is
the

down

set

to

of

this

picture.
It appears
been always highlyappreciated,
to have
not
although it was
always treated with the care
that it deserved.
it in
alludes
to
John Weever
his
Ancient
Funerall
Monuments
(163 1),where
he writes :
That
beautiful
pi(5tureof a King
crowned
in a chaire of estate
at
sighing [sitting],
the upper
end
of the quire in this church
minster
[WestwitAbbey] is said to be of him, which
nesseth
how
he was
in outward
goodly a creature
of

known

are

"

**

**

lineament."
In

17 18 Vertue
portrait,but it was

made

engraving of this
a
copied from
drawing taken
by Grisoni (then in the possession of John Talman)
and
direft from
the pidlure. John Dart
not
produced
rethis engraving in his
tiquities
History and Anan

**

pidure
the

of the

Abbey

and

stated

that

backs

mistake

of
not,

when
Soon

the

his

part

that

of St. Peter

**

House
the

Lords

picture was

minster,"
West-

of

the

defaced

by

stall,which,

if I

is much

fill that

of

s,

description

usuallythe place of

the

afterwards

in

lower

those
is

Church

the

Lord

cellor
Chan-

repair

hither."

restored

and

its

HISTORICAL

140

beauty destroyed by

PORTRAITS

Captain Broome,

one

print-

seller.
The

was
original pi(flure
on

placed

and

ground,

gesso

painted

this, which

coarse

has

now

in

pera
tem-

pure

oil

painting

happily been
The
the pi6lure
removed.
which
oak panel upon
is painted is 7 ft. by 3 ft. 7 in., and
is
composed
of six planks joined vertically,
but
so
admirably
bound
solid
mass."
one
together as to appear
**Art
The
exhibited
the
pi6lure was
among
Treasures"
in 1857, and
Manchester
at
again at
the South
in 1866.
Kensington Portrait Exhibition

was

over

"

Much

attention

pointed

the

out

The

pidlure.

the

induced

pidlure to
cleared
the

to

painting

late Mr.

George

be

studio

of

it, and

to

crude

Dean

away,

diredled

was

the

over

and

original
R. A.,

Richmond,

Westminster

cleaned

critics

the

the

allow

to

modern

painting

removed
for this purpose
it was
of Mr.
Mr. Merritt
Henry Merritt.
and

is
operations, which
in Sir George
servations
Scharf's
interesting ObPortrait
the
Westminster
on
Abbey
and
II."
other
representations of King Richard
(1867). On September 25th, 1866, Mr. Richmond

kept a
quoted

daily

the

of

record

"

noted

in Mr.

great

courage

Merritt's
and

record

equal

Mr.

**

Merritt

with

the

thick

skill removed

of

re-paint from the left side


quite unlike that which
revealing one

coating

hair

off:
colour

red, colour

of the flesh

I think

and

The

the

Merritt

Sir

George

was

the

quite that
have

eyes

result of the

and

of

of

of

Messrs.

of

was

this

taken
the

person,

Richmond

beautiful

describing

face,

but

red-haired
blue."

labours

in

the

gone,

been

the revelation

Scharf

eyes

of

pidlure.

restoration

heavy- toned
large, coarse,
figure with ver)^ deep, solid shadows, strongly
confident
marked
a
expression
eyebrows, and

says

**

Instead

of

SOVEREIGNS

AND

COURTS

THEIR

I4I

(almost amounting to a stare)in the dark-brown


have a delicate pale picture
sparkling eyes, we now
in carefully
modelled
form, with a placid and somewhat
sad
expression of countenance,
eyes
gray
lost
under
lids,
partially
pale yellow eyeheavy
brows,
and golden-brown hair."
The
well-devised
folds of drapery" of the original were
stroyed
quite deby the restorer,
through ignorance."
In the Exhibition
of 1868 the renewed
pi6lure was
shown
and
The
work
was
greatly admired.
was
but two
mistakes
made
a
were
:
(i)
great success,
**

**

"

no

**

taken

was

copy

the

hand,

in

the

before

restoration

work

put

was

the

diaper
(2)
background
was
unnecessarilyremoved, so that the effedl of
the gold ground is now
much
marred.
In conne6lion
with other portraitsof Richard
1 1.,
Scharf
between
an
interestingconversation
quotes
and
Elizabeth
William
Lambarde
at
Queen
Greenwich
the 4th of August, 1601.
Lambarde
on
had

the queen

rendered

documents
the

said:

queen

the Tower

turned

**

of London

Richard

on

Richard

am

of the rolls and

account

an

deposited in

conversation

in

when

II.

II., know

The
ye

not

that?"
Such

''Lambarde.
and

determined
the

most

wicked

attempted by

adorned

most

that

creature

imagination
ever

unkind

was

gent,

Majestie

your

made.
''Her

forget
40tie

Majestie,
his

times

Lord
of

her

knee

in open

honest

then

had

interview

asked

forgetGod
tragedy was

this

if Lambarde

and

she

told

said

This

him
to

him

forbad

played

her.

knew
of

one

At

of any
which
the

fallingupon
Farewell, good
quotation is of
"

will also

houses."

and

presented

her, and

Lambarde."

streets

Richard,

Lumley
before

that will

benefacftors

The

queen
portraitof

He

end
his
and
con-

142

HISTORICAL

interest^

siderable

play

There
South

II.

Exhibition

Kensington

Windsor

rebellion.

and

Castle

IV.

portraitsof Henry

two

were

with

a6ling of a
(Shakespeare's or another's)

of Essex's

the time

at

conne6lion

in

Richard

on

PORTRAITS

the

of

1866,

one

the

at

from

other

belonging to the
The
Earl of Essex.
latter pi6lurehas a pedigree
recording the giftfrom the king himself to Rowland
of the robes, who distinguished
Lentall, his yeoman
himself
The
the
at
Agincourt.
inscription on
pidlure is as follows:
Henry the Fourth, King
of England, who
of this hous
layd the first stone
left this
Court, Herefordshire],and
[Hampton
pi6lurein it when he gave it to Lentall, whoe sold
*'

it

Cornwall

to

the

of

cestors

of Burford,
Lord

who

sold

Coningesby

it

in

to

the

the

Aun-

reign

of

the 6th."

Henry
The

very

Of

Henry

interestingseries of portraitsof early


kings of England, belonging to the Society of
of Henry
with a good one
Antiquaries, commences
V.
There
other portraitsof this king at Eton
are
Portrait
where.
Gallery, and elseCollege,the National
VI.

there

are

portraitsat

Windsor

Portrait
lery,
GalCollege, the National
and
the Society of Antiquaries. The
picture
styled by Walpole the
Marriage of Henry VL
with
Margaret of Anjou" (already alluded
to)
which
was
formerly at Strawberry Hill and was
of
Anecdotes
by Walpole in his
fullydescribed
in the possession of the Duke
of
Painting,"is now

Castle, Eton

**

**

Sutherland.
In

1442
a

the
*

an

artist

German

portraitsof
"

Bibl.

(Appendix).

Topog.

named

Hans

or

Hansa

(probably
paint

Fleming) was
engaged to
the three daughters of the Count
or

Brit."

Nichols,

1790,

vol.

i., p.

525

SOVEREIGNS

of

Armagnac,

AND

to

guide

THEIR

the

COURTS

the

in

king

1 43

choice

of

wife.

The

instructions

first

comming
portraie

do

simple,

and

their

the

iij doughters
their visages lyk

be

one

to

portratur

appointe and
sende

to

thider, in al haste

you

al

as

your

see,

their

skynne

and

ye

of

of

maner

in al haste

delivered

At

"

possible,that ye
in their kertelles

color

and

with

countenaunces,

that

and

follows

as

their beaulte

and

stature

were

features;

with

the

said

the Kinge, and


he t*
bring it unto
signe which hym lyketh,and therupon
how
word
ye shall be governed."

("Journalbyoneof the suite of Thomas


Beckington,
Harris
Nicolas, 1828,
A.D.
1442," ed. Nicholas
p. 10.)
Sir Robert
Roos
On the 3rd of November
wrote
to him^
to the count,
stating that he had sent Hans
the business
and
to
cause
begged that he would
the 22nd
On
be hastened.
deacon
John de Batutz, Archof

St. Antonin,

describing the
Sir George
the

.received

the ambassadors

that

**

England ; the marriage


shortly after King Henry
Margaret of Anjou, his future

arrived

off, and

broken

to

of the pifture.
progress
adds
It is not
Scharf
known
:

picturesever

was

wrote

portraitof

in

of the Earl
wife, painted through the intervention
of the first artists of France."^
of Suffolk, by one
her father.
been
said that the artist was
It has

d'Anjou.
the seat of the Earl of Verulam,.
At Gorhambury,
is a very
there
interesting portrait of Edward
of Henry VI. *s courtiers, by Petrus
Grimston, one

King

R^n6

Christus,
which
*

the

which
late Sir

Observations

of
portraits

is

the

vol. xxxix., pp.

on
same

dated

George

1446,
Scharf

and
wrote

respecting
**

In

one

Grimston
of Edward
and other
portrait
"Archseologia,"
period by George Scharf.
the

471-482.

"

HISTORICAL

144

PORTRAITS

in English portraiture,
alone
resped: it stands
being a solitaryinstance in the fifteenth century of
of the painter,
a
pi6lurehaving a date, the name
and
the person
represented, equally well defined.
The
dated
signature of Petrus Christus, combined
the back, clearly
with
the shield of Grimston
at

faft."^

the

establish
Grimston

ambassador

was

to

the

Duchess

of

(writes Dr. Thomas


Burgundy in 1449, and was
of
the
Kent) the framer
treaty of intercourse
between
England and Burgundy.^
born
Christus
Petrus
at
Baerle, and
was
ably
probwent
to
Bruges in 1443, since he purchased
the right of citizenshipbetween
September 2nd,
and
He
2nd,
was
September
a
1449.
1443,
Eyck under his brother
fellow-pupilof Jan Van
able
considerHubert, and he subsequently obtained
fame
ston
a
as
painter. It is probable that Grimengaged him to paint his portrait when on a
The
exhibited
visit to Bruges.
at a
pi6lurewas
meeting of the Society of Antiquaries in June,
made
was
1863, and a water-colour
by Miss
copy
Hill

0"5lavia

Scharfs
Scharf

Edward

**

with

room

for the purpose

1864

published in
paper
describes
this most

thus

in

"Archaeologia,"

vol.

*'*

"

Instrucciones

yeven

by

welbeloved
his trusty and
do6loure
of
Thomas
Kent

he

and

of Calais

for to

foloweth."

Communicated
Thoms.

**

the

Kynge oure
Johan Marney

lawe,

William

Wodehous

squyers
his ambassatours
at

the

or
iiij,
iij

souverain

knyghte,
Pyrton,
twaine

lorde
Maistre
Edward

of

thaim,

this tyme
to his Towne
with the
appointe and conclude

trete

commune

of

commissaries
that

John

sendeth

**

xl.,p. 471.

to

Grymeston

ing
illustrat-

Archaeologia."
interestingportrait
Grimston
standing in a
appears
raftered
ceiling,having a circular

whom

of

Duchasses

of

Bourgoigne

in the

maters

[May, 1449.]
to

the

Society

vol.
Archaeologia,"

of

xxxix, p.

Antiquaries by
451.

W.

J.

146

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

which

scale,

smaller
latter

to

is also

at

one

exhibited

was

there

and

similar, although

excellent, and

is

South

at

at

Windsor

the

National

The

Castle.

Kensington

on

in

1866,

Gallery
Antiquaries.
beth
(Elizaqueen

Portrait

portraitlent by the Society of


There
are
portraitsof Edward's
Court, Windsor
at
Woodville)
Hampton
Castle, and Queens* College, Cambridge, and all
exhibited
three were
at South
Kensington in i866.
At the Society of Antiquaries there is a portrait
IV. and
of Margaret of York, the sister of Edward
the Bold of Burgundy,
the third wife of Charles

the

to

whom

she

was

married

in

1468.

mistress, Jane
portraitsof Edward's
Court, Eton
Shore, at
Hampton
College, and
of these can
King s College,Cambridge, but none
and
be said to be at all satisfaftory,
they are all
probably taken from Diane de Poiftiers.
excellent
is an
There
HI.
portrait of Richard
the
others
at
at
Society of Antiquaries, and
Portrait
Windsor
Castle, the National
Gallery,
and
Knowsley, in the possession of the Earl of
exhibited
South
sington
Kenat
Derby ; the latter was
There

are

in

number

The
very

1866.

of

considerable.
the

portraits of
Windsor

National

Henry

Castle, Christ

Portrait

VII.

are

Church,

Gallery,the Society
other galleries
of Antiquaries,and
show
can
many
A
Mrs.
portrait lent by the Hon.
examples.
Howard
the South
Greville
hibition
to
Kensington Exis inscribed:
of 1866
Kynge Henry ye
F."
The
seventh, Johan de Maubeuse
pifturelent
this same
exhibition
to
by Mr. Henry Musgrave
described
and
as
of
Henry VII. and Ferdinand
Holbein," was
not
by Holbein,
Arragon, by Hans
and
V.
but
represented Charles
probably hi"
Oxford,

**

**

brother

Ferdinand.

HENRY

VII.,

BY

AN

UNKNOWN

FLEMISH

ARTIST.

SOVEREIGNS

The

AND

portrait of

THEIR

Henry

COURTS

Elizabeth

queen,

IV.
and
York, daughter of Edward
Woodville, was
frequentlypainted, and
be seen
Christ Church, Oxford,
at
may
National

Portrait

The
elder

of

of

Elizabeth

examples
and

at

the

Gallery.

portraitsof Arthur,
son

47

Henry VII.,

Prince

are

of

Wales,

extremely

rare,

the
but

Sir

a
George Scharf found at Windsor
portrait
he supposed to represent
not
designated, which
this prince,and
is corroborated
his attribution
by
Henry VIII. s catalogue,although in Charles I. s
cataloguethe portraitis described as Henry VIII.

Prince

white

and
Tudor
E.

has

Arthur

This

roses.^

Exhibition.

Edwards

red

and

pi6lure was
water-colour

collar
shown

of

red

at

the

drawing

by

berry
formerly at StrawHill and
at Knowsley, was
now
supposed by
of Richmond,
Walpole to represent Henry, Duke
the natural
The
of Henry
VIII.
son
original
this drawing was
taken
was
pifture from which
in the
of
Dowager
possession of the Countess
Scharf
the
considered
Park.
Jersey at Middleton
the original
be the better of the two, as
to
copy
has been
restored
and re-painted.^
It was
a
portrait
once
supposed that there was
in the pi6lure described
the
of Prince
Arthur
as
three
children
of Henry
VII., but as
already
the
false ascription, and
mentioned
this was
a
pi6lure really represented the three children of
Christian
The
feature

1866,
which

of Prince

cap

Arthur,

II. of Denmark.

were
a
special
Henry VIII.
of
of the South
Kensington Exhibition
their strongly marked
characteristics,
from
that king the dominating
make
seemed
to

portraitsof

"

Archseologia,"xxxix. 246.

"

Archaeologia," xxxix. 458.

148

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

his

in which

portraitwas
lent by the
portraits was
hung.
and
Earl of Warwick,
in the catalogue no painter's
was
name
pifturewas described
given,but the same
as
by Dr. Waagen as a masterpiece of Holbein,
if the king himself
details as
in the smallest
true
in every
room
of these
One

personage

"

stood

before

There

you.

brutal

egotism, an
feeling,such as
human

is

obstinacy, and
I

have

the

In

countenance.

uncomfortable

I became

of

yet

never

suspiciouswatchfulness

the

these

in

eyes,

wild

features

of

harshness
in

seen

any
is
there

too,

beast,

so

that

from

looking at it a long
the want
of simplicityof the forms, the
time;
little rounding of the whole, notwithstanding the
wonderful
modelling of all the details,the brownishred local
the

and
to

be

very

transition

This

by

about

1861

the

and

second

that

the

to

have

it may

third
been

1530.**
lent

pi6lurewas

Lord
In

from

Holbein,

of

manner

painted

of the flesh,the gray of the shadows,


lightgeneral effe6l show this pi6lure

tone

the

to

Exhibition

Tudor

Warwick.
Sir

George

Scharf

gave

in the

**

Archaeo-

logia" a note of such portraitsof Henry VIII. as


cations
are
deserving of specialnotice, from bearing indiof the dates at which
executed.
they were
be shortly
They are thirteen in number, and may
indicated
I.

The

as

follows
first

portrait

mentioned

by

Scharf,

although not perhaps the earliest, is a kneeling


in the great east
of
window
figure of a monarch
St. Margaret's Church, Westminster,
the
to which
have
of Henry
VII.
and
Prince
Arthur
names
been
assigned. I feel, however, satisfied that it
reallyrepresents Henry VIII. as a young
man,
that the kneeling queen
and
the opposite side
on
of the window
is Catherine
of Arragon."
**

HENRY

VIII.,

BY

LUKE

HORNEBOLT.

HISTORICAL

50

described

engraving

date

bearing
Matsis

king

and

as

drawn,

comparison

little doubt

be

and

with

that

of

been

Cornelius
of the

considered

by

is, however,

It

accords

tippet,small

fur

countenance

From

have

to

work

95, and

peculiarchara6ler

caricature.

mere

costume,

bloated

clear

the

expresses

styleof

can

It is the

1548.

well

"

by Granger, vol. i.,p.

strongly as

so

some

PORTRAITS

ceedingly
ex-

much
very
moustaches

in
and

the last-named

painting."
portraits there

these

of

Henry's

were

eyes

of

blue-gray.'**

Scharf

does

mention

fine

full-length
portraitby Lucas de Heere in the Master s Lodge,
Trinity College, Cambridge, and apparently he
not
was
acquainted with the picture as the work
the important full-length
of that artist, nor
portrait
at
Ditchley (Viscount Dillon).
and
Sir George Scharf
Mr. J. G. Nichols
tributed
convaluable
to
Archaeologia" on
papers
Holbein's
portraitsof the royal family of England,
and more
the several portraitsof
particularly
upon
of Henry VIII.*
the queens
of Holbein
The
era
as
a
painter of English
portraitsis limited within ia period of sixteen years,
He
could scarcely
extending from 1527 to 1543.
of Arragon, because
have
she
painted Katharine
ill and
when
he came
was
living in retirement
Catharine
to
not
Parr, as she was
England, nor
until July, 1543,
married
two
or
only a month
not

the

**

his

before
*

Remarks

death.

written

names

portraitsfrom
House, by George

some

on

Wilton

Court, and

The

Windsor

upon

the

Castle, Hampton

Scharf.

**
"

Archaeologia,'

vol. xxxix.

pp. 245-271.
Holbein's
RemJsurks
upon
England, by J. G. Nichols,
*

several

on

and
**

on

of

some

the

portraits of

the

royal family

of

"

Archaeologia,"xl. 71-80. Notes


described
in the preceding memoir,
portraits

others

Archaeologia,"xl.

of

81-85.

the

like

nature,

by

George

Scharf,

SOVEREIGNS

AND

THEIR

COURTS

Holbein

little to
drawings are
and
in particularno
faith can
be
described
Anne
as
Boleyn, Anne
Katharine
Dr.

Howard.

Meads

Queen

sale

Caroline

These
in

relied

be

placed
of

upon,
in those

Cleves,

and

purchased at
^^ ^^^
belong to
pi6lure lent to the
of 1866
by Sir

were

^^^

1755,
series.

15I

The

South

Kensington Exhibition
J, Cholmeley, JJart, and described as a
Mont^^e
portraitof Queen Anne
Boleyn by Holbein, really
ceeded
daughter of Ladislaus, who sucrepresents Anne,
her brother, Louis
n.,as Queen of Hungary
and

Bohemia,

Ferdinand,

married

and

the

brother

of the

The
piftureis dated
Emperor Charles V.
and
PB, which
signed by the monogram
1530,
Sir
stands for Hans
Baldung, Binck, or Brosamer.
longing
George Scharf believed a circular miniature, beto

Charles

Mr.

Bale

Sackville

in

1863,

blue

background
"an"
XXV,"
to be a true
Boleyn.
portraitof Anne
The
date represents the twenty-fifth
yearof Henry's
reign (April 22nd, 1533, to April 21st, 1534),and
Anne
was
June ist, 1533.
publiclycrowned
in the
The
piftureof Jane Seymour by Holbein
and
is dated
Imperial GaHery at Vienna
1537,
of her by Holbein
there is a fine pi"5lure
at Woburn.
Holbein
the wall of the
also painted, in 1537, on
Whitehall, a picture of Henry
at
Privy Chamber
and Queen Jane Seymour, and
VHI.
Henry VH.
This
of York
Elizabeth
and
in the background.
destroyed in the fire of 1 698, but a reduced
was
of it was
in 1667 ^V Remigius (R6mee)
made
copy
is preserved at
Hampton
van
Leemput, which
and
made
An
Court.
by Vertue
engraving was
published by the Society of Antiquaries. The

inscribed

present

in

Duke

gold

of

originalcartoon
lent

to

the

Tudor

the

across

Devonshire
for the

possesses

Whitehall

Exhibition

Holbein's

fresco, which

(1890).

he

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

152

fine
a
Strawberry Hill ColIe6llon was
in the catalogue
described
miniature
by Holbein
(p. 146, No. 69) as a very rare and originalportrait
It was
of Katharine
Parr.
bought by Mr. J. Dent
for ten
points out
guineas. Sir George Scharf
is to be found
that the inscription an" XXXII
in the background, which
the regnal
represents
the

In

*'

"

of

year

married

king

Howard

in

August

of this

this

be

believes

Scharf

the

Now

1540-41.

or

Katharine

therefore

and

year,

VIII.,

Henry

to

her

portrait.
There
Holbein
Duke

miniatures

are

by
of

the

of Buccleuch.

Respe6ling
which
wrote
**

colle6lion

the

in

and

Windsor,

at

Howard

Katharine

of

the

has

become

from

Duren

Your

Grace

Anne

portraitof

Nicholas

historical,Dr.
the

to

king,August
Hanze

servant

Cleves,

of

Wotton

ith, 1539
hath

Albein

taken

th'

and
the
Ladye
Lady Anne
effigiesof my
hathe
Amelye
[her sister],and
expressed their
is probably the
livelye."* This
images verye
Paris.
at
pi6lurenow
Another
the
possible wife for Henry VIII. was
finest portraits. This
subjeft of one of Holbein's
was

Christina

of

who,

after the

death

upon

as

was

sent

with

and

suitable

her

Jane Seymour, was


for the king.
consort
where

duchess,

it

sketch, and

she

"

was

tried

diplomaticagent

looked

duchess
the

of

Holbein

ing
stay-

was

lands,
Nether-

Regent
of taking her portrait,
purpose

portraithad
but

the

Mary,

aunt

for the express


he acquitted himself

Another

Milan,

of

of

Brussels

to

Duchess

Denmark,

from

of his task

been
very
to

sent

off

British

Archaeologia,"vol.

desire

by

inferior

get it back.
the

in three

to

hours.
of the

Holbein's

John Hutton,
Court,

xl. p. 77.

wrote

as

SOVEREIGNS

follows

Cromwell

to

Haunce

Mr.

"

COURTS

THEIR

AND

53

but

having

himself to be master
hours'spacehath showed
of that science
(the making of physiognomies)for
in
it is very
perfe6l,the other is but slobbered
comparison to it, as by the sight of both your
lordshipshall well apperceive."
three

It

difficult

was

three

hours*

belonging
for
but

some

of

Scharf

close

he

he

the

by

was

to

the

solved

in the

entrance

hibited
ex-

Gallery

had

was

pifture

which

National

thought

of

account

finished

large

the

when

day

this

Norfolk,

in

years

George
difficulty.One
situated

the

Duke

the

Sir

room

with

sketch

to

associate

to

waitingroyal

the

Castle, he
Chapel at Windsor
noticed
a
picture in a prominent position which
of
unnamed.
He
struck
was
was
by the manner
which
holding the gloves adopted in this portrait,
him
reminded
of the
at
once
portrait of the
the

in

pew

Duchess

Private

of Milan

inspe6lion he
the

to

came

originalthree

Duke

Arundel

at

the conclusion

hours'

further

On

that this

was

which

from

sketch

finished

of Norfolk's

Castle.

the

afterwards

pitlure was

copied.^
and his advisers
anxious
were
Henry VHI.
the marriage,but after long negotiations
Charles
broke
off the
match.
The
good story of
that she
duchess's
had
to the king,
message
**

head, had

one

of his

service

Her

true.

the

emperor

she

had

two

majesty,"is

aftual
s

poor

answer

should

one

not

You

**

and

servant

at

supposed

now

was,

be

to

know

must

follow

for
V.

the
but
the
be
am

his

pleasure."
The
of

duchess

Lorraine
'

"

Remarks

discovered
Brussels

afterwards
and

on

at Windsor

in the

She

Bar.

portraitof

the

Francis, Duke

daughter

was

Duchess

of

Milan

of

recently

Castle, probably painted by


1538."
Archaeologia,"xl. 106-112.

Holbein

"

year

married

at

HISTORICAL

154

Christian

PORTRAITS

of Denmark,

called

erroneously

Scharf

identified

and

children

the

her

Henry VII.
little black-eyed girl

the

with

children

of the three

one

of

wearing a peculiarhood, on the right-hand side in


the Hampton
Court
picture.
in his paper
Scharf
that the authority for
says
of the portraits
accepted as portraitsof the
many
'

wives
and

of
he

adds

honoured

that

with

Mr.

is very vague
of these
none

monumental

Nichols

Katharine
the

VIII.

Henry

refers

Parr

at

to

arid uncertain,
were

queens

effigy.
fine whole-length

Newnham

the

Paddox,

seat

of

of

at
Denbigh, and to an identical pitfture
Glendon
Hall, Northamptonshire. The
supposed
Portraits**
in Lodges
representationof this queen

Earl

of

**

is

authentic.

not

The

great

VIII.

and

chamber,

his

Elizabeth,

and
fool.

It

Will

and

shown

was

the

Princesses

Somers

and

Edward,

Prince

at

the

*'

Henry

s audience
queen
seated
Parr
by the

Katharine

represents

with

king,

Court

picture at Hampton
in the
Family," now

Mary
Jane the

Exhibition,

Tudor

in

catalogue of which it is attributed to Gwillim


called
Stretes (?).Scharf is of opinion tftatthe head
the drawings at Windsor
Princess
Mary among
Parr
for this pi6lure.
was
a
study of Katharine
is a miniature
There
of Jane Seymour by Hilliard
the

at

Windsor,
To

that

which

return

there

kings

to

is inscribed

Holbein.

is little doubt

natural

son,

Mr.
that

Henry

1536, aetatis

**

Nichols

that

believes

artist drew

Fitz-Roy,

suae

Duke

the
of

though his portrait,


is not
if existing,
now
recognized.
At the Pinakothek,
Munich, is a portraitof Sir
is
of Henry
VIII., which
Bryan Tuke, treasurer
signed "Jo. Holpein,''a replicaof which is in the
Richmond,

who

lived

till 1536,

EDWARD

VI.

156

HISTORICAL

attributed
to

some

PORTRAITS

Holbein,

to

have

been

but

is

supposed by

now

painted by

GwilHm

Stretes.

ascriptionis possible it is
portraitin this book is taken
the National
Portrait Gallery,
which
represents the prince at the age of six years.
is a drawing at Windsor
of Mary I. (when
There
the Lady Mary) by Holbein.
Sir Antonio
Moro's
is at the Gallery at Madrid,
portraitof this queen

Although, however,
The
only a guess.
the pifturein
from

Mander

Van

but

copies of

the

exhibited

at

this

that

states

pi6lure,and
the

Tudor

one

Moro

made

many

of these, which

Exhibition, belongs

was

to

Chapter of Durham.
At
Woburn
Abbey there is a portrait of
with
Queen, represented as in an apartment
husband
Lionel
Cust
Mr.
Philip H., which
Dean

the

and

to

be

the work

of

de

Lucas

Heere.

the
her
lieves
beThe

an
interesting
Society of Antiquaries possesses
de
Heere, dated
portrait of her, also by Lucas
it is the
Scharf
Sir George
that
1554.
says
with
by
largestsigned pidlure that he had met
the hand
of Lucas
de
Heere, but in saying this
he overlooked
I. in
the full-length
of Henry VH
the Masters
Lodge, Trinity College,Cambridge,
which
Heere.
is signed by De
in having the
fortunate
was
Queen Elizabeth
opportunity of being painted by several first-rate

artists

who

came

from
in

abroad

to

her

Court

Mr.

discussing the authenticity of


of the pifturesattributed
to Holbein,
some
points
that Elizabeth
not
was
out
quite ten years old when
this painter died, and
that he was
not
quainted
acsays
with
of the
picture or miniature
any
from the hands
of Holbein.
Lady Elizabeth
to
Very early in her reign, 1563, she appears
been dissatisfied with the portraits
have
painted of
her, and it was
proposed to issue a proclamation
J.

G.

Nichols,

QUEEN

MARY

I.,

BY

JOANNES

CORVUS.

does

from

subje6l,but

the

on

not

draught

in

the

and

been

runs

reason

handwriting

document,

curious

some

have

to

appear

COURTS

THEIR

AND

SOVEREIGNS

as

other

or

published.

of

Cecil

follows

57

is

it

The
very

thrugh the natural desire that


of subje6ls and
all sorts
people, both noble and
the portraitand
have
to procure
pi6lureof
mean,
of Paynters,
the Queen *s Majestie,great nomber
and
have
Printers
and
alredy,and
some
gravers,
in divers
make
doe
to
manners
dayly attempt
portraitures of hir Majestie in paynting,graving
that
is evidently shewn
and
prynting, wherein
hath
sufficiently
expressed the
hytherto none
naturall
representation of hir Majestie'sperson,
Forasmuch

"

favor

or

grace,

as

but

for

the

most

part

have

also

dayly complaints are


in so
hir Majestie's loving subjects,
made
amongst
hereof
hir Majestie hath
that for redress
much
latelybene so instantlyand so importunatelysued
unto
by the Lords of hir Consell and others of hir
herein
nobility,in respeft of the great disorder
that
some
used, not
speciall
only to be content
to
coning payntor might be permitted by access
hir Majestie to take the natural
representation of
she hath
allwise of
bene
hir Majestie whereof
her own
rightdispositionvery unwillyng,but also
of other
to
draw,
to
prohibitall manner
persons
paynt, grave or pourtrayet hir Majestie'spersonage
perfectpatron
or
visage for a time, untill by some
be by others followed.
and example the same
may
hir Majestie being herein as it were
Therefor
with the contynuallrequests of so many
overcome
she cannot
well
of hir Nobility and
Lords, whom
some
deny, is pleased that for their contentations
therefor, shall shortlymake
mete
a
coning person
of hir person
or
visage to be participated
pourtrai(5l
for satisfa6lion of hir loving subje6ls,and
to others

erred

"

therein,

as

thereof

158

HISTORICAL

furdermore
the

PORTRAITS

commandeth

all

forbear

from

in

of persons

manner

graving,
of hir Majestic,
printingor making
pourtrai(5l
until some
that shall be
speciallperson
by hir
shall have
allowed
first finished
a
pourtrai6lure
thereof, after which
fynished, hir Majestie will
that all other
be content
painters, printers, or
to

tyme

mean

paynting,

of any

shall

that

gravers,

and

consideration

traifture.

