FUNDAMENTALS
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Last amended: May 28, 2013 ENUS F
Structure
1
Network model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
10
11
12
Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769
List of illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773
List of tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787
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Structure
II
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Contents
1
1.6
Managing scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.6.1
1.6.2
Network model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.1
Network objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6
2.1.7
2.1.8
2.1.9
2.1.10
2.1.11
2.1.12
2.1.13
2.1.14
2.1.15
2.1.16
2.1.17
2.1.18
2.1.19
2.1.20
2.1.21
2.1.22
2.2
34
37
40
45
46
46
48
51
52
52
54
56
57
57
70
72
74
75
76
77
78
84
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III
Contents
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.3
Attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.4
2.5
3.2
3.3
Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Demand segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Time series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Demand model structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Person groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Activities, activity pairs, activity chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Demand strata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
IV
Direct attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Indirect attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Userdefined attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Timevarying attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Contents
3.4
4.2
4.3
4.4
5.5
228
228
229
277
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5.9
5.10
216
218
224
225
5.6
5.7
5.8
309
309
310
311
312
314
Contents
5.11
5.12
5.13
TRIBUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .376
5.17.1
5.17.2
5.17.3
5.17.4
5.17.5
5.17.6
5.17.7
5.17.8
VI
5.17
5.16
Equilibrium_Lohse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
5.14.1
5.14.2
5.14.3
5.14.4
5.15
5.14
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Contents
5.18
5.19
389
390
393
397
406
408
410
412
418
5.20
5.21
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
453
454
456
459
465
470
471
474
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6.10
437
446
447
447
6.9
VII
Contents
6.10.2
6.10.3
6.10.4
6.10.5
6.10.6
6.10.7
6.10.8
6.11
6.12
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
VIII
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Contents
8.2
8.3
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
Intersect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
Coordinate systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686
Processing the network display with graphic objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688
10.5.1
10.5.2
10.5.3
10.5.4
11
10
Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backgrounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
688
688
689
694
11.2
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699
701
705
706
711
Isochrones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
11.3
IX
Contents
12
Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .726
12.1.1
12.1.2
12.1.3
12.1.4
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .733
Categorized display with attribute values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .736
Labeling with tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .740
Labeling with charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .741
Turn volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .743
Desire lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .744
Stop catchment areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .746
PuT transfer relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .748
PuT connections and transfer flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .749
Lane allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .750
2D display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .752
Schematic line diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .754
12.13.1
12.13.2
12.13.3
12.13.4
Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769
List of illustrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773
List of tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787
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The demand model contains travel demand data. Information on the demand within a
planning area is required for the analysis of transportation networks. Demand matrices can
only partially be created based on survey data. This is why mathematical models are used
to reproduce real demand ratios. They allow you to calculate the traffic flows between
zones of the planning area based on structure and behavior data, the spatial utilization
structure and the transport system. Visum includes the Standard 4step model, the EVA
model, and the Tourbased model. Thus you can create your own travel demand matrices
in the program (see "Demand model" on page 119).
The network model stores the transport supplyside. The network model consists of traffic
zones, nodes, public transport stops, links representing roads and railway tracks, and the
public transport lines with their timetables. Transport supply data can be visualized with
Visum and edited interactively with different methods.
The impact models use input data provided by the network model and the demand model.
Visum offers several impact models for analysis and evaluation of transport supply. The
user model simulates the travel behavior of public transport passengers and car drivers
(see "User model PuT" on page 429 and "User model PrT" on page 211). It calculates
traffic volumes and service skims (such as journey time or number of transfers). An
operator model determines operational indicators of a public transport service, like service
kilometers, service hours, number of vehicles or operating costs (see "Operator model
PuT" on page 521). Revenues by ticket type derived from the demand data allow line
related revenue estimates for a line costing calculation. An environmental impact model
offers several methods to assess the impacts of motorized private traffic on the
environment (see "Environmental impact model and HBEFA" on page 651).
Visum displays the calculation results in graphical and tabular form and allows you to
perform various graphical analyses of the results. You can e.g. display and analyze routes
and connections per OD pair, flow bundles, isochrones and turning volumes at nodes.
Indicators such as journey time, number of transfers, service frequency, and many more
are computed as skim matrices.
You can compare different versions using the version comparison or network merge
functionalities. You can further exchange the changes made to your model via model
transfer files.
Transport model
Demand model
Network model
Impact model
contains methods to determine impacts:
User model:
assignment, calculation of service indicators,
Operator model:
number of vehicles, line costing, revenues,
Environmental model:
pollution and noise emissions.
Results
Listings and statistics
Indicator matrices
Graphical analysis
Plots
Like all models, a transportation represents an abstraction of the real world. The aim of the
modeling process is system analysis, forecasting and modelbased preparation for decisions
taken in the real world.
In the following, especially the network data model and the procedures available in Visum are
described and explained in a simple way.
1.1
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Zones (also called traffic cells) describe areas with a particular land use and their location
in the network (for example residential areas, commercial areas, shopping centers,
schools). They are origin and destination of trips within the transport network, which means
zones and the transport network are connected through connectors.
Nodes are objects which define the position of intersections in the link network and of
switches in the railway network. They are start and end points of links.
Links connect nodes and thus describe the rail and road infrastructure. A link has a
particular direction, so that the opposite link represents a separate network object.
Turns indicate which turning movements are permitted at a node and store the turning time
penalty.
Connectors connect zones to the link network. They represent the access and egress
distances to be covered between a zones center of gravity and the nodes/stops of the
network.
Stops are subdivided into stop areas and stop points served by lines where passengers
may board or alight.
Lines which are listed with a name in a timetable usually go into both directions. A line can
consist of several line variants, socalled line routes which differ for example, in their route
courses. Line routes describe the spatial course of line services, for each line route one or
several time profiles can be defined.
Territories are network objects, which can be used for example, to model districts or
counties. Based on a polygon which defines the territorial border, PrT and PuT indicators
for regular or single PuT line services can precisely be accounted for each territory.
Every network object is described by its attributes. Attributes can be subdivided as follows:
For all network object types, users can define additional socalled userdefined attributes. They
can contain additional information or temporary values which are like "normal" attributes
presented in lists and graphically, and are available as filter criteria. Because these are not
required to understand the basics, no further detail is required at this point.
The integrated network model distinguishes between transport systems of the private transport
and the public transport type. PrT transport systems depend on permissible speed and link
capacity. PuT transport systems are bound to a timetable.
1.2
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A PrT demand matrix element has the unit car trips, a PuT demand matrix element has the
unit passenger trips (do not mistake with the vehicle journey of a PuT line). It contains the
number of travel demand from a traffic zone i to a traffic zone j.
A travel demand matrix refers to a time interval (analysis time interval) and thus only
contains trips which depart within the time interval.
Trips of a demand matrix can refer to the total transport system, to partial transport systems
(for example pedestrian, bicycle, PuT, car), to person groups (for example employed,
students, retired persons) or to purposes (for example commuting, shopping, leisure).
A demand matrix is assigned to exactly one demand segment. A demand segment
describes a group of road users with homogeneous travel behavior.
Travel demand can be divided into surveyed and calculated demand as well as into today's
and future demand.
Surveyed travel demand describes the number of trips and the trip distribution within a fixed
time interval for an existing transport supply system. It represents a snapshot of the current
traffic situation and cannot be reproduced again practically. An exact survey of today's
current travel demand in an area of interest is not possible in practice because all travelers
would have to be interviewed at the same time. For this reason, only a representative, random
sample of travelers is interviewed to determine travel demand for the purposes of
transportation planning. From this survey a matrix of today's travel demand is then deducted.
It represents the travel demand for the existing supply system.
Calculated travel demand contains assumptions about the number of trips and trip
distribution. To calculate travel demand, demand models are used which, for example,
differentiate between the three steps of Trip generation, Trip distribution and Mode choice. The
calculated travel demand can be designated differently depending on the used input data.
Calculated travel demand is called today's travel demand if the input of the demand
calculation is today's land use structure, today's population and economic structure, and
today's transport supply system.
Forecasted travel demand is based on data on future land use, future population and
economic structure and the future transport supply system.
An overview of the procedures for determining travel demand can be found in Leutzbach et al.
(1988).
Within Visum all 4 stages of the classical traffic model (4step model) can be calculated,
besides traffic assignment (choice and volume of the route to get from origin zone to
destination zone) the other three steps Trip generation, trip distribution and Mode choice
(choice of means of transport), too.
In the first step of the classical model, Trip generation, the production and attraction (origin and
destination traffic) of each zone is determined on the basis of sociodemographic data (for
example, number of inhabitants and jobs). These production and attraction values define the
totals of the total demand matrix, which is determined by means of relevant skim data (for
example, journey times, fares etc.) in the second step, Trip distribution. In the third step the
total demand matrix is distributed onto the different traffic modes (for example, PrT, PuT) on
the basis of modespecific skims. In a fourth step the resulting modedependent demand
matrices can be assigned to the supply (Visum network) by means of the PrT and PuT
assignment procedures in order to obtain link volumes and new skims. This skim data can
again be used as inputs for trip distribution or mode choice of a new demand calculation. The
Go to the procedure function allows you to iterate the calculations until a convergence
criterion concerning link volumes or matrix values is satisfied.
Visum contains three alternative calculation models for the demand modeling.
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The Standard 4step model is based on North American practice for aggregated demand
models (see "Standard 4step model" on page 126).
The EVA model is another aggregated demand model for passenger demand. It differs
from the Standard4Step Model by a simultaneous trip distribution and mode choice as
well as by its particular method of balancing the differences between origin and destination
traffic (see "EVA model for passenger demand" on page 132).
When calculating demand matrices, the Tourbased model (traffic in cities generation
model) takes into consideration activity chains which homogenousbehavior user groups
(for example employees with or without a car, pupils, students) perform during the course
of the day (see "Activity chain based model (tourbased model)" on page 161).
The matrix editor integrated in Visum supports matrix processing and provides a gravity model.
The calculation models are based on specific Visum demand objects describing the
characteristics of trip purposes and road users. Person groups combine road users featuring
comparable mobility behavior to groups. The breakdown of the population into person groups
may be based on their job status (employed, students, retired persons) and (optionally) their
car ownership (with/without car). Activities are activities or locations of a person in the course
of the day which are not traffic related (work, school, home). Activity pairs describe transitions
between two activities and may imply trips from one place to the other (home  work, home school). They are then called trip purposes.
A demand stratum combines one or several person groups with an activity. Almost all
calculations of the first three stages of the model are carried through separately for each
demand stratum and their results are stored separately for a better illustration and verification.
