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# Chapter 6

## Generalized method for N element array

Assume uniform array of isotropic point sources
Uniform array has identical elements with identical
magnitudes and progressive phase delay
Pattern multiplication will give fields of actual array

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## Sum of exponential can be represented by vector sum

of N phasors
AF 1 e j(kdcos( ) ) e j2(kdcos( ) ) e j(N1)(kdcos( ) )
N

AF e j(n1)(kdcos( ) )
n 1
N

AF e j(n1)

(1)

n 1

where = kd cos()+

(AF)e

j(n 1)

(2)

n1

(AF)(e j 1) ( 1 e jN )

by (2) (1)

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sin(N / 2)
AF

sin(

/
2)

## Maximum value of AF is N, normalized expression is

1 sin(N / 2) sin(N / 2)
(AF)n

## N sin( / 2) N / 2 for ={-, }

To find the nulls put sin(N/2) = 0;

2n

n cos
( )
N
2 d
1

N/2 = n
n = 0,1,2,3,
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## Maximum value occurs when /2 = m

m cos
( 2m ) m = 0,1,2,3,
2 d

1
m cos

## 3 dB point occurs when N/2 = 1.391

2.782
1
h cos
(
)
N
2 d
HPBW will be 2|m - h|
Read for secondary maxima (s) yourself
Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

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## Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

N = 10; lambda = 1;
sin(N / 2)
AF

k = 2*pi / lambda;
Nsin(

/
2)

d = lambda / 4;
B = pi/2;
theta = [-pi : 0.01 : pi];
si = k.*d.*cos(theta) - B;
AF = 1/N.*sin(N/2*si) ./ sin(si/2);
plot ( theta, abs(AF) ), grid
figure(2)
polar (theta, AF)
Note: Try different values of underlined variables
Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

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HPBW

16

## Variation of number of elements (d = /4, = /2)

Note that directivity increases with N (appendix 2)

17

## Variation of , (with N = 5 and d = /4)

Principle of scanning arrays
Beam width does not remain the same

( = /2)

( = /4)

( = 0)
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(d = /4)

(d = /3)

(d = /2)

19

## Types of arrays in terms of direction of main beam

Array having field maxima normal to the array axis
If array is along z axis, maxima is at = 90o
Array maxima occurs when = kd cos() + = 0
i.e. = 0 (All the elements must have same phase)

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## Separation between elements must not be n

For d = n and = 0, = 2n cos() = 2n
Substituting in AF gives maxima along = 0,180
Multiple maxima of radiation pattern (grating lobes)
are avoided
dmax <

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## Array having field maxima along the array axis

Either along = 0o or 180o
along = 0o, = kd +
= -kd
along = 180o, = -kd +
= kd
Main beam exists in both directions for d = , /2
Factors that control array pattern are N, and d
dmax <

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## Directivity of end fire array can be increased by using

Hansen and Woodyard conditions (1939)
Conditions are for a closely spaced large array
= -(kd + 2.92/N) and || = /N Max. in =0o
= +(kd + 2.92/N) and || = /N Max. in =180o
d = (N-1)/N (/4) /4
(See derivation in book)
N = 10 & d = /4
Do

HPBW = 74o

1.805 Do

HPBW = 37o

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## Main beam can be oriented in any direction using

appropriate phase shift
= kd cos() + = 0
gives
= -kd cos()
Continuous scanning requires continuous phase shift
Accomplished by ferrites or diodes (PIN, Varactor)
Types are switched line, loaded line & reflection

25

## Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

Switched line
Phase shift = k (l2 - l1)

Reflection type
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## HPBW of end fire array is greater than that of broad

side & phased arrays

(Phased Arrays)

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N

sin 2 kdcos( )

(AF)n
N kdcos( )
2

2

U (AF)n

2
sin 2 kdcos( )
sin Z

N
Z

kdcos( )
2

## where Z = N/2 kd cos()

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Umax = 1 at = 90o
Average value of Uo can be calculated as

Uo

sin( )d
0
4 2 Z
Nkd
2

## Do = Umax/Uo = Nkd/ = 2N(d/)

Over all length L of the array is (N-1)d
Do = 2(1+L/d)d/
e.g. array of 10 isotropic elements with d = /4, Do= 5

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N

sin 2 kdcos( ) 1

(AF)n
N kdcos( ) 1

2

2

2
sin kdcos( ) 1

sin Z
2
2

U (AF)n

Z
kdcos( ) 1
2

## Following the same procedure Do 4N(d/)

Do= 4(1+L/d)(d/)
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Asst Prof Zeeshan Zahid, EE 344, MCS

## Hansen-Woodyard end fire array:

Uo of the array is calculated as
0.871 1.742

Uo

0.554

Nkd
2Nkd
2Nkd

Directivity will be

Umax
1 2Nkd
d

Do

1.805 4N

Uo
0.554

L d

L
Do 1.805 4(1 ) 1.805 4
d

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## Design parameters: N, d, , HPBW, Do & side lobe

In a certain design some parameters are specified &
others are to determine
Do and side lobe level are inversely proportional
Equations are used to compute the parameters
Graph of slide 28 can also be used

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## Design a uniform linear scanning array whose

maximum of the array factor is 30o from the axis of
the array (o = 30o). The desired HPBW is 2o while
the spacing between the elements is /4. Determine
the excitation of the elements (amplitude and phase),
L (in ), N, and Do (in dB).
Solution:
For linear arrays uniform excit.
= -kd cos()
= (2/)(/4)cos(30)
= -77.94o
From graph L = 49.75
N = L/d +1 = 200
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The End