And

for

take

and

greved

deformities
in this

that

and

ministers

and

as

to

and

committed,

reformable/'

mean

and

at

maye

first pour-

or

the

until

persons^

observation

due

the

they

hereof,

already

errors

to

tyme

and

errors

all hir officers

forbydd
such

publicationof

or

(as

without

not

by sondry

reform

to

in the

prohibitthe shewing
apparently deformed,
are

the

to

maybe

as

soon

which

with

straitly
chargeth

see

dwell

Majestie perceiveth
much
are
lovingsubje(!:l;s

allredy committed

behalf, she

hed

hir

offence

great

shall

same) shall
sayd patron

of hir

grete nomber

the

the

by

should

person

the

attempt

pleasures follow

their

that

ever)'

they

standing,
under-

of

men

licensed

plaices where

it is that

reason

known

thereto

so

of the

officers

be

may

be

as

and
are

reformed

done, but
exactly what was
Raleigh, in the preface to his
History of the
that "by the
World,"
states
Queen's own
mandment
comall pi(5lures
by unskilful and common
knocked
in pieces and
in the
cast
painters were
fire ; and
the
John Evelyn at a later date makes
with fuller detail in his
statement
same
Sculptura/^
do

We

not

know

**

"

"

to

"The
Persons

originalin
Cecil,

with

in the year 1563, relating


Draught of a Proclamation
From
the
making Portraits of Queen Elizabeth.
the Paper Office,in the Hand-writing of Secretary
his

by
p.

169.

Sir

Corredtions, and

Joseph

among
Bart."
Ayloffe,
"

his

papers.

municated
Com-

"Archaeologia,"vol. ii.

gUEKX

ELIZABETH,

HY

F.

ZUCHARO.

l6o

HISTORICAL

Castle, which
of

PORTRAITS

the

at

was

National

Portrait

hibition
Ex-

is in the
next
(No. 247). The
at
and
Court, of Henry VHI.
Hampton
pi(5lure
is not
his family. The
third, which
porary
contema
lent by the Dowager
Duchess
pifture,was
from
Ditton
of Buccleuch
It reprePark, Slough.
sents
Henr)'^VHI., his children, and Will Somers,
and

1866

Two

Tudor

the

at

was

Exhibition

of

1890.

interestingpicturesare the allegorical


at
one
Hampton Court, by Lucas de Heere, where
the three goddesses
Juno, Minerva, and Venus
are
dismayed at the beauties of Elizabeth, and the
emblematical
of Henry VHI.
and his sucpi(5lure
cessors,
very

"

"

also attributed

belongs to Mrs.
formerly in the
On

letters these
"

Four
father

than

more

zealous

which

Heere,

of

nobilitye loe in
theyr conditions
valyant, a rare

with

states

de

Sudeley Castle, and was


possession of Horace
Walpole.
this pifture are
painted in gold

lines

face of muche

Dent

of

frame

the

Lucas

to

daughter

in

hear
and

kind

her

little roome,
virtuous

what

in

shadowed

els

showe,

son,

the

world

doth

knowe,
And

last of all

Successivelyto
In smaller
"

The

Mark

The

virginqueen to England^s joy we see,


the rightand virtues of the three."

hold

letters
Queen
of her

famous

Hatfield

at

to

"

House

are

exhibited

the

her

pi6lureis

this Tablet
own

sent,

contente."

"

portraitby Zucharo,
(Marquis of Salisbury), must

be

life-size

the

This
her
:

right hand
"

Non

National

(No. 267),and
{No. 14 10 b), and
1866

and

Rainbow

the words
at

foot of the

Walsingham

people

speciallymentioned.
holding in
queen,
which

the

at
was

pi6lure of
rainbow

sine sole iris."


Portrait

the Tudor

at

over

It

Exhibition

was

of

Exhibition, 1890

greatly admired

at

both

SOVEREIGNS

AND

THEIR

l6l

COURTS

writes of the queen's


places. Mr. O'Donoghue
A
:
personal appearance
study of Elizabeth s
portraits and of the verbal descriptionsput on
record
by her contemporaries, leads to the conclusion
that, though never
reallybeautiful, in her
tions
youth she possessed considerable
personal attracwas
slightlyabove the middle height
; she
(*neither too high nor too low,' as she complacently
Sir James
observed
to
Melvill),with a graceful
figureand long delicate hands, of which she was
proud ; she had a fair,clear complexion, with
very
hair and black eyes (a somewhat
usual
unpale auburn
her mouth
small, with thin
was
combination),
close-set lips,her forehead
broad
and
high, and
her nose
became
aquiline,a form which
strongly
in old age.
have
marked
Her
eyebrows must
been
light both in colour and quantity,as in
very
of her portraitsthey are
most
scarcelyindicated ;
her hair was
always dressed in short, crisp curls,
in her later years
and
were
certainlyfalse ; in the
inventory of her wardrobe, taken after her death,
mention
of a largeassortment
of wigs."
is made
is very attra6live looking in
Certainly the queen
the beautiful portrait
at Jesus College,
by Zucharo
Oxford, where there are two other portraitsof the
"

queen.
was
general opinion that Elizabeth
flattered by the portraitpainters,but this was
not
Garrard.
Mark
Mr. O'Donoghue
with
the case
writes, The majorityof the portraitsof the queen,
which
painted by
represent her in old age, were

It

is the

"

or

in

works

the

school

of

are

of

Elizabeth
Loan

his
.

distinguishedby
truth

details

Gheeraerdts

Marc

the
those

careful

and

Of

costume.
at

Exhibition,

Welbeck

hard

elaboration
all the

promising
uncom-

of

the

portraitsof

[South Kensington
No.

1862,

their

2573,

and

Tudor

62

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

1890, No.

Exhibition,

Gallery,National
363, and

No.

Gheeraerdts,

Exhibition, 1866,

considered

460] by

No.

Exhibition,

be

versity
[Uni-

Cambridge

Portrait

Tudor
may

and

465]

to

the

give

most

idea of her appearance."


perfeftlyaccurate
in her pictures,
The
obje6led to shadows
queen
and preferredto be painted in the open
air, where
of shade
the different
were
light and absence
features.
her
favourable
to
too
strongly marked
She
definitelyto
expressed her opinion very
Nicholas
treatise
to

miniature

on

the

remember

after

whoe

drawe,

in her

showing

This

**

also and

came

it in his MS.

recorded

painting:

words

first I

Ma'**, when
to

has

Milliard, who

makes

of her

reasoning

highness
howe

me

me

presence

shee

notied

shadowing in the works, and


that
of sundry nations, and
diversityof Drawers
the cunningest
the Italians [who] had the name
to
and
to drawe
best, shadowed
not, requiring of me
the reason
of it, seeing that best
shewe
to
ones
the
rather
shadow
of place but
selfe nedeth
no
that
I graunted. affirmed
light,to which
oppen
in pi6lureswere
indeed
shadowes
caused
by the
of the place, or
shadow
coming in of the lightas
small or highe
only one waye into the place at some
of

difference

great

windowe

which

for

to

ease

their

sight,and

and

lyne

grosser

maketh

showe

very

wel

nedeth

not,

because

in hand

neare

unto

reason,

for

that

garden
at

all

earthe

and

perposse
where
no

save
soe

that
must

more

serned, and

the

workmen

many

the

afar

covet

give unto
lyne
aparent

werke

to

be

the eye, heer


therfore
chosse
the

in
tree
as

was

the

that

imborse

them

heaven

be

to

de-

well, and

Limning work
of necessity
veewed
to

her
her

Ma'**

nor

is

littel shadowe

convened

place

ally of

open
neere,

in

werke

to

of, which
it is

to

anye

to

goodly

shadowe

lighterthen
that

sit in

was

the
from

SOVEREIGNS

AND

the earthe, this her

THEIR

Ma'*"

COURTS

curiouse

Demaund

hath

greatlybettered my Judgment besides divers


like questions in Art
excellent
by her most
which
fitter for
to
speak or writ of weare
clarke,"

better
The

that

be

can

given

the

Court

of

some

The

famous

few

chara(5lers
is

great

so

of them

Frances

only

Brandon,

(mother of Lady Jane Grey),


send
to
a
spiritedretort to Queen
The
worthy of first mention.

is

duchess

married,

Siokes,

her

the

of

this

of

second

her

as

master

heard

queen

horse-keeper
opportunity for a retort
of

horse,

Leicester
Sir

so

horse.

?"

the

was

husband,

Here

When

was

the

has

she

good

too

be

passed by, as
of
queen's master

to

Cecil

William

Adrian

said, "What,

she

her

married

Earl

Elizabeth

portraitsof

here.

ventured

Elizabeth,

an

Ma***

of Suffolk

duchess
who

the

with

notice

interestinghistorical

of

of

other

etc.

number

connected

63

(afterwards

the
the

Lord

and
she says
Yes, madam,
Burghley) answered,
Majesty would like to do so too.*' So Walpole,
your
who
taining
conpossessed a pi6lure by Lucas de Heere
her second
and
portraitsof the duchess
*'

tells

husband,

the

story

in

his

"Anecdotes

Painting." The
pi(5lurewas
purchased
and
Strawberry Hill Sale by the Hon.
Heneage Finch for eighty-eightguineas.
exhibited
Mr.

by

at

C.
in

South

Kensington

Finch,
Wynne
1890 by Colonel

and

in 1868
at

Wynne

the

of
the

at

Rev.
It

was

(No. 644)
Tudor

hibition
Ex-

Finch.

Burghley, attributed
Mark
and
Garrard
to
belonging to the Marquis of
shown
at South
Exeter, was
Kensington in 1866,
also the curious portrait
of the minister riding
as
was
is in the Pi6lure
mule, which
on
a
Gallery at the
there
Bodleian
Exhibition
Library. At the Tudor
nine portraits
of Lord
were
Burghley.
A

good portraitof

Lord

164

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

portraitof Mildred, daughter of Sir Anthony


Coke, and wife for nearlyfiftyyears of Sir William
lent by the
Cecil, Lord
Burghley, by Zucharo, was
Marquis of Salisbury to the South
Kensington
A

Exhibition
A

of

of 1866.
fine

very

Walter

portraitof

Essex, by Sir Antonio

Earl

Yarborough,

of

married

Moro,

Lettice

Dudley,

Earl

in

Earl

ist

belonging

exhibited

was

his widow,

portraitof

Devereux,

the

to

1866.

wards
Knollys, who afterLeicester, belonging

of

shown
till 1 868.
not
was
Marquis Townsend,
beautiful portraitof their son, Robert,
A singularly
Earl of Essex, is preserved at the Master's
2nd
one
Lodge, Trinity Lodge, Cambridge ; this was
of the eleven
portraitsof Essex lent to the Tudor

to

the

Exhibition.
There

is

remarkable

the

for

Bodleian

other.

Gallery

is little

admire,

to

while

shows

the

refined

is

she

one

the

to

stand
under-

could

have

portrait in

bold, reckless

Essex

the

there

in whom

man
a

in their

look

littlehandsomeness

portraitof
though weak

whom

feeling,to

of

there

that have

in the features

the

Leicester's

is that
"

it is difficult

ward
out-

beth
Eliza-

of

there

diversityis

liked

if she

how,

them

great

favourites

two

expressions that

different

cared

the

of

appearance
in fa6l, so

the

between

contrast

about

Cambridge
full of poetical
man,
speculatoris instinftively
at

drawn.

Although
romantic
of

Essex

interest

and

little about

know

we

about

wife

of

Elizabeth

Henry

her, there
Vernon,

is

cousin

Wriothesley, 3rd

Southampton, the friend and patron of


lent to the South
Shakespeare, whose portraitwas
of 1866
by Mr. G. Digby
Kensington Exhibition
Exhibition
by
Wingfield Digby, and to the Tudor
Mr. J. D. Wentworth
name
Digby. Her maiden
Earl

of

SOVEREIGNS

Still survives

AND

COURTS

THEIR

in Vernon

who

Throckmorton,

merly
(for-

Place, Bloomsbury

Southampton) Square.
Queen Elizabeth's maids of honour were
and interesting
body of young ladies, and
married

Sir

65

lively

Elizabeth

Walter

Raleigh

fell into

and

disgraceat Court, was one of the most


of them.
Her
lent to the
portraitwas
interesting
South
of 1868
by Mr.
Kensington Exhibition
J. T. Gibson
Craig.
Some

maids

of these

very

faint ideas

Anne

Vavasour,
in

who

There

Elizabeth

1580, and

in

was

of the

gentlewoman

was

had

however,

morality or decency.

Queen

to

honour

of

of honour,

chamber
bed-

maid

of

whose

1590, and
Exhibition

sent
to
portrait was
the Tudor
by Sir Henry Vavasour,
She
Bart.
married
John Finch and then left him
In 161 8
to
keep house for Sir Henry Lee, K.G.

penaltiesunder the High Commission


husbands
Court
for having two
alive, but in 1622
she received
a
partialpardon.
of ill repute was
Another
of honour
maid
Mary

she

incurred

Fitton, who
Earl

of

with

got into trouble


who

Pembroke,

William

banished

was

Herbert,
from

Court

was
having a child by her. Her name
brought prominently forward a few years ago under
the supposition that she was
the dark lady of Shakespeare's
for mentioning her
An
sonnets.
excuse

for

here

time

for

may

be

found

connexion

with

of her

means

this and

at

Shakespeare
portrait. Search

last

one

Mary

Fitton

dark.

The

good

risen

much

in

coachman
never

The

faft

in the

discovered
fame
the

left his

married

one

were

be

to

of maids

^300
of them.

portraitof Queen

on

by

made

for

the

result that

fair and

century,
condition

Elizabeth's

to

shattered

of honour

eighteenth

son

claims

her

long

was

found, with

was

was

that

had
when
that

giant

not

not
a

he

porter.

66

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

S^ feet, and his hand


height was
long, is still preserved at Hampton
whose

would

have

during

the

it,and

in

Scots

said
are

If

experts.
of

many

beautiful

as

the
has

been

are

them
she

unlike

so

long been
to judge by the
Queen was
by

we

interested

kept.
Mary Queen

described

one

puzzle of

the

have

they

gallery

be

of

and

numerous,

so

another, that

likenesses

be

to

It

Court.

was

that it should

commanded

7 inches

I/s

Charles

with

Rebellion, but Cromwell

Portraits
of

sold

been

of

appearance
means

no

so

by enthusiastic

admirers.
The

portraits of James
of them

none

for this

is attributed

James

engraved

one

Zucharo,

and

was

is another

There

boy.

was

The
to

but

numerpus,

are

attractive.

are

book

when

taken

I.

by Van
fifty-five
the
Portrait Gallery, and
Somer, in the National
has one
by J. Jameson.
Marquis of Lothian
there is a portraitof James's
Court
At Hampton
him

portraitof

Somer.

Van

by

and

crossbow

king

favourite
this

At

It

pictureto

dressed

at

on

habit

for the
to

occasion

one

out

go

the deer, but

chase,

her

with

success

killed the

she

dog.

palace

same

which

her

was

shoot

great, and

not

was

of

age

of Denmark,

Anne

queen,

the

at

an

there

is

interesting

an

is attached.

anecdote

It

presents
re-

and
Robert.
of Wales,
Henry, Prince
Devereux,
3rd Earl of Essex, as hunting, and it
is related that one
playing
day when these two were
The
the score.
tennis
prince
they fell out over
so
a

far lost his temper


which
traitor, upon

and

hit the

prince across

as

the

to

call Essex

earl

took

up

the

son

of

his

racket

the head.

the Stuart
at
Stirlingof Keir showed
small picture containing portraitsof
Exhibition
a
of Denmark.
Anne
his mother,
the prince and
Mr.

A.

SOVEREIGNS

AND

THEIR

COURTS

67

At

Longleat is a portraitof the prince attributed,


Zucharo.
When
Prince
to
probably incorrectly,
Henry died, Richard, Earl of Dorset, exclaimed
:
Our
risingsun is set ; it had scarcely shone, and
with him all our
glory lies buried."
Another
child of James I. was
even
more
popular
than
the Prince
of Wales.
Elizabeth, Queen of
the Queen
of
Bohemia,
as
popularly known
in these lines by Sir Harry
extolled
Hearts,'* was
**

**

Wotton,

"

Provost

You

That

You

beauties

meaner

More

of the

night,

poorly satisfyour eyes,


than your
by your number
light;
of
the
skies,
common
people

What

The

of Eton

are

you

portrait of

when

her

the

shall rise ?

moon

Honthorst

by

at

"

Hampton

is

Court

good. At this palace there is a small


pifture,by Van Bassen, representing her and her
husband
dining in public.
There
the
at
two
are
portraits of this queen
National
and
Portrait Gallery
one
by Miereveldt
the other
Viscount
Powerscourt
by Honthorst.
showed
a
portraitof her by Mytens at the Stuart
"

Exhibition.
Sir

George

Scharf

Palace

which

representing Prince
Princess
Margaret.
and

costume

that
clear

it

certain

belonged

that

one

to

child

mentions

pi6lureat Buckingham
him
to
was
as
pointed out
Arthur, Prince
Henry, and
He

saw

at

once

from

the

points about the pifture


later period. Next
it was
a
a
only was
boy, the other two
other

The

Charles

I.

pi6lurebelonged
being girls.
in Van
der Noort's
and
was
accurately described
catalogue as the children of the King and Queen
ren
"the Palgrave s three first born childof Bohemia
It was
at Heydelberch."
brought from Heidel"

to

68

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

and

berg

given

James

King

to

by

Sir

Henry

Wotton.

of

King
the

English

Court

habits, is well
Charles

I.

his

in

who

has

alone

wish

to

from

know

is taken

the

National

Duke

the

was

given

of

us

It

Duke

of

famous

the

of
for

is, however,

portraitsby which
I. The
engraving

the

Charles
from

child,

James, Duke
painted by Lely

Northumberland.

in this book

trait
por-

of the

possessor
I. and
his son

Vandyck

in

Somer's

is the

of

we

Van

in

painted by My tens when


his last days.
The

was

pi6lureof Charles
York
(aged 14), which
Earl

an

Court.

Northumberland

the

so

represented

Lely

by

bad

example to
pronounced drinking

set

by

Hampton

at

and

who

Denmark,

IV.,

Christian

jovial brother-in-law,

I.'s

James

fine

equestrianportrait
Gallery, which
was
bought
Marlborough for ;^i 7,500 in

1884.
Warwick

Windsor,

At

in

and

other

Castle, Hampton
colledlions

great

equestrian portraitsby Vandyck.

there

Court,
other

are

tiful
Vandyck *s beauking,arranged in

pictureof three heads of the


at
profile,full,and three-quarter views, is now
Castle.
The
Windsor
Rome
sent
to
pitlure was
the sculptor to make
for Bernini
marble
bust
a
from

This

it.
in

at

until the

Rome

Irvine

it
IV.

George
Henrietta

she

looks

alone
she

it

bought

1796, and
to

fire

the

pifture itself

The

and

became

well

done,

was

was

at

for
sold

for 1,000
Maria
was

the

Whitehall

of the
Mr.

W.

Bernini

stroyed
de-

was

in

1691.
Palace

last century.
Mr.
Buchanan
about

by Mr. W.
guineas.
a

bust

Palace

in the

remained
end

but

beautiful

Wells

woman,

in

1822

and

Vandyck*s portraitsof her, both


she grew
with the king, but when
old
to
sent
ugly. Mr. Alfred Morrison
in

CHARLES

I.,

BY

SIR

A.

VANDYCK.

SOVEREIGNS

the Stuart

Exhibition

by Claude

Le

COURTS

THEIR

AND

69

aged,

portraitof her, when

Fevre.

pi"5lure
by Vandyck containing portraitsof
of Leicester, and
Dorothy Percy, Countess
of
Countess
sister Lady Lucy, the famous

The

Lady
of her

Carlisle, was
Penshurst

sold

in 1764

colledlion

at

inherited

she

when

Yonge,

by Lady

the

from

by the will of Lady


Brownlow.
twenty-nine guineas
Walpole gave
for it,^and
it sold at his sale for ;^23i, being
of Soho
Norton
Square.
bought by a dealer
At
Longleat there is a portraitby Vandyck of

the

half of

ancient

that

seat

"

that queer

the beautiful

character

Duchess

of Richmond

the

of

son

vintner,

wanted

to

Henry

Prannel,

Earl

of

James

marry

her

Hertford,

George Romney
in
despair. This
of

Bath

the

to

and
an

I.

Lennox,
earl, and

when

and

married

who
a

duke,

first husband

Her

second,

Howard,

Frances

Edward
she

was

Seymour,

married

him, Sir

killed

of Somersetshire

and

himself

lent by the Marquis


pi6lurewas
of
South
Kensington Exhibition

1866.

is

There

curious

portraitby Vandyck

of the

Digby, who died in 1635,


in
found dead
the Dulwich
at
Gallery. She was
her bed one
morning, and her husband, Sir Kenelm
the
ofif for his friend
painter,who
Digby, sent
made
a
portraitof her in the attitude in which she

beautiful

Lady

Venetia

found.

was

full-lengthby
ing
Vandyck of Lady Digby, seated, with cupids holdof laurel over
her head, Envy bound,
wreath
a
and cupids at her feet, a serpent in her righthand
in her left. This
dove
and
a
allegoryalludes to
her
Walpole
calumny.
presumed triumph over
At

Castle

Windsor

Walpole
253)-

to

G.

Montagu,

there

May

is

loth, 1764 ("Letters,"IV.,

HISTORICAL

170

the small

describes

PORTRAITS

for this

study

picture,which

is

exquisitelyfinished.
All

the

of

Court
and

Vandyck,
those

Charles

who

these

of

many

I.

painted by

were

and

men

women

history,and it is,therefore,
only possiblein the space at our disposalto allude
of these pictures.
to a few
In the
Louvre
several
there
are
portraits by
I., the
Vandyck, viz., a full-lengthof Charles
were

Duke

of

Charles

made

Richmond,

I., and

At

portrait of

Knowsley

Charlotte
the

de

la

her

shows

of

in

"

to

summons

all the

House,
to

o'clock

with

him

art

but

this

carry

paper

rebel
nor

house

he
:

shall

when

our

find

it, a

furious

of Parliament,

of

pains

neither

have

strength

traitor's

merciful

then, if the providence of God


and

scorn

solent
in-

goods,
persons,
and
provision is

and

myself,children,

*thou

tell that

Rigby,

home

be

to

pride ;

double

shall

and

fire

is

she,

and

drum,

we

goods

before

day

next

spent,

it not, my

it

within

arms

Rigby,'(with a
his sight) and

Lathom

up

but,' says

instrument

in

(Rigby)

for the

for his

gates;
to

answer

ladyship having read,

reward

her

foolish

the

tearing

and

follows

he

yield

goods

her

due
at

up

calls

indignationcalls
a

as

Thursday,

the mercy
final answer
the

which

brave

hanged

On

described

receive

to

her

return

two

tells

been

persons,

into his hands,


and

of

last message,
he
as
her
to
ladyship to

his

of

One

Castle.

mentary
tearing the Parliasurrender, a good subject

painter,which has
1644, April 25th.

sends

portraits of
of Derby,

Countess

Lathom

the a6t

summons

for

several

are

of
self.
him-

painter by

the

Tremouille,

defender

brave

these

there

children

the

of

three

more

shall burn

soldiers, rather

prevent

in his

than

than

sight:

fall into

SOVEREIGNS

his hands

will seal

During the Commonwealth


of merit,
portrait-painters
during the period prove
idea

common

the

flame."

same

loyalty in

religionand

our

17I

COURTS

THEIR

AND

that

there
and

all the

several

were

painted
portraits

the

how

the

is

mistaken

leaders

Parliamentary
Cromwell,
by

Robert
cropped.
Walker, and Lambert
at the National
by the same,
Portrait
Gallery, have long hair, and John Pym
has flowing brown
hair in the portraitlent by Sir
tion
the South
to
Henry Wilmot
Kensington Exhibitheir

had

heads

of 1866.
Cromwell
slur

to

told

over

his

on

but

he

whom

painter to

blemish,

any

wrinkle

and

wart

the

to

represent

face.

Some

painter was
Cooper, but Granger says
of Cromwell
Coopers miniatures
and they were
much
that
admired
so
considerable

demand

Cromwell

found

for

sale, and

one

Granger says
the
supposed
Charles
that

I.

this

accurate

The

Cooper

for them.

crayon
in the

this

say
it was
are

Lely.
perfedl,

there

was

occasion

one

copying
surreptitiously
the pra6lice.
he forbade
I. and
that in a print of Charles
face
of
Duke
the
of
Espernon

print of
likeness

every

Cooper

altered

was

On

not

sat

to

that

P. Lombart's
of the

of

Cromwell,

cannot

be

so

very

Protedlor.

portrait of
Masters

Cromwell

by
Lodge, Sidney

Samuel
Sussex

College,Cambridge, was
presented anonymously
Hollis, the Republican. The
picture
by Thomas
was
accompanied by a letter to this effect : "An
Englishman, an Asserter of Liberty, Citizen of the
World, is desirous of having the honour
to present
of
of the head
an
original portrait in crayons
*

Peter

Lathom

Draper's
House,"

"House

1864, p.

of
129.

Stanley,

and

the

Sieges

of

172

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

O.

Protedlor,

Cromwell,

Sydney

Jan.

"London,

freelydeclare it,I
Though his Government
I

made

He

Noll

for old

am

did

his enemies

and

England great,

It is

so

as

and

to

requested

to

receive

be

free from

Also

"

arrival

Mr.

Shove's,

Garden,
It

of

line

Bookbinder

until the

not

was

Left

to

To

written

be

may

in Maiden

on

Delver,

Pierce

at

Covent

Lane,

publicationof

Hollis,'*in
that

780, where

it

the

known

was

the

Memoirs

**

presentation
the

whom

to

indebted.

collegewas

inclined to think
George Scharf was
this portraitwas
by Lely and not by Cooper,
surely in this picture in large there is a great

The

but

placed
Right ;

be

Sunshine.

it, dire6led

mentioned,

that

Marvell."

A.

London.'"

of Thomas
is

of

tremble.

may

from

Light

favour

the

the

that the Portrait

the

1766.

15,

Tyrant resemble,

**

**

to

College,in Cambridge.

Sussex

"

Cooper,

by

drawn

late Sir

likeness

to

the

marvellous

latter

of the

miniatures

artist.
The

later

portraitsof

Charles

him

II. show

as

from
and
his recorded
it appears
ugly man,
The
sayings that he realized the fa6t himself.
engraving in this book is taken from the pi"5lure
Portrait Gallery.
by John Greenhill in the National

an

He

handsome

was

fine

portraitof him
James's Palace, in
ingenuous countenance.

as

by
which

young
Adrian
he

man,

afid there

Hanneman

is drawn

at

with

interestingportraitof
the
which
hangs on
principal staircase
his
the king on
palace. It represents
There

in the

is another

robes

of the

Order

of the

Garter

is

St.
very

Charles

and

of

this

throne
wear-

CHARLES

II.,

BY

J.

GREENHILL.

SOVEREIGNS

the

ing

It

crown.

Dutch

AND

artist

Pieter

painted by

was

Nason,

Holland

from

who

came

four

painted portraitsand

over

73

at

Restoration.

the

There

were

miniatures

Charles's

of

shown

ganza,
famous

the

at

her

was

lent

to

by

the

1866

Dirk

who

till 1678, when

here
he

where

in 1686.

died

It

of

Portugal,

with

Katharine, and
he retired to Flanders,
Clarendon

The

cleaned

it

and

painted

was

artist settled in

England

to

over

came

the

Exhibition

Kensington

Flemish

II.

in

Watford,

of Clarendon.

Earl

Stoop,

resided

South

the

is

marriage

Grove,

the

The

Charles

to

sent

was

Portugal before
Clarendon
Gallery at

of Bra-

Exhibition.

Tudor

portrait which

seven

Katharine

queen,

from

by

COURTS

THEIR

pi6lure

fiftyyears ago, an
inscriptionnailed on the back stating that it was
is a replicaof this
the originalpifture. There
Portrait
Gallery. Stoop
pi6ture in the National
made
himself
an
etching of this portrait,which is
Head
The
and
scarce.^
piftureis described as
had, until it

was

some

**

shoulders

fallingon
single lock
small

side

each

bow

black

in

the

on

dark

the

on

slashed

gown

with

forehead, and

of

back
in

mass,

the

the

head.

sleeves

high, broad, white, straighttrimming


her

made

of

series

from

departure

arrival, and

landing at Portsmouth,

He

Portsmouth

Walpole

man,

got

named
and

his

Dutch, Roderigo

London,

to

into confusion

painter

the

supposes

engravers,
one

with

of lace

over

etchings illustrating
Portugal, her voyage,

Katharine's

She

chest.

Stoop

from

hair,

brown

waving

round

twisted

white

wears

uncovered,

head

was

Roderigo
name

in

was

and
not

Portuguese,

with
Peter

and

which
the
and

curiouslycon-

and

of this artist.

name

his

Theodore.

Peter, but

progress

brothers,
was
only

two

There

Thierry,

Theodoricus

or

Dirk

in Latin.

in

174

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

firm

Lord

She

**

this

costume,

of

first

on

she

wardrobe

the

her, but would

the

Life," where

**

could

nor

out

to

sent

writes

resolved

was

dressed

Clarendon's

in

passage
Chancellor

landing to adhere to
be persuaded to be
that the king had
clothes

the

wear

which

she

brought until she found that the King was


be
obeyed.
Whereupon
displeased and would
she conformed
against the advice of her women,
continued
their opiniatrety,without
who
one
any
of them
mode, which
posed
exreceding from her own
^
them
the more
to
reproach.*'
is drawn
The
figure of the queen
throughout
tillthe
Stoop's etchings in the Portuguese costume
when
she
Portsmouth,
departure from
appears
had

The

favourite

are

those

are

the

portraitsof

Windsor

at

Hampton

The

title.

which

do

they

not

at

series consists

Mrs.

Frances

so

Countess

the

painted, as
Duchess

afterwards

fashion

Catherine

St.

of Richmond

of Rochester

Brooke,

was

also
of

the
was

York;

Henrietta

Jane MiddleLady Whitmore

Mrs.

of Northumberland

of
(misnamed Countess
Ossory)
Brooke, Lady Denham
; Barbara, Duchess

Cleveland

Anne,
^

Vol.

Countess

ii.,
p.