The resulting demand matrices always have the unit [persons].
By aggregating the demand strata to demand segments parts of the demand jointly to be
assigned are combined prior to the fourth stage, which is the assignment. Hereby, the PrT
demand matrices are converted into the [Vehicles] unit by dividing the demand stratum
matrices by the occupancy rate of the respective transport system.
A time series by percentage specifies the proportion of trips with the desired departure time
within the respective time interval. Demand distribution curves can cover more than 24 hours
if a weekly or annual calendar is used. An equal distribution of travel demand during the
observed time period is assumed as default. Instead of this default, a userdefined demand
distribution curve can be specified for the entire matrix. This userdefined demand distribution
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curve can be overwritten again for selected pairs of origindestination zone types with specific
demand distribution curves. In this way, it is possible to specify deviating distribution curves for
zones, for example, with known structural features (for example purely residential or
commercial areas) that reflect the different traffic loads in one direction (illustration 2) at certain
times of the day for journeys between home and work.
%
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
7:00
7:30
8:00
8:30
9:00
Illustration 2: Example of the temporal distribution of travel demand by four intervals of 30 minutes
A time series of demand matrices allocates a separate matrix to each time interval which
contains the demand with the desired departure time in the respective time interval. It should
be used if for example matrices on an hourly basis already exist based on a trip generation
model. Contrasting time series, here the time dependent course of the demand can be freely
selected for each matrix item. However, the data entry expenditure and the memory
requirements are higher accordingly, because several complete matrices are supplied.
1.3
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1.4
Analysis of results
Transportation demand and the results of the impact models can be evaluated and output
under different aspects. The following functionalities are available (see "Tabular and graphical
display" on page 725 and "Interactive analyses" on page 697).
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Flow bundles, which filter demand segmentspecific paths traversing network objects
selected by the user (nodes, links, zones, stop points, stop areas and stops)
Flow bundles for the analysis of network volumes according to traffic types (origin,
destination, through, external, internal and bypassing internal trips)
Turn volumes, which display PrT turning flows at intersections
Isochrones for classifying the reachability of network objects and for comparing PuT
journey times and PrT travel times
Graphical shortest path search for the PrT, which visualizes the shortest path between
zones or nodes in the network for a PrT transport system
Graphical shortest path search for the PuT, which visualizes the shortest path between
zones, nodes or stop areas. The shortest paths can be based on transport systems or
determined on the basis of the timetable provided in Visum
Skim matrices describe different properties for each OD pair from origin zone to a
destination zone in the traffic model. Each skim (such as the invehicletime) is derived from
the properties of all paths found from origin zone to a destination zone
7
1.5
Lists for all network object types, which allow a tabular display of all attribute values of a
network object
Display of bars, charts and tables on the map (for example to visualize the link volumes)
Statistics for the assignment analysis and the analysis of the assignment quality. This is
how the coefficient of determination R2 can be determined approximately between the
volumes calculated in the assignment and the observed values, and the assignment model
can continue to be calibrated.
Column charts for the display of time series (for example link volumes in the course of the
day)
Graphic and tabular display of vehicle journeys in the Timetable editor. This is how
volumes from the assignment can be displayed as bars for each journey.
Comparing and transferring networks (Network merge, Version comparison, Model
transfer files)
In contrast to the first variant, which includes the transfer of selected attributes into the opened
version, the second variant builds relations to the loaded network in the background. This
means that all attributes of the loaded network are visible in the opened version. Additionally to
the existing relations to other objects (for a node, for instance, to the inlinks, outlinks, turns
etc.) another relation to the loaded network will appear in the attribute selection windows.
The unique feature of the network merge is the unification of different data.
The following table gives an overview of the essential differences between network merge and
version comparison. In most cases you will be working with the new version comparison in
future.
Version comparison
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Version comparison
Not updatable
1.5.1
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This includes indirect active attributes. The link filter criterion can only be evaluated in the
opened network.
Value of network B
VolVehPrT,B(AP)
VolVehPrT,B(AP)
VolVehPrT,B(AP)
VolVehPrT,B%(AP)
VolVehPrT,B%(AP)
VolVehPrT,B,Min(AP)
VolVehPrT,B,Max(AP)
Table 1: Additional attributes for a compared numerical attribute after version comparison
The values of the additionally read attributes cannot be modified manually. However, all
calculated values, i.e. all values except the value of network B, are recalculated automatically
as soon as the corresponding values of network A are modified.
With the version file containing the version comparison you can continue to use all Visum
functions, including calculations. The comparisons read can be saved together with the
version.
The additionally read attributes can be displayed and evaluated, as required (see "Analysis of
results" on page 7).
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11
12
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Illustration 5: Network with version comparison: The volumes of both versions compared as well their
difference are displayed. "Verscomp" is the name of the version comparison.
Above all, you can convert the attribute values of the additionally read version easily into userdefined attributes so that they are still available after the version comparison has been
terminated.
The reference to the additionally read data is not updated automatically, but can be updated, if
required. Thus, for example, you can read the same version file at different times, thus tracing
the modifications.
The reference to the additionally read data can be dropped again at any time.
Special cases
If the compared versions do not contain the same network objects or attributes, the following
will happen (opened version: A, additionally read version: B)
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13
Special cases
Objects are generally identified via their key. Using the opened network version (network A),
you can create a relation to the object in the comparison network (network B). If the compared
versions do not contain the same network objects or attributes, the following rules apply:
1.5.2
If an object exists in B only, access to this object is only provided via indirect attributes (e.g.
a node existing in B only belongs to all nodes in B  the latter is a relation within network B,
to which a relation from network A refers).
If an object exists in A only, the attribute values of the relation to B are empty.
If an attribute has different subattribute variants in A and B, then indirect attributes provide
access to the variants which exist only in B. If there is no subattribute variant in B, then the
attribute value calculated for the relation is empty.
Network merge
The network merge function provides for the comparison of two transport networks and the
output of their differences. For network merge any networks can be combined with each other.
After that, however, only evaluation functions are available, hardly any editing functions.
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In no network: The object exists only in the merge network and has no attribute values.
Example: A turn between a link of network 1 and a link of network 2. Such objects are
created in rare cases, so that the merge network is a permissible Visum network. They
have no real equivalent and no attribute values.
In the merge network, a readonly attribute is created for each network 1 and/or network 2
attribute (Visum attributes and userdefined attributes). This attribute has the following
properties:
The Difference subattribute value serves to output the difference and has the following
values.
For numerical attributes, the difference is calculated from Net1 and Net2 data
For strings, "==" is output in case of identical strings, whereas "<>" indicates deviating
strings. Blanks are output for objects which are not part of both original network
versions.
Note: In case of userdefined attributes with identical IDs but different min/max value ranges,
the value range of Net1 will be used. For objects with coordinates, the coordination values are
taken from network 1for the display in the network.
Note: Network merge ignores the following objects and settings:
Junction geometry/control objects
Demand description (neither matrices nor time series)
All path information
Analysis periods and horizons
Filters
Blocks
Graphic parameters
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The illustration 8 displays the merge network of network 1 (illustration 6) and network 2
(illustration 7).
In the network view of the merge network, you can see that the link at the bottom left of network
2 has a lower speed of about 20 km/h and varies in TSysSet. The link at the bottom right is,
however, identical in both networks.
1.5.3
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1.6
Managing scenarios
In most Visum applications you create a model of supply (the network) and demand for an area
of investigation. Then you develop several variants of the initial situation and various
scenarios. The variants are then compared and evaluated based on calculation results.
Thereby numerous files (including and excluding calculation results) are created for the
individual variants. You can use the Compare networks function to organize the file contents,
making sure that information is only saved to one storage location (see "Comparing and
transferring networks" on page 8). This allows you to reduce data maintenance when changing
your model. In Visum, scenario management takes care of maintaining all your files.
It provides the following benefits:
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A project contains all data required to use Visum. It has a unique name and a protocol in which
users can save notes on the project status. Each project is based on a base model which is
also called initial situation, analysis case or null case. It is saved as a version file, the socalled
base version. Just as other supporting files (procedure and graphic parameters, etc.), the base
version is saved to a uniform folder structure for which you can specify the path. All other
project information, specifically definitions of modifications and scenarios, are saved to the
Visum project database, a database file that is saved to the same folder structure.
A modification is a grouping of changes that belong together contentwise and are made to the
supply or demand. A modification could refer to the building of a bypass road and include
several new links, changes to existing links and to nodes. Another modification might describe
the introduction of a speed limit on certain roads. It would consist of changing a single attribute
(v0) for several network links. Modifications may also refer to PuT supply, for example
describing line route or headway changes as well as new stops. On the demand side, typical
modifications include changes to data on the sociodemographic structure, i.e. changes to the
zone attributes. Modifications may also change matrix content, e.g. externally specified
matrices for through trips. The number of modifications is not limited per project. Modifications
may also be based upon other modifications, e.g. one describes the construction of a bypass
road and another its extension by a second lane per direction. The second modification only
changes the attributes Capacity PrT and Number of lanes for those links that were added
through the first modification of the base model. When creating a modification, you specify the
other modification it is based on.
A scenario corresponds to a variant you want to investigate. It is often also called planned
case. Each scenario is based on the base version of the project and includes one or several
modifications. The distinction between modification and scenario has the advantage that you
can easily investigate all combinations of several measures. Let us assume your project is
about the construction of a bypass road. At the same time it is suggested to introduce a speed
limit in the city center for traffic calming. Define two modifications for your project: M1 for the
bypass road and M2 for the speed limit. Using these two modifications, you can easily define
four scenarios without any additional modeling effort:
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Scenario code
Meaning
Base version
M1
S0
B
M2
Null case
BS
Should your customer additionally ask for an investigation of the demand variant for 2020, you
can change your project with a minimum effort. First define a modification M3 for the second
demand variant. Then duplicate all previously created scenarios and in the copy additionally
activate M3. Now you are ready to calculate the model for all eight scenarios.
Scenario code
Meaning
Base version
M1
M2
M3
S0
Null case
BS
S0_2020
B_2020
S_2020
BS_2020
When combining scenarios based on modifications, make sure that the modifications do not
contain any contradictory information on the value of the same attributes. Visum can account
for this and check whether it is possible to combine two modifications. In few cases, you might
want modifications to overlap. Example: M1 describes the extension of a link sequence to two
lanes. M2 includes a third lane for some of the same links. For some links, M1 and M2 contain
contradictory information on the attribute Number of lanes. If you first apply M1 and then M2,
you will still achieve the desired result: for some links the attribute Number of lanes will be
overwritten twice. This way you need not define a copy of M1 without the links mentioned in the
original M1. In these cases, it is important that you can specify in which sequence the
modifications are applied. To avoid conflicts when combining scenarios, you can also specify
which scenarios must not and which ones may be combined when defining the modification.
