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# 2001, W. E.

Haisler

y

ux (x)

w
h

## cross section (A)

may be any shape

z
L

L is large
compared to h and w

## The 4 governing equations that must be satisfied are:

xx
0
Static Equilibrium (from COLM):
x

u x
Stress-Strain: xx E xx
Kinematics: xx
x
Boundary Conditions: Depends on the problem

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Example 1. Consider an elastic axial bar as follows:

Axial force F applied to cross-section at right end (x=L)
Left end fixed so displacement B.C. of ux(x 0) 0
Beam is prismatic (constant cross-sectional area of A)
fixed from
motion at
x=0

ux(x)
x

A
F

## Determine: ux(x), xx ( x) and ux(x=L).

F
Equilibrium at x: xx
;Displace B.C.: ux(x 0) 0
A
u x
Kinematics Relation (strain-displacement): xx
x
Constitutive Relation: xx E xx

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Combine last three equations to obtain:

u x
F
xx xx / E ( ) / E
x
A
F
u x
F
( ) / E or dux [( )/ E]dx .
Thus
A
A
x
Integrate from 0 to x' to obtain the axial displacement:
x' F
F x'
F
u x ( x ')
dx
dx ( ) x ' C

0 AE
EA 0
EA
Apply the boundary condition: ux(x 0) 0
=> C = 0
F
Solution for axial bar in tension: u x ( x) ( ) x
EA

2001, W. E. Haisler

u x F

x EA

## and displacement at end, end u x ( x L) FL

EA
Note that end is the elongation of a bar of length L with
cross-sectional area A and Youngs modulus E and subjected
to a tensile force of F as shown below.
F

Consider a
L
truss structure as done in ENGR
211. By the method of joints, the

L B

E
8 ft
4 kips

H
8 ft

G
8 ft

F
8 ft

8 ft

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Chapter 11: Axial Deformation and Stress of Bars

force in bar EF is FAE 2.628kips . If the bar has a crosssectional area of 2 sq. in., then the stress is given by
xx

F
1,314 psi . Suppose the truss is made of steel.
A

## The elongation of the truss memeber is then

(2,268lb)(11.314 ft 12ftin )
FL
0.00531 in . In this
6
2
EA
29 x10 psi (2in )
case, the bar is in compression and the negative indicates
that the member has shortened.

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Example 2: Elastic bar constructed of two different bars, fixed

between two walls and loaded with a force P applied at point B:
E1

A1

E 2 A2
P
B

L
1

L
2

at point B.

## For this problem, we have 4 relationships to satisfy:

1. Equilibrium of horizontal forces at any point
2. Kinematics (strain/displacements in horizontal direction)
3. Stress-Strain (material properties)
4. Boundary Conditions

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Use a free-body diagram to determine equilibrium of the

forces acting on a segment of the bar. Assume forces in the
bars are P1 and P2 (positive). Take a free-body of the beam
cross-section at point B (where the axial load P is applied):

xx

xx

P1

P2

(stress in bar 2)

(force in bar 2)

## so that: P1 A xx1 dA xx1 A1 and P2 A xx2 dA xx2 A2

1
2

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Equilibrium of the free body at B in terms of forces requires that

Fhorizontal 0 P P2 P1

or P P1 P2

(1)

NOTE:
Any problem which can not be solved for the internal forces
by force equilibrium alone requires additional equations
(defining displacements) in order to complete the solution.
Such a problem is called statically indeterminate.
The above problem is thus statically indeterminate!
We know from boundary conditions that the bars total
elongation between the two fixed walls is zero. First,
calculate the deformation (elongation) of bars 1 and 2:

2001, W. E. Haisler

E1

A1

A1

P1

L
1
Free Body #1

A2

P
P
1

P2 = force in
bar 2

E
2

A
2

P
2
L2

B
Free Body #2

Free Body #3

## #1 and 3 are not really free-body diagrams!!!

P1L1
P2 L2
elongation of bar 1 = 1
; elongation of bar 2 = 2
A1E1
A2 E2
Displacement B.C.
total elongation = 0 = 1+ 2

P1L1 P2 L2
0

A1E1 A2 E2

## We now have two equations to solve for P1 and P2 :

(2)