320.

of

Countess

Falmouth

Elizabeth
of

deserve

present

it

Hyde,

Stewart, Duchess

Elizabeth,
of

was

Anne

Pepys;

Boyle, Countess
ton;

hung

now

portraitsof Lady
(which was long supposed,
likeness
of Elinor, Lady

of Cleveland

Frances

are

known

of

Bellasysas St. Catherine


erroneously, to be the
of the queen
Byron. In honour
this time to be painted as
at
Duchess

they

as

of them

long

were

IL

period

famous

most

Beauties, but
Court

of Charles

the Restoration

the

pi6luresby Lely

the

Court

of the

of ladies, and

as

that

fashion

in the

dressed

Sunderland

176

HISTORICAL

She
shown

seated

at

hand.

her

on

in

dressed

IS

PORTRAITS

white

This

satin

is

dress, and

table

with

is the

portrait referred

her

head

resting
to
by

Here
July 10, 1664 :
Lady showed
my
us
Lady Castlemayne's pifture finelydone,
my
beautiful
Lord, and a most
pi6lure it
given my

Pepys

"

on

is."
the

In

who

Knott,
few

is

virtuous
At

is

Court

Hampton

painted

painter Verelst

is

the

H.,
Flora

as

have

to

there

Court

Charles

of

Lely

Charles

at

women

the

Beauties

been
H.s

of

one

Duchess

another

of

mouth,
Ports-

the well-known

by

the

Court.

portraitof

at

of Mrs.

portraitby Wissing

supposed

Hampton

mistress

with

room

same

flower

52).
and
eccentric
virtuous
The
Margaret, Duchess
Lamb's
of Newcastle
heroines),
(one of Charles
hear
belongs partly to an earlier period, but we
of her in Charles's
most
reign. Her portraitby
exhibited
at South
Kensington in 1866.
Lely was
of her and
is an
There
Bishop
amusing anecdote
the possibility
work
of
wrote
Wilkins, who
a
on
The
duchess
asked
:
travellingto the moon.
I to find a place for haltingat
Do6lor, where
am
that
the way
to
planet.'^" The
bishop
on
up
of all the people in the world,
Madam,
answered
:
I never
expelled that question from you, who have
(see antey

p.

"

**

built

castles

many

so

she

published

and

to

"

My

prayer
first I

to

whereof
that

in

God

1667, and
In

the duke.

God,

might
Your

lie

may

since
prove

Grace

would

be

husband

dedicated

to

the latter dedication

It hath

Lord,

noble

you

one

duchess

The

the air, that

of your
own."
wrote
a life of her

night at

every

in

always

I have
an

must

been

honest
be the

pleased

to

been
your

and

which
the
she

my

says

hearty

wife, that
good wife,,

onely Judg.
enable

king

me

Next
to

set

JAMES

II.,

m'

J.

RILEV.

SOVEREIGNS

AND

declare

forth

and

loyal

aftions

king's beautiful

the

There

Orleans.

reign

sister

is

II.
a

as

the

at

by Dobson,

old

when

he

several

were

when

taken

National

the

shown

were

some
Charles, hand-

Exhibition, and

Stuart

was

brother

There

he

by

was

portraits
of

one

these,

boy. This
Castle.
The
portrait
from a paintingby Riley
Gallery. Anne
Hyde,

from Windsor
pifturecame
here reproduced is taken
in

of her

but

man,

ugly.

so

of him

of

portraitof her by Pierre


Portrait
Gallery,and five

like his

was,

young

means

no

mention

must

we

Exhibition.

the Tudor

James

of your
of
service

Henrietta, Duchess

Mignard at the National


paintings and five miniatures
at

truth

the

for the

endeavours,

your King and Country."


Before
leavingCharles's

l^^

COURTS

after ages,

to

and

THEIR

Portrait

was

the Lely Beauties,


one
James's firstwife, was
among
wife
and a portraitof his second
Mary of Modena,
Earl
lent by the
of Aberdeen
to
by Lely, was
the Stuart Exhibition.
Another
by Wissing is at
"

the

National

Portrait

Gallery.
Several
portraitsof James's son, the Chevalier
the Hanoverians
St. George, known
as
among
the Pretender, and among
the Jacobites as James
shown

III., were
of

them

was

Stuart

picture by

with

marriage

the

at

the

Princess

Exhibition;

Carlo

Maratti

one

of

his

Clementina

Maria

Sobieska.
The

warming-pan

title of

(which
long been

story

Pretender) has

gave

rise

to

the

exploded, and
doubts
the parentage of Prince James,
nobody now
the testimony of so
but
it is interestingto have
ness
good a judge as Sir Godfrey Kneller, as to his likehis father

to

friend

that

queen's

own

he

had

and
seen

hand,

mother.

Dr.

Wallis

told

originalletters under the


from
the
bricklayer'swife,
N

178

supposed
him

the

in

that

this time

it

all

was

Kneller

that

Oxford

at

was

Pepys
by Samuel
portrait for presentation to
when

present

spoke

once
"

Wallis

Wat

be

woman,

party,
I

wat

His

shall

nor
am

time

and

apiece,

their

by

both, that
be

of, and

Be

got

either

be

I can't

got

specialnote

Kneller
the
he

not
to

sent

much.

so

where

this occurred.

Dr.

There
National

is

one

like

so

face, but
sure

Nay,
Queen

the

sight of

Dr.

the

from

Paris

what

others

says

that

to

the
that

pi6tureof
England,
seemed

at

Aldrich, Dean

Master

of the

three

are

James

this Tm

mistaken.

Head

Hudson,

Gregory,
present.^

of

Hearne

Charlett,

Dr.

there

the

upon

of Wales

Dr.

his

in

be out in your
letters,but
you
may
makes
lines."
be out
in my
Hearne
that
of this in his Diary, and added

doubt

church,

in

his moders,

fullysatisfied

was

is

36

bit

and

child

moder,

or

be

I cannot

said that

Prince

the

feature

fader

fingersare

Do6lor,

was.

is

about

me

paint King

I say

his

be mistaken.

line

every

I could

memory.

got

nails of his

there

belongs

wat

know

and

of

satisfiet wit

am

to

sate

the

to

dinner

of Christ-

lege,
University ColLibrary Keeper, and
of

Savilian

portraitsof

Professors,

William

HI.

were

in the

Portrait
a

"Letters

Court
Gallery,and at Hampton
large and poor piftureof the king land-

by

bat
brick-

not

am

I cannot

wat

have

moder

faces.

just now

in

of

son

ly.

for him,

be

not

of, and

sure

fader

it is

got

te

at

said

and

manner

Wales

Prince

devil, de

de

He

statement.

in his vehement

out

University),and

the

the

made

Wallis

Dr.

paint

to

it clear

happened at
(having been

It

cheat.

there

sent

others

prince's mother, and


made
imposture, which

the

be

to

concerned
to

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

Eminent

Persons,"

181 3, vol.

ii.,pp.

137-8.

QUEEN

MARY

II.,

BY

WILLIAM

WISSING.

l8o

they
a

to

came

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

the

palace, not

see

South

Kensington

her

which

the

great

in

Kensington
duchess

hand,

which

at

South

her

of

he

Court

Anne*s

worthless
tastes.

of

man

is

note

of

Governor

New

in

great

the

who,

York.

the

at

men

it is

not

portraits. Lord
Clarendon,

James
as

of

favour

and

habits

from

of

supplanted

celebrated

The

at

nor

portrait

who

of their

dissolute

1867,

any

numerous,

of the

fell away
William
IIL,

right
spite her

represented

not

very

He

the

her

to

in

there

was

Gallery.

possible here to take


Cornbury, grandson

South

kept.

she

were

borough,
Marl-

shows

in

off

cut

Kensington

and

; it

Spencer
long hair

Marlborough

Portrait

National

her

of

(No. 90),by

of these

she

Exhibition,

Anne,

Queen
at

Earl

by

and

Duchess

the

There

portraitsat

(afterwards Lady) Masham,

Mrs.

Michael

of

Duchess

in four

which

hair

that

Stuart

miniatures

One

supporting

Neither

several

Jennings,

1867.

lent

was

husband,
the

Sarah

exhibited

was

Kneller,

Earl

by
Spencer.

by

with

other

Exhibition.

Stuart

The

lent

was

the

and

of Gloucester,

Duke

paintingsand

two

were

Marlborough,

William,

son.

Dahl,

at

of

Duke

the

by

as

at
portraits of Queen Anne
in 1867, one
by E. Lilly,lent

two

were

showed

sight themselves/'
There

be

to

and
IL

reward,

was

ignoble
and

made

ported
sup-

him

Here

he

1751.

"Letters," vol. ii.,


p.

disgusted the
affronted
public decency by rambling
people and
in the dress of a woman.*'
abroad
He
was
painted
in the possession of the
thus, and this portraitwas
late Lord
Worcester.
co.
Hampton, at Westwood,
was
obliged to recall him from his
Queen Anne
He
succeeded
his father's title as
to
3rd
post.
"

265.

Letter

to

Mann,

August 31st,

QUEEN

ANNE,

BY

JOHN

CLOSTERMAN.

SOVEREIGNS

Earl

of

THEIR

AND

Clarendon

and

1709,

in

l8l

COURTS

in

he

17 14

was

appointed Envoy Extraordinary to Hanover, but


he died in obscurity at Chelsea, March
31st, 1724.
Earl Spencer contributed
to the South
ton
KensingExhibition
of 1867 a portraitby Jervas of
Elizabeth

Churchill,

third

daughter
(No. 160).
**

An

This
in

angers

is

his

lines

two

"

With

the

At

The

are

Zeuxis'

all her forms,

supplies
eyes."

Martha

by Pope

to

which

the

thy Bridgewater vie."

Helen

and

fair-haired

This

taken

exhibition

same

of
portraits
'"

sweetness,

of

Bridgewater's

or

Bridgewater,
Marlborough

probably the pidlurereferred


Epistle to Mr. Jervas,'*from

"

above

of the great Duke

beauty, waking

Thence

of

Countess

was

Theresa

Martha

pi6lurecontaining
Blount
(No. 152).
Teresa

and

brown."

probably painted by Jeryas, and


referred
in
this same
to
by Pope

was

doubtless

is

epistle:
"

We

come

now

period

"

pleasingBlount

Each

of great
men

value

of the

to

it

the

shall endless

period

interest

of the

contents

bestow."

of the four

as

is

Georges

of the

account

on

produced,

smiles

seen

Guelph

from

tinguished
disthe

Exhibition

of

1891.
Kneller
of

most
on

painted George I. and


in
the portrait-painters

much

lower

level

of

George II., but


their reigns were

artistic

attainment.

Little patronage
to be expedled from
was
George
II., who
tempt
slightedHogarth, and expressed his confor
The
Wootton

and

bainting."
rather
pretentiouspidlure by
containing the portraitsof
"

boetry

Eckardt
Sir

and

Robert

82

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

Shorter
(Lady Walpole),
VValpole and Catherine
although in a frame carved by Gibbons, only sold
Hill Sale for "$1
was
at the Strawberry
gs., and
The
bought by the Marquis of Lansdowne.
miniatures
from
taken
by Zincke,
portraitswere
the
and
engraved in the colpifture itself was
Letters/'
lefted edition of Walpole s
of Commons
famous
The
pidlureof the House
in 1730, attributed
to
Hogarth and Thornhill, was
of 1867
lent to the South
Kensington Exhibition
It contains
portraits
by the Earl of Hardwicke.
pole,
Walof the Speaker, Arthur
Onslow, Sir Robert
Sidney Godolphin, the father of the House
**

of

Colonel

Commons,

Richard

and

Onslow,

Sir

James Thornhill, as well as the clerks.


At Hinchingbroke, the Huntingdonshire seat of
the Earls of Sandwich,
there are
interesting
many
their
made
for several of the familyhave
portraits,
mark

world, from

in the

greatly in
known

the

to

Pepys's

"*

us

of Charles

Restoration
all

the

as

earl, who

ist

II., and
*'

Lord

My

**

assisted

of

is

Samuel

Diary."
is

There

the

full-length
portraitby John Liotard
of John, 4th Earl
of Sandwich
(i718-1792) in
Turkish
with a white
turban
and yellow
costume,
borough,
slippers. This earl lived to be painted by Gainsa

and
of the
his

is best

Admiralty

not

very

Wilkes.
the

he

He

in

known

George

creditable
was,

to

us

III.s

condu6l

however,

First

as

reign,and
towards

well

Lord

known

for

John
in

man

of

traordinary
ExGeorge II., and was Ambassador
to the Hague, 1746- 1748, and
Minister
Plenipotentiaryto the Congress of Aix la Chapelle

in

reign

November,

showed

ready wit
Envoys were
his

various

is said

1746.

to

have

given as

On
at

the
a

latter

dinner

invited.
a

toast,

The
**

His

to

occasion

he

which

the

Frenchman

royal master

GEORGE

I.,

BY

SIR

G.

KNELLER.

184

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

Walpole's explanation is
beauties

two

were

not

much

as

when

after

married
they were
when
they were
together.
Their
good fortune was very
had

no

money,

the

stage.

the

Court

It

at

was

said

of the

Elizabeth
the

Duke

Lieutenant

of

to

go on
attended

they
of

Ireland

they
The

Woffington.
Earl
of Coventry,

Peg
the

the

married

They

intended

that when

from

married

elder, Maria,

remarkable.

time

one

Lord-

dresses

borrowed

four

and

for the
satisfa6lory,
thought of and run
and
separated as

Duke

of Hamilton

Argyll, and

was

and

and

wards
after-

the mother

of

dukes.

famous
mal
a
Coventry who made
The
a
propos speech to George II.
king was
conversing with her on the dulness of the town,
for her sake, that there had been
and regretting
no
As
for sights,*'
masquerades during the year.
I am
said the beauty,
quite satisfied with them,
is only one
I am
there
which
and
to
see,
eager
that is a coronation."
George is reported to have
been
blunder,
highly diverted with the awkward
and
repeated it to his family with great good
As a fa6l.Lady Coventry did not herself
humour.
the coronation
live to see
of George III.
It

was

Lady

**

"

The

duchess
to

was

Queen

one

of the

Ladies

Charlotte, whom

of the
she

chamber
Bed-

panied
accom-

England from
Mecklenburg-Strelitz
previous to her marriage with George III.
and
Francis
Cotes
Gavin
Hamilton
painted
of Coventry, and
the
portraits of the Countess
Earl
of
Coventry lent to the Guelph
present
Exhibition
a
pidlure by Hogarth containing portraits
of the 6th earl with his wife, Maria
Gunning.
exhibition
At
the
a
same
was
portrait of the
Duchess
of Hamilton
by Reynolds.
The
portraitsof George III. are very numerous
to

CEORGE

II.,

BY

T.

WORLIDGE.

SOVEREIGNS

and

AND

of very
Vanloo
in

his

Palace

group

is

unequal

THEIR

merit.

childhood,
that

by

COURTS

He

painted by

was

and

85

Buckingham

at

artist of

Princess

the

and
her children
the Princess
Augusta of Wales
Prince
Duchess
of Brunswick,
Augusta, afterwards
Duke
of York,
George, Prince Edward, afterwards
is
A
and
similar picture by Knapton
others.
Portrait
At
the
National
Court.
at
Hampton
Wilson
Gallery is a piftureby Richard
containing
portraitsof the king as Prince of Wales, and of
"

Prince

Edward

as

of York.

Duke

The

admirable

pidlure of the king reviewing the Tenth, for


his knighthood
Beechey obtained
painting which
is at Hampton
Later
in life George HI.
Court.
borough,
was
painted by Allan Ramsay, Reynolds, GainsZoffany, and others.
painted by Allan Ramsay,
Queen Charlotte was
Zoffany, Cotes, and
Reynolds, Gainsborough,
and
HI.
others.
West's
portraits of George
and daughters,
Queen Charlotte, and of their sons
in Queen
Annes
at
Drawing-Room
Hampton
In one
Court, are excellent.
pi6lure the Queen
her
thirteen
children
and
are
depifted. The
of Wales
of
Prince
(George IV.) and the Duke
the Duke
of Clarence
York,
(William IV.) and
the

Duke

of

Kent,

the

Dukes

of

Cumberland,

Cambridge, the Princess Royal, the


Princesses
Charlotte, Augusta Sophia, Elizabeth
in other
and
shown
pidlures in this
Mary, are
Public
now
room.
opinion, which
depreciates
favourable
West, is as unjust as it was
uncritically
to him
during his lifetime.
in his
Guide
Ernest
Mr.
Law,
to
Hampton
Palace
the
Court
following anecdote :
quotes
Sussex,

and

**

"

"

wonder,"

observed

it

was

Duke

of

Sussex

in which
the apartment,
that George II. struck
my

passing through
rooms

the

**

while
of these

father.

86

The

blow

so

disgusted

afterwards

never

it

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

as

could

him

he

be

with

the

induced

place
to

that

think

of

residence."

for
a
glorious one
George III/s reign was
and as Reynolds, Gainsborough,
artistic portraiture,
and
and
Raeburn,
Romney, and later Lawrence,
for parts and
famous
Hoppner painted every one
Britain, it is clearlyimpossible
beauty in Great
than
here to do more
refer in general terms
to the
splendid portraits with which
public and
every
private gallery of any pretence is full.
of 1867
To
the South
Kensington Exhibition
the late Lord
Sherborne
lent a portrait(No. 419)
of the Right Hon.
Henry Bilson Legge, third son
of the
of the

1st

Earl

of Dartmouth,

who

was

Chancellor

George II. s reign,and who


died soon
after George III. came
the throne.
to
The
in the
painter of this picture is not mentioned
catalogue,but it is supposed to have been Hoare
of Bath.
Legge had three fair relatives of the
of these were
married, but
next
generation ; two
the third remained
a
spinster,and the wits called
her
the left Legge."
A
portraitof Legge's nephew, William, 2nd
Earl
of
Battoni, was
Dartmouth,
by Pompeio
exhibition
shown
at the same
(No. 419). Among
torical
Dartmouth
the
Papers,*'published by the Hising
interestManuscripts Commission, are some
letters from
Gainsborough to this earl in 1771.
A
difference
of opinion had
between
his
arisen
lordshipand Gainsborough as to the likeness of a
of Dartmouth
painted by
portraitof the Countess
In the course
of the correspondence
the latter.
make
the artist expressed his readiness
to
any
cussion
disalterations
his lordship might require, and
a
took place concerning the costume
in which
the countess
be
could
portrayed to greatest ad"

"*

Exchequer

in

GEORGE

III.,

BY

ALLAX

RAMSAY.

88

Lamb

in

garden,
the pidlure and
engraved under
"

with
was

'*

Brothers

bought

the

for

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

returned

picture

it

pleased
painter. It
not

was

the

to

Affecflionate

title of** The

the

Earl

Leopold, 5th

Peter

and

the father

but

Sir

from

Cowper,

Joshuas

executors

2^800.

George IV. was


frequentlypainted by Reynolds,
Sir
and
Lawrence,
Hoppner.
Gainsborough,
the
Gardens
Robert
Peel
possessed at Whitehall
head
IV.
of Wales,
of George
when
Prince
by
occasion
at
a
reception
Reynolds, and
on
one
Duke
of Wellington
in Whitehall
Gardens
the
exclaimed:
him."

In

**Ah!

The

old

my

picture

1830 Wilkie

is

in

now

painted

and

master,

in full

the

very

like
lery.
Gal-

National

full-lengthof the king


this picture belongs to

Highland costume
;
exhibited
of
the
Duke
at
Wellington, and was
South
Lawrence
was
largely
Kensington in 1868.
patronised by George IV., and engaged to paint
Waterloo
the
valuable
of portraits in the
series
Castle.
Gallery at Windsor
tunate
There
two
are
portraits of George IV.'s unforwife, Caroline

of Brunswick,

at

the

Gallery, one
by Sir Thomas
and
the other
by James Lonsdale.
is a pidlure of
At
Court
Hampton

National
Lawrence

Portrait

(afterwards William
greatly injured by

Clarence
which

was

in

House

sufficient

le6led

the

1874

give

it

of

Duke

IV.) by Hoppner,
the

fire

repaired

was

idea

some

Carlton

at

of

what

with
the

originallylike.
Vid:orian

several

Consort,

to

success

pi6lure was
At

In

1824.

the

and

Exhibition

there

the

Queen,

portraits
the

members

of

of the

were

the

colPrince

Royal family.

GEORGE

IV.,

BY

SIR

THOMAS

LAWRENCE.

IX.

CHAPTER

PROFESSIONS

THE

**

showing

colle6lion,

of
Walter

(on

Scott

The

learned

and

styled

represented

by

of

two

the

first

there

lately

quite

medical

Sir

proposal

is

Brodie

the

In

has

carried

first

such

as

it is

but

to

talk

some

of
but

peerage,

Lord

and

out,

medical

case

gone

the

to

well

the

prizes,

formerly

was

were

been

men.

peerage

never

was

P.R.S.,

Lister,

Benjamin

have

great

Law,

song,

chancellorships,

lord
that

the

comic

grades,**

are

There

man.

raising
the

black

and

Sir
"

old

an

distinguished

archbishoprics
only

"

in

which,

"three

the

dressed."

Church,

the

professions
"

and

tinguished
dis-

most

Portraits),

Lodges

Medicine

the

how

pencil
moved,

looked,

ancestors

our

the

by

us

peer.

Clergy.

the

that
of

Canterbury

by

who

this

archbishop,

describes

visit

Dillon

and

he

strangely

describes

for

high

his
"his

in
on

portrait

his

of
the

to
"

06lober
this

found
pro-

approved

Holbein,

to

Ditchley

with

and

sent

Evelyn,

begins
of

account

attributed

to

Archbishops

selected

conversation,

Exhibition.

Tudor

1664,

on

Lord

wisdom.**

great

of

fa6l

the

to

Palace

was

virtuous

cunning,

portraits

VIII.

Henry

drawn

Lambeth

at

Warham,

office

been

of authentic

series

William

already

has

Attention

Diary,**
20th,

portrait

as

HISTORICAL

igO
*'

pi6lureof

the

lent

was

Lambeth
Pope." The
portrait
South
of
Kensington Exhibition

the

to

PORTRAITS

1866.

Warham

of

Cranmer,

was

the

to

Tudor

Cranach,

in

successor

whom

three

Exhibition,

one

of

Canterburylent
portraitswere
see

attributed

Frewen

Edward

Mr.

by

the

Lucas

to

attributed

; one

Holbein,

to

the
The

by Jesus College, Cambridge


third anonymous,
by Mr. W. Holman
portraitby G. Fliccius in the National

Gallery is engraved for


Four
portraits of Cardinal
the

Exhibition,

Tudor

of the

and

Hunt.
trait
Por-

this book.
Pole

where

lent

were

shown

was

munificent

the

to

trait
por-

Parker, lent by

Archbishop
Lord
SackCorpus Christi College,Cambridge.
ville lent a portraitof Whitgift to
the Tudor
Exhibition.
Bancroft
the first Archbishop of
was
Canterbury appointed in the reign of James L,
his portraitwas
lent to the South
and
Kensington
Exhibition
of 1866
bridge.
by the University of CamThere

is

Gallery,

Portrait

the

Laud

Archbishop
of

among
Canterbury, but

offended

he
certain
his

to

extent

of

one

the

have

being

very

deficient

the
in

see

ment
judg-

which

the

known.
un-

guished
distin-

held

by changes
after

is

most

who

necessary
He
paid

National

which

those

many

were

of

painter
was

men

also in the

of him

one

to

laxityof

popular
dearly for his unbeen
he
has
aftions, and
demned
severely conby historians, Macaulay going so far as

predecessor.

call him

"

poor

creature,

who

never

did, said^

nary
the ordithan
anything indicatingmore
old woman,"
a
prejudiced
capacity of an
criticism that is more
likelyto injurethe memory
the subje6l of his criticism.
than
of the writer
or

The

wrote

revived

interest

in Laud,

and

the devotion

ta

ARCHBISHOP

CRANMER

BY

G.

FLICCIUS

HISTORICAL

192

other

Many

distinguished bishops might


have
to
notice
only space
we

but

mentioned,

PORTRAITS

be
a

few.
fine

painted

portrait
he

when

attributed

to

of

saintlyCardinal

the

had

the

attained

Holbein,

is

of

age

preserved

Fisher,
St.

at

74, and

John's

lent to the Tudor


College,Cambridge, and it was
Exhibition.
was
Wolsey
painted by Holbein
and others, and
his figure is well known
from
the
familiar
of the most
familiar
is
portraits. One
Christ
that at
Church
The
College, Oxford.
portraitbelonging to the College of Physicians,
foundation
he supported, is a fine one.
whose
of Jewel and
Portraits
Latimer
the
at
are
National
Portrait
Gallery, and
Lely's portraits
of Dr.
Dolben,
Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr.
Richard
Allestry, Provost of Eton, and Dr. John
Fell, Bishop of Oxford
(*'I do not love thee, Dr.
Fell "), in one
picture at Christ Church, Oxford,
At
of great interest.
are
Longleat (Marquis of
Bath's)there is a portraitof Bishop Ken by Lely.
and
Ken
lost his bishopric of Bath
Wells
When
of
his conscientious
account
on
objeftions to
taking the oath, he obtained
refuge at the seat of
his fellow collegianand
life-longfriend, the first
Of this saintlyman
Viscount
Keble
Weymouth.
shall scarcelyfind in all ecclesiastical
We
wrote,
history a greener
spot than the latter years of this
and
affe6lionate
pastor, persecuted
courageous
from
his
alternately by both parties,and driven
in his declining age,
station
yet singing on with
"

cheerfulness

unabated
Dr.
was
as

an

White
man

Kennet,

of mark

author, but

by
Kensington

was

lent

to

the

in
he

Rev.

Exhibition

the

last."

Bishop of
his day, both

Peterborough
politicsand
had
enemies.
His
portrait
Emilius
Bayley to the South
of

1867.

in

ARCHBISHOP

COPY

LAUD.

BY

HKNRY

OF

VANDYCK'S
STONE.

PORTRAIT

THE

Early

PROFESSIONS

93

the

eighteenth century Dr. Waltort,


Re6lor of Whitechapel, created a great scatidal by
of the Last
setting up an altar-piece
Supper in
he had
which
the painter to
caused
represent
then
White
Dean
of Peterborough, as
Kennet,
It is said that Walton's
first intention
Judas Iscariot.
have
in the
to
was
put Bishop Burnet
pifture,but the painter,fearingthe Consequences,
in

declined, and
flocked

the

to

the

to

church

the wife

his

drawn

the
of

for

wig

its

Chancellor, alludes

Lord

Dr.

"

Do6lor
the

upon

Dean

Kennet,

of

borough,
Peter-

altar-piece
paintedand set up
Dr.
Kennet's
pi6lure was

Judas Iscariot, and


the

of

an

where

church

had

sure,

got

pi6lureuntil the
removal.
Lady

correspondence : Dn
suspe6led to be a Jesuit,

was

had

the

see

Crowds

in her

quarrelwith

upon

to

of the

who
.

substituted.

was

ordered

circumstance

Walton

in

dean

London

of

Bishop
Cowper,

the

make

to

it the

more

great black

patch put under


is a portrait
There

forehead."
III.'s favourite

George

bishops,Richard
Hurd, of Worcester, by Gainsborough, at Hampton
Court, but it is not a strikingpifture.
Several portraitsof the bishops of the Viftorian
Blon)fieldof London,
era, as
Philpottsof Exeter,
one

.Wilberforce

of

Oxford,

and

afterwards

of

Selwyn of Lichfidd, and many others


greatly influenced the history of the

have

century,

to

were

be

the

at

seen

chester,
Winwho
teenth
nine-

Viftorian

Exhibition.
It would
the

grades

have

been

be
of

impossible here
the clergy and

famous, and

of who^

to

go

mention
we

through

all

thpse who

wish
naturfilly

good portraits
; l?uttwo
great Deanai of St.
-P^ml's must, not be passed by unnoticed: o John
to

see

Colet,' the

friend

of

Budaeus

and

Erasmus,

and
,

Tiimself

brie

of

the

shining-^hts
o*'

among

th^

HISTORICAL

194

PORTRAITS

for the revival

labourers

portrait is

No
his

Colet, and

His

University Library, Cambridge.


well
of
was
a
worthy successor
lent to the Tudor
hibition
Exportraitwas
School, of which

Westminster

by

membered
re-

the

at

Alexander

be

ever

of St. Paul's School.

the founder

as

learning,will

of

In this connexion

he

was

passing notice
be taken
of three great head
masters
must
Lily,
William
Lily,the first master
Busby, and Arnold.
head

master.

"

of St.
the

Paul's

School, will
of

author

have

to

appear

as

mended
Evelyn recombut he does
to get his portrait,
successful
been
in obtaining

Lily'sGrammar.

Clarendon
not

remembered

be

ever

one.

Richard

Dr.

that
time

sixteen

had

Busby,

lived, who

ever

of

out

whole

the

portrait,but

by him,
fortunatelywe

likenesses

him

which

of these

is the

the

chief

of

John Riley,which

is

taken

at

one

bishops

sit for his

not

have

fine

of

bench

would

were

charafteristic
after death

portraitattributed

of the

one

that

boasted

educated

been

masters
greatest school-

of the

one

chief

to

of

ornaments

The
face
grand hall of Christ Church, Oxford.
in the background is supposed to be that of the
Rev.
in his time
Philip Henry, who was
Busby's
favourite pupil,and who
ally
always spoke enthusiasticLord
of his obligationsto his master,
The
the

"

it

recompense

but

thousandfold

into

his

bosom,"

this is doubtful.

At

the

Viftorian

Exhibition

of the

R.A.,
by J. Phillips,

Rugby,

which

lent

was

by

Mrs.

shown

was

great

Arnold

Frances

portrait
of

Arnold.

of
with the portraits
uncertaintyconne6led
John Knox
Carlyle material for the compilation
gave
of an
This
interestingessay.
inquiry illusThe

'

"The

("The

Portraits

Early Kings

of
of

John

Knox."

By

Norway," etc., 1875).

Thomas

Ciurlyle

ARCHBISHOP

TILLOTSOX,

BY

MARY

BEALE.

,196

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

plicationoccurred.

Beza's

Goulart's

added

Kno^

was

Knox
a

as

but
given,
portraitof Beza.
was

House
was
Torphichen portraitat Calder
of
South
exhibited
at the
Kensington Exhibition
1866.
Carlyle liked this as little as the Beza
which
he supposed it to be copied,
from
portrait,
in it as a
described
it as
and
having no worth
the
considered
portrait at the
painting," He
Glasgow University,and that by De Vos in the
of Edinburgh, to be of
possessionof Miss Knox
Palace he altogether
Hamilton
value.
That
at
no
repudiated,supposing it to be a portraitof the professed
of the family. The
portrait
Merry Andrew
in the National Portrait Gallery was
presented by
in 1859, but Carlyle does
of Buccleuch
the Duke
The

**

refer

not

to

this.

ward
Knight has the credit of bringing forthe only satisfa6lory
portraitof Knox, known
the Somerville
as
graving
portrait. He published an enit in a colle6lion of portraitsfor the
from
Society for diffusingUseful Knowledge in 1836,
Pi6lorial History" of England in
apd again in the
Charles

**

On

1849.

the

the death
after

peerage,

iecame

extin6l, and

of the

four
this

last Baron

centuries

Somerville

of

existence,

pi6lure came
Mrs.
Ralph

into

the

Smyth, of
-possessionof the Hon.
Tradition
Gaybrook, MuUingar, Ireland.
rieports
4hat it was
brought into the family by James, ijtk
Xx"rd

Somerville,

who

is mentioned

in

BosweU's

''"Life of Johnson."

pi6lure is roughly executed, and is probearlier, and perhaps


not
i^blya copy niade, certainly
laier,than Kneller's time.
The

c.

