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# Solids

In a solid, particles are packed tightly together so they are unable to move about very much. Particles of a
solid have very low kinetic energy. The electrons of each atom are in motion, so the atoms have a small
vibration, but they are fixed in their position. Solids have a definite shape. They do not conform to the
shape of the container in which they are placed. They also have a definite volume. The particles of a solid
are already so tightly packed together that increasing pressure will not compress the solid to a smaller
volume.
Liquids
In the liquid phase, the particles of a substance have more kinetic energy than those in a solid. The liquid
particles are not held in a regular arrangement, but are still very close to each other so liquids have a
definite volume. Liquids, like solids, cannot be compressed. Particles of a liquid have just enough room to
flow around each other, so liquids have an indefinite shape. A liquid will change shape to conform to its
container. Force is spread evenly throughout the liquid, so when an object is placed in a liquid, the liquid
particles are displaced by the object.
The magnitude of the upward buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
When the buoyant force is equal to the force of gravity pulling down on the objects mass, the object will
float. This principle of buoyancy was discovered by the Greek mathematician Archimedes who, according
to legend, sprang from his bath and ran naked through the streets shouting "Eureka!"
Particles of a liquid tend to be held by weak intermolecular attraction rather than moving freely as the
particles of a gas will. This cohesive force pulls the particles together to form drops or streams.
Gases
Gas particles have a great deal of space between them and have high kinetic energy. If unconfined, the
particles of a gas will spread out indefinitely; if confined, the gas will expand to fill its container. When a gas
is put under pressure by reducing the volume of the container, the space between particles is reduced, and
the pressure exerted by their collisions increases. If the volume of the container is held constant, but the
temperature of the gas increases, then the pressure will also increase. Gas particles have enough kinetic
energy to overcome intermolecular forces that hold solids and liquids together, thus a gas has no definite
volume and no definite shape.
Plasma
Plasma is not a common state of matter here on Earth, but may be the most common state of matter in
the universe. Plasma consists of highly charged particles with extremely high kinetic energy. The noble
gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon) are often used to make glowing signs by using
electricity to ionize them to the plasma state. Stars are essentially superheated balls of plasma.

Bose-Einstein condensates

In 1995, technology enabled scientists to create a new state of matter, the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).
Using a combination of lasers and magnets, Eric Cornell and Carl Weiman cooled a sample of rubidium to
within a few degrees of absolute zero. At this extremely low temperature, molecular motion comes very
close to stopping altogether. Since there is almost no kinetic energy being transferred from one atom to
another, the atoms begin to clump together. There are no longer thousands of separate atoms, just one
super atom. A BEC is used to study quantum mechanics on a macroscopic level. Light appears to slow
down as it passes through a BEC, allowing study of the particle/wave paradox. A BEC also has many of the
properties of a superfluid flowing without friction. BECs are also used to simulate conditions that might
apply in black holes.

Question: Psychologist vs. psychiatrist? What is the difference between these two?Answer:
The simplest way to describe the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist when it
comes to treating depression is that one is a medical doctor, while the other is not.
A psychologist primarily aids the depressed patient through counseling and psychotherapy. He
may hold a doctoral degree (Ph.D.) and be called "doctor," but is not a medical doctor (M.D.).
Psychology is the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. It thus
encompasses both normal and abnormal behavior. On the other hand, psychiatry is a branch of medicine
dealing with mental illness.
Comparison chart

Psychiatry
Practitioner Psychiatrist
Practitioner's Nature Physician
Objective of the study To treat mental illness
Psychiatric medication &
Tomography
Name Developed by Johann Christian Reil
Major fields of study

Psychology
Psychologist
Scientist or Clinician
to systematically investigate the human mind, including
behavior and cognition
Clinical psychology & Research Psychology
PhD, PsyD or EdD
Rudolp Gockel

## History of psychology vs. psychiatry

Origins of psychiatry and psychology
Psychology (from Greek: , psukh, "spirit, soul"; and , logos, "knowledge") is both an academic
and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. The word 'psychiatry'
derives from the Greek for "healer of the spirit" (- (spirit) + (physician)). Psychiatry is a branch
of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind
and mental illness.