2001, W. E. Haisler

10

1
L1
A1E1

1
P1
P

L2
P2
0

A2 E2

P1

Stresses are:

P
A2 E2 L1

A1E1L2

P1
xx
1
A1

and

P2

P
A1E1L2

A2 E2 L1

P2
xx
2
A2

## Note: for P to right, xx is tensile (+) and xx is compressive (-).

1

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Chapter 11: Axial Deformation and Stress of Bars

11

Displacement at point B is

P1L1
P ( L1L2 )
B 1

A1E1 A1E1L2 A2 E2 L1
Note that for P to the right (positive P) , B is positive (to the
right) as expected.
Special Cases: L1 L2 L
1. A1 A2 , E1 E2 : P1 P / 2 (tension), P2 P / 2 (comp)
2. A1 A 2 A2 (bar 1 has larger area), E1 E2 :
P1 (2 / 3) P , P2 (1/ 3) P (bar 1 carries more load)
xx (2 / 3) P / A , xx (2 / 3) P / A (same!)
1

## 3. A1 A2 , E1 2 E2 (bar 1 has higher E, i.e., is "stiffer"):

P1 (2 / 3) P , P1 (1/ 3) P (bar 1 carries more load)

2001, W. E. Haisler

12

## General Solution Procedure for Bars

1. Determine number of free-body diagrams required.
Generally need a cut in each bar. However, if applied load or
bar properties (E, A, etc.) change along the bar, then you need
a cut on either side of where the change occurs.
2. Draw free-body diagrams labeling all unknown forces, Pi .
Must be consistent by assuming + directions; must be
consistent with equal and opposite forces on adjacent freebody diagrams where a cut was made).
3. Write appropriate COLM and COAM equations.
4. Determine if problem is statically determinate or
indeterminate.
5. If indeterminate, determine appropriate displacement
kinematic boundary conditions for the problem
(elongations sum to zero, elongations opposite, one
elongation multiple of another, etc.).

2001, W. E. Haisler

13

## 6. Determine elongations i in terms of unknown (assumed)

internal forces. Remember positive direction of elongation is
in same direction as assumed member force Pi .
7. Evaluate kinematic B.C. in terms of displacements (now in
terms of unknown internal forces).
8. Solve equations obtained in steps 3 and 7 for the unknown
internal forces.
9. If appropriate, plot member force for all bars, i.e., the
understand what is going on).
Evaluate elongations, strains and stresses in each bar (by
substituting the internal forces). If you followed the "+"=tension
sign convention rigorously, then + elongation means stretching
and - means compression, + stress means tension, etc.

2001, W. E. Haisler

14

A1,E1,L1

A 2 ,E 2 ,L 2
1

## A rigid horizontal bar is

attached to the bottom of
each vertical bar.
Horizontal bar remains
horizontal when pulled
downwards.

## Determine: force, stress and deflection in each vertical bar.

As before, we have four governing equations: Equilibrium,
Stress/strain, Kinematics and Boundary Conditions.

2001, W. E. Haisler

15

## Use a free-body diagram to determine equilibrium of the

forces acting in each bar. Assume force in the bars are P 1
and P2 (positive). Take a free-body by cutting each bar
below its fixed point:
P1

P2

A1,E1,L1

L1

A 2 ,E 2 ,L 2
1
1

L2
2

P1

## Equilibrium of the free body in terms of forces requires that

2
P2

2001, W. E. Haisler

16

## Chapter 11: Axial Deformation and Stress of Bars

Fvertical 0 P1 P2 P

or

P P1 P2

(1)

## Elongation of each bar is:

P1L1
elongation of bar 1 = 1
A1E1
P2 L2
elongation of bar 2 = 2
A2 E2

Displacement B.C.:

=
1 2

or

P1L1

A1E1

P2 L2
A2 E2

(2)

We now have two equations and two unknowns (P1 and P2).
Writing the two equations in matrix notation:

2001, W. E. Haisler

1
L1
A1E1

17

1
P1
P

L2
P2

A2 E2

## Note: for simple problems, you can use Cramers rule of

determinants to solve the system of equations. Otherwise,
you Maple, EES, calculator, etc..
Solve for P1 and P2 gives:

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Chapter 11: Axial Deformation and Stress of Bars

L2
PL2
0
A2 E2
P
A2 E2
P1

L2
L1
A2 E2 L1
1
1

1
A2 E2 A1E1
A1E1L2
L1
L2
A1E1 A2 E2
1
P
L1
0
A1E1
P
P2

A1E1L2
1
1
1
A2 E2 L1
L1
L2
A1E1 A2 E2

18

2001, W. E. Haisler

19

xx

P1
P / A1

A1 1 A2 E2 L1
A1E1L2

## and the deflection is:

xx

P1L1
1

A1E1

P2
P / A2

A2 1 A1E1L2
A2 E2 L1

A1E1

PL1
2
A2 E2 L1
1
A1E1L2

Special Cases:
L1 L2 L for all cases below!
1. A1 A2 , E1 E2 :

P1 P / 2 (tension), P2 P / 2 (tension)

2001, W. E. Haisler

20

## 2. A1 A 2 A2 (bar 1 has larger area), E1 E E2 :

P1 (2 / 3) P , P2 (1/ 3) P (bar 1 carries more load)
xx1 (2 / 3) P / A, xx2 (2 / 3) P / A (stresses same!)
P1 is twice P2 , but A1is 1/2 of A2 , so stress is same
3. A1 A A2 , E1 E 2 E2 (bar 1 has higher E, i.e., "stiffer"):
P1 (2 / 3) P , P2 (1/ 3) P (bar 1 carries more load)
xx1 (2 / 3) P / A, xx2 (1/ 3) P / A (stress not same)
Since 1 2 (kinematic BC) and L1 L2 , strain is same
in each bar; but E1 is twice E2 , so xx is twice xx .
1

2001, W. E. Haisler

21

## Chapter 11: Axial Deformation and Stress of Bars

Class Exercise: The horizontal bar is rigid and pinned at it's left
end. The horizontal bar rests on two vertical bars as shown and
has a 1 Kip load at its right end. For each vertical bar, determine:
1) force, 2) stress, 3) displacement at it's top and 4) axial strain.
10 in

10 in

10 in

2
1

8 in
8 in

1 Kip

E1 30 x106 psi
A1 1 in 2
E2 20 x106 psi
A2 2 in 2

You can assume that motion is "small" so that the vertical bars
remain vertical when loaded; also ends are rounded so they carry
only axial forces.

2001, W. E. Haisler

22

## Example 4: Uniaxial elastic bar subjected to a uniform

temperature increase of T:
A

E=Young's modulus

=coefficient of
thermal expansion

E
L

The bar is fixed between two walls and has a constant crosssection A.
Determine: axial strain and stress in the bar and the force on the
wall.

2001, W. E. Haisler

23

## For this problem, we have 4 governing equations to satisfy:

xx
0
1. Equilibrium:
x
elastic
2. Stress-Strain: xx E xx
total
elastic
thermal ,
thermal
3. Kinematics: xx
xx
xx
xx
T ,
total u x
xx
= axial strain measured/observed
x
(e.g., by a strain gage)

## 4. Boundary Conditions: u ( x 0) 0 & u ( x L) 0

total u x
0
or xx
x

2001, W. E. Haisler

24

Solution

## 1) total x =0 (zero because of B.C.)

xx x
2) Combine stress-strain, kinematics, and boundary
condition to obtain
0

elastic
total
total
xx E xx
E ( xx
thermal
)

E
(

T ) ET
xx
xx
3) xx P / A

P xx A ( ET ) A ETA
(bar is in compression)

## P is the force in the bar; hence force on wall is also P.

2001, W. E. Haisler

25

## Suppose we have an aluminum bar of area A=0.1 in 2 with

E=10x106 psi and =6x10-6 (in/in)/F
above the reference temperature)
Then
xx ET (10 x106 psi )(6 x106 in / in / F )(250 F ) 15,000 psi
and
P xx A 15,000 psi (0.1in 2 ) 1,500lbf

(compression)

2001, W. E. Haisler

26

## Bar with Distributed Axial Load

Consider a bar with a distributed axial load px ( x) [units of
force/length].
px ( x)

## Determine the differential equation relating the internal

force, P, to the applied distributed load, px ( x) . Note that
the internal force P will be a function of x. First, consider
a free-body of a differential section at any point x:

2001, W. E. Haisler

P( x)

px ( x)

dx

27

P ( x dx )

x dx

## For equilibrium in x direction:

P( x dx) P(x) pxdx 0 .