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All steps are carried out in the Project view. The Project view is a modeless window and
remains open while you are working on the project. It provides an overview of all modifications,
scenarios and other parts of the project.
You can find a detailed description on how to use the Project view in the User Manual (see
User Manual, Chpt. 1.13, page 115). In the following, you will find useful information on each
step.
1.6.2.1
When working on a new project, you first specify the version file of the base model. In most
cases, the version file already exists. Especially, if you have already started working on the
project without using scenario management. Select the existing version file, when creating the
project. Visum stores a copy of this version file with a different name to the project directory
structure. This copy is now used in scenario management. The original version file is not
touched. Alternatively, you can use the model currently loaded as the base version. If you
select this option just after project start, the model will still be empty and you can create your
base model from scratch. All options are equally suitable to create a base model, no matter
whether you create the model within the context of scenario management or of a project. The
project becomes important once you define modifications and scenarios.
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1.6.2.2
Defining modifications
When adding a new modification to your project, you assign a unique name and a project
description, if required. You further specify any existing modifications your new modification
depends on and the ones it cannot be combined with. Visum then loads the base version and
all its modifications. A floating window informs you that all changes you now make to the model
will be included in the new modification.
Now you can use all editing functions to change the model. Data processing, however, is
disabled in the Project view. After making all your changes, click the Finish button in the
floating window. Visum calculates the differences between the current model and the base
model. These differences are saved as content of the new modification.
Of course you can add modifications during any stage of your project. You can also change
modifications later on. You can further have the content of modifications displayed any time.
If you are working on an extensive project, you might want to assign the creation of
modifications to several users. To do so, proceed as follows:
This procedure allows you to use files centrally under scenario management, although they
were created decentrally by several users.
Note: If several users are working on creating model transfer files, they might use the same
code for a new network object, although the content of their objects differs. Visum will
recognize these code conflicts when you use the model transfer files in scenario
management. So, if the same code has been assigned twice, one of the objects is
automatically assigned a new, unique code.
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1.6.2.3
After you have defined modifications for your project, you can combine them to create
scenarios. Scenarios are also assigned a unique name and a description. For each scenario,
you can choose several modifications that are applied to the base version. If you do not select
a modification, the scenario simply corresponds to the base model. If you select several
modifications, Visum applies them according to the sequence in your list of modifications. Then
check to make sure the modifications you selected can be combined. You can also remove or
add modifications to a scenario later on.
Under Project view, you can open any scenario in the entry view or the results view. Choose
the entry view to check the scenario or to perform an interactive analysis, e.g. isochrones
calculation or shortest path search. Avoid editing the model in this view, as your changes
will then be lost the next time you open the scenario. Instead, always make your changes
to the base version or the modifications. If you save a scenario as a version file, your version
file will have no connection to scenario management. However, you can use it to pass on the
entry data of a certain scenario to other users. The results view is described further below.
1.6.2.4
In most cases you will want to apply the same model calculation to several or all scenarios in
order to compare the results. By default, Visum uses the procedure parameters of the base
version to calculate a scenario. To specify the calculation sequence, in the Project view, click
the Edit base version button. Then, under Procedure sequence, choose the sequence in
which you want the operations performed.
Some operations require reading or writing access to files, e.g. to externally saved skim
matrices or filter files. Under Project view, you specify whether Visum has access to one file for
the entire project or to file copies of the respective scenarios. You can specify this for all files
of a certain type or globally for the entire project.
However, sometimes you might want to use a different than the default calculation sequence
for a scenario, e.g. when changing the procedure parameters. If you do not wish to change the
network or demand in a scenario, but the Value of Time, change the fare or toll coefficient in
the impedance definition. These parameters are not taken into account for difference
calculation when you create modifications. Instead change the procedure parameters of the
base version and add the edited procedure parameters file to the project. Then close the base
version without saving the changes. Assign the scenario the procedure parameters saved to
the project. This setting has a higher priority than the procedure parameters of the base
version.
1.6.2.5
Calculating scenarios
After specifying the calculation sequence for the project, assign it to all or part of the scenarios
in the Project view. If you select several scenarios, Visum will automatically load the scenarios
in the sequence selected and will perform the respective calculations. This function is very
helpful if you have to carry out numerous calculations, e.g. overnight, and no interaction is
required. Moreover, you can distribute scenario calculations across multiple computers to
exploit the computing power available (see "Distributing scenario calculations across multiple
computers" on page 24). After all calculations have been performed, Visum saves the model
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state with all results to a version file in the project directory. Saving the results of each scenario
to a separate version file might seem like a "disruption" of scenario management, but this is the
only way to save the many results (e.g. assignment results) in a compact form.
In the Project view, the scenarios for which calculations have been performed are marked
"calculated". If after scenario calculation you change the base version, its modifications, the
calculation sequence or the number of modifications, Visum will reset the status to "not
calculated". The results version file then still exists, but the results might no longer be uptodate and you should have the calculation performed again.
1.6.2.6
You can distribute scenario calculations across multiple computers to calculate multiple
scenarios simultaneously and obtain the results earlier for analysis purposes. You do not
require any additional system or other software, provided that the addon module is licensed.
Then you can use all software belonging to the license group installation of Visum.
Workstations used during the day for project work, e.g., can be used at night for extensive,
automated scenario calculations (see User Manual, Chpt. 1.13.7.2, page 130).
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The computers must have compatible Visum versions installed (with the same binary
version, e.g. 13.00xx).
All computers must be licensed for the addon modules required for calculation and for an
adequate network size.
If you are using Python scripts or addins, the respective Python version and addins must
be installed on the computers.
Depending on the use case, ensure that additional resources, e.g. HBEFA data files or
userdefined VD functions, are available on the computers. Projectspecific data is
automatically copied to the respective computers by Visum.
Do not specify absolute paths for additional files, e.g. matrices or scripts, within the
procedure used for scenario calculation. On the compute node, the files might not be
available under the path specified. Only specify project folders available within scenario
management.
Ensure the same program options are selected on each computer. This is not done
automatically.
The computers must be connected via the network. If required, in the firewall of the
computers, open the ports used for communication and assign the corresponding user
rights. The ports can be freely selected. The compute nodes must be located in the same
subnetwork as Visum to be found automatically by the program. If this is not the case, you
can still use them for distributed calculation. However, you need to enter the computer
addresses manually.
The PTV Visum Scenario Calculation Server of the respective installation must run on
the compute node. Only if this software is run, can the calculation orders be carried out. The
Scenario calculation server is automatically installed with Visum. It is not necessary to start
Visum on the compute node.
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The Scenario calculation server is not a Windows service. The software is only run when a
user logs on to the computer.
Besides the number of Visum instances and cores you want to use, you can specify a Base
directoryto which the scenario data is saved during the calculation process. In the Service
address section, specify the name and port under which the compute node shall be available.
You can use the same computer to simultaneously run multiple instances of the Scenario
calculation server for different Visum installations, e.g. different service pack versions. To do
so, for each installation, you must start the Scenario calculation server and configure a different
port. Each server started uses the respective Visum version located in its installation folder.
The Base address of the service box contains the URL based on these settings. If the
compute node is not automatically found by the controlling Visum version, the URL can be
used for manual configuration. You can select the option Start Visum Scenario Calculation
Server when logging in to start the server automatically, as soon as a user logs on to the
system.
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1.6.2.7
You need not open the results version file in the Windows file system. In the Project view,
simply open the respective scenario in the results view. Visum then loads and displays the
resulting version file and all functions are available for analysis of the results for this scenario.
If you want to compare two or several scenarios with each other, highlight them in the Project
view. Then specify one of them as the master scenario. In the master scenario, open the
version comparison. Visum shows a comparison of the master scenario with each of the other
scenarios. Version comparison works the same way when used outside scenario management
(see "Comparing version files" on page 9). In the course of the project, you are likely to use
version comparison many times. You can combine the parameters of version comparison
(optionally also graphic parameters and filter settings) to a socalled comparison pattern and
save it to the project. Then you can open version comparison in the Project view, without
having to change the settings again each time.
You can also compare all scenarios at a glance by using selected, network code numbers. You
specify the code number in the Basic settings tab of the Project view. They can then be
selected as columns in the Scenarios tab. You can use them to create a table with the
scenarios as rows and the columns containing the code numbers.
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You can use the Copy & Paste command to copy this table to a project report.
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Network model
The supply data of the transport network are described in a network model consisting of
various network objects.
Subjects
2.1
Network objects
Spatial and temporal correlations in Visum
Attributes
Subnetwork generator
The surface data model in Visum
Network objects
The network model differentiates basic network objects such as nodes and links, which
illustrate a network structure (see "Basic network objects of a transport network" on page 29).
Additionally, there are network objects which are only used for modeling PuT networks (see
"PuT network objects of a transport network" on page 31) and general network objects, which
do not have to have any relevance to traffic and especially no influence on procedure
calculations (see "General network objects" on page 33).
Network object
Description
Transport system
(TSys)
Mode
Demand segment
(DSeg)
A demand segment makes the connection between transport supply and traffic
demand. A demand segment is assigned exactly one mode and each demand
segment exactly one demand matrix. A mode can comprise several demand
segments. This is how you can create a demand segment for the mode PuT, for
transporting students and one for the remaining PuT.
Node
Nodes are point objects, which specify the location of intersections, merging
links or points in road and rail network. They are start and end points of links.
Nodes connect zones with the network (connected nodes).
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Network object
Turn
Turn standard
Link
Link type
Zone
Connector
Main node
Main turn
Main zone
Territory
Description
Turns specify which movements are permitted at a node, that is, whether
turning at a node from one link to another link is permitted.
For PrT transport systems, turning time penalties and capacities can be
specified which describe the influence of the intersection on the performance of
the network.
Turning prohibitions are taken into consideration as follows:
For public transport systems in the construction of a line route
For private transport systems in a route search
Turn standards are templates used to create new turns with default values for
the attributes Time penalty and Capacity PrT. Which turn standard is used for
the allocation of turn attributes, depends on the node type, the turn type and the
flow hierarchy.
Links connect nodes and thus describe the structure of the road and rail
network. A link is a directed edge, i.e. both directions of a link are independent
network objects and thus, can have different attributes.
Link types are used as a template when inserting new links. When inserting a
link, a link type has to be specified. The link then takes over the attributes
permitted transport systems (TSysSet), Capacity PrT, velocities (v0PrT,
vMinPrT, vMaxPrT und vDefPuT), Number of lanes and the link rank as
default values.