There

is

on

this

-was

dire"ft evidence

in favour

of

the

Carlyle consulted Sir J.JEv


the point, that artist suggested fiiat
an
Originalportraitby Frattcfecopy frOm

likeness, but
sBoehm

no

when

"

LORD

CHANCELLOR

BACON,

BY

P.

VAN

SOMER.

THE

Pourbus, ^nd

his

corroborate

to

for all the

portraitsby

Pourbus

\vith.

In

this

he

Royal

Society

Buchanan

search

meet

Carlyle visited the


small
portrait of

the

which

House,

Burlington

97

opinion he sought
that he could

and

study

to

at

PROFESSIONS

was

painted by Pourbus.
In closingthis notice of the clergymention
may
made
of
of
such
l?e
portraits
distinguishedpreachers
as
Wesley and Whitefield, which will be found in
the National
Portrait Gallery.
'

Law.
chancellors

Early

churchmen,

wer^

and
Sir Thomas
officials,
lawyer to hpld the office who

More

most

a6l

as

judge

but

were

as

the first

was

to

competent

was

after hini several

bishops*were

again chancellors.
beautiful

Thq

portrait of

which
has

belongs
been

those

and

real
which

portraitswhich

help

succeeded

you

to

known,

exhibited.

times

you

feel

It is
to

understand

Holbein,

by

is well

Huth,

to. Mr.

several

More

be

the

as

it
of

one

likenesses,
More

man.

Sir Thomas

Audley (afterwards:
Lord
Audley),part founder of Magdalene Colleger
Cambridge, where will be found a portraitof him,:
Sir Nicholas
Bacon
was
only Lord Keeper, aiid
attained
cellor.
Chanto the higher office of Lord
oever
A portraitof him
lent to the Tudor
was
Exhibition by Corpus Christi College,Cambridge.

was

He

his

fat in his

grew
seat

three

by

later years, and when


the bench
he was
in the habit

on

taps with

^le had

his staff

recovered

proceed.
i:night

his
On

one

on

the

breath
occasion

floor

as

and

that

Queen

he
of

took

giving

sign that
business

Elizabeth,

Sir Nicholas's
soul lodges well," and
remarked,
esf^oother^ when she visited him at Gorhambury,
she remarked
that the house was
littlefor him;
too
"

198

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

but
quickly rejoined, No, madam,
you
There
made
house.'*
is a
have
too big for my
me
Portrait Gallery.
portraitof Bacon in the National
Sir Thomas
Bacon, and a
Bromley succeeded
Exhibition
lent to the Tudor
portraitof him was
in 1890 by Mr. G. E. Martin.
little
Sir Christopher Hatton, who
knew
very
of law, was
in Chancery,
helped by a Master
with him on
who
the bench.
His portraitby
sat
but

he

**

Cornelius
the

by

Ketel

Earl

lent

was

and

Viscount

the

attendants

his court,
him
"Lord

at

him

the

before

earldom

The

Exhibition

Tudor

Egerton, afterwards
not
Brackley, was

styled
promised to create
died

the

of Winchilsea.

Sir Thomas

he

to

and

the

of

by

wits

of

some

of Westminster

James

I.

Bridgewater, but

could

conferred

was

liked

Breaklaw."

Earl

patent

Ellesmere

Lord

be

upon

made

out.

son.

His

his

portraitis at St. John's College, Cambridge, and


another
belongs to Earl Brownlow.
Bacon
Lord
Chancellor
was
so
many-sided a
man

that

he

may

be

mentioned

here

or

amongst

There
literarymen.
in
portraitsof him ; one
are
by Van Somer
many
Portrait Gallery,and another
the National
by the
artist at the Royal Society.
same
We
generallyexpe6l a good portraitto give us
scientific

an

idea

men

of the

or

amongst

chara6ler

of the

man,

but

few

could

expe6l to find the features of the odious judge,


in the pleasing pi6lureby
George, Lord Jeffreys,
is
Portrait Gallery,which
in the National
Kneller
The
portraitwas painted
engraved for this book.
Sir George Jeffreyswas
when
thirtyyears of age,
of London.
and had just been appointed Recorder
became
It is possible that his appearance
more
repulsiveas he grew older, for we are told of the
horror

of his frown.

LORD

CHANXKLLOR

JEFFREYS,

P.Y

SIR

O.

KNELLER.

HISTORICAL

200

PORTRAITS

Portrait

Gallery. Portraits
Brougham, Chelmsford, and
Vi6lorian

the

at

There

are

Cairns,
1891-2.

Exhibition,

Lyndhurst,
shown

were

distinguishedlawyers and

other

many

Lords

of

here, but space


judges who should be mentioned
Chief
will only allow of reference
Lord
to three.
portrait here reproduced is in the
JusticeCoke's
National
is a fine porPortrait
Gallery. There
trait
in the
of Sir Samuel
Romilly by Lawrence
National
Gallery is a
Gallery,and at the Bodleian
Blackstone
by Tilly Kettle.
portraitof Sir William
Portrait
Another
by Reynolds is in the National
Gallery.
Medicine.
The

College of Physicians have a fine coUeftion


of the portraits of great physicians,and
the
at
brated
College of Surgeons are some
portraits of celesurgeons.
is the first great
Linacre
he
both
served
Henry VI

English physician,and
L
and
Henry VHL

His

Castle, and

portraitis
the

to

The

South

portrait at

Kensington
the College

Dr.

Munk,

Miller,

the

to

William

Windsor

at

artist of considerable

it

Exhibition
of

of

1866.

cording
Physicians is,ac-

made

copy

lent

was

College bedel,
merit, from

an

in
an

18

by

10

amateur

originalpicture

in

Kensington Palace.
Another
physician to Henry
to

have

William

been

man

Butts, whose
in

of

mark
name

who

VHL;
in

seems

day, was

Sir

is immortalized

by

his

the

He
VHL"
play of "Henry
the friend of Wokey,
Cranmer, and Latimer,
was
and a patron of Cheke
and
Thirlby. His portrait
by Holbein was lent to the South Kensington
Exhibition
of 1866
Pole
H.
Carew,
by Mr. W.

appearing

and

his altar

tomb, which

was

erected in Fulham
^

^LORD

CHANCELLOR

THURLOW,

BY

T.

PHILLIPF.

'

THE

Church,

surmounted

was

201

PROFESSIONS

with

his

effigyin brass,

troduced
portraitof Dn Butts is inVIII.
into the large pifture of Henry
pany,
granting the charter to the Barber Surgeons Comstillin the possession of the company,
a pi6lure
is supposed to
have
which
been
commenced
by
Holbein
and finished by a later and inferior hand.
John Chambre, M.D., the first in order of the six
mentioned
in the letters patent
physiciansspecially
for the foundation
of the Royal
of Henry VIII.
into the
College of Physicians is also introduced
pifture. A portrait of Lady Butts (Margaret
a
gentlewoman in the service of
Bacon), who was
the Princess
Mary (afterwardsqueen),by Holbein,
clad

in

was

shown

The

armour.

The

importance
I. and

circulation
him

Exhibition.

Tudor

English physician of commanding


William
was
Harvey, physician to

next

James

the

at

Charles

I.,and

blood.

of the

the

There

discoverer
is

painting of

Jesus College, Cambridge,

at

of the

at

one

the

Physicians,attributed to Jansen, and


another
at the Royal Society by J. de Reyn
; but
has the best pedigree,tracingit
which
the portrait
brother, is at the University
to
Harvey's second
and
was
College, London,
painted by Mirevelt.
of Harvey
Sir Theodore
A
was
contemporary
Turquet 4^ Mayerne, who, on the death of Henry
he was
IV. of France, to whom
physician,came
to
England, and was
physician successivelyto
College

James
chemist

of

as

countryman,
prepare

I., and

I.,Charles
well

as

II.

physician,and

Jean Petitot,

colours

Charles

for his

the

enamel

miniatures.

He

was

helped

his

painter, to
There

great deal of the quack in his charad;er, and

was

he

was

There
is a por^ait of him
greatlyesteemed.
where
is also one
of
at the College of Pliysicians,
the great 'niomasSydenham;! MJ).; "the English
not

202

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

Of Sir Edmund
Hippocrates," by Mary Beale.
King, M.D., physician to Charles II., whose portrait
is in the dining-room of the college,an
teresting
inanecdote
Headed
with

Cane":
last

his

where

he

*'

is told

in

MacmichaeFs

When

the

king

illness,it

in

was

Gold

first seized

was

his

"

bedchamber^

fit,so
surprised by an apople"5lic
that if by God's providence Dr. King had not been
accidentallypresent to let him blood (having his
lancet in his pocket) His
Majesty had certainly
of
died
that moment;
which
been
might have
direful consequence,
there being nobody with the
It was
this doftor
and one
sidered
conmore.
king save
tion,
of extraordinary dexterity,resolua mark
was

and

blood

in the

coming
have

been

do6lor

let him

to

which
physicians,

staying the
regularlyshould

for

it

very

of other

in the

of mind

presence

done,

without

paroxysm,
and

of which

want

first thought that he would

at

was

regular pardon.
The
Council,
however,
Privy
approved of
what
he had
him
ordered
done, and
;^i,ooo
him."
the
which, by
never
paid
bye, was
There
is a portraitof John Radcliffe, M.D., by
Kneller
the college,and
the Radcliffe
at
at
one
shown
the South
at
was
Library, Oxford, which
also
of 1867, where
was
Kensington Exhibition
Mead, M.D., by Michael
portrait of Richard
a
require

"

Dahl.

Zoffany painted several pi6luresof medical men^


Hunter
le6luringin
particularlyof Dr. William
with
of the
the life school
a
Royal Academy
living model, and the pi6lureof a musical party
which
the Thames,
on
represents the family of
William
Sharp the eminent surgeon, who declined
a
baronetcy offered him by George III. for hissuccessful

Both

of

attendance

on

thesQ.pidures were

the

Princess

shown

at

Amelia^

the^Sotrtb

SIR

EDWARD

CORK,

BV

CORNKLIS

JANSSKN

VAN

CEULEN.

historical

?04

ppi^trai'^s

The

Navy.

professions naturallyfollow
the sailors
the fightingprofessions,
of these
and
in respeft to
have
much
the best of the soldiers
exhibited
portraits. As already noted, there is
no
galleryof the latter such as the Naval Gallery
at Greenwich
Hospital.
Sir John Wallop, K.G-,
A portrait of Admiral
lent by the Earl of Portsmouth
to
by Holbein, was
of 1866.
the South
Wallop
Kensington Museum
made
of Calais, and
Governor
was
a
Knight of
served
his king all his
the Garter
He
in 1543.
"lief tnilyand faithfully,"
and "spent the revenues
lands in that service."
and prbfyttsof his owne
of Effingham (afterHoward
Charles, 2nd Lord
wards
Earl of Nottingham), Lord
High Admiral,
stands
arid vanquisher of the Spanish Armada,
His
in historyas one
of our
out
greatest sailors.
lent by the Lords
of the Admiralty
portrait was
of 1866.
the South
to
Kensington Exhibition
Sir Martin
Frobisher, the great navigator,was
the day after the third
knighted by Lord Howard
His
1588.
portraitis
sea-fightwith the Armada,
Dulwich
at
College, and another, by Cornelius
Ketel, in the Bodleian
Gallery,Oxford.
Sir
There
is a pifture of Sir John Hawkins,
:

After

learned

the

'

Francis

which
at

is

Newbattle
Admiral

was

1866

When

lent

by

from

copy

Ca^vendish
the

wich,
Green-

originalby Mytens

Blake's

the

Mr.

portraitby Harineman
Kensington Exhibition

South

Fountaine;

Andrew

is at Wadham
anonymous,
Blake
first went
to

as

at

Abbey.

eclipsed that
land

Robert
to

Thomas

and

Drake,

which

General

he. jhad.

Blake.

of

anoUiei: portrait,

College,,Oxford.
sea

his

fame

soon

previouslygained

ba

WILLIAM

HARVEY,

M.D.

THE

205

PROFESSIONS

The

Greenwich
the

are

those

portraitsat

tion,
of the Restora-

of the admirals

are
by Lely, which
They
Flagmen."

"

of

interesting series

most

referred

by Pepys as
painted for James,

were

to

portraitsof the
of Albemarle, Sir Thomas
Duke
Allin, Sir George
Berkeley, Sir John Harman"
Ayscue, Sir William
Sir Joseph Jordan, Sir Christopher Myngs, Sir
wich,
William
Penn, Prince
Rupert, the Earl of SandSir Thomas
TeddiSir Jeremy Smith, and
All
the exception of Prince
these, with
man.
Windsor
Castle
from
and
taken
Rupert, were
A
of a
presented by George IV. in 1824.
copy
Rupert, by Lely,
full-lengthportrait of Prince
IV. in 1835.
was
presented by William
At
Hampton Court there is a portraitby Lely
of Sir John Lawson,
included
who
not
was
among
of York.
the admirals
painted for the Duke
several portraitsof the Earl of SandThere
wich
are
there
is
by Lely at Hinchingbroke, where
also one
by Feliziano, painted during his embassy
told by Creed
in Spain. Pepys was
on
September
lord' wears
beard
a
27th, 1667, that "'my
now,
he iji
in the Spanish manner,"
and
turned
so
up
traordinary
Exin this portrait. When
shown
Ambassador
of

Duke

York,

at

from

the

herself

Chades
Sebastian

Lord
A
tures

Mother

Sandwich

"

the

son

Court

These

Herrera.

received

full-lengthportraitsof
(the widow s weejds *"

religioushabit
Spain), and of her
I., painted by the
de

of

Lord

are

child

King

painter. Doit
at

'Hinching^

Varider
pi(5lureby W.
of the Battle of Southwold
Bay, in whicli
Sandwich
perished.May 28th, 1672.
case
hangs near this pi6lurecontaining minia:
wich,
by Cooper, of Edward, ^ist Earl of Sandhisu wife] -also a
and
Jemima
fragment of

broke, where
Velde

consist

Madrid,

Queen

in
in

worn

and

is also

206

HISTORICAL

of the

ribbon

which

of

both

There

portraitof

Michael

by

washed

National

the

watch,

of

body

Lord

Sandwich

at

Hampton

Portrait

the famous

Sir
from

Gallery.
Cloudesley Shovel
Court, is
Hampton

Gallery at Greenwich.
Captain William
Dampier,

Painted

portraitof
in the

served

and

ashore.

Dahl, taken

in the

now

Garter

on

of
portraits

in the

and

Court

found

were

also

are

of the

Order

when

Sandwich

PORTRAITS

Dutch

War,

but

is better

who

known

as

navigator than as a fightingsailor,by Thomas


but
Murray, was
formerly in the British Museum,
Portrait Gallery.
is now
deposited in the National
Selkirk
rescued
Alexander
It was
Dampier who
the Island of Juan Fernandez.
from

Admiral

Edward

Russell, Earl

Orford,

of

the

Hogue, 1692, was


painted by Kneller,
portraitis at Hampton Court.

vi(5lor of La
the

and

Admiral

Edward

Vernon,

the hero

of Portobello,

who
Gainsborough.
Philip Thicknesse,
"I
visited Ipswich in 1758, wrote:
immediately
visited Mr. Gainsborough.
He
received
me
in which
stood several porin his paintingroom,
traits,
trulydrawn, perfedllylike,but stiffly
painted
coloured.
and
them
the late
worse
was
Among
to

sat

Admiral

had

he

after

One

only."
National

by

Mr.

for

Vernon's,

B.

taken

it

Porto

not

was

Bello

years

many

with

six

ships

of

Gainsborough's portraitsis in the


Portrait
lent
Gallery, and another
was
B. Hunter
Rodwell, Q.C., to the Guelph

Exhibition.
A

considerable

number

of

portraitsof

: several
painted by Bockman
at Hampton
Court, as Lord
Anson,
are
Sir John Jennings, etc.
John Benbow,

heroes

were

named,

pital and

who

was

Ranger

Governor
of

of

Greenwich

Greenwich

Park,

naval

of these
Admiral
The

was

last

H09.al$9

JOHN

HUNTER,

AFTER

REYNOLDS,

BY

JOHN

JACKSON,

R.A.

208

kny officer in the service

than

extent

There

of the navy."
of

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

him

he

when

is

amusing story

an

quite a

was

of the affection

young

told

which,

man,

although well known, will bear repetition. At the


to the
a mission
age of twenty-four he undertook
Dey of Algiers,who, disgusted at his youth, said,
in sendI wonder
ing
at the English king'sinsolence
such
foolish, beardless
boy." Keppels
me
a
the point if scarcelydiplomatic:
to
answer
was
Had
to be measured
master
supposed wisdom
my
by length of beard he would have sent a he-goat."
an
early patron of Reynolds, and
Keppel was
when
he was
appointed in 1 749 to the command
of the Mediterranean
Squadron he took the painter
unfortunate
him.
with
In 1778 an
quarrel with
Sir Hugh
his second
in command.
Palliser,respecting
"

**

result of

the

in

fleet, ended

an

with

engagement

court-martial.

French

the

Keppel

was

quitted,
ac-

gratitude for the exertions of his


Honest
counsel,
Jack Lee," John Dunning (afterwards
Lord
Erskine
Ashburton), and Thomas
(afterwards Lord Chancellor),he sat to Reynolds
for a tliree-quarter
length portrait, and had four
of it painted. Three
went
to the three
repetitions
in

and

"

the

counsel, and
for

portrait

other

assure

possess the
and
me,
y^ry

alone, and

stands
to

to

had

takes

me

I intend

on

asked

excellent
Burke

sir, that though I


highly honoured by
all accounte,

that it ^hall

so

youns

continue,

impression I have reqfeived :of thiis


of your
mark
friendship." This
flattiering
whilst Butke
preserved at Beaconsfield
wa3
the

mark

most

dear

Lee

Reynolds instead.

dear
you, my
portraitsof friends

"

"who

Dance,

by

likenesses,"but he got
wrote,

Burke.

to

copy

lived.
Lee's

His
own

widow

left

portrait was

1786, and. since that time

it

to

Earl; Fitzwitliam.

painted by Rej^oWs i"


the porfer^itsjof
Keppel

NELSON,

BY

L. F. ABBOTT.

THE

209

the
hung side by side. When
F. B.
Hon.
Massey Mainwaring lent the two
the condition
portraitsto the Guelph Exhibition
that they should not be separated. Dunning's
was
is in the National
Portrait
Gallery. The
copy
in the National
Gallerywas one of Sir Robert
copy
Erskine's.
have
Peel's
been
pi6lures,and may
The
originalbelongs to the Earl of Albemarle.
The
Corporation of the City of London
possess
Admiral
of
Sir
W.
Jervis,
a
Beechey
portraitby
and

himself

PROFESSIONS

took

who

have

the title of his earldom


the

vi6loryover

his famous

from

Spanish fleet off Cape

St.

Vincent,

1797The

of

number

Nelson, is

sailor,Horatio
is sufficient
National

to

were

Lord

that

note

to

great

there

describe, it

three

are

in

the

Gallery. Portraits by J. F.
Guzzaldi
belong to Earl Nelson,
portraitis at St. James's Palace.

L.
s

there
189 1-2
as for instance
portraitsof several great sailors,
the

Vi6lorian

and

Lyons

Exhibition

Sir Charles
The

It

too

Portrait

Rigaud and
and Hoppner
At

portraitsof England's greatest

not

was

until

in

J. Napier.

Army.

century that the distinction


settled.
admirals was
finally

the

of

end

the

seventeenth

generals and

between
Previous

to

that time

generals at sea as well as on land, and


Albemarle
and Rupert took charge of fleets in the
manoeuvring of which they had little experience.
Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby of Eresby,

there

was

her

were

the

son

second

husband,
himself

at

of Suffolk, and

Duchess

of Katherine,

Robert
Battle

the

Bertie.
of

He

Zutphen,

tinguished
diswhen

Philip Sidney received his death-wound, and


that distinguishedsoldier as Governor
succeeded
of Bergen op Zoom.
Lord
Willoughby's career
Sir

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

210

him
believe
to
we
distinguished,and
may
have been popular,as the ballad-makers
styledhim
Lord
brave
the
good Lord Willobie," and the
last lines of the first stanza
Willoughbey." The
Lord
Brave
of the ballad of
run
:
Willoughbey

was

"

**

"

"

**

But

bravest

the
brave

Was

Willoughbey."

lent to
portrait was
(1890) by the present Earl

the

His

was

Vaughan,

Governor

but

words

for you
doe
withe

Lord
to

the

them

swete

Lord-

and

been

the work

was

inscribed

that
realme

ofte

and

wache

times

suche

and

deserve

to

Sandwich

lent

looking

of

exhibition
Robert

Essex,

lent

was

the

shows

of

wax

him

to

and
^

the

and

artist.

to

Dobson

been

that
the

of

of

Monk

of
appearance
figurein Westminster
have

Earl

another

have

We

General

marle,
of Albe-

Duke

the

figure.
We
generallysuppose
Roundheads

portraitof

Walker,

same

judging

at

portraitof Monk,

the

by
of

parliamentary general,

the

3rd Earl

same

by

which

Harry

of 1866
Kensington Exhibition
by the
The
Earl of Hardwicke
John Thynne.

Lambert

means

of

Devereux,

South

lent

frame

prince and

bludy

portrait

Robert

Rev.

1866

MDCXI."

gayne.
The

the

the

On

their

have

to

Remember

"

waite
as

of

reign of Elizabeth,
Vaughan. The picturewas

it appears

Gerrard.

Mark

these

Castle

of Brecknock

Frances

by Lady

anonymous,

of

Lord

Ancaster, then

of

of Breconshire, in the

Lieutenant
lent

Exhibition

Tudor

Eresby.
South
Kensington Exhibition
excellent
an
portraitof General

the

there

de

Willoughby
At

in battel

man

Lord

by
Abbey,

short

Walker

stout

painted the
Royalists,but there

**

Book
Percy's Reliques,"Series ii.,

2.

GEORGE

MONCK,

DUKE

OF

ALBEMARLE,

BY

SIR

P.

LELY.

THE

exceptions

were

Walker

sent

to

PROFESSIONS

this

to

South

211

rule, for

G.

Mr.

Kensington

J. A.
portrait of

Cornet

and
in the
National
Joyce by Dobson,
Portrait
Lord
Fairfax,
Gallery is one of Thomas,
with his wife, which
was
painted by this artist.
There
three or four portraits
of the great Duke
are
of Marlborough in the National
Portrait Gallery,
one
painted at an early age by Jan Wyck, another
others
by John Closterman, and two
by Kneller.
One
of these is a sketch
in oil for an
equestrian
surrounded
by allegoricalfigures. The
portrait,
pictureof which this is a sketch belongs to the
jEarl of Chichester, and
lent to the Guelph
was
Exhibition.
Earl
a
portrait by
Spencer has
Vanloo.
The
of
Duke
Marlborough
present
other portraits,
has, among
one
by Kneller, where
the duke
is seated
at a
table, and General
John
Armstrong is showing him the plan of the siege of

Bouchain.
Admiral

Warde

lent

the

South

Kensington
Exhibition
of 1868
a
James
portrait of General
Wolfe, the hero of Quebec, by Benjamin West.
The
Duke
of Sutherland
a portraitof
possesses
served
John, I St Earl
through
Ligonier, who
Marlborough's campaigns with distinction, and
and commanderwas
subsequently a field-marshal
in-chief; it was
painted by Reynolds.
One
of Reynolds's finest portraits is that of
of
Heathfield, the defender
George Eliot, Lord
Gibraltar, in the National
Gallery; he is seen with
the key of the fortress firmlygrasped in his hand,
and
almost
Constable
said the picture was
a
Mr. Ruskin,
historyof the defence of Gibraltar."
however, refers to the picture as
nothing more
than
an
English gentleman in an obstinate state
of mind
I
about
keys, with an expression which
conceive
csLti
so
exceedingly stout a gentleman of
to

"

**

"

HISTORICAL

212

that

the

ing

occasionally

as

age

Shafto

R.

of

of

Colonel

his

connection

by

Gainsborough,

St

The
Lawrence

had

larger

than

it

than
it

is, and

when
At

many

Havelock,

at

the
of

you

will
will

weak

is

story
the

portrait
told.

arrange

my

the

prevented

head

no

gown

my

head

arrange

Wellington
paint

The

duke's
to

the

In

as

larger
I

wear

Oxford."
Victorian

the

when

portrait,

shown.

was

by

portrait-painters.

proceeding

was

You

painted

was

rather

is
which

artistically,
"

Court.

drawing

life, and

saying,

by

there

commenced

painted

Lawrence's

Peel,

Robert

from

soldier,

other

Exhibition

Sir

more

gown

as

Wellington

many

respecting

artist

him

by

Gallery

Lucas,

than

portrgiit

known

better

Hampton

at

of

Duke

for

Bodleian

by

is

fine

The

is

racing

Vi6lorian

painted

who

unfortunate

the

of

Reynolds.

Leger,

ton
Kensing-

South

the

to

portrait

by

and

the

At

lent

1867

with

great

respe6l-

even

on,

cellaret."

Ancir6

John

putting

Adair

Exhibition

Major

the

of

keys

Sir

PORTRAITS

great
Lord

Exhibition

generals
Clyde,

portraits

were

of

Gordon,

this

era,
etc.

as

of

Napier,.

WELLINGTON,

BY

COUNT

ORSAY.

CHAPTER

SCIENCE,

"

In

every

inclination

the

The

of

engravers
with

aspedl

excellence

of

his

Granger's

"

The

containing

as

scientific

men,

gradually

increased

the

scientific

before

the

exception
as

T.

Isaac

of

of

these

Bacon,

Thomas

(a pi6lure
and

the

Sir

Viscount

Galway.

Foxe,

to

and

College,
him

his

Kratzer

Oxford,
astronomer,

with
made
in

an

7.

and

was

Henry
he

of

portrait
lent

to

Corpus

became

by

tens.

I.

by
who

German,

VH

by

Francis

My

introduction
of

quaries,
anti-

society

was

the

of

D.

by

which

Fellow

with

by

was

Holbein,

by

England
was

Spelman

Exhibition

Kratzer

the

to

are

Arundel,

Buchanan

George

Tudor

of

of

flourished

mostly

Earl

being

There

who

were

of

portraits

day.

presented

Henry

is

society, but,

Howard,

stands

portraits

of

men

the

known

writings."

his

interest

addition

celebrated

the

Society
of

present

of

Nicholas

came

the

Newton),

Pourbus,
At

of

Royal

the

by

and

(Preface).

of England

great

foundation

Murray

Sir

its

temporaries
con-

acquainted

to

of

coUeftion

fine

were

be

to

admiration

th6

the

of

men

desire

vailed.
pre-

statuaries,

painters,
the

History

and

portraits

some

arid

Biographical

gallery

uniformly

risen, in proportion

ever

chara"5ler,

portrait

alone

has

has

the

even

historians,

and

and

learning,

and

posterity,

orators,

medals

and

arts

memory,

celebrated

most

and

gems

man's

poets,

the

the
to

persons

greatest
with

for

distinguished

transmitting

of

illustrious

of

features

nation

ART.

AND

LITERATURE,

and

age

X.

Bishop
Christi

appointed

lefturer

on

HISTORICAL

214

of Cardinal

influence

Kratzer

portraitof
Albert

alludes

he
the

took
who

resides

very

useful

beseech

can

It

in his

with
to

me."

in 1520,

to

Antwerp

"

the astronomer,

England

never

he

was

mastered

the

when

the

adopted country, and


that happened,
how
highness to pardon

him

and

your
learn in

he

replied:

me

what

"

only thirtyyears ?
long before a king of England appointed

man
was

official astronomer,
and
that the Rev. John Flamsteed
the

of

Kratzer

an

at

In

Nicolas

similar

Louvre,

him

**

King

is

in the

drawing of
Diary" :

Master
the

his

language of
king asked
**

the

through

There

Holbein

by

portraitof

Oxford

at

Wolsey.

made

Dlirer

which

mathematics

and

astronomy

PORTRAITS

it

until

not

was

took

1676

his residence

up

newly-established Royal Observatory

Greenwich

**

as

Astronomical

observator."

at

His

Flamsteed
painted by T. Gibson.
portraitwas
but to his successor
as
quarrelledwith Newton,
Edmund
Astronomer
we
Halley
Royal
owe
the publication of the
Principia." Halley led a
to
strangelydiversified life,for at twenty he went
"

"

**

St.
for

Helena
two

and

astronomical

made

In

years.

Royal Society, an

1687 ^^

observations

became

office which

he

clerk

held

to

the

for thirteen

in 1713 he was
elected secretary.
He
Flamsteed
in 1719, and
wich
died at GreenAt one
time of his life he was
in
1742.

years, and
succeeded
in

of

command
voyage,

so

king's ship, and

that

"Captain Halley,

by

Michael

Dahl

he

was

R.N."
and

also

made

entitled

scientific
be

styled
His portrait
was
painted
by Xhomas
Murray.
was
appointed Savilian
to

Bradley, D.D.,
of Astronomy
Professor
in 1721, and
he succeeded
His portrait
Royal in 1 742.
Halley as Astronomer
was
painted by Jonathan Richardson.
led to the study of
Nevil
Maskelyne, D.D., was
James

SCIENCE,

astronomy

Bradley,

by

of

reason

he

and

AND

LITERATURE,

his

ART

acquaintance

2l5
with

Royal in
His
1765.
portrait,painted by Vanderburgh, is
the Royal Society, as are
the portraitsof the
at
previous Astronomers
Royal already mentioned.
the distinguishedmen
who, with rare
Among
the
the
Royal Society, were
sagacity, founded
following,whose
portraitsare speciallyworthy of
The
mention.
Hon.
Robert
Boyle, who has been
described
the father of chemistry and brother
as
of the Earl
of Cork
the first Englishman
! was
write a book
chosen
to
on
electricity.He was
President
of the Royal Society in 1680, but reconscientious
the office from
lu"5lantlydeclined
scruplesrespectingthe oaths required to be taken.
His portrait,painted by F. Kerseboom,
is at the
artist is
Royal Society,and another
by the same
in the National
Portrait Gallery.
John Evelyn's portraitwas frequentlypainted
in 1641^
in 1626, by Vanderborcht
by Chanterell
Mr.
and by Robert
Walker
in 1648.
Evelyn, of
lent the latter to the South
Wotton,
Kensington
Exhibition
in
Kneller
1866.
painted Evelyn
in 1685, and again in 1689 ; the latter
twice, once
The
for Samuel
portraitat
Pepys.
portraitwas
the
the Royal Society appears
from
be a copy
to
former
pi6lureof Kneller, by Frederic Kerseboom.
Evelyn always took the greatest interest in the
prosperityof the society,and he was twice solicited,
though in vain, to take the office of president.
is
Haak's
Theodore
portrait,by J. Richardson,
at the Royal Society.
learned
The
Henry More, D.D., contributed
the PhilosophicalTransactions, but he
to
papers
Christ's College,
at
usuallyresided in retirement
declined
Fellow.
He
Cambridge, of which he was
offered
the mastership of the college which
was
became

Astronomer

**

"

"

2l6

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

him

in

His

1654.