P
px 0
Divide by dx and take limit to obtain
x
ux
Recall P xx A ( E xx ) A EA
. Substitute P into
x

ux
( EA
) px 0 .
equilibrium to obtain the governing ODE
x
x

2001, W. E. Haisler

28

## Note that in obtained the last solution, we have combined

the required governing equations:
xx
gx 0
1. Static Equilibrium (from COLM):
x
2. Constitutive (Stress-Strain): xx E xx
u x
3. Kinematics (Strain-Displacement): xx
x
and obtained a single second-order ODE

ux
( EA
) px 0
x
x
In solving this ODE, we will need two boundary conditions;
one for the axial displacement ( u x ), and one for internal force
(P, or stress xx ).

2001, W. E. Haisler

29

## Chapter 11: Axial Deformation and Stress of Bars

Case 1:
A=2 in2

100 in

F
20,000lb
3
u x ( x)
x 7

10
x
2
EA
10 psi (2in )

F=20,000 lb = 20 Kips
E=10x10 6 psi

u x (100") 0.1"

F 20,000lb
xx
10,000 psi
2
A
2in
u x
7
3

10
psi
(10
in / in) 10,000 psi
or,
xx
xx
x

## Note: stress is constant (not a function of x)!

2001, W. E. Haisler

px 200lb / in

Case 2:
on beam is

30
6
E=10x10 psi
A=2 in2

100 in

## distributed over length).

ux

Governing ODE:
( EA
) p x 200lb / in
x
x
du x
du x
d ( EA
) 200dx integrate EA
200 x C1
dx
dx
Need to apply a boundary condition to obtain C1. Recall that
internal axial force P
du x
xx

A
P xx A E xx A E
A
A
dx

2001, W. E. Haisler

31

P(x)

px 200lb / in

100 - x

## 0 Fx P ( x) 200(100 x) P ( x) 200lb / in(100" x)

For x=100", P(100")=0
du x
Applying B.C. for P (note: P xx A EA
):
dx

P ( x 100") 0 EA

du x
dx

x 100"

200(100") C1

C1 20,000lb

2001, W. E. Haisler

32

## Substituting C1 into the reduced ODE:

EA

du x
dx

200 x 20,000

du x

200 x 20,000
dx EA

1
100 x 2 20,000 x C2
Integrate above to obtain: u x
EA
B.C. for u x : bar is fixed at left end, so u x ( x 0) 0

1
u x ( x 0) 0
100(0) 2 20,000(0) C2 C2 0
EA

Hence,

1
ux
100 x 2 20,000 x
EA

## Substituting EA values gives final displacement solution:

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Chapter 11: Axial Deformation and Stress of Bars

33

u x ( x) 103 x 0.5(10 5 ) x 2
Axial displacement at x=100" (end):

## u x ( x 100") 0.1" .05" 0.05in

Stress is given by:

xx E xx

u x
E
107 psi (103 105 x )
x

xx ( x 0) 10,000 psi
xx ( x 50) 5,000 psi Axial stress varies with x!!
xx ( x 100) 0
Note on these similar but very different cases:

2001, W. E. Haisler

34

## 1. Concentrated load of 20,000 lb at end

2. Distributed load of 200 lb/in (but total load of 20,000 lb)
Displacements completely different:
Case 1: displacement varies linearly with x (0.1" at end)
Case 2: displacement varies quadraticly with x (0.05" at
end).
Stresses are completely different:
Case 1: stress is constant (10,000 psi)
Case 2: stress varies linearly with x (10,000 psi at left
end, to 0 at right end)

2001, W. E. Haisler

35

## An Alternate Approach for Bars with Axial Distributed Load

The 4 governing equations that must be satisfied for 1-D are:

1.
2.
3.
4.