Zones (traffic cells) describe the positions of utilities in the network (for
example, residential areas, commercial areas, shopping centers, schools).
They are origins and destinations of movements within the transport network,
which means of traffic. Zones and the transport network are connected through
connectors.
Connectors connect zones to the link network. They represent the distance to
be covered between a zones center of gravity and the connector nodes. For
public transport demand, the zone has to be connected via a stop area with
stop(s) allocated to a node.
Several nodes can be aggregated to one main node. Each node is only allowed
to be part of a main node. Using main nodes is useful, if the Visum network is
strongly disaggregated and lanes are available as individual links, for example,
and intersections therefore consist of several nodes (this situation can occur
when working with navigation networks in Visum).
Main turns are created when using main nodes. Each movement via the main
node is represented by a main turn. Main turns possess the same attributes as
turns. In the assignment, the main turn replaces the node turn, which has the
effect that only one turn penalty flows into the assignment for each main turn.
Main zones group multiple zones and allow aggregated evaluations. A main
zone can represent a county for example, which has multiple communities as
traffic cells.
Territories are network objects, which can be used for example, to illustrate
districts or counties. Based on a polygon which defines the territorial border, PrT
and PuT indicators can be precisely accounted for each zone (for example the
driven service kilometers within a zone).
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Network object
Description
OD pair
OD pairs exist between all zones of the network. The values in skim matrices
and demand matrices (see "Matrices" on page 120) refer to one OD pair each.
Compared to the other network objects, you cannot edit OD pairs interactively
in the network editor, but you can filter OD pairs and display them graphically.
For each OD pair you can select the skim matrix values, the demand matrix
values and the direct distance as attributes.
Path
For assignment calculation, paths are found between the origin and destination
zone, and their volume is calculated. Paths are therefore the central result of
the assignment procedure. In PrT, the user can manually edit paths. This is how
the assignment results could be manually imported to Visum or the Visum
assignment results could be adjusted manually. Both the path volumes and the
course of the path can be edited.
Valid day
Valid day is a freely definable set of days of the calendar used. If a weekly
calendar is used, a valid day may comprise the days from Monday to Sunday
(e.g. "Monday to Friday"). If an annual calendar is used, any individual days can
be selected within the validity period. If no calendar is used, there is only the
valid day "daily". It is then not possible to create new valid days.
In PuT: a valid day can be assigned to each vehicle journey section.
In PrT: in the Dynamic stochastic assignment and DUE, traffic supply can be
timevarying. Timevarying attributes are used (see "Timevarying attributes" on
page 105). When using a calendar, valid days can be specified for these timevarying attributes, on which they should have an effect.
Network object
Description
Stop
A stop combines stop areas and therefore also stop points. To ensure that a
stop can be localized and displayed in graphical form, it has a coordinate, but it
is not assigned directly to a network node or link.
Stop area
Stop point
A stop area divides a stop into areas. It can, for example, represent a train
station platform, intersections with multiple stop points or a station concourse.
A stop area has the following properties:
It is assigned exactly one stop.
It can comprise multiple stop points.
It can be assigned a network node. This allows a PuT connection of a zone
to the road network.
The stop areas are connected with each other with a transfer walk matrix
(walk times between the stop areas). It contains the transfer walk time of
each PuTWalk for example.
A stop point is the location, where PuT lines stop for passenger boarding. A
stop point can either lie on a node or on a link (link stop point).
A stop point at a node can be served by all lines which pass the node.
A stop point on a link can only be served by lines which pass this link. A
detailed direction modeling based on masts is optionally possible with link
stop points. Alternatively, undirected stop points can also be inserted on
links.
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Network object
Line
Description
Lines combine all line routes and timetables of a line. A line has at least one line
route and this at least one time profile. For line variant modeling, several line
routes can be specified for the line, and several time profiles can be specified
for each line route.
Line route
Line routes describe the spatial course of the line route for one direction as a
sequence of route points. Route points are selected points in the line routes,
namely all stops and possibly traversed nodes. The first and last route point of
a line route must be stop points that are open for the transport system of the
line.
Time profile
Time profiles describe the length of travel times between stop points of a line
route and if boarding or alighting is allowed at the stop points of the line route.
Since it is possible to create several time profiles per line route, you can model,
for example, that the travel times of a tram between stop points are longer
during evening rush hours than during the rest of the day. Time profiles are
allocated at vehicle journey level so that each vehicle journey can be allocated
a different time profile.
Vehicle journey
Vehicle journeys (also called journeys only) are the basic objects to describe
the timetable. Each vehicle journey has exactly one time profile. In most cases
all vehicle journeys of a line route use the same time profile, if this does not vary
depending on the time of day.
Vehicle journey section Vehicle journey sections (also called journey sections) are used to subdivide a
vehicle journey. You can define different valid days and different vehicle
combinations for the individual vehicle journey sections of a vehicle journey.
This is how you can achieve, that a train travels on days with high saturation
with a vehicle combination, which has more coaches attached. Furthermore,
you can specify different start and end points for each vehicle journey section,
and therefore achieve for example, that the additional coaches are only
attached to one part of the line route course.
Main line
System route
Main lines are used to aggregate several lines and evaluations (such as for PuT
operating indicators) on this aggregation level. Aggregation can also be carried
out via lines with different transport systems.
A system route describes the invehicle time and the spatial course between
two stop points. Compared to the line route, it is independent of the affiliation to
a line or even a concrete vehicle journey. System routes with their path and invehicletime information are used as a template for the efficient digitalization of
line routes and for setting invehicletimes in the time profile. System routes are
optional network objects, therefore not mandatory when creating a PuT model.
PuT operators
You can assign an operator to each vehicle journey section. When working with
the operator model, you can evaluate PuT operating indicators per operator
(see "Operator model PuT" on page 521). Furthermore, you can assign each
operator cost values for depreciations and running costs, and then evaluate
operator costs referring to different network objects.
Vehicle combination
You can optionally assign each vehicle journey section a vehicle combination.
To a vehicle combination you can allocate time and distance dependent cost
rates for vehicle journeys and empty trips, and cost rates for the layover in the
depot and the stand time. These cost rates are applied within the operator
model (see "Operator model PuT" on page 521).
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Network object
Description
Vehicle unit
A vehicle combination consists of one or more vehicle units. This is how you
can compose a vehicle combination Intercity out of several vehicle units
Coach, for example. For each you can specify the number of seats and total
seats. Furthermore, you can assign time and distance dependent cost rates for
vehicle journeys and empty trips, and cost rates for the layover in the depot and
stand time. You can also define a fixed cost rate per vehicle. This allows much
differentiated modeling of your vehicle pool.
Block version
In Visum multiple line blocking results can be kept simultaneously. These are
saved in socalled block versions. This is how alternative plans with different
parameter settings can be compared with each other. In the model, for example
one block version can be kept where interlining is allowed, and another block
version where it is not allowed.
Each block is composed of individual sections, which are called block items.
Each block item is of a special type (block item type). By default, Visum
provides the block item types vehicle journey, empty trip, layover time, and
stand. You can also create userdefined block item types and include these
manually in your blocks (for example for maintenance or wash).
Ticket type
If revenues are modeled with a fare model, the ticket type creates the basis for
the fare calculation of a connection. Basic fares and transport system
dependent supplements can be defined.
Fare zone
For revenue calculation with fare model and zonebased fare, fare zones are
used to calculate the fare of a connection. For the zonebased fare this
complies with the number of traversed fare zones. To determine the number of
traversed fare zones, stops are assigned to the fare zones.
PuT coordination group This network object is only relevant for headwaybased assignment. If there are
two lines for example, which complement each other on a common section of
the route course to a headway interval half the length, we speak of
coordination. The coordination group combines two or more time profiles over
a common section of the line courses. If two or more time profiles were
coordinated via a route section, they behave like a time profile with a
corresponding increased frequency on this section. The random variable,
which illustrates the waiting time within headwaybased assignment, thus is
reduced to the coordinated section.
Table 5: PuT network objects of a transport network
Network object
Count location
Description
Points of Interest are userdefined network objects with a spatial reference, e.g.
parking facilities, preemption points for AVLS (automatic vehicle location
systems) or SCJ controllers in public transport. POIs are used to display special
land uses such as restaurants or hotels, for data management as well as for
reachability analyses.
A count location is an independent network object allocated to a link by
direction. Count locations serve for data management and display of counted
link data.
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Network object
Description
Detector
Detectors are optional network objects of the count locations addon. They are
used for lanebased management of counted data and for signal control
modeling.
Toll system
Toll systems are optional network objects which can be used to integrate toll
zones into the network model. For the TRIBUT procedure, they are the basis for
the calculation of road tolls.
GIS objects (GIS = geographic information system) extend the network model
by special layers which are directly incorporated from GIS ArcGIS and can be
linked with the Visum network data via blending features. The objects are only
available during the connection with a Personal Geodatabase (PGD).
GIS object
Screenline
Network processing modifies the properties of the transport network which produces different
indicator values and assignment results.
2.1.1
Priv.TSys2
(e.g. Car)
HGV
Car
Publ.TSys1
(e.g. Bus)
Park&Ride
(Car, Bus, Tram)
Publ.TSys2
(e.g. Tram)
Publ.Transport
(Bus+Tram)
Transport systems
Modes
HGV
Carprivate
Carbusiness
P&R
Publ.Transp
Students
Publ.Transp.
Adults
Demand
segments
Matrix
Matrix
Matrix
Matrix
Matrix
Matrix
Demand
matrices
Illustration 10: Connection between transport systems, modes, demand segments and demand matrices
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2.1.1.1
Transport systems
The transport supply consists of several transport systems. Links, turns and connections can
be attributed subject to the transport system ("transport systembased"). It can be specifically
determined, if a transport system is allowed to traverse one of these network objects or not. For
example, links can only be opened for the transport system Car, but not for the transport
system HGV. Furthermore, the impedance functions (see "Impedance and VD functions" on
page 216) are defined for the assignment transport system dependent.
A transport system has the following properties:
Note: The number of modeled transport systems, modes or demand segments is not limited.
The four types of transport systems are different in the following ways.
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PrT
Travel times of a private transport system depend on the following attributes:
Maximum speed of the means of transport for example 100 km/h for HGV
Permitted speed of the traversed link for example 80 km/h
Capacity of the traversed link
PuT
Run times of vehicles of a public transport system and the dwell times at stops are
determined by the timetable.