Royal Society.
John Wallis, D.D.,
the

he

founders, and

society

in

was

described

the year
1645 while
the opportunity of

I lived

origin of

the
in

written

account

an

at

the

of

foremost

of the

one

is

Lely,

portrait, by

the

"About

1697:

I had

in London
...

being acquainted with divers


into natural philosophy
worthy persons, inquisitive
and particularly
and other parts of human
learning,
of what
called the New
hath
been
Philosophy or
Experimental Philosophy. We did by agreements,
divers of us
meet
a certain
on
weekly in London
day to treat and discourse of such affairs,of which
number
Dr.
were
John Wilkins, Dr. Jonathan
Dr.
Dr.
Glisson,
Ent, Dr.
Goddard,
George
Merret,

Samuel

Mr.

the

About

year
removed

...

being

company

Wilkins, then

divided.

company
to

there

meet

had

we

to

with

Ward

Dr.

such

in

London

be

into fashion

with

we

continued

with

them,

and
.

divers

in Oxford,

and

when

them

when

Willis

meetings

Dr.

Those

there),and those of us
Dr. Ralph Bathurst

be

Petty, Dr.

(firstDr.
Goddard) our

Dr.

to

our

Oxford

to

(and

of

some

after

before

as

occasion

occasion

1648, 1649,

soon

I, and

Haak.

Theodore

Foster, Mr.

had

we

Oxford,

at

Dr.
.

others, continued

brought

those

studies

there.*'

Wallis's

portrait by Gerard

Soest

is

at

the

Royal Society,and the painting by Kneller, which


was
by
presented to the University of Oxford
Bodleian
in the
Pepys, is now
Gallery. Mary
Beale
painted the portrait of Dr. John Wilkins,
Bishop of Chester, and Sir Peter Lely that of Sir
the
Christopher Wren, who for several years was
mainstay of the society'smeetings. The portrait
of Seth
Ward,
one
Bishop of Salisbury,who was
of

the

ablest

of

the

founders, is

not

found

on

the

SCIENCE,

walls

of

the

Viscount

lent

was

21/

ART

is

there

society, but

College, Oxford, which


Kensington Exhibition
Lord

AND

LITERATURE,

at

one

the

to

Oriel
South

of 1866.
who

Brouncker,

occupies

so

the
prominent a positionin Pepys's Diary," was
first president of the Royal Society, and
an
cellent
exportraitof him by Lely hangs on its walls.
The
list of presidents is a very
distinguished
**

but

one,

it

on

should

we

there

are

the

are

of

names

expert to find there, and


portraitsin the gallery.

no

Joseph Williamson
was
his portraitby Kneller
filled the

He
and

men

not

Sir
and

several

although

he

office

was

at

of

that
some

the second
was

of

president,
self.
presented by himSecretary of State,

all times

immersed

in

ing
business, it is said that he presidedat every meetof the council, and
generally at the ordinary

meetings during

his

presidency.
Wren
the next
cessors.
was
president, and of his sucSir John Hoskyns and
Sir Cyril Wyche,
there
no
are
portraits at the society. Samuel
Pepys, who was
president in 1684, presented his
portraitby Kneller.
His
John, Earl of Casbery, and
successors,
Earl of Pembroke,
Thomas,
not
are
represented
the walls.
Of the next
on
president, Sir Robert
Southwell, there is a portraitby Kneller.
Charles
Montague (afterwardsEarl of Halifax),
the friend of Newton, was
president in 1695, but
there is no portraitof him at the society. There
is a portraitby Kneller
bridge.
at Trinity College,CamLord

Kneller

portraitby
walls.

Earl

Somers

by

We

succeeded

Somers

now

will be

Cowper

also

and

Montague,
found
possesses

on

his

the
a

society's
portraitof

Kneller.
come

to

the greatest of all the

presidents

2l8

"

HISTORICAL

Sir

PORTRAITS

Newton

Isaac

respecting whose

"

portraits

it is necessary
into rather fuller detail.
to enter
There
in existence
of these
are
a
large number

by painters of

various

abilities,and

little value.

but

those

Amongst
authority there is a

in

from

appearance,

that

Newton,

very

different

held

the

when

writingthe
from
looking man

judge
a
was
Principia,"

**

of the

doubted
un-

difference

able

are

we

of

are

considerable

which

office of Master

which

of

are

some

to

he

when

Newton
Mint.

is
Unquestionably the finest portraitof Newton
that painted by Kneller
in the
in 1689, and
now
This
possession of the Earl of Portsmouth.^
the eager
face of the philosopher,and
his
shows
characteristic
and

adds

hair, which
the

to

Wordsworth
biliac's fine
"

The

statue

index

of

mind

who

from

wrested
The

best

next

for

portrait.
of

face

As

Rou-

of

seas

ever

her

nature

portraitis

living man

very

hidden

most

that

alone."

thought,

portraitthe

in this

see

alive,

be

to

"

marble

can

we

the
silent

the

in

Voyaging through strange


so

of

interest

detected

also

seems

secrets.

is given the

which

in the
behind
the presidents seat
place of honour
of the
meeting room
Royal Society. This was
painted by Jervas, and
presented by Newton
himself.
sitter.
burnt

How

of

two

author

South

that

Kneller

Barlow.

we

has

not

seen

the

It is

portraitof

this

Newton

staid

and

calm

no

Newton,

painted.

It

has

it

one

been

say

of the

exhibited

was

of 1866, but his

exaggeration to
but

for the

account

portraitsince

Exhibition

Kensington

ever

only

see

portraitsof

it is still vivid.

is it the best

of the
is the appearance
fire of the former
picture has

official.

of the

These

at the

and

out,

The

the

Here

exterior

'

different

impression

that

not

engraved

only

portraits
by T* O-

finest

SIR

HANS

SI.OANE,

HV

S.

SLAU(;HTKr.

220

HISTORICAL

collegeFfolkes
of
more

as

an

of

the

those

who

in

The

Earl

in

life he

after

to

must

we

the

hold
of

ambition

known

was
as

to

now

that
not

was

to

knowledge

ele"5lion

remember

physicalscience

had

Society,or

but

for his

antiquary,and his
Royal Society seems
but

distin6lion

remarkable

was

mathematics,

PORTRAITS

be

dent
Presibe

appropria
in-

formerly

essential

Fellows

of

in
the

office therein.

Macclesfield, who, with

the

Earl

of

the bill for a reformation


Chesterfield,introduced
of the Calendar, and thus gained the ill-will of the
of their
clamoured
for the return
populace,who
eleven
the next
days, was
president. His portrait
Hudson.
was
painted by
The
society have no portraitsof the two presidents,
James, Earl of Morton, and James West,
but they possess
of Sir
one
a
by Vanloo
poor
James Burrow, who was presidentfor a few months
in 1768 and
having been ele6led to fill a
1772,
till the next
anniversaries.
The
portraitof
gap
Sir John Pringle,the next
president,was
painted
by Reynolds.
of the society
Sir Joseph Banks
autocrat
was
for forty-one
longest period being
years, the next
His
Newton's
portrait was
twenty- four
years.
R.A.
Other
Phillips,
portraits
painted by Thomas
trait
Porat the Linnean
are
Society and the National
succeeded
was
by William
Gallery. Banks
Hyde Wollaston, M.D., who only held office for a
few months.
He was
a most
distinguishedchemist,
but he had a great objedlionto letting
see
any one
his laboratory. On
asked
occasion, when
to
one
show

it,he rang

the

bell and

had

tray with

few

brought in. His portrait


by Jackson hangs in the meeting room.
is
Sir Humphry
Davys portraitby Lawrence
charming so far as the face is concerned, but the
bottles

and

apparatus

CHARLKS

DARWIN,

BV

THE

HON.

JOHN

COLLIER.

SCIENCE,

of

AND

LITERATURE,

ART

221

pi6lure is carelesslypainted, and the


hands
Davies
bert
Gilare
represented by smudges.
succeeded
succeeded
Davy, and was
by the
Duke
of Sussex.
Portraits
of both
these
dents
presiwere
painted by Phillips. Of later presidents
there are
ampton,
portraitsof the Marquis of Northby Phillips,of the Earl of Rosse, by
Catterson
Smith, of Sir Benjamin Brodie, by A.
Sabine, by
Thompson, after Watts, of Sir Edward
Stephen Pearce, of Sir Joseph Hooker, by the
Hon.
Spottiswoode, by
John Collier,of William
and
of Sir George Gabriel
the same,
Stokes, by

rest

the

Herkomer.
Besides

of such

those

Moivre,
to

the author

of

Newton

was

whom

who

of the presidents,there
portraits
distinguishedFellows as Abraham

the

asked

him

*'

The

Doflrine

accustomed

questions

about

of
to

the

are

de

Chances,"

send

those

Principia";
Benjamin Franklin, JohnSmeaton, Jesse Ramsden,
Thomas
Dr.
De
John Dalton, and
Young.
Moivre's
by Highmore, Smeaton's
portraitwas
Dalton's
Brown,
by B. R. Faulkner,
by Mather
rence.
and
Young's by H. P. Briggs, R.A., after LawRamsden's
and
Home,
was
by Edward
Home,
RN., when
Captain Sir Everard
presenting
the portraitto the society,wrote
Mr. Ramsden
:
has his dividing instrument
before
him.
In the
in the Palermo
background is the great circle now
the coat
observatory. The fur upon
was
put in
of Mr. Ramsden's
having then lately
consequence
order for the Emperor
of Russia
executed
an
at
much
which
he was
offended, declaring that he
such
had
worn
a
never
thing in his life. The
pi6lureis engraved, and no other likeness exists
**

**

"

of him."
The
from

portraitof Darwin
the originalby the

in this book
Hon.

John

is taken

Collier

at

the

HISTORICAL

^22

National

PORTRAITS

Gallery ; there is no oil painting


the Royal Society. The
at
portrait of Faraday
the picturePhillipspainted in 1842, also
is from
the
from
Portrait
Gallery. The
picture at the
Royal Society was painted by A. Blaikleybetween
Mr. J. P. Gassiot, who
1 85 1 and
1855.
presented
also
this,
presented a pi(5lureby E. Armitage,
which

R.A.,
a

Portrait

deputation

is of

historic

from

the Council

interest

as

it represents

of the

Royal Society,
(Lord Wrottesley),Mr.

consistingof the President


(afterwardsSir William) Grove, and Mr. Gassiot,
dentship,
to Mr.
Faraday to urge him to accept the PresiMay, 1857.
Franklin's
portrait at the
Royal Society is
The
has a
Marquis of Lansdowne
anonymous.
fine one
by Gainsborough, Earl Stanhope one
by
D. Martin, and
the National
Portrait Gallery one
by F. Baricolo.
A
savant
was
distinguishedbut little known
William
of the ele6lroSturgeon, the inventor
Professor
Silvanus
Thompson, F.R.S.,
magnet.
who
has
sought for a portraitof this scientific
has

man,

not

been

successful

in his search.

Literature.

Chaucer,

Shakespeare,
acknowledged as the
although some
poets, but
presumptuous
that

will

there

fourth

as

to

add
be

ever

and

Milton

three

English

greatest

critics
a

ally
univers-

are

have

fourth, it is

unanimity

as

to

been
not

who

so

likely
that

shall be.

singularlyfortunate in having an excellent


in an
portrait of Chaucer
contemporary
Harleian
manuscript (4866) in the British Museum.
Perhaps it is a mere
assumption to attribute the
all events
At
the portrait
drawing to Occleve.
We

comes

are

to

us

with

his

san6lion, but without

that

it

MICHAEL

FARADAY,

BY

T.

PHILLIPS.

224
the

but

man,

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

received

portrait of

him

old

an

as

probably largelyidealized.
in the
Plaas
der
The
portraitby Pieter Van
National
Portrait
is engraved for
Gallery,which
this book, shows
an
ugly and cross-grainedman.
is

man

How

most

far it is

accurate

it

affirmed, but

be

cannot

the received
from
portrait
certainlydiffers much
which
perhaps represents what the poet ought to
have
Mr.
like.
been
tributed
conJohn Fitchett Marsh

Society

of

valuable

us.

Lancashire

article

**

the

the

claims

authenticityof

He

does

Milton," in
mention

not

"

the

Historic

(vol.xii.)a
and

Portraits

Engraved

of

to

the

Cheshire

and

On

of

Portraits

Pretended

to

"Transactions

the

to

which

he

those

known

Van

de

cusses
dis-

Plaas

have
much
been
to
not
pi6lure,which
appears
known,
although it was
presented to the National
Gallery in 1832 by Capel Lofft, and has been at
Portrait Gallery since 1883.
the National
The
Mr. Marsh
wrote
:
portraitpainted at the
in the possessionof Mr.
Disney ;
age of ten, now
that at the age of twenty-one,
purchased from the
of Milton's
widow
executor
by Speaker Onslow
;
for the first edition
the printengraved by Marshal
in 1645 ; and
that prefixed to
of the minor
poems
of the
scribed,
the first edition
History of Britain,'in*Gul. Faithorne
delin. etsculpsit
ad vivum
1670,' at the age of sixty-nine,form a series of
various
at
unquestionable authenticity,taken
periods of the poet's life, and presenting such
'*

difference

marked

of mistake

or

of feature

confusion

Countess
With

among
Milton

to

create

no

risk

them."

the
shown
at
were
portraitsof
of 1866, two
Kensington Exhibition
mous,
anonylent
and one
Richardson,
by the
by Jonathan

Three
South

as

of Delawarr.

respe6l to

Richardson's

etching from

an

WILUAM

**

SHAItESPKARE,CHAN

DOS

PORTRAIT/'

JOHN

MILTON,

BY

PIETER

VANDKR

PLAAS.

SCIENCE,

originalin
have

sat

made

which

crayons,

for

remarkable

saw

better
of

likeness

much

by

those

would
Milton
far

by

his death, De

that this

the

the

biographic
Auto-

**

portraitof

Milton

of Wordsworth

in the

essential

case

since

seen

himself.

for

I
...

engraving of
presenting not only

of

likeness

best

I have

Richardson

advantage

in the

to

Quincey

in his

which

any

expressly painted
has

Milton

nearly perfect of Wordsworth,

than

observe

believed

In this

**

225

ART

statement

"

Sketches
I

he

long before

not

most

AND

LITERATURE,

of

Wordsworth,

but

of his powers
a point
liable to premature
of one
so
supposed that I took an early

prime

"

decay. It may be
Grasto
opportunity of carrying the book down
and callingfor the opinionsof Wordsworth's
mere,
coincidence.
this most
remarkable
family upon
much
Not one
of that family but was
member
as
ness.
of the likeimpressed as myself with the accuracy
retained
All the peculiarities
were
even
able
of the eyelids,that remarka drooping appearance
"

swell
the
In

laurel

picture;

period of
could
Sir

his

and

the

too

forehead.
from

deviation
features

"

the

else and

the eyes
of
wreath

broad, and
also

was

(as Wordsworth
natural
expression
with

these

few

marked)
re-

of the

allowances,

that the resemblance

life perfe6l,or

the

the face

head, which

the

he also admitted

the mouth,

about

lay upon

was

There

disturbed
whole

hair

there

short

large.

about

noticed

of Wordsworth's

little too
two

were

the

points only

vigorous truth
was

I have

in which

way
two

which

as

wsis/or
nearly so as

that
art

accomplish."
Brian

Tuke,

Treasurer

of the

Chamber

to

Henry VIII., was


painted by Holbein, and this
hibition
lent to the South
Kensington Exportraitwas
of 1868
by the Marquis of Westminster.
the marquis bought this
According to Wornum
Q

26

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

of

critic

Christie's

at

portrait

in

exhibition, in the

the

hands

king

pass.
midsummer

at

thirtieth year of
^'advanced
part of a hole
Holbein

*'

lover

dedication

of

and

Chaucer,

the

wrote

the

of

edition

Thynnes

to

paynter," to
day last past.*'

Ladye

**

was

it

account

in the

Henry VIII. s reign, he


Hans
to
yere*s annuitie"
be
accomptedde from our
Tuke

pressed
ex-

was

Tuke's

From

would

purse
that

seems

annual

his

Athenaeum,"

**

artist

the

opinion that
especial pains for

whose

11^.

likely to
the dignatary through
the
of ;^50 from
payment

the

take

^^74

for

1848

poets

works.
A

portraitof
the

Berners,
lent

was

first

the

to

English
Tudor

translator

Froissart,

of

where

Exhibition,

were

unfortunate

three

Henry

Lord

2nd

Bourchier,

John

portraits of the
Earl of Surrey
Howard,

shown

by

one

poet
Holbein

the same
that the painter did
1534,
year
of Surrey's father, the
of Norfolk,
Duke

dated

that
which

is

Gwillim

preserved

Arundel

at

Stretes, which

sale

the

Sir

Robert

of

the

Earl

Walpole,
of

Duke

Norfolk

who
;

Arundel's

the

at

galleryby

Sir

it

presented
third

by

in 1720

purchased

was

of

another

Edward,

to

the

was

striking

pi6lurein red, which hangs in the Communication


are
Gallery at Hampton Court, where
Mantegna's
be
used
This
to
Triumphs of Julius Caesar."
attributed
to
Holbein, but it is probably the work
**

of

Stretes, from

bought
been

whom

Edward

picture of the late


which
by the Council's

**

fetched

from

the

in

VI.,
Earl

of

Surrey

commandment

said Gwillim's

1557,
tainted,
at-

had

house."

whose
Many of the great Elizabethans
portraits
Exhibition
were
brought together in the Tudor
here, but there is only
ought to be mentioned
space

for

very

casual

notice

of

those

of William

SCIENCE,

Camden,
two

the

his

and

Baroness

from

Sackville
a

the

and

lent

Jonson,

miniature

of

and

Mr.

the

poet

by

Marc

by
Gallery.

Lord

each

Burdett-Coutts

Baroness
Ben

were

lent

anonymous,
and
one

Bodleian

the

portraitof

Shirley

one

22

There

Jonson.

Burdett-Coutts,

Gheerardts

sent

pupil Ben

portraitsof Camden,

ART

AND

LITERATURE,

Evelyn
by Isaac

S.

speare,
portraitsof Shakeof much
but they were
not
authority.
It is impossibleto give anything like an adequate
idea
of the vast
of portraits of celebrated
mass
be mentioned
an
as
authors, and a few only can
There

Oliver.

indication

of

several

were

the

the

of

riches

this

in

country

respeft.
Dobson's
Ashmolean

Museum,

Thomas

Carew

picture,

at

and

Sir

Windsor

At

Castle.

National

the

portraitsof Dryden,
one
by Kneller, and the other attributed to James
of Cowley, one
Maubert
representing him
; also two
as
a young
painted either by Sir Peter Lely or
man,
Mrs.
older, by
Mary Beale, and the other, when
the latter artist.
A
portrait of John Bunyan at
the age of fifty-six,
lent to the
by John Sadler, was
South
Kensington Exhibition of 1866 by the Rev.
John Olive ; and in the National Gallery is one of
Walton
Isaac
which
was
by Jacob Huysman,
painted for the famous angler'sfamily.
Prior was
Matthew
painted by Kneller, and the
Portrait

Gallery

there

John Suckling is in the


and
Oxford,
Vandyck's
William
Killigrew,in one

Sir

portraitof

are

two

in Stationers'
piftureis now
the Guelph Exhibition, where
of John
was
Gay, which

Hall.
was

sent

It
shown

by

lent

was

the

to

portrait
Earl

of

Loudoun.
Several
exhibited
occasion

portraits of Pope
at

the

of

the

Town

Pope

were

collected

Hall, Twickenham,
Commemoration

on

in

and
the
1888.

28

HISTORICAL

Three

of the

pi6lureswere

and

Hoare,

one

was

several

portraitsin
by Jervas, one

one

W.

PORTRAITS

There

anonymous.

the

W.

by

by Jervas, one

National

Gallery,
two
by

Portrait

by Richardson,

and

portraitof Pope

in

are

Hoare.
Kneller

Simon,

painted

Lord

described

Harcourt,
the best

**

as

the best

the

picture there
letter from
Pope

master.'*

formerly

was

Harcourt,

to

My

Lord,

Lordship

your

It is

"

that

of the

place

catalogue

it is

as

On

honour

be

not

intend

you

the

follows

one

of

back

of

to

22,

1723.
to

me

in any
me,

August

satisfaction

I shall

and

transcriptof

"

"

for

portraitof him,

of that

works

in whose

1723,

way

tell
appointed
dis-

filling
a

of

in your

to
librarywith my picture. I came
Sir Godfrey
town
to
yesterday and got admission
the originalwas
assured
done
Kneller, who
me
for your
but
Lordship ; and that you, and no man
it. I saw
the pi6lurethere afterhave
wards,
you, should
told by his man
and was
had sent
that you

and
with
a

put

seal upon

great

thought

it.

Give

sincerity,to

thank

me

you

leave, my
for

so

Lord,

obliging

..."

The

lent by Mr.
E. W.
Harcourt
to
pi6lurewas
the Guelph Exhibition.
The
interestingcolle6lion of portraits (fortyof the Kit-Cat
eight in number) of the members
Club, by Kneller, has been
frequentlyexhibited.
The
painted for presentation to
pictures were
Jacob Tonson, the secretary of the club, and they
still remain
in the possession of a descendant
of
Mr.
Tonson
Baker, of Bayfordbury,
s
nephew
Herts.
Congreve, Vanbrugh, Addison, and Steele
"

were

members

There

is at

of the

club.

Panshanger

an

interestingportrait

S.

T.

COLERIDGE,

BY

P.

VANDYKE.

SCIENCE,

Kneller

AND

LITERATURE,

229

(1677 1720) the


dramatist
and
the
contributor
to
Spetlator,"who
was
Cowper
eulogized by Steele. Lord Chancellor
his patron, and
to him, a few
was
days before his
this portrait. The
letter of
death, Hughes sent
by

of

ART

John

Hughes

"

**

thanks

was

"Sir,

thank

"

of

present

follows

as

for

you

and
picture,

your

of this age can


and shall while

acceptable

most

your
assure

that

you

higher value on it than


I live
though I am sensible
will outdo
in that particular. I am,
me
the greatest esteem
and
sincerity,sir,your
affectionate
and obliged humble
servant,
set

terity
pos-

"

with
most

Cowper.

24th, 1720."

There

are

the best

I do.

"*

"January

none

many

is

known

of
portraitsof Swift, but one
that by Jervas in the Bodleian

in the
will be found
by Bindon
National
Dublin
Gallery.
is at
Gray's portrait by Benjamin Wilson
Pembroke
Richardson's, by
College, and Samuel
Hall.
fine portrait
The
Highmore, at Stationers
of Smollett
by Verelst is still in the possession of

Gallery.

his

One

family,and

Exhibition
The

then

passed

1840, it

painted

was

Lord

to

was

South

contributed

portraitof
in

Kensington

Smollett.

A.

Lansdowne

of

Exhibition

the

to

1867 by Mr.

Marquis

Guelph
which

of

lent

was

Sterne

purchased by

on

the

the

by Reynolds,

1760 for Lord


Holland,

to

It

Ossory.

whose

death, in

marquis

for

500

guineas.
On

one

occasion

Sterne, writingto

friend, who

You
said :
mention
must
portrait,
for I will tell you
the business
to Reynolds yourself,
He
has already painted a very
why I cannot
I went
excellent
to
portraitof me, which, when

wished

for his

**

HISTORICAL

230

for, he desired

him

pay

his

(to use
that

his

man's

equal

heart

to

me

elegant and

own

wished

to

as

tribute

flatteringexpression)
to
genius. That
my

pay
and

of

accept

least
at
manners
are
thinking
pencil."
portraits of Dr. Johnson by Reynolds are

way
to his

The

but

numerous,

Peel

PORTRAITS

colle6lion

It has

been

the

Bowood,

one

of

in the

the

National

said that

of

the

from

Gallery.

of the

one

Marquis

is that

best

chief

gloriesof

Lansdowne's

seat,

is

Reynolds's portraitof the infant Johnson which


raised
was
painted as a joke. The question was
convivial
a
one
evening at
meeting whether
the do"5lor could
been
have
ever
a
baby. "No
doubt
I know
about
it,"said Reynolds ;
exaftly
**

what

looked

he

like, and

will

show

you

some

day."
portraitby Reynolds of Bennet
Langton
will go
to
Johnson said, "who
(about whom
if Langton
heaven
does
lent to the
not
was
."^*')
of 1868
South
Kensington Exhibition
by Mr. J.
The

Hollway.
in a scarlet coat
Reynolds's portraitof Gibbon
and waistcoat, which
field,
belongs to the Earl of Shefsaid, by Malone, to be as like the original
was
it is possible to be, and
those who
as
yet there are
was
prefer Romney's portrait which
painted for
left England for Lausanne.
Hayley before Gibbon
lent to the South
This was
Kensington Exhibition
of 1867 by Mr.
Henry Willett
At the National
Gallery is an admirable
portrait
of Boswell
painted for the
by Reynolds, which was
conditions
sitter under
explained in the following
found
letter,written in 1785 by Boswell, which w^as
with
his sigReynolds's papers, endorsed
nature
among
H.

and
"

the

words,

"

I agree

to

the

above

ditions
con-

LORD

BYRON,

BY

T.

PHILLIPS.

WILLIAM

WORDSWORTH,

BY

H.

W.

PICKERSGILL.

SIR

WALTER

SCOTT,

BV

SIR

W.

ALLAN.

HISTORICAL

232

PORTRAITS

by Lady Shelley). Keats,


Guelph Exhibition
and
by Hilton; Campbell, by Sir
by J. Severn
Thomas
Lawrence
Washington
; Coleridge, by
cock;
HanAllston, by Peter Vandyke, and
by Robert
Wordsworth,
Southey,
by H. W. Pickersgill;
by H. Eldridge, by Peter Vandyke, and by R.
Gordon
Hancock
Quincey, by Sir J. Watson
;
; De
Gilbert,
Allan, by J. Graham
Scott, by Sir William
and
Landseer;
Dickens,
by Ary
by Sir Edwin
Scheffer ; Thackeray, by Samuel
Laurence
; and
But the
Burton.
George Eliot, by Sir Frederick
of
series
the
of modern
portraiture are
gems
pictures presented by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A.,
which
contains
others
the
portraits of
among
and
Matthew
Arnold,
Browning, Tennyson,
is another
Carlyle. There
portraitof Carlyle by
Millais.
The
excellent
Whistler,
one
by Mr.
the

reproduced in this book,


Gallery.

is in

the

Glasgow

poration
Cor-

Art.

chapters of this book


there is a series of engravings of the chief portraitfew
Here
a
paintersfrom Vandyck to Lawrence.
be mentioned.
other portraitsof paintersmay
is a portrait of Holbein,
There
by himself, at
Windsor
fine
Castle, and Earl Spencer possesses
a
Moro
portraitof Sir Antonio
by himself.
At
Court
there
are
portraits of
Hampton
Ketel, by himself,
Mytens, by himself, Cornelius
Peter
Robert
Oliver, by Hanneman,
Walker,
by
and
his wife, by Dobson,
himself, Dobson
Lely,
by himself, and several others.
At
the several
South
Kensington Exhibitions
there were
portraitsof artists.
many
In
the
National
Gallery are the portraitsof
Vandyck, by himself, Hogarth, by himself, ReyIn

the

third

and

fourth

CHARLES

DICKENS,

BY

ARY

SCHEFFER.

W.

M.

THACKERAV,

BV

S.

LAURENCE.

ii

SCIENCE,

LITERATURE,

AND

ART

233

of West, by Lawrence,
nolds, by himself, full-length
and
Samuel
Scott, by Hudson, Wilkie, by Phillips,

Daniell, R.A.,

Thomas
The

pitlure by Rigaud,

William

Chambers

Wilton

of

the

of

Reynolds,
in

sculptor,reproduced
National
Portrait Gallery.

considerable

of valuable

number

portraitsof artists
the Royal Academy

are

with

architeft, and

the

in the
A

Wilkie.

by

preserved

Sir

Joseph

this

book,

and

ing
interest-

in the

is

rooms

Burlington House, and


of the most
valuable
is the superb
of these
one
There
portraitof Lord Leigh ton by Mr. Watts.
also several
of
are
piftures containing groups
well known
from
of which
artists,most
are
having
often

been
The

at

exhibited.

considerable
a
Society possess
of portraitspainted by the successive
number
painters who have been appointed painters to the
Society. George Knapton (1698
1778),a pupil
of
of the
Richardson,
an
was
original member
Dilettanti
Society, and was
appointed painter to
the Society in 1740.
At
a
meeting in February,
Dilettanti

"

744,

it

had

was

ordered

"

that

every

member

who

has

his

pi"5lurepainted by Mr. Knapton by


the meeting in February next
one
year, shall pay
till his pi"5lure
be delivered
in
guinea per annum
the Secretary,unless
Mr.
to
Knapton declares it
finish the same.'*
of time
to
owing to his want
Twenty-three portraitswere
painted by Knapton.
James Stuart, F.R.S., was
appointed painter to
the Society in the room
had reof Knapton, who
signed.
not

He

does

not,

however,

appear

to

have

painted any portraitsfor the Society.


Mr. (afterwards
Sir Joshua) Reynolds was
ele"5led
member
in May, 1766, and
the 5th March,
a
on
Mr.
1769,
Reynolds is declared
painter to the
Stuart
beautiful
Society, Mr.
declining." The
**

HISTORICAL

234

of

groups

PORTRAITS

members

painted

Reynolds

by

well

are

known.

Mr.

