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HUP 102 REPORT 1

Overview of the experiments Tweezers Dexterity Test (Akshat), Mirror Drawing


Experiment (Shreyas) and Reaction time measuring setup (Shiva).

FEBRUARY 2, 2015
SUBMITTED BY1 Akshat Raj (2011CH10065)
2 Shreyas Wattamwar (2011PH10880)
3 Shiva Dhawan (2011ME10727)

Tweezers Dexterity Test


A Tweezers Dexterity Test is used to test the manual dexterity
of a person, specifically the fine motor movements of the hand.
Dexterity typically refers to the ability of a person to use their
hands and arms to perform a task. It is an important
component of the society and collective lifestyles of every
group on the planet. For example, Surgeons operating on
patients, Dentists performing Oral Care (Surgeries), people
involved in assembly line work and so on. [2]
Such Dexterity Tests, like the OConnor Tweezers Dexterity Test
are used extensively by employers (Human Resources and
Staffing Agencies) to test candidates for jobs which may
require high amount of hand-eye coordination like, watch
repair and lab technicians.

Figure 1 - OConners Tweezers


Dexterity Test Setup [1]

Apart from this, the hand dexterity tests may also be used for
various other situations. The tests are often used to identify and evaluate certain forms of brain damage
as well as a patients rehabilitation during therapy.
In addition, Neurological, physiological, and medical researchers use dexterity tests to understand the
human brain, hand-eye coordination, and dexterity capabilities of groups of people to advance medicine
and for educational purposes.
Various studies regarding the applicability of the test for different people, and in varying circumstances,
for example difference in dexterity between men and women, have also been carried out. [3]
The use of Tweezers helps negate the effects of the hand size, etc. which might lead to difference in
dexterity levels (for example, in that of males and females).

AIM OF THE TEST


The Subject aims to complete the test, that is minimize the time to complete placing the pins while,
making sure that they making the least errors.
The time in which a person completes the test can be used to quantify the dexterity of the person, and
can then be compared with others

PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.

The board consists of a 100 hundred holes, arranged in 10 rows and 10 columns, equally spaced.
Each hole is just big enough to hold a single pin.
Subject picks up one pin at a time with the help of the tweezers, and places it in the hole.
The aim is to complete the pattern in shortest time possible.

5. One should make sure that the subject is in a distraction free environment and also, that he/she
is not told the result until the testing is complete, so as to remove the variable of learning (positive,
negative, or zero)

Figure 2 - Tweezers Dexterity Test Pattern Used

OBSERVATIONS
S. Number
1
2

Test Subject (Person)


Akshat Raj
Shreyas Wattamwar

Time
5min 28sec
5min 18sec

Figure 3 Subject performing Tweezers Dexterity Test


2

Times Pins Dropped


5
3

Only two readings could be taken due to the shortage of time (had to perform 3 experiments in 1 hour).

CONCLUSION
Based on the readings, it seems that both Akshat and Shreyas have similar levels of dexterity although
Shreyas did fair a bit better. More readings of a wider range of subjects with different ability levels need
to be tested to exactly quantify the level of dexterity of Akshat and Shreyas.

REFERENCES
1. Source of Figure 1 - https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/f0/25/a9/f025a93ff9e5c5a11
f39315784d7b9eb.jpg
2. Lundergam, W., & Soderstorm, E. (2007). Tweezer Dexterity Aptitude of Dental Students. Journal
of Dental Education, 71(8), 1090-1097.
3. Stein, C., & Yerxa, E. (1990). A Test of Fine Finger Dexterity. American Journal of Occupational
Therapy, 499-504.
4. Yancosek, K., & Howell, D. A Narrative Review of Dexterity Assessments. Journal of Hand Therapy,
258-270.
5. Manjunath, N., & Telles, S. (1999). Factors influencing changes in tweezer dexterity scores
following yoga training. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, 2(43), 225-229.

SOME ADDITIONAL INFORMATION


Other forms/variations of the test also exist, for example, the test developed by Johnson OConnor
Research foundation, in which each row is scored separately, and the score is given on the basis how fast
a row is completed. The total of all the row scores gives the test score and higher this score higher is the
dexterity. [2] Hence, using the same apparatus various modifications can be done to the test and this can
help the psychologists, neurologists, etc. to study different aspects of a persons dexterity and its relation
with various other factors.
Studies correlated the scores on the OConnor FDT with disability ratings and ADL subscale scores on the
disability rating. The sample was 96 adults with permanent impairment to the upper extremity. The
Pearson correlation ratings were 0.69 and 0.88 for the disability rating and the ADL subscale, respectively.
These results represent moderate to high correlation and therefore demonstrate good-to-excellent
predictive validity. [4] Although, not many tests have psychometric significance and hence dont have
much literature published, but OConnors Dexterity Test (Only finger and not tweezers) has received
decent attention from the scientific community.