PuTWalk
This mode serves to model entrance and exit paths for public transport and walking transfer
links between stop points of a stop or several stops. In order to calculate a public transport
assignment, at least one transport system of type PuTWalk must exist. Several transport
systems of type PuTWalk can be defined.
PuTAux
This type describes subordinated PuT transport systems without a specified timetable. It is
suitable for the following use cases.
Modeling lowerranking public transport (supply systems):
In large networks, for example in train networks, one often does not want to enter the
reachability of longdistance stations by means of a connector, but in instead one wants
to roughly display the available public transport supply. For a simple representation
such as this, it is meaningful to define one or several additional public transport
systems. In this case, the successive public transport supply is only described as a link
network with run times. Line routes and timetables are not used.
Modeling different types of public transport connectors:
A zone is connected to the PuT supply via one or several PuT systems. In many cases,
passengers not only select nearby start stops for their PuT journey that can be reached
on foot, but they also select distant stops that can be reached by bicycle or car
(Park&Ride, Kiss&Ride, Bike&Ride). In order to be better able to model these
alternatives, for connectors it is possible to disable individual transport systems of type
PuTWalk or to define different connector times. Two modes can then be defined for the
PuT assignment: one mode that is only used if the stop is reached on foot and one
mode that can be used if the stop is reached by car or bicycle.
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Note: Transport systems of type PuTAux are only taken into consideration for the
transport systembased and timetablebased assignment. In headwaybased
assignment, however, they are not considered.
The table 7 provides an overview of properties of the transport system types:
TSys type
Description
Example
PrT
Car,
HGV
PuT
PuTAux
PuTWalk
Footpath,
Escalator,
Lift
2.1.1.2
Modes
A mode can include either one private transport system or several public transport systems.
Examples for modes are for example:
HGV mode
Transport system HGV
PuT mode
all PuT transport systems, for example bus, tram, subway
Park & Ride mode
PuT transport systems and transport system PuTAux car
You can define multiple PuT modes. This way it is possible to model that for example longdistance passengers (Mode PuTLong) may use all public transport systems (e.g. Intercity,
Regional train, Bus) whereas, for example, commuters (Mode PuTLocal) may use only
particular transport systems (Regional train, Bus).
2.1.1.3
Demand segments
A demand segment belongs to exactly one mode. It is the link between transport supply and
transport demand. As several demand segments can be defined for each mode, different types
of demand can be combined in the transport model.
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Population groups
Employed PrT (car drivers), Employed PuT, Students PuT, etc.
Ticket types
Single trip ticket, monthly pass, etc.
Trip purposes
to work, shopping, home
Vehicle types
Car  diesel, Car  petrol, etc.
To each demand segment a demand matrix is assigned. Assignment results therefore always
exist on the level of a demand segment (for example the volume for the demand segment PuT
pupil transport).
In principle, it is assumed that demand matrices are available in the following units.
PrT
in car units (CarUnits)
PuT
in passenger units
For the calculation of person trips (PrT) from car units, the occupancy rate can be specified for
each demand segment (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.11.3.2, page 243).
For public transport, only the demand segments of one public transport mode can be selected
for assignment calculation (see "User model PuT" on page 429). For modeling more than one
PuT mode (for example PuTLong, PuTLocal), a separate assignment is required for each
mode, as route search needs to consider different transport systems. For each demand
segment, particular split parameters can be defined (see assignment parameters). This serves
to model for example, deviating tolerance levels towards transfers or of specific fares due to
the tariff (students, employees, pensioners).
2.1.2
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2.1.2.1
Node
Nodes determine the locations of street junctions and points in the railway network. They are
starting and terminating elements of links, where there are turning relations from one link to
another in PrT or PuT transport systems (see "Turn" on page 38). Optionally, a major flow can
be defined for every node specifying the direction of the flow with the right of way. The major
flow which has the right of way can be determined automatically by Visum from the ranks of the
intersecting links (see "Links" on page 40). Any number of nodes can be incorporated in a main
node (see "Main node" on page 48). Impedances can be modeled for nodes, which then have
an effect on the route search and thus on the assignment results (see "Impedances at node"
on page 226). This is how influential factors on time can be integrated in the assignments,
which a vehicle needs to cross an intersection.
2.1.2.2
Turn
Turns indicate whether turning is permitted at a node and what time penalty has to be
considered for PrT transport systems.
For private transport systems, time penalty and capacity can be specified which describe
the impact of the intersection on the network performance. Turns are considered for PrT
transport systems during assignment.
For public transport systems turning prohibitions are considered during the construction of
a line route and during transport systembased PuT assignment.
Turns representing a change of direction are important for PuT line blocking.
When inserting a link, Visum creates all theoretically possible turns at both nodes of the link
and uses the standard values from the userdefined turn standards.
For example, at a fourway intersection, there is a total of 16 turns (4 right turns, 4 straight
ahead, 4 left turns and 4 Uturns).
Each turn is described by the following elements:
For each turn, the transport systems have to be specified which may use this turn. A turn
differentiates permitted and blocked transport systems.
Permitted PuT
transport systems
Permitted PrT transport The turn can be used for the assignment taking the PrT capacity and the PrT
systems
time penalty into account.
Blocked transport
systems
Prohibited turns
Per default, the following rule applies when you insert a new turn:
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All turns are open to all transport systems that are allowed on both the "from link" and the
"to link". This also applies to uturns.
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An exception are the PuTWalk transport systems: These are not automatically incorporated
into the transport system set of turns.
2.1.2.3
Turn types
2.1.2.4
Turn standards
Turn standards are templates which assign a newly created turn with values for their attributes
Turn time penalty (t0PrT) and Capacity. Which turn standard is used to assign attributes of
each turn, conforms to the three following criteria.
For each node, Visum evaluates the rank of the links involved and thus determines a major
flow (see "Link types" on page 41). This automatically determined major flow can be edited
manually. The flow hierarchy describes whether a turn follows this major flow, from this one
into a minor flow, from one minor flow into the major flow or leads from minor flow to minor flow.
These four steps of the flow hierarchy are designated with the symbols from table 8.
Symbol
Right of way
++
+
+

In combination with node types, turn types and flow hierarchy, you can assign the turns very
differentiated turn times as standard. These turn times can then be considered within the
assignment (see "Impedances at node" on page 226). The illustration 11 shows an example of
turn standards.
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2.1.2.5
Turns show basically the same correlation between capacity and travel time as links. The only
difference results from the fact that a turn does not have a length and that the travel time t0
therefore comes from the turn time penalty.
The turn time tCur in the loaded network then results from the selected VD function and the
relationship between the current traffic volume q and the capacity qmax:
Input: VD function, for example BPR function from U.S. Bureau of Public Roads
Result: current turn time in the loaded network (1), for example
b
q
t cur = t 0 1 + a 
q max c
(1)
To model turn times which do not depend on capacity, a constant VD function must be chosen.
How the impedance at a turn depends on these parameters in particular, depends on the set
method for impedances at nodes (see "Impedances at node" on page 226).
2.1.3
Links
Links describe roads and railways of the transport network. They connect nodes, which means
intersections in PrT or stop points in PuT. A link is represented as a directed element and is
described by the From Node number and To Node number. Both directions of a link are two
independent objects in the network model, who are assigned the same link number and whose
From Node number and To Node number has been swapped. This means, that you can
attribute both directions of a link differently. For every link, you must specify the permitted
transport systems of PrT and PuT (which are allowed to use the link). This means, that you can
close one of the directions to any traffic and model a oneway road in this way.
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2.1.3.1
Link types
Visum describes the trafficrelated properties of links with link attributes. It also offers the
possibility of dividing links with the same properties into 100 link types, which themselves have
attributes. Each link belongs to a link type via its attribute Type number. The 00 to 99 link types
serve as network classifiers and make it possible to assign typespecific standard values for
the following link attributes.
In principle, the values of the attribute of a link of the assigned link type, is independent. This
means, that you can attribute each link independent of the link type. However, it is
recommended to apply exactly those values of the link type in the link. This is how you will
achieve as consistent as possible modeling of links and modifications to attributes can be
made more easily, because you can change these in the link type and then apply these to the
links (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.14.2, page 276).
For the assignment, each link type can be assigned a capacity restraint function, which thus
applies for all links of this link type (see "Impedance and VD functions" on page 216). This
allows you to apply a different mathematical correlation for the calculation of impedance on non
built up rural roads and built up urban roads.
Major flows
From the rank of the link types of the link which flow into a node, Visum determines a flow
hierarchy with a major flow. This always refers to two different link orientations (see "Network
objects of the junction model" on page 79). The major flow is taken from one of the three
criteria (see "Turn standards" on page 39) to determine the time penalties for the exiting
turning processes from the major flow or from another link. If possible, it should correspond to
the right of way or movement, advantaged through the SC. With this the rank of the link types
indirectly influences the result of the PrT assignment. The illustration 12 shows an example of
determining the flow hierarchy and particularly the major flows.
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Illustration 12: Rank of the link type and its resulting major flows (yellow), flow hierarchy (red)
Note: In the PuT model, the rank has no influence on the assignment result.
2.1.3.2
The permitted transport systems specify the configuration of a link. The following types can, for
example, occur:
The illustration 13 shows three examples for permitted transport systems on different types of
links.
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Car
Car
HGV
HGV
Bus
Bus
Tram
Tram
PuTWalk
PuTWalk
Car
Car
HGV
HGV
Bus
Bus
Tram
Tram
PuTWalk
PuTWalk
Car
Car
HGV
HGV
Bus
Bus
Tram
Tram
PuTWalk
PuTWalk
Car
Car
HGV
HGV
Bus
Bus
Tram
Tram
PuTWalk
PuTWalk
Car
Car
HGV
HGV
Bus
Bus
Tram
Tram
PuTWalk
PuTWalk
Car
Car
HGV
HGV
Bus
Bus
Tram
Tram
PuTWalk
PuTWalk
The number of the lanes of a link is entered as an attribute, but also has to be considered for
the capacity (this means that the entered capacity does not refer to one lane, but to all lanes).
A link is always meant for both directions. In order to define a oneway road, close the opposite
direction to all transport systems.
Links which are open to PrT transport systems are taken into account during private
transport assignment.
Links which are open to PuT transport systems are taken into account during the
construction of line routes for public transport lines. PuT assignments (headwaybased
or timetablebased procedures) are not based on link data, but on PuT line timetables.
To model passenger transfers between certain public transport stops, a special public
transport system PuTWalk may be introduced. These links are taken into consideration for PuT
assignments.
2.1.3.3
If there is free traffic flow in an unloaded network, the travel time t0 of a link can be determined
from the link length and the free flow speed v0.