xx
gx 0
Static Equilibrium (from COLM):
x
Constitutive (Stress-Strain): xx E xx
u x
Kinematics (Strain-Displacement): xx
x
Boundary Conditions: Depends on the problem

## In COLM, recall that g x is the body force per unit volume

applied to the system. Consider a prismatic bar with crossapplied force
section area, A, and length, L. Then g x
. If
AL

2001, W. E. Haisler

36

## we multiply by A, then we can define the applied force per

unit length of the bar as px g x A. Note that px p x ( x) .
px

## Now take COLM and multiply g x by A/A:

xx
xx
( g x A) / A 0
px / A 0
x
x
COLM can now be written as:

xx
px / A 0
1a. Static Equilibrium (from COLM):
x

2001, W. E. Haisler

37

## Consider the problem where px and A are both constant (not

function of x). Let px p
px constant p

xx
p / A 0.
1. Apply COLM:
x
Integrate wrt to x to obtain: xx ( p / A) x C1.
Need B.C. for xx . At x=L, xx ( x L) 0 . Get this from
p
free body: 0 Fx xx A p ( L x)
xx ( x)
Thus: xx p ( L x) / A xx ( L) 0
x
L-x
Apply B.C. to stress solution:

2001, W. E. Haisler

## Chapter 11: Axial Deformation and Stress of Bars

xx ( x L) 0 ( p / A) L C1 C1 ( p / A) L
Solution for stress becomes:

xx ( p / A) x ( p / A) L

or

p
xx ( x) ( L x)
A

## 2. Apply Constitutive Equation: xx E xx

xx E xx

p
( L x)
A

or

xx

( L x)
AE

u x
3. Apply Kinematics: xx
x
u x
p
xx

## ( L x) . Integrate wrt to x to obtain:

x AE

38

2001, W. E. Haisler

39

p
u x ( x)
( Lx x 2 / 2) C2
AE

## Need B.C. for u x ( x) . Bar is fixed at x=0, thus u x ( x 0) 0 .

Applying the B.C. to displacement solution:
p
u x ( x 0) 0
[ L(0) (0) 2 / 2] C2 C2 0
AE

p
u x ( x)
( Lx x 2 / 2)
AE

## Recall, the above solution for stress, strain and displacement

is only valid for p x =constant= p . If p x or A is a function of

2001, W. E. Haisler

40

## x, then in Step 1/1a (solution of COLM equation), use

px p x ( x) and A A( x) .
Note that this alternate approach to solving problems with a
distributed axial load is really no different then the first
approach. In the alternate approach, we solve the governing
equations in succession:
xx
px / A 0
1. Static Equilibrium (from COLM):
x
2. Constitutive (Stress-Strain): xx E xx
u x
3. Kinematics (Strain-Displacement): xx
x
In the first approach, we combined all equations to get a
u

## second order ODE to solve:

( EA x ) p x 0 .
x
x

2001, W. E. Haisler

41

## Class Exercise: Distributed load of 200 lb/in over length of bar

and 10,000 lb point force at end:
p x 200lb / in

100 in

10,000 lb
E=10x10 6 psi
A=2 in2

Determine:
a) u x ( x), and u x (50"), u x (100")
b) xx ( x), and xx (0), xx (50"), xx (100")

2001, W. E. Haisler

42

Other Cases

## 1. Assume a long bar which is slightly tapered with an end

load F, and whose cross-sectional area is a function of x:
A=A(x).
x
L

A=A(x)

Stress-Strain: xx xx / E
F
Equilibrium at x: xx ( x)
A( x)
Displacement B.C.: ux(x 0) 0

Kinematics: xx x
x

2001, W. E. Haisler

43

## Combine all constitutive and kinematics equations to obtain

ux
F
xx xx / E ( ) / E
x
A
or

F
du x
dx
AE

## Integrate from 0 to x':

u x ( x ') u x (0)

x'

so

F
F x' 1
dx
dx
E 0 A
AE
F x' 1
u x ( x ')
dx
E 0 A

## In order to complete the solution, must have a specific case

for A=A(x).

2001, W. E. Haisler

x
L

A=A(x)

u x ( x ')

x'

F
1 x' F
dx
dx
E 0 A
AE

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