Sir

(afterwards

appointed

painter

and

painted

Sir

Henry

the

to

of

portraits

in

Richard
and

Hnglefield,

Lawrence

Thomas)
Society

was

March,

1792,

Payne

Knight,

Thomas,

Lord

ist

Dundas.
On

the

the

Secretary
with

into
as

the

most

soon

the
Portrait

speed
**

the

and

April,
to

the

and

Rome,
**

of

I request

piclures
sending
John

from
the
B.

of the

the

to

this
I
one

other

to

this

great

to

Mr.

rence
Lawthat

end

painted

Society
word

all

with

be

painted
the

on

26th

in

the

of

wrote

for

solicited

placed

self
him-

by

West

Mr.

been

serted
in-

con.''

nem.
was

that

ordered

omamcfit

Society

be

and

Society.

occasion

have

face

two

Capitol

Gallery at Florence,"
indulgence of painting the two

the
the

the

portrait

**

the

the

manded
com-

in

the

to

be

Ordered

myself,

and

of

7ise

On

secretary,

Society

use

Father

presented

portraits
in

the

West's

1818.

himself

Secretary

motion.

Benjamin

that

Resolved

"

was

succeeded

the

to

word

the
the

in

it

2,

present

said

The

of

instead

have
to

for

him
"

Henry

shall

painter

by

Englefield) is
all possible expedition to put his
pi6luresque order in his power*

work,

of

N.B.

May,

(Sir

he

as

difficult

and

of

7th

one

in the

have

the

now

honour

of

Society."
Morritt

of

painted by
Sir
Martin
in
The
Archer
Shee
1832.
Right
Sir
Hon.
Edward
painted
Ryan, Secretary, was
Lord
Broughton,
by Sir Frederic
Leighton, and
Graves.
G.C.B.,
Henry
by the Hon.
S.

Rokeby

was

SIR

JOSHUA
JOSEPH

SIR

REYNOLDS,
WILTON,

BY

JOHN

WILLIAM

CHAMBERS,
FRANCIS

RIGAUD.

AND

SIR

CHRISTOPHER

WRFN,

BY

SIR

G.

KNELLER.

236

HISTORICAL

that when

the

stage

its leader

but

took

none

held, and
scene

it

depraved
who
clean-livingman,
in its

was

was

all.

respedled by

PORTRAITS

dition
conwas

Betterton,

followed

adlors

Great

he

undisputed position which

the

until

not

was

most

Garrick

that the stage had a leader


their chief.
followed
Then

all

whom

the

on

came

accepted

John Kemble, and


Kean
though Edmund
disputed his position,it
the followers
of Kemble
that held possession
was
of the boards
Charles
for many
Young
years.
and
Macready carried on the traditions, to be
succeeded
by Phelps and Charles Kean, and now
official
obtained
Sir
has
Henry
Irving, who
recognition both of his own
genius and of the
position of the stage, reigns supreme.
There
classes of theatrical portraits,
two
are
those which
show
the a6lor as he is in private life,
and those where
in chara6ler.
he is seen
Examples
as

of both
them

are

There

these

of

many

excellent.
is another

requires a
for they are
as

and

abundant,

are

consistingof picturesof

class

plays as a(5led on
good painter to make

from

scenes

"

classes

shadows

too

of

shade

"

but

It

stage.

successful,

these

unreal, and

look

to

apt

the

to

there

are

appear
several

excellent

examples of this class.


in Hamlet,
Maclise's
picture of the play scene
in the Tate
now
Gallery, is good, but still it is
somewhat
Mr. E. A. Abbey, R.A., tried
stagey.
in the
of 1897
Exhibition
to
Royal Academy
it might have
as
happened, but
depi(5lthe scene
he was
not
care
nothing for
very successful, for we
the

archaic

that

Shakespeare

The

to

"

our

drew,
the

interest
and

left of

that
the

is in
is of

no

entrance

the

scene

date.
to

the

of
Gallery is of great interest, because
piftures
portraitsof earlya6lors there. These

Dulwich
the

room

scene

RICHARD

BURBAGE,

BY

HIMSELF.

THOMAS

BETTERTON,

IIV

SIR

G.

KNELLER.

ACTORS

of

works

AND

ACTRESSES

and

237

unfavourably
with the beautiful pidluresin the adjoining rooms,
of the greatest value
but they are
as
giving us
authentic
Here
are
portraitsof the early adlors.
a6led
with Shakespeare,
Sly, who
portraitsof William
not

are

art,

Nathaniel
Perkins

compare

Field,

Tom

Bond,

Richard

William

Cartwright, who presented


these pictures to Dulwich
College.
No
such colleftion of theatrical portraitsexists
that
Club.
The
as
preserved at the Garrick
gallery was
originallyformed by Charles Mathews
the
it in Oxford
elder, who
publicly exhibited
Street in 1833, where
was
published a
Catalogue
Raisonn6
of Mr. Mathews's
Gallery of Theatrical
and

"

exhibited

Portraits, now

forming
the

nearly complete

1659

year

down

Bazaar, Oxford
Club

and

rant,

The

the

the

Dramatic

present

first time, and


Record
time.

from

Queen's

Street."

in

it has

different

to

colledlion

Mathews's
Garrick

for

the
presented to
Dur1852 by Mr. John Dowland
been
to
largelyadded
by giftsat
was

times.
a6lors

themselves

owe

appeal

much
to

audience, and, however

to

the

painters,for they

the

and
ears
eyes
famous
in their own

of

an

day,

But the
forgottenas time passes.
the
painters have made
good pictures, in which
players a6l and live again. Hogarth stands at
of the English stage,
of these historians
the head
tire of his portraitsand
and we
can
never
sentations
repreof
the
of the scenes
theatre.
They
of these
more
inspire us with a desire to know
who
and
men
women
delighted a former
age.
almost
Hayman, though not so good an artist,did

apt

are

as

much

to

in the

Reynolds
their

be

finest

same

way.

Gainsborough found
inspirationsin connexion
and

some

with

of

the

238

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

and

Stage,

Zoffany

was

portraiturethat
of the Stage of

dramatic
historian

illustration of the

the

Street

Gower

adtresses

ac^tors and
William

him.

At

of the

in

leading

historical

the

adlress

who

painter,
kind

been

had

in Wisbech

exhibition

an

must

day.

R.A.,

worthy

to

studio

whose

rendezvous

of his

Hilton,

immortalized
to

specialmention

stage,

the

was

themselves

devoted

George Clint, A.R.A.,

of

be made

the

**

Garrick."

have

later artists who

Of

styled

been

has

he

in

successful

highly

so

this

in 1866

(who died in the town),


of Beatrice
in the chara6ler
removing her mask,
and
the following anecdote
told by
shown,
was
Canon
Hopkins at the opening meeting :
portraitof

Robertson

Mrs.

"

Robertson

Mrs.
and

they

the

about

went

and

painted
he

would

he

boy

and

he

and

the

said

to

that

become
I

living."

wish
Mrs.

the

for

given

to

him,

Robertson

Mrs.
he

became

be

Royal

an

to

intercede
"

with

vagabond

to

train

Robertson

and

and

father

but

not

friend,

as

him

I have

in

to

myself.
honest

an

do

thing
some-

drawing

he

in

wish

not

to

London,

When

him

been

to

up

Well,"

"

do

do

to

his

partly by the
partlyby that of

Academician.

The

his father.

promised

artist,went

said

shoemaker.

Lessons

boy.

When

willingto indulge

am

boy

father

his

Robertson,

is reasonable,
a

had

artist.

an

company
Hilton, who

He

his

Mrs.

to

father,

anything
him

to

him

to

the

of

thirteen

or

Lynn

places,with

In

name

entreated

went

her

ask

the

twelve

apprentice

wept,

so,
to

about

was

other

repaired the scenes.


some
capacity as

showed

who

of

man

manager,

from

country

of artistes.

provincialcompany
was

of the

wife

and

Peterborough,

Wisbech,
there

the

was

were

assistance
other
and
had

of

friends,
rose

to

attained

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

240

that

States

in his

opinion Wright's

portraitis

best

Roscius
Comedian,
or
Lacy, the famous
whom
he had painted in three dresses : as a gallant,
a
Presbyterian minister, and a Scotch Highlander

that. of

"

plaid." Planch6 then goes on to express the


opinion that this was
Sauny, a character in Lacy s
of Shakespeare's Taming
of the
alteration
own
Shrew/' entided,
Sauny the Scot, or the Taming^
Planch^
of the Shrew."
not
aware
evidentlywas
that in the lower
righthand of the pi"5lureis this
inscriptioncorroborating his view : John Lacy,
of His
one
Maj"** Comedians,
representingParson
Scruple in the Cheats, Sandy in the Taming of the
and
Monsieur
de
in the Country
Vice
Shrew,
latter play was
The
of
Captained
by the Duke
and the
Cheats
Newcasde,
by John Wilson.
There
few portraitsof the earlier a6lors
are
a
in his

"

"

**

"

**

actresses

and

Booth

by

in the

"

looks

as

Vanderbank

Committee,"
if it

is attributed
as

not

1668

that
at

the

as

Anthony
two

Club, such
Underbill

Cave

by R. Bing
painted when

Dobson

but

this

as

Obadiah

Lee, which

Nat

he

Barton

as

mad,

was

painter died in 1646, and Lee


Trinity College,Cambridge,
Cardinal

Leigh

beautiful

"

women,

in

Wolsey ; and
the
Spanish
**

and

ascriptionis

Harris, the friend of Pepys and

Henry

of Betterton,
Mr.

were

to

scholar

Garrick

the

at

"

was

until
rival

the famous

Friar

great adlresses

possible,
im-

and

"

and

great

Bracegirdleand Mrs. Oldfield.


A portraitof Colley Cibber
Lord
as
Foppingin the
ton
Relapse," by Grisoni, is worthy of
pi6lure,and one
specialattention, as an admirable
the
lover of that
which
delightfulbook
every
be pleased to see, as it
Apology for his Life," must
man
brings before us in bodily form the remarkable
who
entered
so
thoroughly into the spiritof the
affectation
characfler he a6led, that he a6luallymade
rivals, Mrs.

"

**

NELL

GWVN,

BY

SIR

P. LELV.

ACTORS

natural.

made

Pope

that

fool, and

great

affe6led

an

when

he

sympathised

he posed
supnecessarilybe a
the world
a6lor

misunderstood

the

when

his mistake

out

with

24

mistake
must

man

found

more

laureate

ACTRESSES

AND

waspish little poet.


Another
masterpiece is the fine portraitof Foote
of unrivalled
wit,
by Reynolds, in which the man
and
who
hated by many
was
respe6led by none, is
portrayed to the very life.
excellent
There
is an
portraitof Garrick by
Reynolds which was
presented to the club by the
Duke
There
is another
of Fife.
portraitby Pine^
and
as
one
by the elder Morland, of Garrick

and

Richard
from
in

and

than

of
representations

III., also

plays in
he

one

he

which

is with

in the

the

with

other

a6led,

Mrs.
with

as

several

by Zoffany

two

Pritchard

in

"

Macbeth,"

in

Gibber

Mrs.

scenes

"

Venice

pi6lure,showing Garrick
with Mrs. Pritchard
in the
Suspicious Husband,*'
by Hayman.
Hogarth painted several portraits
Preserved."

Another

**

of Garrick

by

Lord

; one

of these

Feversham

Exhibition

as

the

to

Another

of 1868.

HI.

Richard

lent

was

South

Kensington
portraitin the same

by P. J. de Loutherbourg. One of
lent to the 1 867 exhibition
Reynolds's portraitswas
T. Grissell
Mr.
by the Marquis of Lansdovvne.
described
sent
a
pi6lure by Reynolds which was
exhibition

as

"Mr.

was

and

catalogue,but
presence

of

Garrick

Mrs.
no

baby

explanation
Mrs.

on

Child"

and
is

Garrick's

given

in

the

of

the

knee.

Angerstein lent to this exhibition


Tragedy
Reynolds's pi6lureof Garrick between
lent a
and
Comedy," and the Marquis of Exeter
Dance.
portraitof Garrick by Nathaniel
In the National
Gallery is a portraitby Zoffany.
lent to
Hogarth's portraitof Mrs. Garrick was
Hamilton,
the Guelph Exhibition
by Dr. Edward
Mr.

William

"

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

2^2

One

tures
charming dramatic picHogarth's most
the portraitof Miss
Rich, the daughter of

of
is

Rich, and

manager

Kensington
Hawkins.
Heywood
is

1753

of

lent

was

Rich

J.

quin
harle-

as

is

There

Club.

Garrick

the

to

Mr.

1867 by

portraitof

the

at

It

Exhibition

South

in

a6lress.

an

portraitof Quin by Hogarth at the club, and one


It is
Palace.
by Gainsborough at Buckingham
appropriate that the portraitof this great a6lor
find a home
he who
should
there, for it was
taught
George HI. elocution, and when he heard the king
claimed,
praised for the delivery of his first speech, he exI taught the boy !
is a portraitof Spranger Barry, and also
There
Hamlet"
at
a
pi6lureof him and Mrs. Barry in
a6lors
the Garrick
Club.
Barry surpassed most
Here
also
lover, and was
as
a
superb in Othello.
is a portraitby Opie of Charles
Macklin, painted
"

*'

**

in his old age.


Garrick was

fortunate in the actresses


particularly
that a6led with
him, both in tragedy and comedy,
in collision with them, for they
but he often came
occasionally offended him, and he often offended
of offence,
His marriage was
them.
his first cause
self
had proposed to hereach of them
as
individually
of the positionof his wife.
Garrick's
the filling
with
Mrs.
relations
constantly
Abington were

strained, and
that she

wrote

then he
notes

was

rather

was

the backs

on

Mrs.

the back

on

Abington

the

"

audience

as

of

Reynolds
**

Love

and

for

humorous

comedy,

but

and

women,*' but
received.

celebrated

was

she

pert

and

was

chambermaids,
as

Love,"

his

most

of

she

sentation
repre-

also charmed

her

one

her

for

perfe6lportraitof
is

letters he

writinguncomplimentary

of the letters he

Teazle
romps

of her

one

of bad

worst

fond of

of the queens

originalLady

of

performances.

This

Miss

Prue

the
her
and

in

successful
was

lent

by

DAVID

GARRICK,

BY

R.

E.

PINE.

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

244

Clivy Pivy (contrailed to Pivy)


Her
of Garrick, was
painted by Hogarth.
trait
porSir
Club
is supposed by
the- Garrick
at
have
Martin
been
Theodore
to
painted by Van
but in Matthews
Haacken,
s original
catalogueit is
the grandson
attributed
to Verelst, that is William,
who
of Simon,
of the elder brother
styled himself
the

Kitty Clive,

The

of Flowers."

God

The

appreciate Dr. Johnson,


her own
in the fashionable
society that
Horace
Walpole at Strawberry Hill,
than a great
been something more
even

hold

and

who

woman

surrounded
have

must

could

aftress.

Linton

is also at

level

If the
much

with

owes

who

impressions of

these

is Charles

stin6l with

sketches

these

the

upon

Absolute

Dornton

in

diffuse

pulse of
man

when

"

to

some

faint

Ruin."
have

of

crowded
he

has

theatre

beat

Of

in Old
has
like

heart

of
to

people.

this

sort

brated
celeSir

as

Old

as

the
this

seen

in aid of the

come

approaches

"

which

sentiment

in-

are

most

Rivals," and

to

says,

the moral

good

Road

them

shone

and

day,

The

"

Elia"

of

Club.

the

was

Christopher Curry

glow

Garrick

of the

his

of

most

Munden

in

The

Lamb

in Sir

a6lor

walls

of

Anthony

at

paper

ing
delightfulafter readthe men
as
they appear

and

canvas,

comedian

charafter

look

owes

old a6lors

the

of

among

Essays

**

is

to

Foremost

whose

to

represented on the
Joseph Shepherd

"

the a6lors.

insight. It

true

on

just mentioned.

committed

recolleftions

full of vivid

put

the artists it also

to

have

Lamb,

be

cannot

of those

any
much

the authors

to

their

are

stage

she

Romeo,

a6lress

an

as

the

Garrick

Julietto

Bellamy by
George Anne
club, but although she played

Mrs.

portraitof

The

latter

gifted

Dornton,
made
that of

the
one

pulpit,
doing^
I have

of excellence

seen

in

PEG

WOFFINGTON,

BY

ARTHUR

POND.

ACTORS

Other

AND

245

ACTRESSES

of
grand grotesque
stands
farce, Munden
out
panied
as
singleand unaccomas
Hogarth. Hogarth, strange to tell,had
followers.
school of Munden
The
no
began and

players.

in

the

himself."

end, with

must

But

of
Again, with regard to his remarkable
power
There
is one
face
making faces," Lamb
says,
of Farley, one
face of Knight, one
(but what a one
has none
it is !)of Liston ; but Munden
that you
and
call his.
When
can
properly pin down
you
think
he has exhausted
his battery of looks, in unaccountable
warfare with your gravity,suddenly he
of features
like
out
set
an
entirely new
sprouts
He
but legion; not so much
is not
one
a
Hydra.
**

'*

comedian

as

multipliedlike
There

about

Club,
1

80

his

of

one

them

Parsons,

the

styled the
by Lamb, but

was

mentioned

of

great
other

the

might

filla

Munden

by Opie

be

bill."
playthe

at

painted

was

originalSir

**

so

could

name

1.

William

been

it

countenance

eight portraitsof

are

Garrick

If his

company.

of

Marriage,"

favourite

atlors.

does

he

with

He

Mawworm

and

Club

are

not

the

the

in

Old

He
to

seem

essayistas

famed

was

Ogleby

Lord

Roscius."

is

have
some

his sentation
pre"Clandestine
for

Hardcastle.

At

portraitsof him in his


private dress, as Foresight,by De Wilde, as Dumps,
Natural
in the
Son," by Zoffany, and as Obadiah,
with Moody
in the
Committee,"
as
Teague.
Plausible
as
John Palmer, generally known
the
to
high comedy parts of
Jack," succeeded
the

Garrick

Comic

giary,
Pla-

Fretful

there

"

**

"

Gentleman

Smith

favourite

a6lor, but

the

Lamb

the
says

retirement
he

was

of
a

that

man
gentle-

He
slight infusion of the footman.
originalJoseph Surface, and according to

with
was

after

246

HISTORICAL

Lamb,
the

in fa6t

"

he a6led in it.
play when
there is a pi6lureof the screen

Club

School

**The

Joseph, King
Mrs.

character

that

There

Cohenberg,

Arrowsmith,
Palmer

and

Burton

Siege
lachimo, by

as

fany*s picflureof
with

The

in**

and

Garrick

Face,

Subtle,

as

Charles, and

as

Belgrade," by

of

Zof-

Parkinson.

Alchemist,"

'*The

in

scene

as

as

Lady Teazle.
portraitsof Palmer, by Russell,

as

also

are

scene

Palmer

with

Peter, Smith

Sir

as

Abington

Scandal,"

for

the

At

of the

Garrick

as

in

unapproachable

hero

in

PORTRAITS

Abel

as

belongs

Drugger,
of

Earl

the

to

Carlisle.
There

is

which

Palmer

of

good story

shows

how

entitled to the title of Plausible


justly he was
Jack, and how completely he carried the spiritof
Joseph Surface into private life. He and Sheridan
be friends, so he
to
having quarrelled he wished

said, "If
The

see

Jack,

**

well

William
as

He

says.

as

that while

creatures

little is

was

on

Elliston's

private deportment.
performance always going on
with
up

nothing

his casual

which

he

theatre.

pay.

abode

honours

ipso faHo
Elliston

to

for

walked,
He

for

by

that
sate,

carried

where

As
a

his

time
or

about

is Lamb
same

this

is

it

of

spirited

had

before

not

thought

the charm

You

he

off, so

are

and

was

the

are

Elliston

this

truth

In

**

says,

said in

be

to

acflors

some

he

creature

little there

thing although

same

thriftless

stage that they

off that

Lamb

was.

the

on

same

the

quite

was

what

but

man,

shows

the

Elliston

good acflor,and

his favour

was

forget I

you

it."

Robert

easy

Sheridan."

heart, Mr.

my

replied, Why,

manager

wrote

as

could

you

your

monarch

eyes,
takes

night,the poorest hovel


sleeping in it,becomes
a
palace, so wherever

stood
with

there
still,
him

his

was

the

pit,boxes,

ACTORS

and
galleries,

247

ACTRESSES

AND

his

portable playhouse at
of
in
market
the
corners
places/'
street,
There
is at the Garrick
Club
a
drawing of Elliston
by Harlow, and a painting of him as Odlavian
in "The
Mutineers," by H. Singleton,R.A.
universal
favourite, and
a
was
Jack Bannister
Could
Lamb
speciallypraises his cowards.
thing
any?
be
We
more
agreeable, more
pleasant
loved
the rogues.
How
this effe6led
but by
was
the exquisite art
of the a6lor in a perpetual subin the
insinuation
the spe6lators,even
to
tremity
exus
half
of the shaking fit, that he was
not
and

set

up
and

**

such

coward

as

him

took

we

for ?

"

Opie painted three portraitsof Bannister, and a


hibition
lent to the Guelph Exportraitby Reynolds was
Lee.
by Mr. T. Hutchinson
Lamb

and

enthusiastic

was

Suett

Dickey

Andrew

and

Aguecheek
Of

Night."
slowness

of

others.

You

the

in

he

apprehension,
could

see

of Dodd

merits

of

respedlive parts
clown

the

former

the

the

over

in

expressing
surpassed all

this a6lor

the

Twelfth

In

**

says

**

Sir

first dawn

of

idea

an

his countenance,
climbing up
till
with
a
painful process,
last to the fullness of a twilight

stealingslowly over
litde
by little and
it cleared

conception
There
the

Garrick
in

in the

**

highest meridian.*'
in private dress
at
a
portraitof Dodd
Abel
Club, also pictures of him
as
The
Alchemist,'' and Lord
Foppingis also
Trip to Scarborough." There

portraitof

criticism
*'

"

is

Drugger
ton

Of

at

up

its

**

acftors who

melancholy phrase
had

most

in his

is contained

all the

of

delivery of
upon

the

the

remarks

Bensley

on

in my
aright,reader

flourished

if taken

swell

heroic

finest bit of dramatic

Lamb's

Suett.

of soul,

"

of

emotions
a

"

Bensley

greatest

was

conceptions, the
presentment

time

in the
sequent
con-

great idea

to

248

HISTORICAL

the

fancy.

the

rarest

had

the

poeticalenthusiasm
players."

true

facultyamong

descriptionof

The

the

unfolded
not

was

He

PORTRAITS

the

character

of

acflor

the

is admirable,

lago

setting his

man

which

in

way

"

wits

at

**It

child, and

are
winking all the while at other children who
mightilypleased at being let into the secret ; but a
villain entrapping a noble nature
into
consummate
toils against which
discernment
available,
was
no

the

where

manner

seemed

**

loftiness.

Castilian.

but

his

it

you

could

might

wish

it

upon

was

of
the

beyond

but

much

Malvolio

part

spake,

to
an

It

see

be

air of

an

sure

it taken

seemed

true
:

Spanish
like

an

opiniated,
bottomed

something in
big and swelling,

was

was

it

moved,

and

There

coxcomb.

pose
pur-

charafter

starch, spruce,

was

worth.

not

shows

misunderstood
the

over

He

of

the

as

motive.**

superstructureof pride
sense

looked,

He

old

upon

without

evolution

understanding of
Bensley threw

fathomless

as

and

dark

the

Again,

was

hollow.

was

down,

but

you

You
felt that

elevation."

praise is excessive,
Knight thinks Lamb's
but
he
in the
Dicftionaryof
brings forward
National
corroborative
to
Biography
testimony
the excellence
of Bensley s Malvolio, which
was
his masterpiece.
At the Garrick
from
Club
is a picflure
of a scene
in which
King John" by Mortimer,
Bensley,
Powell, and Smith
are
represented.
Lamb
makes
some
respedling
laudatoryremarks
a
John Kemble, of whose
afting he was
genuine
At
the National
admirer.
Portrait Gallery there
two
are
good portraitsof Kemble, one by Gilbert
is here reproduced, and
Lawrence's
Stuart, which
At the
pictureof the aftor as Hamlet.
full-length
Mr.

**

"

*'

Garrick

Club

there

is Lawrence's

Kemble

as

Cato.

ACTORS

ACTRESSES

AND

249

the beautiful
Gallery contains
Siddons, by Gainsborough, which
portrait of Mrs.
is here
by Lawrence.
reproduced, and also one
She
in a pi6lure
is represented as Lady Macbeth
Club.
at the Garrick
by Harlow
Sir William
At the National
Portrait Gallery are
The

National

Beechey*s
figure. At
pi6lure of
similar
there

to

has

the

Dulwich

the

as

**

of Westminster

Duke

been

is

Gallery

Siddons

Mrs.

the

Lawrence's

and

portrait,

doubt

some

full-length
Reynolds's fine
Tragic Muse,"
s
pi6lure,and
which

to

as

of these

original. Every great painter was


anxious
to paint the greatest of English a6lresses.
rine,"
KathaG. H. Harlow's
**Trial Scene
of Queen
from
Henry VIIL," containing portraitsof
the members
of the Kemble
family. This picture
lent to the Guelph
rison
Exhibition
was
by Mrs. MorIt was
of Basildon
Park, Berks.
engraved
by George Clint, who, finding the publication to
be a success,
induced
to paint a similar pidlure
was
of a scene
from
New
Way to pay
Massinger s
is the

two

'*

'*

old

Debts,"

with

This, which
is

at

the

There
Siddons's

Kean

is considered

Garrick
is

Several

to

be

portrait of William
husband), by Opie,

is

Clint's best

Siddons

at

the

a6lors

Over-reach.

work,

Club.

of
Gallery,and one
^^iggs, at Dulwich.

Macbeth

Giles

Sir

as

Charles

have

had

of

National

the

Kemble,

Another

Garrick

in

(Mrs.

by

the

H.

latter

P.
as

Club.
the distinction

of

being
John

elder
The
Gentleman."
speciallyas
Palmer.
Palmer
man
Gentlewas
styled Gentleman
Rosciad"
Smith, who
figuresin Churchill's
the smart,"
Smith
the genteel,the airy and
as
in the
has
his portrait by
National
Hoppner
Portrait Gallery,and in the National
Gallery is a
Lewis
the marquis
in
as
portrait of Gentleman
known

**

"

**

HISTORICAL

250

the

by

*'

PORTRAITS

Midnight Hour/* by

Shee

is

the Garrick

at

Shee.

portrait

Another

Club.

of
to allude shortly to some
only room
the
the other portraits at the club.
Here
are
Roscius
William
Infant
Henry West
Betty as
Norval, by Opie ; Henderson
by Gainsborough
and
also by Beach, and as Macbeth
by Romney;
Cooke
as
Shylock ; Charles Young as King John,
Landseer
by Sir Edwin
by Clint ; Charles
; Liston
is

There

"

senior, as Somno
Plagiary,by De Wilde, and
Mathews

by

Harlow

Charles

Of

Robert

Mr.

beautiful

Elizabeth
another

Fretful

characters

various

junior,in various
coloured
drawings presented

women

Walters.
there

is

portraitof

Hartley by Angelica Kauffmann,


in

Andromache

as

Mother,''

in

Sir

as

Mathews

characters, a large series of

by

and

by

Sherwin

Mrs.

the

"

Mrs.
and

Distressed

Hartley

was

subjed:with Reynolds, and she appears


of his
an
as
example of female beauty in many
pictures; Mrs. Inchbald,by Harlow; Miss O'Neill
(afterwardsLady Becher), by Joseph ; and Mrs.
Pope, by Shee and by Clint.
Of the portraitsof modern
a6lors, still remembered
have
constandy
by many
playgoers who
of
them
with delight,mention
be made
seen
may
Macready as Henry IV., by Jackson, R.A.; Phelps
as
Wolsey, by Mr. J. Forbes -Robertson
(an
amateur
painter as well as a distinguisheda6lor) ;
Harley, by Clint ; Walter Lacy, by Cope ; Keeley,
by H. O'Neill; Buckstone, by Knight. E. A.
Mrs.
and
Sothern, Mrs. Stirling,
Keeley.
is a fine portraitof Sir
Of livinga"5lors there
Henry Irving,by Millais, and one of Mr. Toole,
by the Hon. John Collier.
also busts of Fechter
There
are
by himself, and
of Sir Squire and
Lady Bancroft
by the late
favourite

Count

Gleichen.

MRS.

SIDDONS,

BV

T.

GAINSBOROUCJH.

CHAPTER

XII.

MERCHANTS

noble,

would

only

not

colourmen,

dealers

but

store

vast

people

Thls

of

canvas,

etc.,

the

be

would

oilmen,

lost

miss

and

great

bread,

their

of

deprived

would

influences."

good

to

able
profit-

many

Coleridgk's

Hartley
"

Gresham
his

and

in

that

so

popular

There

country.
several

him,

in

mostly

by

private

of

founder

of

introducer
is

There

William

the

portrait

of

official.

eighty-one
Carpenters'

"

at

good
His

years

Hall.

supply
in

example

of

in
a

of

age,

in

to

1626,

Hall.
the
the

when
is

the

London.

office

place

seventeenth

portrait, painted

are

and

Goldsmiths'

served

buildings,

of

remembered

be

carpenter

the

Company

Company,

water

him

of

member.

early

always

River

New

remains

which

Mercers'

their

will

Portington,

was

of

than

portraits

Moro,

The

satisfa6lory

Majesty's

yeares/'

excellent

hands.

Middleton

Hugh

he

princes

Antonio

Sir

great

rather

merchant

some

portrait

good

possess

are

first

our

imagination

the

of

representative

of

cessity
ne-

chara6ler.

in

increased

has

fame

of

therefore

one

was

traits
por-

right belong

of

not

it will

the

on

miscellaneous

somewhat

merchants,

do

and

ones,

notes

some

who

persons

Thomas

waned,

of

consists

previous

Sir

Sir

be

hearts

our

the

to

citizens, limners,

pleasure

worse

salutary

those

be

His

is

chapter

the

worthy

innocent

of

and

many

Rome

at

as

i. 292.

Essays^

as

in

what

and

hints

to

limited

theyV/j tmaginum

"Were

PEOPLE.

THE

AND

of
40

tury
cen-

he

preserved

was

at

PORTRAITS

HISTORICAL

252
Of
of the
his

earlier

the

lord

most

famous,

favourite

cat,

Whittington is
portrait,painted

mayors
but his

said

be

cannot

be

to

one

with

of

any

authority.
Sir

Martin

painted by

William

picture

the

Bowes

was

The
1

to

549"

presented the
which
to
Company,
in

Hill, lord mayor


Exhibition

Tudor

the

was

benefactor.

munificent

to

1545,

who

Faithorne,

Goldsmiths'

lent

in

mayor

portrait of Sir Rowland


was

Lord

by

of Tatton.