Description
Differences in nature of work
Psychologists are usually categorized under a number of different fields, the most well-recognized being
clinical psychologists, who provide mental health care, and research psychologists, who conduct substantive
and applied research. As part of their evaluation of the patient, psychiatrists are one of only a few mental
health professionals who may prescribe psychiatric medication, conduct physical examinations, order and
interpret laboratory tests and electroencephalograms, and may order brain imaging studies such as
[computed tomography or computed axial tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron
emission tomographyscanning.
Differences in topics studied
Psychologists study such phenomena as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior,
and interpersonal relationships. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various
spheres of human activity, including issues related to daily lifee.g. family, education, and workand the
treatment of mental health problems. Psychology is one of the behavioral sciences--a broad field that spans
the social and natural sciences. Psychology attempts to understand the role human behavior plays in social
dynamics while incorporating physiological and neurological processes into its conceptions of mental
functioning. Psychology includes many sub-fields of study and application concerned with such areas
as human development, sports, health,industry, law, and spirituality. Its primary goal is the relief of mental
suffering associated with symptoms of disorder and improvement of mental well-being. This may be based
in hospitals or in the community and patients may be voluntary or involuntary. Psychiatry adopts a medical
approach but may take into account biological, psychological, and social/cultural perspectives. Treatment
by medication in conjunction with various forms of psychotherapy may be undertaken and has proved most
effective in successful treatment.
Cures
Most psychiatric illnesses cannot currently be cured, although recovery may occur. While some have short
time courses and only minor symptoms, many are chronicconditions which can have a significant impact on
a patients' quality of life and even life expectancy, and as such may be thought to require long-term or lifelong treatment. Effectiveness of treatment for any given condition is also variable from individual to
individual. For many conditions, psychological care complementspsychiatric care and vice versa.
In the U.S., licensed psychologists hold a doctorate in their field, while licensed psychiatrists hold a medical
degree with a specialty in psychiatry. Psychiatrists arephysicians who have earned an MD or a DO, whereas
psychologists have earned aPhD, PsyD, or EdD. Psychiatrists generally spend shorter periods of contact
time with clients/patients, and the principal method of treatment is psychopharmacology. Conversely,
clinical psychologists generally rely upon psychological assessment and the use of psychotherapy to relieve
psychological distress. It is not uncommon for people suffering from mental illness to combine these
services to maximize their impact.

## James McKeen Cattell Is Best Known For:

First U.S. psychology professor
Helped establish psychology as a legitimate science
Birth and Death:James McKeen Cattell was born May 25, 1860 in Easton, Pennsylvania.He died
January 20, 1944

Early Life:James McKeen Cattell was the oldest child born to a wealthy family in Pennsylvania.
His father, William, was a Presbyterian minister who later became the president of Easton College.
His uncle was Alexander Gilmore Cattell, a U.S. Senator for New Jersey. Cattell attended Lafayette
College starting at age 16 where he studied English literature. He later graduated with a M.A.
degree.
After visiting Germany for graduate study, Cattell met Wilhelm Wundt and developed an interest in
psychology. After a brief stint studying at John Hopkins University, Cattell returned to Germany to
serve as Wundt's assistant. Cattell went on to publish the first psychology dissertation by an
American.
Career:Cattell was awarded his Ph.D. in 1886 and became a lecturer at the University of
Cambridge. He returned to the United States to teach psychology at the University of Pennsylvania
and later at Columbia University. In 1895, he became the President of theAmerican Psychological
Association.

## Contributions to Psychology:Cattell is an important figure in psychology thanks to his work in

intelligence, his use of quantitative methods and his focus on establishing psychology as a
legitimate science. Early in its history, psychology was often viewed as a lesser science or even a
pseudoscience. As Cattell explained in his 1895 APA address:"In the struggle for existence that
obtains among the sciences psychology is continually gaining ground.... The academic growth of
psychology in American during the past few years is almost without precedent.... Psychology is a
required subject in the undergraduate curriculum ..., and among university courses psychology

now rivals the other leading sciences in the number of students attracted and in the amount of
original work accomplished."
Cattell was also fundamental in establishing several major psychology journals includingThe
Psychological Review, the Journal of Science and Popular Science Monthly, which later went on to
become Popular Science.