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Chapter 6

(National Radio Astronomy observatory, New Mexico)

Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid

Generalized method for N element array


Assume uniform array of isotropic point sources
Uniform array has identical elements with identical
magnitudes and progressive phase delay
Pattern multiplication will give fields of actual array

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Sum of exponential can be represented by vector sum


of N phasors
AF 1 e j(kdcos( ) ) e j2(kdcos( ) ) e j(N1)(kdcos( ) )
N

AF e j(n1)(kdcos( ) )
n 1
N

AF e j(n1)

(1)

n 1

where = kd cos()+

(AF)e

j(n 1)

(2)

n1

(AF)(e j 1) ( 1 e jN )

by (2) (1)

Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

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Expression of array factor can be simplified as

sin(N / 2)
AF

sin(

/
2)

Maximum value of AF is N, normalized expression is

1 sin(N / 2) sin(N / 2)
(AF)n

N sin( / 2) N / 2 for ={-, }


To find the nulls put sin(N/2) = 0;

2n

n cos
( )
N
2 d
1

Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

N/2 = n
n = 0,1,2,3,
12

Maximum value occurs when /2 = m

m cos
( 2m ) m = 0,1,2,3,
2 d

Array has only one maxima that occurs at m = 0


1
m cos

3 dB point occurs when N/2 = 1.391


2.782
1
h cos
(
)
N
2 d
HPBW will be 2|m - h|
Read for secondary maxima (s) yourself
Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

N = 10; lambda = 1;
sin(N / 2)
AF

k = 2*pi / lambda;
Nsin(

/
2)

d = lambda / 4;
B = pi/2;
theta = [-pi : 0.01 : pi];
si = k.*d.*cos(theta) - B;
AF = 1/N.*sin(N/2*si) ./ sin(si/2);
plot ( theta, abs(AF) ), grid
figure(2)
polar (theta, AF)
Note: Try different values of underlined variables
Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

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HPBW

0.22 (-13.46 dB)

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Variation of number of elements (d = /4, = /2)


Note that directivity increases with N (appendix 2)

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Variation of , (with N = 5 and d = /4)


Principle of scanning arrays
Beam width does not remain the same

( = /2)

( = /4)

( = 0)
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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Variation of separation d, (N = 5 and = /2)

(d = /4)

(d = /3)

(d = /2)

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Types of arrays in terms of direction of main beam


Array having field maxima normal to the array axis
If array is along z axis, maxima is at = 90o
Array maxima occurs when = kd cos() + = 0
i.e. = 0 (All the elements must have same phase)

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Separation between elements must not be n


For d = n and = 0, = 2n cos() = 2n
Substituting in AF gives maxima along = 0,180
Multiple maxima of radiation pattern (grating lobes)
are avoided
dmax <

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Array having field maxima along the array axis


Either along = 0o or 180o
along = 0o, = kd +
= -kd
along = 180o, = -kd +
= kd
Main beam exists in both directions for d = , /2
Factors that control array pattern are N, and d
dmax <

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Directivity of end fire array can be increased by using


Hansen and Woodyard conditions (1939)
Conditions are for a closely spaced large array
= -(kd + 2.92/N) and || = /N Max. in =0o
= +(kd + 2.92/N) and || = /N Max. in =180o
d = (N-1)/N (/4) /4
(See derivation in book)
N = 10 & d = /4
Do

HPBW = 74o

1.805 Do

HPBW = 37o

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Main beam can be oriented in any direction using


appropriate phase shift
= kd cos() + = 0
gives
= -kd cos()
Continuous scanning requires continuous phase shift
Accomplished by ferrites or diodes (PIN, Varactor)
Types are switched line, loaded line & reflection

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Switched line
Phase shift = k (l2 - l1)

Loaded line

Reflection type
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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

1 x 4 array with delay line phase shifter

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

HPBW of end fire array is greater than that of broad


side & phased arrays

(Phased Arrays)

28

Investigation for Do of all arrays


Broad side Arrays:
N

sin 2 kdcos( )

(AF)n
N kdcos( )
2

Radiation intensity can be written as


2

U (AF)n

2
sin 2 kdcos( )
sin Z

N
Z

kdcos( )
2

where Z = N/2 kd cos()

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Umax = 1 at = 90o
Average value of Uo can be calculated as

Pr ad 1 sin Z

Uo

sin( )d
0
4 2 Z
Nkd
2

Do = Umax/Uo = Nkd/ = 2N(d/)


Over all length L of the array is (N-1)d
Do = 2(1+L/d)d/
e.g. array of 10 isotropic elements with d = /4, Do= 5

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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Ordinary end fire array:


N

sin 2 kdcos( ) 1

(AF)n
N kdcos( ) 1

2

2

2
sin kdcos( ) 1

sin Z
2
2


U (AF)n

Z
kdcos( ) 1
2

Following the same procedure Do 4N(d/)


Do= 4(1+L/d)(d/)
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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Hansen-Woodyard end fire array:


Uo of the array is calculated as
0.871 1.742

Uo

0.554

Nkd
2Nkd
2Nkd

Directivity will be

Umax
1 2Nkd
d

Do

1.805 4N

Uo
0.554

L d

L
Do 1.805 4(1 ) 1.805 4
d


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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

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Design parameters: N, d, , HPBW, Do & side lobe


In a certain design some parameters are specified &
others are to determine
Do and side lobe level are inversely proportional
Equations are used to compute the parameters
Graph of slide 28 can also be used

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Design a uniform linear scanning array whose


maximum of the array factor is 30o from the axis of
the array (o = 30o). The desired HPBW is 2o while
the spacing between the elements is /4. Determine
the excitation of the elements (amplitude and phase),
L (in ), N, and Do (in dB).
Solution:
For linear arrays uniform excit.
= -kd cos()
= (2/)(/4)cos(30)
= -77.94o
From graph L = 49.75
N = L/d +1 = 200
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The End