Egerton
Sir

lord

Bowes,

founder

the

White,

Thomas

of

John's

St.

lord mayor
in 1553, in which
College,Oxford, was
knighted for preserving peace in the
year he was
Wj'at's
City of London
during Sir Thomas
There
rebellion.
are
portraitsof him in the Town
Hall at Salisbury,
at Reading, at St. John's College,
and
Merchant
at
Taylors' Hall.
Sir

William

the

to

ancestor

was

held

who

Hewett,
Duke

of

in

office

Leeds,

1559,

his

daughter
portraitwas

Osborne.
His
marrying Sir Thomas
of Leeds
Exhibition.
lent by the Duke
to the Tudor
is a portrait at
of Sir
There
Court
Hampton
in 161 6, and
lord mayor
who
was
John Leman,
entertained
the Knights of the Bath with a supper
Some
of the knights
and a play at Drapers' Hall.
insolent

were

that

there

to
a

was

entertainment
Sir

John

all great
in

England,
The
mayor,

second

and

was

in 1762
term

portraitwas

of

to

their wives

of

of the

the first Governor


is

portraitof

William
and

Beckford

1769, and

office

he

him

at
was

died

21st

the

were

mayor

Bank

the

of

Bank.

twice

lord

during

June, 1770.
painted by Reynolds in 1755, and
on

so

disorder, and

(one of the brothers who


lord
Samuel
Pepys) was

there

celebrated

and

of great
broken
up.

Houblou

He

citizens

scene

was

friends

1695.

the

his
His
the

MERCHANTS

is
pi(5lure

in

Duke

Hamilton.

of

the

with

or

His

John Boydell,Lord
is

art

in

and
lent

Stationers'

at

Exhibition
other
the

lord

of

and

Some

notice

outside

London.

Thomas
a

that

know
stable

be

must

very
the

be

must
to

the

of

famous

him

hall
Guild-

at

Henry Graves
South
ton
Kensingof many
in the

of the
halls of
of

their
here.

local celebrities
his

in

man

day

Cambridge carrier, who


English language. All
the

that

horse

taken

one

expression

the

engraving

mentioned

be

taken

phrase to the
his rigid rule,

door
rise

gave

of

mansions

the

in
cannot

more

Hobson,

added

has

found

be

to

are

but

the

Portraits

1867.

mayors

descendants,

Mr.

Miller, to

city companies

was

Hall, and

William

by

one,

lish
Eng790, to whom
for his judicious patronage,
in

in

England.

whether

known.

a school
establishing
There
are
portraitsof

succeeded

the

scribed
Guildhall, in-

at

it is doubtful

Mayor

indebted

deeply

253

descendant

statue

is well

no,

PEOPLE

of his

possession

speech which

delivered

he

THE

AND

next

for hire

out

choice."

Hobson's

**

the

Corporation of Cambridge lent to the South


of
1866
a
Kensington Exhibition
portrait of
the back of which
this inscription:
Hobson,
on
was
This
pi6lure was
hung up at the Black Bull in
Bishopsgate,London, upwards of 100 years before
it was
velled
tragiven to J. Burleigh, 1787." Hobson
the Black
Bull and Cambridge,
monthly between
and
in the **Spe6lator''
Steele, in a paper
fresco of him which
a
at
was
(No. 509), mentions
The

"

the

inn.

same

The

portraitof John Middleton,

giant,known
is preserved
Oxford

and

(17 inches).
to

Court

as

in

the
the

Child

**

about

pi6lureof

Gilbert

Ireland

161 7, where

Lancashire

(1578

Brasenose

buttery of

also the
Sir

of Hale"

the

he

College^

his hand,
took
threw

1623),

"

full size

Middleton
the

kings

HISTORICAL

254

wrestler

and

feet

Middleton

Pepys

June

on

to

heightwas
cellar of

the

to

went

1668,

9,

His

of

outline

the

see

hand.
the

Chetham,

Humphry
merchant,

his thumb.

out

put

inches.

Brasenose

POKTR^VITS

who

founded

the

Manchester

wealthy
Chetham

Library, and

painted in a yellow embroidered


sington
Kenand
his portraitwas
the South
to
sent
Exhibition, 1866, by Chetham's
Hospital
Library.

died

in

cap,
and

At

1653,

the

Guelph

portraitsof
lent

Baker

was

Exhibition

famous
Kneller

there

publishersand
s Jacob Tonson

Lemon

Reynolds s
kings printer; and

William
the

several

were

printers.
Mrs.

Stationers'

Arthur

M.P.,

Strahan,

Mr.

Company

the

W.

of
printer to the House
Commons.
At the South
Kensington Exhibition
of 1868
there
were
Pickersgillsportrait of the
of
second
The
terly
QuarJohn Murray, the founder
and Byron s publisher,and
Review
s
Phillips
Thomas
Norton
Longman, head of the great firm
of Longmans.
Chambers's
Robert
portrait by
Sir J. Watson
shown
at
Gordon,
P.R.S.A.,
was
Lane's

Luke

Hansard,

*'

"

Vi6lorian

the

The
much
and
at

inventors
for

the

present
the

Richard

Exhibition.
and

welfare

engineers
of

the

centuries, have

various

exhibitions.

who

have

England
been
The

well

of

done

so

the

last

represented

portrait of Sir
of Derby, A.R.A.,

Arkwright,by J. Wright
Exhibition.
the Guelph
Portraits of
to
sent
was
Daniels, of Robert
George Stephenson by William
by H'. W.
Stephenson
Phillips,of Sir Marc
Isambard
Isambard
Brunei
of
by Northcote,
Brunei
by J. C. Horsley, and of John
Kingdom
contributed
Rennie
by Sir Henry Raeburn, were
of 1868.
.to the South
Kensington Exhibition
of
The
Scarlett, the Sexton
portrait of Robert

MERCHANTS

"

AND

255

PEOPLE

THE

Peterborough Cathedral, who interred


of Aragon and
Katharine
Mary, Queen

and

**

of the

queens

of Scots

over," is

twice

cathedral, fixed

the

sightsat

of the

end

householders

town's

the

two

it is

as

"

one

the

at

nave.

in
Orpin, parish clerk of Bradford
Wiltshire, was
painted by Gainsborough, and the
beautiful
given by the painter to
pi6lure was

Edward

Wiltshire

of the

ornaments

It is

carrier.

the

National

of

one

now

the

chief

Gallery.

Ignatius Sancho, the black, whose


portraitwas
much
made
of by
painted by Gainsborough, was
of his acquaintance. The
the literarymen
portrait
exhibited
the Grosvenor
at
Gallery in 1885,
was
and was
engraved as a frontispieceto the edition
of his
born
Letters," published in 1784. He was
slave ship, a few days after
in 1729, on
board
a
for the Spanish
of Guinea
it had quitted the coast
At
West
Indies.
baptized by
Carthagena he was
of Ignatius. His master
the bishop under
the name
two
brought him to England when he was
years old,
**

and

him

gave

to

Greenwich.

Duke

of

was

threw

himself

who

her service
his

last

and

was

Othello

Frank

him

himself

as

was

who

set

from

Black-

at

his death

on

the

of
he

is said

He

at

Quixote.

Don

lived

butler, and
Garrick

offered

from

him

squireof

and

lived

Sancho,

protection

see

Oronoko,

and

of
as

the

shillingto

married, and

boy,

him,

to

tillher death.

prevented
Duke

the

to

on

employed

sisters who
him

Montagu,

kind

heath,

maiden

surnamed

They

resemblance

fancied
The

three

as

Sancho

duchess,

remained
have

to

spent

Richard

engagement

an

in

III.,
to

art

but his

imperfect articulation
He
appearing on the stage.
shop by the
up in a grocery
Hogarth painted him as a

Montagu.
Gainsborough

did

as

Barber, Dr. Johnson

man.
s

black

servant

and

256

HISTORICAL

PORTRAITS

painted by Reynolds, who also painted


tion
his own
black footman.
At the Reynolds Exhibiin the Grosvenor
Gallery Mr. H, L. Bischofflent a portraitof Tiu-che-quu, a Chinese,
sheim
ele6ledan
who
was
Honorary Royal Academician
of the Academy.
at the foundation
friend,

was

Britton, the small

Thomas

interesting chara6ler,
polite world at his own
in

of life,and
in the

of the

women

first

well.

For

weekly

concerts,

forty

fashionable

of the

he

he

years

Britton

also

gathered

which

he

which

is known

Earl

of Oxford,

Earls

of

valuable

the
sold

to

Lord
to

us

the

Pembroke,

other

book

formed
per-

amateurs

painted the portrait

who

is here
Gallery, which
that frequented
company
Britton
being a musician
is said

collection
Somers
as

and

Pepusch

all the

collector, and

book

ties
quanti-

Thursdays
by the most

on

and

did

as

of the

cumstance
cir-

in Clerken-

attended

Handel

Besides

house.

held

were

Portrait

in small

his house

qualityat

one

the

receivingmen

was

concerts,

National

reproduced,was

and

sell coals

to

which

these

most

his mode

altered

never

day. J. Woolaston,

in the

was

He

company.

at

was

reception by
is a unique
valuation

while

streets

man,

his

and

history.

continued

coal

of

for

of

colle6lors,

;^500, and

Trails.

Devonshire,

Winchelsea,
were

and
in

have

pamphlets

over

the Somers

Duke

to

The

and

the

Sunderland,
the

habit

of

spending Thursdays in book-hunting in the city,


in Paternoster
of meeting afterwards
and
at
tavern
a
Row.
Britton frequentlymet
them, and he
entered

their company

with

his coalsack

under

his

arm.

Mention

of

already

been

made

of

Lawrence's

portraitof Angerstein,and next to the latter,


be taken
a
great picture collector, notice must
the
Sir
elegant amateur
George Beaumont,

fine
as

has

THOMAS

BRIXTON,

BY

J.

WOLLASTON.

258

HISTORICAL

and

table

at

sat

the

paid her

the

by

tricks.

showed

her

away

and

brought

child's

daughter of

assiduous

most

and

The

PORTRAITS

Her

back

complete. She
captivatingof men,

stories,

juggled

was

unexpe6led

quarters.

dazzled, and

thought

was

plate

from

were

senses

told her

court,

He

the house.

the conquest
admirer
the most

her

only too ready to be


taken to his house
the next
on
day. She arrived in
an
delight,and gave
ecstacy of expe6lation and
He
herself
Sir Joshua s blandishments.
to
up
seized his opportunity,caught the radiant expression,
who

Northcote,
of

wrote

marking

the

and

a6lions
it

with

to

occurs

as

of

youthful mind,

the

movements

of

even

that

means

him

which

the above

watchful

how

instru6lion

in

much

delighted

enabled

remembrance

truth

show

to

children,

of

to

he

quired
ac-

portray

exquisitehappiness,truth, and
circumstance, as related by himself,

my

the

prove

He

bodily
by these

was

lover

such

variety.

and

immortal."

traits of

abilitywhich

the
children

**

dawning

infants, and

also

was

Reynolds

the

was

his little friend

made

and

and

it

wherever

may

to

as

well

observation,

his mind
was

serve

to

be

to

was

catch

gained.

Sir

with a party of ladies and


Joshua being in company
house,
gentlemen who were
viewing a nobleman's
when
a
they passed through a galleryof portraits,
little girl who
of the party attracted
belonged to one
attention of Sir Joshua by her
the particular
tions
vivacityand the sensible drolleryof her observalook

at

each
of

by

her

awkward

the company
made
the
portraitin particular,

for whenever

being

observed

the

air of the

a6lions

effe6l of the

limbs

in each

much

innocence

stand

to

child, unconscious

imitated
anyone,
head and
sometimes

by

positions of
ill-disposed
pi6lure,and this she did with
and
true
feelingthat it was

the
so

the

MERCHANTS

just and

most

be

made

AND

THE

incontrovertible

PEOPLE

259

criticism

could

that

the

pi6lures."
With
this insightinto a world
respeftingwhich
be surcannot
are
prised
profoundly ignorant,we
many
that Reynolds surpassed all other paintersin
Mr. Frederic
the paintingof children.
G. Stephens
in an
and
interestingbook, full of anecdotes
valuable
criticism, entitled
as
English Children
It
painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds," 1884, says :
on

"

"

occurred

have

must

readers

my

children

that

best

to

Reynolds

that

"

the

minds
of

of many
all artists

childless

the

depifted its beauty


of comedy, entered
happiestspirit
of childhood,

soul

the

with

tenderest, heartiest

man

among

painted

knew

in the

most

truest

and

into its

changeful
sympathy, played

playful,sighed with the sorrowful, and


all the craft of infancy." The
mastered
delightful
of
Heads
Gallery of
pi6lure in the National
really the portraitof Miss Frances
Angels," was
Ker
Isabella
Gordon,
daughter of Lord William
in different positions.
taken
Gordon,
The
at
Simplicity,"exhibited
pifture entitled
the portraitof
the Grosvenor
Gallery in 1884, was
Miss Gwatkin, daughter of Reynolds's niece **Offy."
Reynolds painted the little Penelope Boothby,
the only child of Sir Brooke
Boothby, who died
in 1 79 1 at
the early age
of six years,
and
was
buried
in Ashbourne
Church, Derbyshire, where
well-known
to her
monument
by Banks
a
memory
erefted.
The
ment
was
parent keenly felt his bereavethe distress was
and
lasting. He printed,
with

the

*'

**

in
to

1796,
the

of the

folio volume

memory
child
at

The

**

Sorrows

sacred

Penelope." Reynolds's portrait


hibited
exbelongs to Earl Dudley, and was

the

of

International

variety

Reynolds

entitled

put

of
his

Exhibition

of 1862.

charming positionsinto which


subje6ls is most
astonishing.

26o

HISTORICAL

He

produced

children,

and

boys

is

child)

the

Payne-

delightful

example,

and

National

the

Innocence,"in

Gall

and

wey

the

of

"Age

well

Gallery,

picture

the

class

one

the

in

themselves,

(Mrs.

Pick-a-pack"

**

by

their

with

mothers

girls

Of

profusion.

called

of

pi6lures

and

utmost

represents

other.

the
An

anecdote

well

told

added

be

who

sat

portrait-painters

who

most

sat

of

evident

suddenly

above

all
not

Are

grandfather

"

'

"

this

you

if

lad,

with

in

who

own

boy.
the
medir
who

President,

his
man

long

blunder

about
the

yet

after

that

of

had

and

up

while

as

dreaded
sensitive

'

appearance,

and

demanded

little

grew

1-awrence

Spring'

the

at

tinguished
dis-

Wynn,

Master

John

St.

operation

the

things
a

to

gravity,

tation,

may

two

to

**The

1884),

Exhibition,

middle

the

for

Reynolds

Stephens

G.

relates

it

to

grandson,
In

here

F.

Mr.

by
as

(Grosvenor

was

PORTRAITS

ta6l,
age

painted

and
and
my

INDEX.

E.

Abbey,
the

play

of

picture

R.A.,

A.,

in

-scene

Hamlet,

236.

Abington,

Mrs.,

of

her,

intended

be

him,

of

19.

of, 205,

David,

Allan,

Sir

Eton,

192.

Edward,

Alleyn,

Sir

235.

Thomas,

hibition
ex-

William

117.

Earl

Howard,

of, 213.

56.

William,

Oxford,

Museum,

portraits

at,

134.

Astley,

John,

72.

Audley,

Sir

Thomas,

197.
of

Princess,
with

Sir

Ayscue,
Bacon,

Lord

Bacon,

Sir

205.

her

Wales,

185.

family,

her

George,

205.

198.

Chancellor,

his

Nathaniel,
himself,

Sir

Bacon,

A.R.A.,

trait
por-

114.

103,

his

Nicholas,

traits,
por-

197.

89.

Burlington,

Lady

by
180.

portraits,

Anson,

Society

Antiquaries,
kings

and

at,

M.D.,

203.
254.

John,
Sir
of

Arnold,

Dr.,

Arnold,

Matthew,
Prince
147.

132.

Richard,

Arbuthnot,

portrait,

of, portraits

queens

Arkwright,

Arthur,

busts,

Rugby,

Wales,

and

Lady,

P.R.S.,

220.

Squire

Joseph,
Jack,

Frank,

247.

255.

Barry,

James,

Barry,

Spranger,and

77.
Mrs.

Barry,

242.

Beach,

Thomas,

portrait-painter,

76.

194.

by Watts,
of

traits,
por-

250.
Sir

Barber,

206.

Lord,

Sir

Bancroft,

Bannister,

166.

Denmark,

of

his

Archbishop,

Bancroft,

Banks,

151,152,155.
Anne

lege,
Col-

190.

her

Cleves,

of

Balliol

at

13.

212.

portraits,

her

Queen,

Anne

portraits

203.

Devorgilla,

and

John,

Balliol,

86, 256.

Lawrence,

M.D.,

Matthew,

Baillie,

false

J., portrait

J.

Angerstein,

by

107.

John,

Major

Andr^,

Anne,

portrait

her

II.,

George

of

daughter

Princess,

Amelia,

of

117

Sir

Thomas

by

Washington,

Allston,

1855,

i860,

and

Chalon

of

Provost

Richard,

Dr.

Allestry,

S. A., 90.

P.R

113;

J. J.

of worksof

portrait

79.

William,

exhibition
exhibition

Chalon,

Augusta,

210.

Allan,

AUin,

Duke

Monk,

George

E.

Ashmolean

painter, 56.
Albemarle,

A.

of, first

of

Ashfield,

portrait-

William,

Aikman,

works

Arundel,

supposed
for

pictures,

of

Ross,

235-250.

Fountaine

of

son's
John-

portrait

Joseph,

Andrew

243.

Actresses,

Addison,

to

246

242,

opinion
and

Actors

83.

Francis,

Lemuel

Abbott,

Society

Arts,

232.

his

Beale,

painter,
Beauclerk,

Mary,

Mrs.

portrait-

48.

Lady

Diana,

1 10.

262

INDEX

Bowles,
Beaumont, Sir George, 256.
Beck, David, portrait-painter,

Miss, painted by Reynolds,


257.

Boxall, Sir William, R.A., 94.

41.

Beckford, William,

Lord

Mayor,

252.

Beechey, Sir William, 80.


Bell, Lady, iii.
Bellamy, Mrs. George Anne^ 244.
Bellasys, Lady, her portrait as
St Catherine
by Leiy, 174.
Benbow, Admiral
John, 206.
Bensley, Robert, 247 ; as I ago,
248 ; as Malvolio, 248.
Berkeley, Sir William, 205.
Bemers, Sir John Bourchier, 2nd
Lord, 226.

Boydell, John, Lord Mayor, 253.


Robert, 215.
Boyle, Hon.
Bracegirdle, Mrs. 24a
Bcadley, Rev. James, 214.
ill,
ChurchBridgewater, Elizabeth
Countess

of, 181.
Bridport, Alexander,

ist

count,
Vis-

207.

Briggs, Henry Perronet, R.A.,92.


tion
British
Institution,first exhibiof portraits, 1820^ 114;
second
exhibition,1846, 114;
exhibitions
of Reynolds's pictures,
Betterton, Thomas,
1813, 1823, 1833, 1843,
235, 239.
of pictures
Bettes, John, portrait-painter,
114, 115 ; exhibition
by Hogarth, Wilson,
33.
and
H.
W., as
Gainsborough,
Zoflfany,
Betty, W.
Norval,
250.

81 4,

14 ; exhibition

rence's
of Law-

Bewick, William, 93.


pictures, 1824, 114;
exhibition
of pictures by ReyBindon, Francis, 109.
nolds,
Lawrence,
West, and
Blackstone, Sir William, 200.
of
exhibition
1833,
Blake, Robert, portraits,204.
114;
of
Wilkie's
Blomefield, Francis, portrait
pictures, 1842, 115.
made
Flamsteed
coal
do
small
to
Britton, Thomas,
duty
for his pcJrtrait,
22.
256.
man,
and
Blount, Martha
Brodie, Sir Benjamin, P.R.S.,
Theresa,
their portraits,181.
203, 221.
Bockman,
R., portrait-painter, Bromley, Sir Thomas, 198.
62.
Brompton, Richard, 67.
Bodleian
Lord, 200.
Library, portraits at,
Brougham,
Lord, 234.
Broughton,
134.
Boleyn, Anne, supposed portrait Brouncker,
Viscount, P.R.S.,
of her said to be
by Holbein
217.
really Anne, daughter of LaBrown, Mather, 84.
dislaus, by Baldung Binck
or
Browne, John, sergeant
painter
to Henry
Brosamer,
VIII., 28.
portrait,
151 ; true
Browning,
Robert, by Watts,
151.
Bond, Tom, 237.
Booth, Barton, 240.

232.

Boothby, Penelope, painted by


Reynolds, 259.
Hon.
Boscawen,
Edward, 207.
Boswell, J.,portraitby Reynolds,
his letter to
Reynolds,
230;
Bower, Edward,

portrait-painter,

2nd

Duke

Villiers,
George
of, portrait by

Verelst, 53.

42.

252.

pictures,126.
Buckingham,

231.

Bowes,

Kingdom, 254.
Brunei, Isambard
Brunei, Sir Marc
Isambard, 254.
Buchanan, George, 213.
Villiers,
Buckingham,
George
of
1st Duke
of, his collection

Sir

Martin,

Lord

Mayor,

Buckingham
in, 132.

Palace,

portraits

263

INDEX

Caroline

Buckstone, J. B., 250.


Bunyan, John, 227.
Burbage, Richard, actor

of

235

by himself,
Burghley, Lord, portraits,163.
Mildred, portrait
Burghley, Lady
164.
by Zucharo,
Burlase,Sir William, his portrait
of Ben
Jonson, 103.
Burlington, Dorothy, Countess
his portrait

of, 107.
R.,
Bums,

loi.

Alex.

portrait by

Nasmyth, 231.
Burrow, Sir James, P.R.S., 220.
E., as Subtle,
Burton, William
246.

Burton, Sir Frederic, 96.


Busby, Dr. Richard, 194.
Butler, Samuel, 105.
his portraitby
Butts, Edmund,
John Bettes, 33.
Butts, Sir William, portrait by

Holbein, 201 ; introduced


VII L
picture of Henry
Barber
Surgeons, 201.
Admiral
John, 207.
Byng,
Byron, Lord, portrait,231.

described

wrongly
Cairns, Earl, 200.
Callcott, Sir
of

as

his

and

works

at

hibition
ex-

the

Earl,

portraits,
199.

William, 226.
Campbell, Sir Colin, employed

George Jameson
of Kings

to

of

paint portraits
Scotland,

14.

Sir Thomas,

227.

tess
Carlisle,Lady Lucy Percy, Counof, 169.
his portraits,
Carlyle, Thomas,
;

54.
Countess
of, her
Castlemame,
portraits,18, 175.
VIII.'s
of
Henry
Catalogue
Scharf's
suggestion
pictures,
be
it
should
that
edited,

Cavendish, Thomas, 204.


tion
Chalon, J. J. and A. E., exhibiof their works, 1855, 117.
William, 83.
Chamberlain,
Chamberlin, Mason, R.A., 66.
Chambers, Robert, 254.
Chambers, Sir William, 232.
John, M.D., portrait
Chambre,
into
introduced
picture of
Henry

and

VIII.

Barber

geons,
Sur-

I., his

170.
Charles

II.,his portraits, 172.


Charlotte, Queen, her portraits,
185.
Chaucer,

his

portrait

in

Har-

MS., 25, 222.


Chancellor,
Chelmsford, Lord
leian

200.

Camden,

232

Holwell, 257*
William, 237.
Cartwrightj
Cassana, N icolo,portrait-painter,
William

portraits, 168 ;
portraitchanged to Cromwell,
of his children,
171 ; portraits

at, 134.

Carew,

92.

Carr, Rev.

201.

1875, '20.
Royal Academy,
portraits
Colleges,
Cambridge
Camden,

Margaret Sarah|

Mrs.

Carpenter,

Charles

the, 16.

R.A.,

W.,

A.

into

portraits

Ministry,

Cabal

Brunswick, Queen
IV., her portraits,

188.

and

painter, loi,

amateur,

of

George

on

Scottish

historical

254.
Humphry,
Chicheley, Archbishop, 133.
of, their
Chichester, Bishops
portraits,133.
Christian
II.,picture of his three
children, 138, 147, 154mark,
Christian
IV., King of Den-

Chetham,

168.

Denmark, Duchess
bein,
Milan, her portraitby Hol-

Christina
of

of

152.

Christus,Petrus,portrait-painter,
portraits,115.
of Brandenburg, Queen
144, 145.
Caroline
Lord
FoppingCibber,Colley,as
her
of George
portraits,
II.,
ton, by Grisoni, 240.
183.

264

INDEX

Gibber, Mrs., 243

with

Garrick,

Dahl, Michael, portrait-painter^


51.

243.

Clarendon,

ist

of

Earl

of, his

lection
col-

situdes
; vicis-

portraits,127
the
gallery,

of

127,

Dalton, John, 221.


Mrs. Anne,
1
Darner, Hon.
Dampier, Captain William,

Dan^rldge,Bartholomew,

128.

Clarendon, 3rd
as

Earl

woman,

of, his portrait


180.

Clergy, portraitsof the, 189-197.


of.
Duchess
See
Cleveland,

of theatrical

Clive, Kitty,243
and

A.R.A., painter
pictures,88, 238.
son
; friend of John-

Walpole,

244.

Closterman,
John,
portraitpainter, 52.
Clyde, Lord, 212,
Coke, Sir Edward, 200.
Cole, Sir Ralph, Bart., 105.
Coleridge, S. T., portraits,232.
Colet, Dean
John, 193.
House
Commons,
of, picture by
Thomhill
and
Hogarth, 182.
Cooke, G. F., as Shy lock, 250.
Cooper, Samuel, miniaturist,43.
Copley, John Singleton, R.A.,
74.

Corvus,

of,

Darwin, Charles, 221.


Davidson,
Jeremiah, portrait*
painter, 58.
Davis, Moll, 239.
Davy, Sir Humphry, P.R.S., 220.
Dawe, George, R.A., 89.
De
Bye, Hieronymus,
portraitpainter, 33.
Delany, Miss Mary, i la
De
221.
Moivre, Abraham,
Elizabeth
Denham,
Brooke,
her
Lady,
portrait by Lely,
174.
De

Quincey, T., 232.


la
de
TreDerby, Charlotte
of, her jjormouille. Countess
traits,170.

Derby's,
National

Earl

of, suggestion of
Exhibitions,

Portrait

117.

Johannes,

portrait-

painter, 29.
Cosway, Richard, 77.
Cotes, Francis, R.A., 62.
Coverley'SjSir Roger de,portrait,
14.

her
186.

186.

Clifford, Lord, of Chudleigh,


copies of his portraitrenamed,
Clint, George,

206-

62.

Daniell, Thomas, R.A., 232.


Countess
of,
Dartmouth,
portraitby Gainsborough,
William, Earl
Dartmouth,

Castlemaine.

10.

Derby, William, 90.


Desmond, Countess
of,spurious
portraitof, 1 5.
Devonshire, Edward
Courtenay,
Earl of, 100.
Dickens, Charles, 232.
Digby, Lady Venetia, her portraits,

Cowley, A., 227.


169.
Cowper, Earl, portraits,199.
Dilettanti
Cowper,
Society portraits,233.
William, portrait by
Romney, 231 ; portrait of his
Dillon, Viscount, 18.
William,
Dobson,
portraitmother, 231.
his
Cranmer, Archbishop,
painter, 41, 232.
traits,
porDodd, J.W., 247 ; as Sir Andrew
190.
Critz, John de, portrait-painter,
Aguecheek, 247.
Dolben,
Archbishop, his por34,35.
trait,
Cromwell, his portraits,47, 171.
192.
his wife,
tion
Cunningham,
Peter, his collecDonne, Sir John, and
British
of
Portraits
their
at
portraits,145.
Manchester, 116.
Dorchester's, Lady, opinion as
of
the
to the
Cust, Lionel, Director
painting of the Hampton
National
Portrait Gallery, 131.
Court
Beauties, 179.

266

INDEX

Mark.
5^^ Garrard.
Fliccius,Gerbicus, portrait- Gheeraedts,
28.
painter,
Gibbon, E., portraitby Reynolds,
Footc, S., his portrait
by Reynolds,
230 ; by Romney, 230.
Gibson, Richard, portrait241.
Fothergill,
John, M.D., portrait painter,
45.
portraitGibson, Thomas,
by Hogarth,203.
Fountaine,
Andrew, his portrait painter,
55.
House
at Holland
Davies, P.R.S.,221.
wrongly Gilbert,
be
to
Addison's,18. Gilbert,
supposed
John Graham, 92.
Franklin,Benjamin,221.
Glasgow Exhibition of portraits
Sir Martin, 204.
of local celebrities,
i8iS8,
Frobisher,
119.
Fuller,Isaac, portrait-painter,
Glasgow University,portraits
in,132.
49Gordon, Francis Isabella Ker,
Thomas,
Gainsboroufi^h,
70 ;
250.
painterof theatrical portraits,
Gordon, General,212.
Gordon, Sir John Watson,
237 ; exhibition of his works
at the British Institution,
1814,
P.R.S.A.,
91.
at (Jrosvenor
Gallery, Gower, George,sergeant painter
114;
to Queen Elizabeth,
1884-5,122.
32, 159.
Gandy, James, portrait-painter,
Grafton,Lady Isabella Bemiet,
49.

Duchess

of,179.

Exhibitions
Grafton Gallery,
portrait-painter,
Gandy,Williani,

of
"Fair
and
Garrard, Mark, the elder,porChildren," 123-4 ; works of
trait-painter,
old
Scottish portrait-painters,
161.
15, 31,
Garrard, Mark, the younger,
125.
Grammont, Elizabeth Hamilton,
portrait-painter,
31, 35.
his
Garrick, David,
portraits, Countess of,175.
relations
with
346;
Grant, Sir Francis,P.R.A.,94.
113, 241,
his actresses, 242 ; sat for
of
Graves,Hon. Henry, portrait
Lord Broughton,234.
and for Shakespeare,
Fielding
"Fair

22.

Garrick,Mrs.,241.

Women"

Gray,Thomas, 229.
Greenhill,
John,portrait-painter,

Garrick Club,theatrical portraits


48.
Greenwich
Hospital,portraits
at, 134,237.'
in the Painted Hall, 133.
Garth, Sir Samuel, 203.
Gascar, Henri,portrait-painter,
Gresham, Sir Thomas, 251.
Grimston, Edward, his portrait
John Baptist,
by Petrus Christus,143.
portraitCaspars,
Grisoni's
painter,
portraitof CoUey
45.
Cibber as Lord Foppington,
Gassiot,
J.P.,222.
Gawdie, Sir John, Bart.,105.
240.
Grosvenor
hibitions,
Gallery winter exGay, John,227.
122.
Geldorp, George, portraitGrove, Sir William, 222.
painter,
38.
106, 181.
Guelph Exhibition at the New
George I.,portraits,
181.
1891,123.
Gallery,
George II.,portraits,
184.
Gunnings, the Miss, in the
George III.,
portraits^
188.
at
Beauty Room
Hampton
IV.,portraits,
Georj^e
tune,
Court, 179 ; their good forGerbier,Sir Balthasar,his portrait
of the Infanta,36.
184.
183 ; their portraits,

267

INDEX

"

Simplicity,"
Gwatkin, Miss, as
by Reynolds, 259.
Gwyn, Nell, 239.
Montague, Earl
Halifax,Charles
of, P.R.S., 217.
214.
Halley, Edmund,
Hamilton, Gavin, 72.
Hamilton, Hugh Douglas, 74.
Hamilton, William, R.A., 79.
in, by MacHamlet, play scene
lise, 236; by E. A. Abbey,
236.
authentic
John, no
Hampden,
painted portrait of him, 18 ;
miniature
Castle,
at Windsor

18, noU.
Court,

Hampton

portraits at,

132.