The free flow speed v0TSys of vehicles of a particular transport system can be lower than the
free flow speed v0 of a link, because special speed limits might apply to these vehicles or
because the vehicles cannot drive faster. The maximum speed of a PrT transport system
vMaxTSys is an attribute of the link type.
Therefore, for speed v0TSys and travel time t0TSys applies:
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Input: VD function, for example BPR function from U.S. Bureau of Public Roads
Result: Current invehicle time in the loaded network, for example
b
q
t cur = t 0 1 + a  (dependent on VD function type)
q max c
The illustration 14 illustrates how speeds vcur of two PrT transport systems develop depending
on the volume.
Link type Motorway
vmax (car) = 150 km/h
Link
v0 = 130 km/h
130
100
Car
HGV
2.1.3.4
With every link, a PuT run time is stored for each PuT transport system. When inserting a link,
this run time is automatically calculated from the link length and the link type specific speed of
the PuT transport system. From the PuT run times of the traversed links the run time between
the stop points is then calculated when constructing a line route. This run time is in the
respective time profile (see "Specifications of lengths and times" on page 63).
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2.1.4
Zones
Zones (also traffic cells) are the origins and destinations of movements (demand). This means
that each trip starts in a zone and ends in another zone. Zones connect the transport supply
(network model with nodes, links, PuT lines, etc.) and the travel demand (in form of demand
matrices (see "Matrices" on page 120)), which contain the demand (trips) of all OD pairs of the
model.
Every zone can be assigned a zone boundary (zone polygon) which represents the spatial
extension of the zone. In the network model, zones are reduced to a zone centroid. Here the
trips of a demand matrix are fed into the network. Every zone must be connected via a
connector (see "OD pairs" on page 46) to at least one node. The optional zone polygon has no
influence on the calculation results in the assignment; however, typical GIS functions such as
intersecting can be realized with the zone polygon (see "Intersect" on page 677). Multiple
zones can also be combined to a main zone for evaluation purposes.
The zone size can vary depending on the level of detail of the model. Zones generally describe
the position of places or utilities (for example, residential areas, work places, shopping centers,
schools). Structural data such as the number of inhabitants, the number of jobs or the number
of school places are stored here, which are used for calculating the traffic demand as input
data (see "Demand modeling procedures" on page 125).
The illustration 15 shows an example of the transport demand between the zones and how
they are available in the demand matrix.
Illustration 15: Transportation demand between zones illustrated in the transport network and as a demand
matrix
Note: Zone boundaries are managed (see "The surface data model in Visum" on page 111)
like surfaces and can consist of multiface polygons and polygons with holes.
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2.1.5
OD pairs
OD pairs exist between all zones of the network. The values in skim matrices and demand
matrices (see "Matrices" on page 120) refer to one OD pair each. Compared to the other
network objects, you cannot edit OD pairs interactively in the network editor, but you can filter
OD pairs and display them graphically. For each OD pair you can select the skim matrix values,
the demand matrix values and the direct distance as attributes. The table 9 shows a demand
matrix value for Matrix 1 X and the skim matrix values for the skim of mean travel time for all
OD pairs in the example Example.ver.
From zone
To zone
100
100
100
200
2,000.00
38.00
100
201
200.00
12.00
0.00
100
202
0.00
32.00
200
100
2,000.00
38.00
200
200
0.00
0.00
200
201
5,000.00
16.00
200
202
2,000.00
13.00
201
100
200.00
12.00
201
200
5,000.00
16.00
201
201
0.00
0.00
201
202
0.00
20.00
202
100
0.00
32.00
202
200
2,000.00
13.00
202
201
0.00
20.00
202
202
0.00
0.00
2.1.6
Connectors
Connectors connect zones to the link network. Each zone has to be connected to at least one
origin zone and one destination connector to the network for the assignment, so that the road
users can exit and enter this zone. A zone can be connected to the network with any number
of connector nodes.
A connector corresponds to an access or egress route between the zone centroid and the
connecting node. A connector has therefore two directions.
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The illustration 16 shows an example of how the travel demand between the zones, which is
saved in the demand matrix, is applied via the connectors to the network.
Illustration 16: Supply of the travel demand via connectors to the network
For each direction, the permitted transport systems, meaning those transport systems which
are permitted to use this connector, can be determined. In PrT, connections can be opened for
all PrT transport systems. In PuT, however, a path always starts and ends with a route traveled
by PuT pedestrian transit system on the connection. It is therefore assumed, that the access
and egress of the stop is always by foot. For connectors in PuT there are basically two
possibilities of modeling.
One or more nodes in proximity to the zone centroid are connected. A PuT path always
starts and ends with a walk link on the connector and continues on the network links to the
access nodes of the next stop area and from there to the stop point, from which a vehicle
journey is used (this approach is not recommended).
Only nodes which are also access nodes of a stop area are connected. In this case, each
path starts and ends with a walk link on the connector and within the stop continues to the
start stop point. Links are not used like that (this procedure is recommended).
The transport system dependent Connector time in unloaded network t0 is the time which
each transport system requires to pass the connector. The standard value for t0 per transport
system is calculated from the connector length (standard value is the direct distance) and the
connector speed which also exists as a standard value (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.18.1,
page 329). The standard value for the connector speed can be assigned separately for PuT
and PrT connectors. t0 can be overwritten manually by the user.
2.1.6.1
For modeling connectors in PuT and PrT, there are different possibilities of influencing the
distribution of a zone demand to the connectors (see "Distribution of the traffic demand to PrT
connectors" on page 291 and "Distribution of the travel demand to PuT connectors" on
page 448). The illustration 17 provides an overview of these possibilities and describes each
effect.
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2.1.7
2.1.7.1
Main node
For the illustration of roads and other transportrelated areas, which are more or less structured
by central reservation or traffic islands, there are several possibilities of displaying these in a
transport model. For relatively strong abstraction, the correlation of components with regard to
content, for example lanes of both directions on a road are illustrated by an individual link. This
is the best view for traffic engineering analyses. With the increasing application of navigation
networks with disaggregated illustrations of reality as a basis for transportation models,
networks divided into small sections play an increasing role. These models then have both lane
directions as two separated links in the Visum model. However, combining these in an
aggregated display would create a lot of work as well as a loss of information, because the
existing refined distribution is required when carrying out microsimulations with the microsimulation program Vissim.
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For conventional modeling, there is a contradiction between the activated demand for
disaggregated network display and that of differentiated turn delays per turn type. We want to
make it clear using an example.
If two roads intersect as in illustration 18 with separated lanes, the intersection area splits up
into four nodes. If a triangle island is also present, the turns with the respective node are also
added. A road user who comes from the bottom of the image and turns left, successively
passes nodes 1 to 5. Only at node 3 he follows a turn, which constitutes a left turn; all other
nodes he passes straight. Right turns only meet two nodes, at both nodes they traverse a turn
to the right, whereas straight paths pass four nodes. If turn penalties were assigned, the sum
of all traversed turns effects the node, although the contained shares, such as waiting at a SC
only once has an effect in reality. A possible solution could be, to individually set the turn times
of each movement, so that the sum of all traversing turns results in the desired value for the
movement. This, however, is not possible with a typebased allocation of values, because
turns of the same type would have to be attributed differently at the same node. There should
rather be a linear equation system for each intersection area.
The main node puts the thought underlying such a solution into effect by incorporating the
nodes belonging to an intersection area explicitly in a separate object. All nodes of the
intersection area thus form a logic unit, which takes the place of the previous nodes. Turns are
regarded on the logic level of the main node and are called main turns here.
Links whose From node and To node belong to the same main node are called inner links of
the main node. It is called a cordon link if only one of the nodes is part of the main node. These
constitute the access to and egress of main node: Each OD pair accesses the main node via
a cordon link and egresses it via another one. A link is also a cordon link, if both nodes are
allocated to different main nodes.
The combination of several nodes in a main node defines, based on the nodes of the main
nodes, different kinds of links:
Inner links: From node and To node belong to the main node (illustration 19: (1)).
Cordon links: one of the two nodes belongs to the main node, the other one lies
outside of it (illustration 19: (2)).
Directed links or Oneway streets: this is a link with at least one direction with an
empty TSys set or zero lanes.
There is also cohesion between main nodes and different node types:
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Inner nodes: only inner links originate here (illustration 19: (3)).
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Cordon nodes at least one cordon link originates here, additionally possibly inner links
(illustration 19: (4)).
Partial nodes: any nodes that are allocated to a main node. These could be inner
nodes, cordon nodes, and nodes lying beyond the boundary of the main node.
2
4
1
3
Note: Main node polygons are managed like surfaces and can be made up of multiface
polygons or polygons with "holes" (see "Multipart surfaces" on page 114).
2.1.7.2
Main turns
Main turns are constituent parts of main nodes. They are created automatically when defining
a main node and can be edited manually.
Main turns possess the same attributes as turns. They are automatically inserted or deleted
when editing cordon links, i.e. when inserting or deleting cordon links and when editing the
allocations to main nodes or relevant attributes (TSysSet, NumLanes).
Each movement via the main node is represented by a main turn. A main turn is therefore the
transfer from one cordon link to another. If the main node consists of a single node only, the
main turn corresponds to exactly the turn between the links concerned. It is thus a
generalization of the usual turns at a node on the level of the main node.
If we reconsider the intersection area in illustration 18, assuming that all displayed nodes were
incorporated in a main node, seven cordon links exist. Since a main turn leads from each
cordon link to each cordon link, there are 49 main turns at this main node. However, it does not
make sense to traverse some of them, as they enter oneway roads in opposite directions (see
"Main turns not open to traffic" on page 51). Exactly the 16 (or 12, in case of closed Uturns)
convenient movements via the main node remain the main turns that are open to traffic (see
"Main turns open to traffic" on page 51).
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Within a main node the main turn completely takes the place of the network. This means that
all trafficrelated properties which take effect when crossing the main node are described
exclusively by the attributes of the main turn and the main node. A path that crosses the main
node only uses the main turn between the incoming and the outgoing cordon link. Neither the
attributes of the (inner) links, nodes and turns in between are evaluated, nor will these network
objects be loaded during assignment.
2.1.8
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Multiple zones can be aggregated to larger study areas in very detailed modeled networks.
This often also makes the graphical display in the network editor clearer.
Display of flow bundles on main zone level
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Note: It is currently not possible to calculate assignments or demand models on main zone
level.
2.1.9
Territories
Local authorities such as counties or districts can be displayed as territories, for example. PrT
and PuT attributes can be calculated precisely by inserting territories and applying the
operations territorial indicators (see User Manual, Chpt. 4.4.3, page 970) and PuT operating
indicators (see User Manual, Chpt. 7.3.1, page 1219). This means, that the indicator share is
calculated which applies to a territory. Use cases occur especially when calculating PuT
operating indicators.