Mirror drawing experiment


Introduction
Mirror drawing experiment is basically based on what
psychologist call procedural learning[2]. Procedural
memories involve memory for motor skills such a tying
your shoes or riding a bicycle. Unlike other memories,
procedural memories do not seem to be encoded in
usual manner we learn, and therefore it is hard to
explain or guide someone in form of words. These
memories seem to be stored in the muscles, accessible
only when we perform the task[2]. This experiment
points out how much we rely on the familiar sensory
setup to gather information of our surrounding that
even changing or disturbing it slightly can throw us out
of place and performing the simple tasks become difficult.
While performing any actions that are visually guided in
an perturbed visual feedback like in a mirror or even
video camera with lag , there is special conflict that
occurs
between
Visual
and
proprioceptive
[3]
information . That is we see different from what we
feel or perceive. But thanks to our brain we learn to
decode or understand this new form of information and
we adjust to our surrounding. This experiment aims to
show that our brain learns and adapt to new
information[4].
Mirror drawing setup[1]

Aim of the Experiment


The subject tries to trace the given diagram (in this the star) by looking into mirror in minimum
amount of time and minimum errors.

Procedure
1. The setup consists of metal board with 5 point star cutout in it.
2. The metal sheet is electrocuted with +ve terminal and subject is provided tester with ve
terminal.

3. The task of the subject is to trace out the star with


tester with minimum number of contact to the
edges looking into the mirror in minimum amount
of time.
4. Whenever the tester touches the edge the counter
of increase which is accounted as error.
5. The first run is considered as Control trial and
eventual observations are noted with time taken
and number of errors.

Observations
Test Subject: Akshat
Control
Run 1
Run 2
Run 3
Run 4

Time taken(sec)
51
29
32
27
25

Error
34
13
22
9
7

Time taken(sec)
51
45
41
41
47

Error
31
21
15
10
13

Test Subject: Shreyas


Control
Run 1
Run 2
Run 3
Run 4

Conclusion
Based on the observation table we see that there is procedural learning process going on. The
control runoff both the test subject has been same but it decrease in consequent trials. There is
possibility of saturation of learning when the number of errors and time taken dont change much
and we get same results later on.

REFERENCES
1. http://www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-biology/practice-makes-perfect
2. http://faculty.knox.edu/fmcandre/Mirror_Drawing_Lab.pdf
3. Daniela Balslev, Lars O. D. Christensen, Enhanced Accuracy in Novel Mirror Drawing after
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Induced Proprioceptive Deafferentation.
Journal of neuroscience,2004
4. http://students.washington.edu/nbout/LessonPlans/mirrordrawing.pdf

REACTION TIME EXPERIMENT


INTRODUCTION:
A quote by Joseph Jastrow in 1890 demonstrates the importance of studying time relations of
mental phenomena. He says: "The study of the time relations of mental phenomena is important
from several points of view: it serves as an index of mental complexity, giving the sanction of
objective demonstration to the results of subjective observation; it indicates a mode of analysis
of the simpler mental acts, as well as the relation of these laboratory products to the processes
of daily life; it demonstrates the close inter-relation of psychological with physiological facts, an
analysis of the former being indispensable to the right comprehension of the latter; it suggests
means of lightening and shortening mental operations, and thus offers a mode of improving
educational methods; and it promises in various directions to deepen and widen our knowledge
of those processes by the complication and elaboration of which our mental life is so wonderfully
built up.
There are 2 basic kind of reaction time experiments:
In simple reaction time experiments, there is only one stimulus and one response. 'X at a known location,'
'spot the dot,' and 'reaction to sound' all measure simple reaction time.
In complex reaction time experiments, the user must give a response that corresponds to the stimulus,
such as pressing a key corresponding to a letter if the letter appears on the screen.

Reaction Time Apparatus


7

AIM: To determine the reaction time of the subject in various processes


PROCEDURE:
1. We took a total of 4 types of reading on 2 different subjects. The 4 types were: Visual simple, visual
complex, audio simple and audio complex.
2. There is a subject and a person who is taking the test. The subject has to press one button on the
apparatus till he sees a light. His reaction time is calculated thus. A similar thing happens in visual complex,
the only difference being that in this case he has to old 2 buttons instead of 1.
3. A similar thing is done for audio simple and audio complex, the only difference being that the signal is
an audio tune and not a visual.
OBSERVATION
Visual RT (s)
Complex
0.185
0.131
0.159
0.192
0.182
0.191

Simple
0.165
0.194
0.242
0.176
0.264
0.181

Audio RT (s)
Complex
0.225
0.226
0.205
0.159
0.233
0.201

Akshat

Simple
0.135
0.131
0.129
0.14
0.194
0.131

Visual RT (s)
Complex
0.203
0.203
0.19
0.277
0.302
0.372

Simple
0.159
0.133
0.196
0.214
0.206
0.191

Audio RT (s)
Complex
0.464
0.252
0.242
0.239
0.306
0.491

Shiva

Simple
0.158
0.181
0.195
0.202
0.34
0.175

CONCLUSION:
1. The reaction time in majority cases of subject 2 (Shiva) is more than subject 1 (Akshat)
2. When the reaction time of the complex case is compared to the simple one, it is observed
to be higher.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. http://www.psych.upenn.edu/~saul/rt.experimentation.pdf
2. http://homepage.univie.ac.at/andreas.franz.reichelt/intro2cogsci2/data/literature_revi
ew_reaction_time.pdf