Adriaen, portraitHanneman,
painter, 36.
Hans
engaged to paint
or H ansa,
three
of
daughters of
portraits
for
Count
the
d'Armagnac
Henry VI., 143.
Hardwicke,

Earl

of, portraits,

142.
Henry IV., portraits,
Henry V., portraits,142.
his
Henry VI., portraits,142 ;
of
Margaret
marriage with
no
Anjou, Walpole's picture,

authority

VII., portraits of, 146;

of
marriage with Elizabeth
York, Walpole's picture, no
authority for this ascription,
ture
children, pic137 ; his three
138
;
called,
so
wrongly
scribed
deof,
his
and
family, picture
by Walpole as Henry

his

v., 136.
VIII.,
Henry
1

50 ; Scharf

to

Harlow,

G.

H., 91

Trial

Scene

picture of
"Henry

in

VI 1 1.,"249.

Harman, Sir John, 205.


Cardinal
as
Harris, Henry,
Wolsey, 240.
Hartley, Mrs. Elizabeth, 250.
Harvey, Dr. William, portraits,
201.

on

147,
dated

his

family

portraits,
note

portraits,148 ; and
Court,
at Hampton

attributed

Gwillim Stretes,

of

Elizabeth

and

54 ; and

with

Seymour

Jane
VII.

Henry
York,

burnt

Holbein

at

Palace, 151 ; and


emblematical

Whitehall

successors,

Heere,

de

Lucas

portrait by

Harley, J. P., 250.

ascription,

this

for

137.

Henry

his

199.

the

168.

picture by

Luke, 254.

Hansard,

portraits,

her

Maria,

Henrietta

160.

Henry, Prince
portraits,166
with
E^rl

Henry,

Robert

of
;

Wales,

picture of
Devereux,

his
him

3rd

of Essex, 166.
Philip,his portrait,194.

Hewett,

Sir

Mayor,
Highmore,

252.

William,
Joseph,

Lord

portrait-

painter,59.
Hatton, Sir Christopher, 198.
Lord
Sir Rowland,
Mayor,
Hill,
Sir
212.
Henry,
Havelock,
252.
Hawkins, Sir John, 204.
jwrtrait-painter,
Thomas,
Hill,
portrait-painter,
John,
Hayls,
54.

50.

Francis, R.A., 64, 237.


George, 92.
Hazlitt, William, in.
Heathfield, George Eliot,Lord,

Hayman,
Hayter,

Sir

211.

Hilliard, Nicholas, miniaturist,


his
report of
154;
32, 33,
Elizabeth's
objections
Queen
in her
shadows
pictures,
to
162.

Hilton, William, his portrait of


William, M.D., 203.
Robertson
Beatrice,
as
Mrs.
Heere, Lucas d',portrait-painter,
238.
30Mrs., 109.
Hoadly,
John,
actor,
250.
Henderson,
Heberden,

268

INDEX

Hoare, William, RA., 64.


Hobson,
Thomas,
Cambridge

carrier,255.
tacked
Hogarth, William, 60, 237 ; atby Wilkes, 60 ; his
Sigi^munda," 61 ; exhibition
"

his

of

works

the

at

British

Institution,181 4, 114.
Holbein, Hans, arrival in England,
26 ; date of his death, 27 ;
his influence
the painters
on
of his time, 28 ; portrait by
himself, 232 ; his portraits of
the wives

of Henry V 1 II.,1 50 ;
of
school, exhibition

his

and
their

works

1880,

Academy,

the

at

Sir

Nathaniel

Dance,

74.

Holy

rood

series

Palace,

apocryphal

of

portraitsof
of Scotland, 14.
Hone, Nicholas, R.A.,
Honthorst,
the

the kings
66.

37 ; taught
Sophia and the

Gerard,

Electress

Princess

Louise, 106.
Hood, Samuel, 1st Viscount, 207.
Hooker, Sir Joseph, P.R.S., 221.
Hoppner, John, H.A., 81.
Homer,
Francis, his portraitby
Raeburn, 20.
Homer, Leonard, his inscription
his brother's

portrait,20.
Hoskins, John, miniaturist,43.
Hoskyns, Sir John, P.R.S., 217.
Houblou, Sir John, Lord Mayor,
on

151;
that

of

Braganza, 53.
Illidge,Thomas
Henry, 93.
Inchbald, Mrs., 250.
Inns of Court, portraits,133.
Irving, Sir Henrj', 236, 25a
Jackson, John, R.A., 89 ; his
ceived
copies of Reynolds, etc, dethe best judges, 203.
James I.,portraits,166.
James II.,portraits,177.
lier
(ChevaJames, Prince of Wales
St.
George), portraits,
to his
177 ; Lely's opinion as
parentage,

177.

er,
Jameson, George, portrait-paintportraits of the
41 ; his
kings of Scotland, 14.
Ceulen,
Janssen, Cornelius, van
portrait-painter,
35.
Jeffreys,George, Lord, 198.
Jennings, Sir John, 206.
Jervas, Charles, portrait-painter,
56 ; taught Pope to pamt, 107.

230.

Henry, R.A., 87.


Katharine, her portrait,
her portraitdescribed
as
Katharine

of

miniatures
Howard

Katharine

Jewel, Bishop, his portrait,192,


Johnson, Dr. S., portraits by
Reynolds, 230 ; as an infant,

252.

Howard,
Howard,

Queen

to

Royal

120.

Holl, Frank, R.A., 96.

Holland,

Ozias, R.A., 79.


Humphrey,
Hunter, John, Reynolds's portrait
copi^ by Jackson, 203.
Hunter, Dr. William, portrait by
Zoifany, 202.
Hurd, Bishop, his portrait,193.
Hussey, Giles, 65.
Huysman, Jacob, portrait-painter

of

of

her,

Parr, 152
1

miniature

84.

52.

Effingham, Charles,

Lord, 204.
Howe, Richard, Earl, K.G.,

portraits, 227 ;
by J. Oliver, 227.
Jordan, Sir Joseph, 205.
Joseph, George Francis, A. R. A,
Ben,

Jonson,

2nd

Joyce, Comet,
son,

207.

Howley, Archbishop, 191.


Thomas,
portraitHudson,
painter, 63.
CowHughes, John, 229 ; Lord
for his
per's letter of thanks
portrait,229.

portrait

by

Dob-

211.

Juxon, Archbishop,

191.

of Arragon, not pjiint1 50 ; spurious


Holbein,
by
portraitof,at Knole, 13.
Katharine
of Braganza, her portraits,

Katharine
ed

173.

269

INDEX

Maria

Kauffmann,

Anna

Peniston,

Hon.

Lamb,

gelica,
An-

his

trait,
por-

187.

78.
236, 249.
Kean, Edmund,
Keats, J^ portraits,232.
Keeley, Robert, 250.
Kelleway, Jane (?),as Diana, by

Richard

II., 141.
General,

Walker,

171,

portrait by

210.

Palace,

Lambeth

Lely, 175Kemble, Charles, 249.


Kemble, John, 236, 248.
Kemble
family represented

respecting

Queen

Elizabeth

Lambert,
I

with

conversation

Lambarde's

Kean, Charles, 236.

portraits at,

133-

Landseer, Sir Edwin, R.A., 94.


1
in
Lane, Samuel, 89.
in
Lane, William, 79.
Scene
Trial
Harlow's
Langton, Bennet, portrait by
VIII.," 249.
"Henry
Reynolds, 230.
his
by
portrait
Ken, Bishop,
portraitNicholas,
Laniere,
Lely, 192.
painter, 38.
Kennet, Bishop White, portraits,
Nicholas, 50.
Largilliere,
192, I93-.
64.
Latham,
James,
Kent, William, portrait-painter,
Latimer, Bishop, 192.
57.
Laud, Archbishop, 190.
Reynolds's
Keppel, Viscount,
Laurence, Samuel, 95.
portraitsof him, 207.
Thomas, 66.
Lawranson,
Kerseboom, Friedrich, 50.
Sir
Thomas, 85, 233 ;
Lawrence,
er,
Ketel, Cornelius, portrait-paint1

Killigrew, Anne, 100, 106.


Killigrew, Sir William, 227.
dote
202
; anecKing, Sir Edmund,
King, T.,

as

the

114.

Sir

John, 205.
of,
portraits
Lawyers,

Lawson,

197-

133,

200.

202.

Sir

at

Institution,1830, 1833,

British

Kettle, Tilly,76.

of him,

of his works

exhibitions

31, 232.

Peter

Teazle,

246.

Lebcck,
as

of

portrait described
Christopher Catt, 19.
his

scribed Lee, Nat, 240.


Club, picture so deof portraitsof
Leeds, Exhibition
incorrectly, 19 ; portraits
Yorkshire
Worthies, 1869, 119.
by Kneller, exhibition
(R^mee)
Remigius
Leemput,
of, 1 14, 228.
Holbein's
of
reduced
copy
van,
Knapton, George, 62, 233.
of Henr"' VI II. and
his
Sir
Godfrey, 51 ;
Kneller,
with
Henry
ane
Seymour,
Court
Beauties, 179.
Hampton
of
Elizabeth
and
VII.
York,
Knight, John Prescott, R.A. 94.
151.
Richard
Payne, 233.
Knight,
Henry Bilson,
^^SS^9 ^^- Hon.
Henry, 96.
Knight, William
186.
his
portrait,
portrait by
Mrs., her
Knott,
Lady Dorothy Percy,
Leicester,
Wissing, 176.

Kit -Cat

ficture

John, Carlyle's valuation


of his portraits,194.
Kratzer, Nicholas, 213.

Knox,

Lacy, John, in three characters


by M. Wright, 239.
Lacy, Walter, 250.
cism
critiLamb's, Charles,admirable
and acting, 244.
of actors

Countess

of, 169.

Leicester, Robert

Dudley,

Earl

of, 164.

Leigh, Anthony,
Friar," 240.
Leighton, Lord,

in the

*'

Spanish

exhibition

P.R. A., 96, 233 ;


his
works
of
at

the

Academy,

t20.

Royal

1896-7,

INDEX

270

Lely, Sir Peter, portraittpainter,


46, 232
the

"

known
portraits

174;

pupils, 48.
Leman, Sir John,

Lord

Mayor,

252.

Leslie,

93 ; exhibition
the
Royal

R.A.,

Robert,

Charles

of his works

at

1870,

Academy,

120.

Lethaby's, W.
**

R., paper
School

Westminster

on

the

ing,"
of Paint-

Ligonier, John, Earl,


Lily,William, 194.
Linacre, portraits,200.
Liston, John, 250.

211.

1857,
Margaret
the

of York, wife of Charles

Burgundy,

of

Bold

211

her

of,

Duke

ist

General

with

211.

the

traits,
por-

of,her

Duchess

Long, Edwin, R.A., 96.


Longley, Archbishop, his
Norton,

trait,
por-

254.

88.

portraitsof,

Jennings,
portraits,180.

Sarah

Marlborough,

Martin, David, 75.


L, portrait by Holbein,
Mary
156; by Moro, 156; by Lucas
de Heere, 156; with Philip II.,
attributed

Lonsdale, James,
Lord
Chancellors,

traits,
por-

116.

ohn

134.

191.
Thomas

British

fiortraits,
Armstrong,

painter, 34.
Lodge's portraits, sale of
drawings for, 131.
City Companies,
London,

Longman,

hibition,
Ex-

Treasures

Art

portmit, 146.
Marlborough, John,

portrait-

Rowland,

Lockey,

of, P.R.S.,

Earl

Macklin, Charles, 242.


Maclise, Daniel, R.A., 95 ; his
picture of the Play Scene in
**
236 ; exhibition
Hamlet,"
the
works
Royal
at
of his
1875, '20.
Academy,
W.
C., 236, 250.
Macready,

"

249.
Lewis, Gentleman,"
Lewis's, Lady Theresa, account
Gallery, 128.
of the Clarendon
Lievens, Jan, portrait-painter,

by him,

220.

Manchester

25.

scribed
in-

146.

Macclesfield,

his

VII.

Henry
painted

as

as

Beauties,"

Windsor

of

Xwrtrait

to

Lucas

de

Heere,

156.
Mary II.,her portraits,175, 179.
Il.'s
of Modena,
James
Mary
her
portrait by
second
wife,
Lely, 177.
of Scots, her portraits,
Mary, Queen
166.

197.

Louise, Princess, sister of


Electress
Sophia, 106.
Lucan, Margaret, Countess
.

the

of,

III.

Lucy, Charles, 96.


Lyons, Lord, 209.
Lyndhurst, Lord, 200.
K.B.,
Lyttelton, Sir Thomas,
16.
o
f,
spurious portrait
Lyttelton,SirTimothy, supposed
portraitof, 16.
sergeant
Nicholas,
Lyzarde,
Mary and
painter to Queens

abuse, Jean de,


were

ever

in

109.
portrait-painter,
"
to
New
Way
pay
Massinger's
Old
Debts," Clint's picture,

249.

Mathews,
his

Charles,

collection

of

portraits, exhibited
237

; now

at the

250
sen.,
theatrical
in

Garrick

doubtful

England,

if he
26 ;

Mathews,
Matthew,
Mayeme,

Charles, jun., 250.


Toby, 103.
Sir Theodore, 201.
Sir

1833,
Club,

237.

Elizabeth, 28.
M

portraitEdward,
Mascall,
painter, 45.
Lady, 180.
Masham,
Maskelyne, Nevil, 214.
Mason, Rev. William, amateur

INDEX

Mead,
Medical

271
Napier,

Richard, M.D., 202.


portraits of, 133,
men,

Admiral

Sir

Charles,

209.

Sir Charles, 212.


Napier, General
Medina, Sir John Baptist, porNasmyth, Alexander, 81.
trait-painter,
Nason,
Pieter, his portrait of
16, 53.
Charles
II., 173.
Melbourne, Viscount, portraits
National
188.
of his sons,
Gallery, portraits in,
Merchants
and
the PeopUy 251132.
Naval
260.
commanders, portraitsof,
Middleton,
Lady, her portrait
133, 204-209.
Naval
Exhibition
at
Chelsea,
by Kneller, 179.
Sir
Middleton,
Hugh, 251.
123.
Nelson, Lord, his portrait,209.
Middleton, Miss
Jane, her portrait
Cornelius
Neve,
by Lely, 174.
de, portraitChild
of
the
Middleton, John,
painter, 37.
New
Hale," 253.
Gallery, Tudor,
Stuart,
and
Victorian
bitions,
ExhiMiereveldt, Michel Janszen, porGuelph,
trait-painter,
200-203.

"

Military

35.
Exhibition

123.
at

Chelsea,

123.

Millais,Sir John Everett, P.R.A.,


99

the

exhibition

of his works

Grosvenor

at

218.

Gallery, 1886,

Norfolk, Duke

122.

Milton, John,
*

Newcastle, Margaret, Duchess


of, her portraitby Lely, 176.
Newton, Gilbert Stuart,R.A., 93.
Newton, Sir Isaac, various
traits,
por-

likeness

portraits,

Wordsworth,

to

223

225.

Painters, Society of,

Miniature

at

the

Manchester

Exhibition, 1857,

117;

bitions
exhi-

More,
More,

of, at South
ton,
Kensing1862, 1865, 117.
Henry, D.D., 215.
Mary, 106.

More,

Sir

Thomas,

155, 197 ; supposed


portraitsof his daughters, 13,
16.
Sir

Antonio,

painter,30,
Morritt, John
Sir M.

Surrey, 226.
Nollekens, Joseph Francis,
Northampton,
Marquis

A.

portrait-

232.
B.

the

61.

of,

221.

Northcote

James, R.A., 79.


Northumberland,
Elizabeth,
Countess
of, her portrait by
Lely, 174.
Dean
Nowell,
Alexander, his
portrait,194.

portraitby

Holbein,

Moro,

of

poet

P.R.S.,

125.
Miniatures

of, father

S.,portrait by

Shee, 234.

J. S., 244 ; his power


"
of
making faces,"245.
Murray, John, 254.
portraitMurray,
Thomas,
painter, 54.
ford,
Musicians, portraits of, at Ox-

O'Donoghue,

F.

M.,

his

logue
Cata-

of

Portraits of Queen
Elizabeth, 159.
Oldfield, Mrs., 240.
Oliver, Isaac, miniaturist,34.
Oliver, Peter, miniaturist, 43^
232.

O'Neill, Miss, afterwards


Lady
Becher, 250.
Opie, John, portrait-painter,
83*
Orford, Edward
Russell, Earl
of, 206.
Orientalists,portraitsof, 134,
Orleans, Henrietta, Duchess
of,
134.
Sir Christopher, 205.
her portraits,177.
Myngs,
parish clerk,
Mytens, Daniel, portrait-painter, Orpin, Edward,
3^1 232.
255.

Munden,

INDEX

272

William, R.A., 85.


Colleges, portraits at,

Owen,
Oxford

Pope, Mrs., 250.


Portington, William,
251.
Portrait

134.

Palmer,

"

Palmer,
Parker,

John, 245.
Archbishop,

Gentleman,"

his

trait,
por-

190.

Parr, Katharine,

Holbein,

Newnham
in

described

portrait at
Paddox, 1 54 ; portrait
Lodge not authentic,

her's,

as

portraitof

150;
Howard

Katharine

painted by

not

152;

154.

Parsons, William, 245.

Partridge, John, 91.


Payne-Gallwey, Mrs., and child
(*-Pick-a-pack"), 260.
Peacham,
Henry, 105.
Peake, Robert, portrait-painter,
36.
Penn, Sir William, 205.
Pepys, Samuel, P.R.S.,
Perkins, Richard, 237.

Peterborough,
Countess

Collections^ 126-134.
iotts^1 1 3- 1 2 5.

Exhibit

Portrait

249.

Gallery,
Portrait, National,
foundation, 128 ; collection
removed
Kensington,
to South
Bethnal
Green,
to
1869, 130 ;
Gallery in
1885, 130 ; to new
Place, 1896, 130.

St. Martin's

Portrait, National, Gallery at


Edinburgh, 131 ; at National
Gallery, Dublin, 131.
Painters
Portrait'
from Holbein
to
Highmorey
24-59 ; from
Millais,
to
60-99
Hogarth

written

the

on

the

have

should

Portraits

back,

names

20.

and

Spurious

Portraits,

Mis-

named

13-24.
Portsmouth, Duchess
y

217.

Foster,
Carey
portrait by

of,portrait
as
Flora, by Verelst, 176.
Pourbus, Frans, the elder, portrait-painter
31.
The.

Pretender,

Kneller, 179.
in

enamel,

Prince

James,

See

of Wales.

R.A., 96
R.A., 88.
Thomas,
Phillips,

Pringle, Sir John, P.R.S.,22a


Prior, Matthew, 227.
Pritchard, Mrs., 113, 243; with
Garrick, 243.
Professions The^ 189-212.
Pym, John, 171.

Bishop, portrait,193.
Philpjotts,
Physicians, College of,portraits

Queen,

43.

Pettie,John, R.A., 96.


Phelps, Samuel, 236, 250.

Philips,Charles, 64.

Phillip,
John,

at,

"

11 2.
100Amateur^
Portrait Painters, Society of,125.

of, her

Petitot,John, painter

carpenter,

200.

Pickersgill,Henry William, R.A.,

the

portraitsat
Victorian
Exhibition, 188.
Quin, James, 242.
The, her

90.

Edge, 73.
Pine, Robert
Pitcaim, William, M.D., 203.
Mrs.
Pitt, Miss, afterwards
ler,
Scroop, her portraitby KnelPole, Cardinal, his

portraits,190.

Arthur, 63.

Pope, Alexander, portraits,227;


letter

202.

Sir

Raebum,
exhibition

Edinburgh

179.

Pond,

Radcliffe,John, M.D., portraits,

Kneller's
respecting

trait
por-

1876,

Henry,

R.A., 80

of his works
National

Gallery,

121.

ton,
ThrockmorRaleigh, Elizabeth
Lady, her portrait,165.
Queen
Raleigh, Sir W\, on
Elizabeth's
portrait,158.
Ramsay, Allan, portrait-painter,
65.
*

of him,

228.

Pope, Alexander, an
painter, 107.
portrait-

amateur

the

at

INDEX

274
Scott, Sir Walter,
Portrait

Scottish

of their

Sophia Dorothea, wife of George


portraits,232.
hibition
ExI.,her portrait,183.
Painters,
works,

125.

Scougall, John, 5a
Seeker, Archbishop, 191.
Selwyn, Bishop, 193.
Seymour,
Jane, her portraits
by
miniature
Holbein, 151 ;
by
Hilliard, 154.
of Sudeley, Thomas,
Seymour
Lord, 155.
Shackleton, John, 66.
Shakespeare, W., portraits,loi,
223,

227.

Sharp, William,

his

and

family,

202.

Shee, Sir Martin

Archer,

87.

Sheepshanks, John, 2J7.


Shelley, R. B., portrait by
Curran,

Miss

231.

Bishop, 133.
Shipley, W., portraitby Cosway,

Sherbum,

Sothem,
South

E.

A., 250.
Exhibitions

Kensington

of

Portraits, 1866, 1867, 1868,


117-118.
South
Museum,
Kensington
portraits in, 132 ; exhibitions
of
miniatures, 1862,
1865,
117.

Southampton, Elizabeth Vernon,


Countess
of, her portrait,164.
Southey, Robert, portraits,202.
Southwell, Sir Robert, portrait
by Holbein, 155.
Southwell, Sir Robert, P.R,S.,
217.

their
Sovereigns and
Courts^
135-188.
Spelman, Sir Henry, 213.
Spottiswoode, William, P.R,S.,
221.

Stanfield, Clarkson,

113.
her

Shore, Jane,
supposed portraits,
146.
Shovel, Sir Cloudesley, 206.
Siddons, Mrs., her portraits,248.
William,
Siddons,
portrait by

Opie, 249.
Singleton, Henry, 84.
Sir

Sloane,

Hans,

P.R.S., 203,

219.

his

of

R.A.,

works

hibition
ex-

the

at

1870, 120.
Royal Academy,
of the
Stanhope, Earl, founder
National
Portrait Gallcr"',128.
Stephenson, George, 254.
Stephenson, Robert, 254.
Sterne, L., portraitby Reynolds,
on
Reynolds,
229
; his letter
229.

Sly, William, actor, 237.


Smeaton, John, 221.
Smith, Colvin, 93.
Smith,
Gentleman," as Charles
Surface, 246, 249.
Smith, Sir Jeremy, 205.
Smith,
Stephen
Catterson,
"

P.R.H.A.,

95.

Smollett, T., portraitby Verelst,

portrait-painter,

Soldiers, portraits of,

243,

209-

212.

Somers, Lord, portraits,199.


Somerville, portrait of Knox,
196 ; supposed to be by Pourbus, 197.

Sophia, Electress, her portrait


of her son
George I., 105.

90.

Gregory,

250.

husband
Stokes, Adrian, second
of Suffolk, 163.
of the Duchess
Sir
Stokes,
George
Gabriel,

P.R.S., 221.
Stone, Henry,

portrait-painter,

4'.

Dirk,

Katharine
confusion

133,

Thomas,

Stirling, Mrs., Lady

Stoop,

229.

Socst, Gerard,
48.

Stewardson,

name,

173

of
as

his

picture

Bra^anza,
to

his

of

173

Christian

n.

Strahan, William, M.P., 254,


Streater,Robert, port rait-painter,
49.

Stretes,Gwtllim,portrait-painter,
28, 154, 156.
the
Stuart, James, painter to
Dilettanti
Society, 233.

INDEX

Exhibition

Stuart

of the

known,

Twelfth

portrait

the

magnet
electro-

227.

the

as

Night,'

in

clown

them

by

Lucas

de

Heere, 163.
Sumner, Archbishop, 191.
Sunderland, Anne, Countess
of,
her portraitby Lely, 174.
Surgeons, College of, portraits
at,

200.

Underbill, Cave, as
the
Committee,"

Swift, Dean,

M.D.,

201.

Alma,

his works

tion
R.A., exhibiat

the

Gallery, 1882-3, 122.


Tait, Archbishop, 191.
Taylor, John, portrait-painter,42.
Tcddiman, Sir Thomas,
205.
Tennyson, Lord, by Watts, 232.
Terling, Levina, miniaturist,28.
Thackeray, W. M., 232.
Thomhill, Sir James, 55.
Tillotson,Archbishop, 191.
Tiu-che-quu, Honorary
Royal
Academician, 256.
Tonson, Jacob, 254.
Toole, J. L., 250.
Toto, Anthony, sergeant painter
to
and
Edward
Henry VIII
28.

39, 170,
of Charles
232 ; his portraits
I. and
his Court,
168-170 ;

exhibition

Girolamo

de, portrait-

painter, 29.
Tudor

of his works

the

at

Gallery, 1887, '23^


Vandyke, Peter, 72.
Van
Haaken, Joseph, 58.
Vanloo, Jean Baptiste, portraitpainter, 58.
Vansomer, Paul, portrait-painter,
Grosvenor

General

Vaughan,

Exhibition

(iallery,1890,

Harry,

210.

Vavasour, Anne, maid of honour


to
Queen
Elizabeth, her portrait,
165.

Verelst, Simon, portrait-painter,


Vernon,

Admiral

Vernon,

Robert,

at

123.

the

Edward,

206.

257.
Exhibition
at the

Galler)',1892,

New

123.

Wake,
Archbishop, 191.
Walker, Robert, portrait-painter,
44,

232.

New

Sir

Wallace,

William,

his

trait,
por-

15.

Wallis, John, D.D., 216.


Wallop, Sir John, K.G., 204.
Wallop, Sir Oliver, his portrait
in large by Hilliard, 34.
Walpole's, Horace, portraits of
and
kings
135 ;
(jueens,
described
by their
wrongly
136.

owner,

Sir

Walpole,

Robert, portrait of

S. Richardson

of, 19

Treviso,

portrait-

Gros-

venor

VI

240.

Vanderbank,
John,
painter, 58.
Vandyck, Sir Anthony,

Victorian
L.

of

in

52.

229.

Thomas,
James, 93.

Sydenham,

Tadema,

Obadiah

"

35-

Surrey, Henry Howard, Earl of,


portraits,226.
of, P R.S., 221.
Sussex, Duke
Sutton, Archbishop
Manners,
his portrait,191.

Syme,

portrait-painter,loi.

247.

Duke
Suffolk, Charles
Brandon,
of,and Mary, Queen Dowager
of France, 155.
Frances
Suffolk,
Brandon,
her
Duchess
second
of, and
husband, Adrian
Stokes, picture
of

Tuke, Sir Brian, his portrait by


Holbein, 154, 225.
Dr.
Twisden,
John, amateur

222.

John,

Dickcv,

Suett,
'*

Sir

New

no

of

inventor

Suckling,

the

at

Gallery, 1887, 123.


Sturgeon, William,

275

wife

Sir

Catherine

altered
Robert

to

and

that
his
their

Shorter,
portraits, 181.
of WhiteWalton,
Dr., Rector

chapel,

193.

276

INDEX

Isaac,

Walton,

Wilson, Benjamin, F.R.S., 66.


of
Wilson, Richard, exhibition

227.

Bishop Seth, 216.


Warham, Archbishop, 133,
Ward,

155,

his

works

189.

Wilton, Joseph,

Watson, George, 84.


Watson, Sir Thomas,
F., R.A.,

G.

Watts,
of his

works

at

the

Portrait

National

Wellington,

ist

203.
exhibition
Grosvenor

portraitWilliam,
Wissing,
painter, 52.
Woffington, Peg, portraits,243.
James, 211.
Wolfe, General
Wolsey, Cardinal, his portraits,

Gallery, 131.
of, portraits,

Duke

Rev. John, portrait,197.


P.R.A., 75,
Benjamin,
his
portraits of the
232, 234 ;
Hampton
Royal Family at
of his
Court, 185 ; exhibition

Wesley,
West,

the

at

1833,

British

tion,
Institu-

of

Painting,

Lord

Mayor,

25.
Sir

White,

Thomas,

252.

Whitefield, Rev. G.,

his

portrait,

197.

Whitmore, Frances BrookeLady,


her portraitby Lely, 174.
Whittington, Sir Richard, Lord
Mayor, 252.
Wilberforce, Bishop, portrait,
193.

Hogarth,
Ramsay,
6^.

Wilkes, John, attack


on

Allan

on

David, portrait by
of
Phillips, 232 ; exhibition

Wilkie,
his

Sir

works

at

the

British

Sir

of

Thomas,
portraitof

portraits

Worthies,

Worcestershire

William, likeness
Wordsworth,
to
Milton, 225 ; portrait by
Pickersgill,232.
Wren, Sir Christopher, 216, 217.
Andrew,
Wright,
sergeant
painter to Henry VIII., 28.
Wright, Joseph, A.R.A., 73.
WVight, Joseph Michael, portrait-painter
49.

Wrottesley, Lord, P.R.S., 222.


Wyche, Sir Cyril, P.R.S., 217.
Wynn, Master, sat to Reynolds
for
St. John at the Spring,"
to
his
260
sat
grandson
;
260.
Lawrence,
"

Joseph, P.R.S.,

174,

^n-

Charles, 236, 250.


221.
Young, Dr. Thomas,

Young,

Zoffany,Johann,
of theatrical
exhibition

217.

of
Eresby,
Willoughby
Bertie, Lord, 209.
Wills, Rev. James, 109.

ClilNWICiC
TOOKS

press:"

COURT,

grine
Pere-

British

Zucharo,

painter
portraits,237 ;

R. A., 73 ;

of his works

CHANCERY

AND

WHITTINGHAM

LANE,

at

the

Institution,1814, 114.
portraitFederigo,

painter,31.

CHARLES

of,

Duchess

Hyde,

Anne

stitution,
InYork,

1842, 115.
Wilkins, Bishop John, 176, 216.
William
111.,his portraits,178.
William
IV., his portrait when
of
Duke
Clarence, 188.

Williamson,

John, 94.
John
Woodhouse,
M.D., 112.
John,
Woolaston,
painter, 55.
Worcester, exhibition
121.

114.

School

Westminster

192.

Wood,

212.

works

232.

Castle, portraitsin,132.
Winstanley, Hamlet, 62.

Windsor

(lallery,188 1-2, 122 ; at the


New
Gallery, 1897, 123 ; his
the
munificent
to
present

60

stitution,
In-

British

the

at

18 14, 114.

LONDON.

CC.