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Concept 3.

1: Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding

to four other atoms
The chemical characteristics of an atom is dependent on its electron
Electron configurations determine the kinds of bonds an atom will form
with another
The Formation of Bonds with Carbon
Carbons chemical characteristics and versatility are due to its electron
configuration (6 total electrons, 4 valence electrons)
Carbon usually bonds covalently by sharing its 4 valence electrons with
other atoms to form a complete shell of 8 valence electrons
Carbon always forms 4 bonds in total with other atoms
Carbon bonds with many elements, but most frequently with hydrogen,
oxygen, and nitrogen
valence- the number of covalent bonds an atom can form (carbons is
Molecular Diversity Arising from Variation in Carbon Skeletons
Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules which
vary in the size and number of bonds
Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only hydrogen and
Hydrogen atoms are attached to carbon atoms where
electrons share
Major components of petroleum and cells have store many
long chains of hydrocarbons
Undergo reactions that release a lot of energy
The Chemical Groups Most Important to Life
Properties of organic molecules are also based on the chemicals that
bond to carbon
The Groups are the Hydroxyls (-OH), Carbonyls(C=0), Carboxyls
(C=O,-OH), Amino (NH2), Sulfhydryl (SH) , Phosphate
(P,O,O-,O-), and Methyl (CH3) groups.
Hydroxyls are alcohols
Carbonyls are ketones without hydrogen and aldehydes
with hydrogen
Carboxyls are acids
Aminos are Amine
Sulfhydryl are Thiol
Phosphate groups are organic phosphates
Methyl give methylated compounds
Chemicals can affect a function through the shape of a molecule like
estradiol and testosterone with hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups
Functional groups are chemicals involved directly in a reaction
The first six are functional groups; all except sulfhydryl are hydrophilic
and increase solubility of organic compounds in water

methyl acts as a tag on biological molecules

ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes
ATP or adenosine triphosphate is an organic molecule with an
adenosine attached to three phosphate groups
ATP reacts with water and dehydrates into ADP or adenosine
This reaction releases a massive amount of energy which is why ATP is
considered the molecule of energy

Concept 3.2: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers

The organic macromolecules of life are polymers categorized into
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
Polymer- a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks
linked by covalent bonds (ie. like a train consisting of a chain of cars)
Monomers- repeating units that serve as building blocks of a polymer
The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers
Enzymes are catalyst that speed up chemical reactions, they can
break up long strands of polymers quickly
Dehydration reaction is when monomers are connected to by a
reaction where molecules are bonded, with a loss of a water molecule.
Hydrolysis is the reverse of a dehydration reaction. It breaks down a
polymer instead of synthesizing a polymer.
The Diversity of Polymers
Each cell contains thousands of different polymers. Each vary
The basis for the diversity of polymers lies in that the molecules are
constructed from about 40-50 monomers
The key to the variations is the arrangement of the units into a certain
linear sequence
The main idea is that small molecules common to all organisms create
the unique macromolecules

Concept 3.3: Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material

Carbohydrates include sugars and their polymers. The simplest
carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or simple sugars. Disaccharides, or
double sugars, consist of two monosaccharides joined by a dehydration
Polysaccharides are polymers of many monosaccharides.
Monosaccharides generally have molecular formulas that are some
multiple of the unit CH2O.
Monosaccharides have a carbonyl group (>C=O) and multiple hydroxyl
groups (OH).
Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, the sugar is an
aldose or a ketose.
Most names for sugars end in -ose.

Glucose, an aldose, and fructose, a ketose, are structural

Monosaccharides are also classified by the number of carbons in the
carbon skeleton.
Glucose and other six-carbon sugars are hexoses.
Five-carbon backbones are pentoses; three-carbon sugars are
Monosaccharides provide fuel for the cell through cellular respiration
and allow for other monomers to be built
While often drawn as a linear skeleton, monosaccharides in aqueous
solutions form rings.
Two monosaccharides can join with a glycosidic linkage to form a
disaccharide via dehydration.
Maltose, malt sugar, is formed by joining two glucose molecules.
Sucrose, table sugar, is formed by joining glucose and fructose.
Sucrose is the major transport form of sugars in plants.
Lactose, milk sugar, is formed by joining glucose and galactose.
Polysaccharides are polymers of hundreds to thousands of
monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages.
Some polysaccharides serve for storage and are hydrolyzed as sugars
are needed.
Other polysaccharides serve as building materials for the cell or the
whole organism.
Starch is a storage polysaccharide composed entirely of glucose
The simplest form of starch, amylose, is unbranched and forms a
Branched forms such as amylopectin are more complex.
Animals store glucose in a polysaccharide called glycogen. Glycogen is
highly branched like amylopectin.
Cellulose is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells.
Like starch, cellulose is a polymer of glucose. However, the glycosidic
linkages in these two polymers differ.
Starch is a polysaccharide of alpha glucose monomers.
Cellulose is a polysaccharide of beta glucose monomers, making every
other glucose monomer upside down with respect to its neighbors.
While polymers built with alpha glucose form helical structures,
polymers built with beta glucose form straight structures.
Another important structural polysaccharide is chitin, used in the
exoskeletons of arthropods (including insects, spiders, and crustaceans).
Chitin is similar to cellulose, except that it contains a nitrogencontaining appendage on each glucose monomer.
Chitin also provides structural support for the cell walls of many fungi.