Note: Zone boundaries are managed (see "The surface data model in Visum" on page 111)
like surfaces and can be made up of multiface polygons or polygons with "holes".
2.1.10
Paths
All assignments in Visum in PrT as well as in PuT are path based, meaning that possible paths
in the assignment are calculated for each origindestination relation and loaded with a demand
share. All other results, especially the volumes of the different network objects and the skim
matrices are derived from these loaded paths. Paths are therefore the central result of the
assignment procedure.
In Visum the definitions path (PrT path and PuT path), PuT path leg and PrT paths on link level
are used. PuT paths are thus described with a sequence of PuT path legs. Linkbased PrT
paths display all links which lie on a PrT path.
On the basis of assignment results, using paths you can execute detailed evaluations, such as
flow bundles (see "Flow bundles" on page 697), or verify the assignment results. As an option,
Visum saves the assignment of paths found (see User Manual, Chpt. 5.1.2, page 975).
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Creating an own assignment result either by creating a network file in a text editor or
interactively by digitalizing paths.
Editing assignment results calculated by Visum. This may occur interactively by digitalizing
the path course in the network editor or by editing the path volume in the path list. On the
other hand, the paths can be written as network files and edited in a text editor.
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Maintaining different assignment results in a network as path sets. Each path set then
contains the paths in an assignment.
Maintaining different flow bundle results as path sets. Each path set then contains the
result (the paths) of one flow bundle calculation.
Overwriting a selected section of the assignment result with external data. This is how only
paths which start in this planned residential area can be edited manually and the rest of the
assignment maintained in a transportation analysis.
Distributing a matrix on paths. For a given matrix and given paths, the matrix values are
distributed to the paths. This enables you to replicate the trip distribution and quickly update
the manual assignment.
There are two procedures for handling PrT path objects, which can be integrated into
calculation processes (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.23, page 380):
Converting paths (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.23.12, page 394). The procedure can be used
for example, to replace one assignment result with another. There are the following
possibilities:
Converting assignment result to path set
Converting path set to assignment result
Converting path set to path set
Converting assignment result to assignment result
Distributing a matrix to paths (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.23.14, page 396). Based on a
matrix and paths, the trips of the matrix are distributed to the paths. This enables you to
modify the demand on the level of OD pairs and then distribute the new demand to all
existing paths of the OD pair, in proportion to the previous shares. Distribution is carried out
with the attribute ShareOfPathTarget. The attribute can be defined for each path by the
user. For each OD pair of a path set the attribute ShareOfPathTarget is first added up
(total weight) on all paths.
P
Total weight =
i = 1 ShareOfPathTarget
Where P is all paths in a path set of origin O to destination D. If e.g. there are five paths
from zone A to zone B, the ShareOfPathTarget of the five zones is added together.
The volume of an individual path p then results from the following equation.
p.ShareOfPathTarget
p.Load = Matrix value Total weight
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2.1.11
Stop point
Specified departure point for one or more lines. PuT lines stop here for passenger
boarding. In the most detailed model, the stop point corresponds to a stop sign for bus
services or the edge of a platform in the case of rail services.
Stop area
Combines several stop points in close proximity and displays the access to the stop points
in the remaining transport network via an access node.
Stop
Is the object which comprises the entire complex of stop points and stop areas. It is the
highest object of the stop hierarchy and carries the name of the stop and others, for the
entire construction applying attribute. In the real network, it is therefore of more
organizational nature.
Stop point
at link 12
after 50 m
Stop area
H
1
H
Stop
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Undirected
stop point on link
H
Directed
stop point on link
The differentiation between stop points on nodes and links allows network models of different
levels of detail to be generated with Visum:
For strategic planning, stop points on nodes are sufficient, since the exact position of the
stop point in front of or behind the road junction is usually of no interest. The stop area
and stop are generated automatically in the background, but generally remain hidden to the
user, if desired.
For operational planning and AVLS supply, it is useful to model the stop points on links, as
you can then achieve the required degree of detail.
It is also possible, of course, to mix both types in Visum, for example by using the more
accurate linkbased model in builtup areas and the nodebased model in nonbuiltup areas.
A stop point can be permitted or blocked for each existing transport system. Only line route
vehicle journeys, whose transport system is permitted, can stop there.
Notes: We recommend to set the start or end point of a line route only at stop points which
are located on nodes, because inaccurate results might occur if a line route starts or ends at
link stop points, for example, when calculating PuT operational indicators or in case of PuT
volumes which are displayed on link level.
Because vehicle journey stops always occur at a stop point, each stop has to have at least
one stop point.
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walkway) is used. The transfer time for a demand segment is always the minimum time
required for all permitted PuTWalk systems. User groupdependent transfer times, for example
for mobilityimpaired persons, can be modeled by permitting selected PuTWalk systems (for
example, groundlevel walkways and lifts) only for specific demand segments. Stop areas can
also represent intermediary levels in large station areas. In this case, while transfer times to
other stop areas exist, the stop area itself does not contain stop points.
Note: The transfer walk times (transfer walk times matrix) between the stop areas is defined
at the stop.
The second function of stop areas is to connect stops to zones and the walkway network
beyond the stop. As an option, to each stop area a network node which can be reached with
the same transfer times like each stop point of the area can be allocated. The time within a stop
area (diagonal of the transition matrix) is not used for the transfer to the access node. Via this
network node, PuT paths can change from a public transport line to links with PuTWalk or PuTAux transport systems as well as to connections to zones and vice versa.
2.1.11.3 Stops
A stop comprises the entire complex of stop areas and thus also stop points. To ensure that a
stop can be localized and displayed in graphical form, it has a coordinate, but it is not assigned
directly to a network node or link.
The stop contains information on route times within each stop area (on the transfer walk time
matrix diagonal) and between two stop areas. In addition to these walk times, as an option the
stop also has transfer walk times and wait times between transport systems. With this a
particularly through structural or organizational measures aggrieved or favored transfer
between vehicle journeys can be illustrated, for a modeled stop without stop areas, for
example. The general transfer walk time of eight minutes could apply in a large train station,
when changing from an ICE train to another train, however, because of track information, three
minutes should be sufficient, for example. In such a case, these three minutes could be defined
as transfer time of the transport system ICE in the same transport system.
2.1.12
PuT operators
Providers of public transport vehicle journeys, for example local transport services or train
operating companies, are called operators. The network object operator is the starting point for
analyses of the public transport supply from operator point of view. It is therefore used within
the network for grouping lines and vehicle journeys to jointly evaluate units. An example is the
distribution of the revenues to the various operators of a transportation agency. This is often
based on service kilometers or seat kilometers. If you have assigned operators to the vehicle
journeys in your model, you can evaluate these and many other indicators (see "Operator
model PuT" on page 521).
Operators can either be assigned to a whole line (one then talks about a standard operator) or
individual vehicle journeys.
Note: Please note that changing the standard operator of a line subsequently, does not
overwrite the operators of existing vehicle journeys.
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2.1.13
2.1.14
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Main line
Line
Line route
Time profile
Vehicle journey
Vehicle journey item
Illustration 24: The line hierarchy used to model the PuT supply
Main lines
This optional network object is used for an aggregated evaluation of the lines allocated to the
main line. A main line can also incorporate lines of different transport systems. The network
object does not affect the assignment or the structure of the timetable.
Lines
A line structures the public transport supply. Within the Visum data model, it is mainly used to
aggregate several line routes. Each line has at least one line route or multiple line routes. The
line itself neither has a spatial course in the network (see "Line routes" on page 58), nor are run
times specified between the stop points (see "Time profiles" on page 60). Each line belongs to
exactly one transport system. You can optionally allocate a standard operator and a standard
vehicle combination to a line. When creating new vehicle journeys, they will then be suggested
as default values.
Line routes
A line route is part of exactly one line and describes the Spatial route course of the line for
one direction (from now on called the Line route course).
The line route course is issued as a classified series of route points. The length data of the line
route course are output between two consecutive route points. A route point can be a node or
a stop point along the line route course. All stop points along the course at which the line route
can stop, are always route points. All nodes along the course can optionally be declared as
route points. The line route course must start and end at a stop point that is located on a node.
The line routes of a line are usually available in pairs for the two directions. However, each line
can incorporate any number of line routes (cf. for example illustration 25). Different line routes
(pairs) of a line represent different route courses, which are organized in lines.
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Line routes can be generated either manually or based on existing system routes (see "System
routes" on page 70).
Link network
Line route 1
Line route 2
M
S
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Time profiles
Each line route has one or more time profiles. A time profile describes the temporal sequence
of the line along the line route. However, specific departure times are not specified, but the run
times between the individual route points.
Analogous to the line route (route points), the time profile is described by a sequence of profile
points. This sequence of profile points is called the course of the time profile. Any route points
of the underlying line route can be profile points. However, the start stop point and the end stop
point of the line route as well as all stop points, at which passengers can board or alight must
be among them. The time profile may also contain passage times for any route points of the
line route, e.g. for a conflict check of the timetable routes. Profile points are the points in the
network, between which the run times are specified in the time profile. The run time is specified
for the section between the previous and the current profile point. In case of stop points, a stop
time can additionally be specified and boarding and alighting can be permitted or prohibited.
Multiple time profiles of a line route can, for example, differ in the selection of the profile points
or the run times on the different sections between the profile points (cf. for example
illustration 26). If a vehicle journey of a line route shall stop at a stop point along the route yet
another one shall not stop, you need to define two time profiles for the same line route (yet not
if a vehicle journey shall serve just a section of the line route and thus of the time profile).
Furthermore, each time profile has a name and an allocation to a direction. Optionally, a
standard vehicle combination can be allocated to the time profile. When inserting a new vehicle
journey, this is then applied automatically as a default value.
Note: Please note that the vehicle combinations of existing vehicle journeys are not
overwritten. If a standard vehicle combination is specified for the line also, the standard
vehicle combination of the time profile takes effect when inserting a new vehicle journey.
Fare points can still be specified at the time profile, for each profile point. These can enter the
calculation of revenues (see User Manual, Chpt. 7, page 1157).
When modeling public transport, time profiles are important in the following use cases:
Couplings are set on time profile level (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.31.5.5, page 483).
Headways for the headwaybased assignment are specified on time profile level (see User
Manual, Chpt. 6.9, page 453).
