Eurocode steel

© All Rights Reserved

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Eurocode steel

© All Rights Reserved

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- Designers’ Guide to Eurocode 7 Geothechnical Design
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Steel Joints

Dr. Klaus Weynand

Feldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

University of Lige, Belgium

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Basis of design

Chapter 3 Connections made with bolts, rivets or pins

Chapter 4 Welded connections

Chapter 5 Analysis, classification and modelling

Chapter 6 Structural joints connecting H or I sections

Chapter 7 Hollow section joints

ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)

Background information

Design guidelines

4 Welded connections

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

M

M Rd

S j,ini

cd

Displacements

Internal forces

Failure mode and failure load

M

?

?

Characterization

Classification

M

Modelling

Idealization

Characterization

Search for a unified approach whatever the material

Continuity

Beam-to-beam

Column bases

Joints in portal frames

Connections and joints in

composite construction

Hot-rolled and

cold-formed

Built-up profiles

End plates

Cleats

Splices

Economy

Reduced fabrication, transportation and erection costs

Robustness

Joints as key elements

Characterization (1)

Search for a unified approach

Characterization (2)

Eurocode 3 Part 1-8

Beam-to-beam joints, splices, beam-to-column joints and column

bases:

welded connections

bolted connections (anchors for column bases)

column web

in shear

Three steps

column web

in compression

column web

in tension

First step

Identification of the

active components

F

Second step:

Response of the

components

E k1

Assembly of the

components

E k3

E k2

Third step:

F3,Rd

F2,Rd

F1,Rd

Mj,Rd

S j ,ini

Sj,ini

cd

E z2

1

k

i

EC3 Part 1-8 provides therefore:

a library of components

rules for the evaluation of the properties of the components

(stiffness, resistance, deformation capacity)

rules for the evaluation of the possible component interactions

assembly rules for components

Applicable for simple joint and moment resistant joint

Different approach for lattice girder joints

For many types of joint configurations:

Joints considered as a whole

Check of relevant failure modes

Scope of application to be checked

M

?

?

Characterization

Classification

M

Modelling

Idealization

Classification (1)

Mj

Rigid

Rigid

Stiffness

Semi-rigid

Semi-rigid

Sj,ini

Pinned

Pinned

Classification

stiffness

for boundaries

Boundaries

Initialinitial

joint stiffness

stiffness

Joint

Classification (2)

Mj

Full resistance

Full-strength

Resistance

Mj,Rd

Partial-strength

Partial resistance

Pinned

Pinned

Boundaries for

strength

Classification

boundaries

Joint

Jointresistance

strength

Classification (3)

Ductility

Brittle

Semi-ductile

Ductile

Mj

M

?

?

Characterization

Classification

M

Modelling

Idealization

Modelling

JOINT

MODELLING

SIMPLE

SEMICONTINUOUS

CONTINUOUS

BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS

MAJOR AXIS BENDING

BEAM

SPLICES

COLUMN

BASES

M

?

?

Characterization

Classification

M

Modelling

Idealization

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Simple joints

Design tools

Example

Single sided beam-to-column joint configuration, bolted end-plate connection

4 M16 8.8

w=

30 80 30

p=60

u=10

+

140

M 0 1,0

M 1 1,0

3

240

120

60

15

M

IPE220

+ 10

HEB140

Material: S 235

To be evaluated:

Design moment resistance , initial stiffness

General data

Ft

Column

hwc hc 2t fc 2rc 140 2 12 2 12 92mm

Ft /4

Ft 2/4

4295,6 2 140 12 7 2 12 12 1307,6mm

w t fc

2

0,8 rc

80 7

0,812 26,9mm

2

bc w 140 80

30mm

2

2

m pl , fc 0, 25

t 2fc f yc

M0

122 235

0, 25

8460 Nmm / mm

1,0

Ft /4

Ft /4

m

l eff

General data

Beam

4 M16 8.8

w=

30 80 30

p=60

u=10

Lever arm

z hb u

3

240

120

60

+ 10

140

t fb

2

p 220 10

9, 2

60 165, 4 mm

2

W pl , yb f yb

M0

15

285.406 235106

67,07 kNm

1,0

z

IPE220

5

General data

End plate

mp

mp2

w twb

80 5,9

0,8 2aw

0,8 2 3 33,66mm

2

2

ep

bp w 140 80

30mm

2

2

m pl , p 0, 25

t 2p f yp

M0

152 235

0, 25

13.218 Nmm / mm

1,0

mp

General data

End plate

Alpha factor for effective lengths

mp

mp ep

mp2

mp ep

33,66

0,53

33,66 30

35,14

0,55

33,66 30

5,5

General data

Bolts

Ft ,Rd

0,9 fub As

Mb

90, 43kN

1, 25

0,6 fub As

Mb

60,3kN

1.25

1

10 14,8 2 4 47, 4mm

2

Resistance

0,9 Avc f y ,cw 0,9 1307,6 235 103

Vwc ,Rd

159,7 kN

3 M 0

3 1,0

F

Vwp

Transformation parameter

Assumption : 1

z

Vwp

FRd ,1

159,7 kN

F

Stiffness coefficient

k1

3,004mm

h

1165, 4

Resistance

beff ,c ,wc min t fb 2a f 2 2t p 5 t fc s ; t fb a f 2 t p u 5 t fc s

min 9, 2 2 5 2 2 15 5 12 12 ; 9, 2 5 2 15 10 5 12 12 161, 27 mm

Assumption : kwc min 1,0; 1,7 com ,Ed / f y ,wc 1,0

p 0,932

1

Et

0,932

wc

161, 27 92 235

0,543 0,673 1,0

210000 7 7

1

11,3 161, 27 7 1307,6

0,713

FRd ,2 kwc beff ,c ,wc twc f y ,wc / M 1 1 0,713 1161,27 7 23510 3 1,0 189,1kN

Stiffness coefficient

k2

hwc

0,7 161, 27 7

8,589mm

92

Fi ki E

Resistance

beff ,t ,wc min 2 m ;4m 1, 25e min 2 26,9;4 26,9 1, 25 30 145,10 mm

1

11,3 145,1 7 1307,6

0,749

FRd ,3 beff ,t ,wc twc f y ,wc / M 0 0,749 145,1 7 235103 1,0 178,7 kN

Stiffness coefficient

k3

hwc

0,7 145,1 7

7,728mm

92

Component No 5 End plate in bending

Equivalent T-stub in tension

Ft

Ft /4

Ft /4

Ft /4

Ft /4

m

l eff

Distinction between circular and non-circular yield line patterns

Circular patterns

Non-circular patterns

Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

Group 1+2

Group 2+3

Group 1+2+3

Groups effects to consider in addition to the individual response of each bolt-row

Row 3

In this example: only bolt row 1 is considered for tension forces

4 M16 8.8

w=

30 80 30

p=60

60

u=10

3

240

120

+

140

15

+ 10

Row 1

M

IPE220

5

Row 2

HEB140

Resistance

leff ,t , fc beff ,t ,wc 145,1mm (see column web in tension)

Mode 1 - Complete yielding of the flange

Ffc ,Rd ,t1

4leff ,t , fc m pl , fc

m

4 145,1 8460

103 182,5kN

26,9

2 leff ,t , fc m pl , fc 2 Bt ,Rd n 2 145,1 8460 2 90, 4 103 30

Ffc ,Rd ,t 2

103 138,5kN

mn

26,9 30

Ffc ,Rd ,t 3 2 Bt ,Rd 2 90, 43 180,9kN

Resistance

FRd ,4 min Ffc ,Rd ,t1 ; Ffc ,Rd ,t 2 ; Ffc ,Rd ,t 3 138,5kN

Stiffness coefficient

k4

m3

0,9 145,1123

11,59mm

26,93

Resistance

leff ,t , p min 2 m p ; m p min 2 33,66; 5,5 33,66 185 mm

n p min e p ;1, 25m p ; e min 30;1, 25 33,66;30 30mm

Mode 1:

Mode 2:

Fep ,Rd ,1

Fep ,Rd ,2

4leff ,t , p m pl , p

mp

4 18513.218

103 291kN

33,66

2 leff , p ,t m pl , p 2 Bt ,Rd n p

mp np

103 162,1kN

33,66 30

Stiffness coefficient

k5

0,9 leff ,t , p t 3p

m3p

14,73mm

33,663

Resistance

FRd ,7 M c ,Rd / hb t fb

Stiffness coefficient

k7

67,07

318, 2kN

210,8103

Resistance

beff ,t ,wb leff ,t , p 185mm

FRd ,8 beff ,t ,wb twb f yb / M 0 185 5,9 235 103 1,0 256,5kN

Stiffness coefficient

k8

Resistance

FRd ,10 2 Bt ,Rd 2 90, 43 180,9kN

Stiffness coefficient

k10 1,6

As

157

1,6

5,30mm

Lb

47, 4

column flange in bending

end plate in bending

Relevant component

FRd min FRd ,i 138,5kN

M j,Rd

M j ,Rd FRd z 138,5 165,4 103 22,91kNm

2

M j ,el ,Rd M j ,Rd 15, 27 kNm

3

Stiffness

Initial stiffness

210000 165, 42 106

S j ,ini E h / 1 ki

6234 kNm / rad

1

1

1

1

1

1

i

2

Secant stiffness

S j S j ,ini / 2 3117 kNm / rad

S j,ini

M

M j,Rd

Sj,ini

2/3Mj,Rd

Sj

Ersatzsteifigkeit:

Secant

stiffness

S j = S j,ini /

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Braced frame

V0

M=0

ECCS Publication No 126 (EN)

Background information

Design guidelines

Nominally pinned joints :

Mj

Sj,ini <<

Rigid

Semi-rigid

Nominally pinned

Initial stiffness of the joint

Semi-rigid joints :

Mj

Rigid

Sj,ini

Semi-rigid

Nominally pinned

Initial stiffness of the joint

As an alternative to a semi-continuous modelling (semi-rigid joints), is it safe to

model the joints as nominally pinned whilst they are actually semi-rigid?

??

Semi-rigid

Partial strength

Nominally pinned

Sj,ini = 0

Nominally pinned

Mj,Rd = 0

Yes, under the reservation the joint has:

a sufficient rotation capacity

= capacity to rotate

a sufficient ductility

= capacity to follow the actual

loading path in a ductile way

MRd

Yielding criterion

Actual loading

path

Supposed

loading path

V

VRd

Sufficient resistance to catenary effects so as to provide required structural

robustness

Components

Bolts in shear

End-plate in bearing

End-plate in shear (gross section)

End-plate in shear (net section)

End-plate in shear block

End-plate in bending

Beam web in shear

Welds in shear

Column flange in bearing

Strength requirement

Use of component method for the assessment of VRd

components of the joint

+

Assembly of these components

Rotation capacity requirement

Bending moment

Bolts in tension

Bending

moment

Contact between

supported beam and

supporting element

Compression force

avail

Rotation

Rotation capacity

requirement

avail

db hb

hp

hp db

avail

he

tp

tp

he

Ductility requirement

Prevent premature fracture of the bolts

Prevent premature fracture of the welds

under unavoidable bending moment in the joint

Ductility requirements

Prevent premature collapse of the bolts

d

2,8

tp

f yp

d

2,8

tp

f ycf

fub

fub

d and fub : diameter and tensile strength of bolts

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Introduction

Integration of joints into

structural design process

Moment resistant joints

Simple joints

Design tools

Tables of standardized joints

Dedicated software

Worked Example

Configuration

Beam IPE 500

Column HEA 340

End plate connection

Design assumption

Rigid joint

Frame analysis

MEd = 220 kNm

Design resistance:

Classification:

Failure mode:

Semi-rigid

Column web in compression

Failure mode:

End plate in bending

Failure mode:

Column web panel in shear

Failure mode:

Column web panel in shear

Failure mode:

Column web panel in shear

Design of Structural

Steel Joints

Dr. Klaus Weynand

Feldmann + Weynand GmbH, Aachen, Germany

University of Lige, Belgium

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