As a consequence, all network objects which, in the line hierarchy are located below the time
profiles (vehicle journeys and vehicle journey sections), are not relevant when defining
headways or couplings. Therefore, if you want to couple profiles on vehicle journey level or
specify headways, you need to create a separate time profile for the respective vehicle
journeys and carry out the coupling or the definition of the headways here.
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Line route 1
SPoint
Stop
Dep.
SPoint
Stop
0:00
Arr
Dep.
1:00
1:02
2:00
2:02
1:50
1:52
3:00
3:02
2:50
2:52
5:00
5:02
4:50
5:02
6:00
6:00
0:00
M
Illustration 26: Example of two time profiles of a line route
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Furthermore, the vehicle journey contains a departure time at the start stop point from which,
together with the relative times of the time profile, all arrival, departure and nonstop run times
of the vehicle journey are determined.
A vehicle journey can optionally be assigned an operator. You can then calculate aggregated
evaluations of PuT operating indicators on operator level (see "Operator model PuT" on
page 521).
Valid day
Vehicle combination
Start and end stop point
Pre and post preparation time for line blocking (see "Line blocking" on page 532)
A vehicle journey, which traverses from A to C via B from Monday to Friday, on the
weekend however, only from A to B, can be modeled by two vehicle journey sections, which
only differ in their valid days.
A train, running from A via B to C, between A and B however with less coaches, can be
modeled by two vehicle journey sections, which differ in their vehicle combinations and
start and end stop points.
Any combinations are possible, for example a train which runs between A and B and which
is only short on the weekend.
Vehicle journey sections are network objects, with which line blocking is carried out (see
"Line blocking" on page 532).
The table 10 shows an example with three vehicle journeys of a line route. The line route has
two time profiles. Vehicle journey 993 is divided into three vehicle journey sections, which differ
in valid days and vehicle combinations.
62
Trip number
from > to
Departure time
Valid day
Vehicle combination
991
NH
Daily
Loco + 6 coaches
992
MH
Daily
Loco + 6 coaches
993
MH
Daily
Loco + 6 coaches
HS
11:02 a.m.
(Sat+Sun)
Sat+Sun
Loco + 6 coaches
MN
1 additional coach
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Line
Line route
Time profile
IC1
IC1
1.1
1.2
1.1
Trip number
991
992
Valid day
Daily
Daily
Vehicle combination
L+6C

M dep.
IC1
993

MonFri
Sat+Sun
MonFri
L+6C
L+6C
L+6C
1C
5:10
6:00
I arr.
07:00 a.m.
I dep.
07:02 a.m.
N arr.
N dep.
W arr.
W dep.
H arr.
H dep.
11:02 a.m.
S arr.
12:00 a.m.
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The link length can be allocated from the direct distance of the link (see User Manual, Chpt.
2.14, page 276).
The link length can be allocated from the polygon length of the link (see User Manual, Chpt.
2.14, page 276).
When shaping the link, it can be specified that the link length should comply with the
polygon length (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.14.11, page 290).
You can overwrite the link length in the link list manually, for example, and thus assign any
length to the link (see User Manual, Chpt. 12.1.10, page 1386).
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Link
Length
When editing the shape of the link: Take over LengthPolygon
Manual overwriting
Standard
To Length
Manual overwriting
Legend
Standard
The value of the attribute is used as standard value for another attribute. Please note: when subsequently
editing the attribute (e.g. tPuTSys), the value is not adjusted automatically (for example for the Run time
at time profile). To do this, please use the suitable functionality on the righthand side (such as Set
times: from link run time)
Visum offers different possibilities to assign times to links and time profiles. The illustration 28
provides an overview on how you can influence the run time values for links and time profiles.
The standard values for the link run time of a PuT transport system (tPuTSys) is calculated
from link length divided by the linkspecific speed of the PuT transport system. The link run time
of the PuT transport system again provides the standard values for the travel times in the time
profile. The departures and arrivals of a vehicle journey always automatically result from the
times provided in the respective time profile. The run times for each PuT transport system can
be changed as follows.
The run times can be assigned from the line run times.
The standard value (quotient of link length and linkspecific speed of the PuT transport
system) can be restored.
You can overwrite the times manually in the link list, for example (see User Manual, Chpt.
12.1.10, page 1386).
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Link
Standard values
Manual overwriting
Standard
Set times: from link run time
Time profile
run time
Auto
Manual overwriting
Vehicle journey
Departure/ Arrival
Legend
Standard
Auto
The value of the attribute is used as standard value for another attribute. Please note: when editing the
attribute (for example tPuTSys) afterwards, the value is not adjusted automatically (e.g. for the Run time
at time profile). To do this, please use the suitable functionality on the righthand side (such as Set
times: from link run time)
For the temporal scheduling of the vehicle journeys, the times of the associated time profile are transferred
automatically. If you thus change a run time in the time profile, the time of the associated vehicle journeys
will be changed automatically.
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F
A
As an option, aggregating line routes can be made more difficult with the following conditions.
Time profiles must have the same run and dwell times.
Time profiles must have the same settings for boarding and alighting.
Time profiles must have the same vehicle combination.
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H1
L11
H4
H3
L12
L13
L11
H2
H1
H3
H2
H5
L12
H5
H4
H6
H3
L11
L11
H5
L12
L13
H1
H2
H4
H6
H1
H2
H3
H4
L12
The number of vehicle journeys and their departure times from From/To Stop Points of coupled
sections may deviate. Missing vehicle journeys are generated.
In Visum, coupled line routes form a coupling group. Visum adjusts the times and the timetable
of the coupled line routes. Visum automatically adjusts the data of all line routes of the coupling
group after changes to the time profile of a single coupled line route.
Inserting and deleting vehicle journeys (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.43, page 658)
Inserting and deleting vehicle journey sections (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.43, page 658)
Changing the length of vehicle journeys (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.43, page 658)
These changes need to have an effect on coupled time profiles, so that the supply of vehicle
journeys in each coupling section is synchronized again.
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As servicekm, servicetime and the infrastructure cost influence the operating cost of a line
route, coupled line routes which result in lower costs.
Coupling does not have an impact on line blocking or assignments.
During assignment, changing seats within a coupled line is thus regarded as a regular transfer
between line routes.
40 km
30 min
50 km
30 min
40 km
30 min
H1
H4
L11
H3
H2
L12
H5
H6
40 km
30 min
50 km
30 min
40 km
40 min
Illustration 31: Calculation example for the calculation of indicators in case of couplings
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Number of trips
10 trips
Empty time
10 min/trip
Kilometer costs
1 euro/km
Hourly costs
60 euros/h
Track price
1 euro/km
Seats
Not coupled
Coupled
Coupled
L11
L12
L11
L12
Line route
ServiceKm
SeatKm
Service time
Outofdepot time
1,300 km
1,300 km
1,050 km
1,050 km
13,000 km
13,000 km
13,000 km
13,000 km
900 min
1,000 min
750 min
850 min
1,000 min
1,100 min
850 min
950 min
Cost
1,300 EUR
1,300 EUR
1,050 EUR
1,050 EUR
Cost
1,000 EUR
1,100 EUR
850 EUR
950 EUR
Track costs
1,300 EUR
1,300 EUR
1,050 EUR
1,050 EUR
Total cost
3,500 EUR
3,600 EUR
2,950 EUR
3,050 EUR
10
10
10
10
Num Vehicle
journeys
H2H3
H3H4
H2H3
H3H4
1,000 km
400 km
500 km
400 km
20
10
10
10
2.1.15
System routes
A system route describes a route within the network from one stop point to another, with the
time required. As an option, this required travel time as well as supplements for starting and
braking per vehicle combination can be further specified. It is important that the travel times are
always stored independent of concrete lines in the system route. The system route thus
represents a time which a certain vehicle combination requires on a given route between two
stop points, independent of whether they belong to a line or even to a concrete vehicle journey.
This travel time and route information can be used in two ways for creating a timetable.
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If several matching system routes exist, the times are not set for the sections in question.
When new time profiles are created, the run times are calculated on the basis of the system
route (if available). Special defaults are taken into account for the vehicle combination if it is
specified for both the system route and the time profile.
If no system routes have been defined, link times are used as before.
Besides being used in the timetable, system routes play an important role in line blocking. As
an option, system routes can be used for empty trips within line blocking or new system routes
can be generated automatically for that purpose (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.33.8, page 527).
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2.1.16
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POIs are managed in POI categories. Each POI must be allocated to a POI category. Before
inserting the first POI, you thus have to create a POI category (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.34.1,
page 532). Any number of POI objects can then be inserted in the defined POI category, in the
network.
POI categories in a transport network are for example
POI categories can be organized as a hierarchy. This is how you can create a POI category
schools with the three subcategories secondary schools, junior high schools and elementary
schools.
Each POI can be assigned to a node, a link, another POI, a stop area, a stop point or a POI
category. You can illustrate this assignment graphically in the network (see User Manual, Chpt.
12.3.5, page 1411). In the example of illustration 33 allocations are used to illustrate for
parking lots in a downtown area which links the approaches lead to.
If you want to import data from GIS systems into Visum, these data can be stored as POIs in
the network model (see User Manual, Chpt. 10.4, page 1295).
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Notes: POIs and their assignment to network objects do not have an influence on procedures,
such as assignments for example.
If you create a userdefined attribute for a POI category, it will also be created for all
subcategories of the POI category.
2.1.17
The detector is allocated to a node or a main node. This type of detector serves for
modeling signal control, for example, trafficresponsive signal control. It is not possible to
define a reference to count locations.
The detector is defined freely in the network and as an option, it can be allocated to a count
location, and so also indirectly to a link. In this case the detector constitutes a lanebased
count location. It breaks down the count data of a count location precisely by lane. The
number of observed lanes is defined via the observed lanes attribute. The lane observed
on the far right is defined via the Lane position attribute. If a detector is allocated to a count
location and therefore, to a link, the observed lanes have to be compatible with the number
of link lanes. This means that no lane which is not defined on the link may be observed.
With a lane number of two the detectors for lanes 1 and 2 are allowed to be defined. It is
however permitted, that a lane is observed by several or no detectors.
Count locations and their detectors are used less to maintain data, but more to visualize and
process thematic maps. Even though you can save count data to userdefined attributes of
count locations, you can also save them directly to userdefined attributes of the link (see
"Userdefined attributes" on page 101). The advantage of saving count data directly at links is
that, in evaluations, you can compare them directly with the calculated volumes, which are also
saved with the link attributes. This approach is particularly recommended if you want to use the
matrix correction technique TFlowFuzzy (see "Updating demand matrix with TFlowFuzzy" on
page 195).
Count locations are thus primarily used for marking the position of a count in the network. You
can use the number to refer to external data, where applicable. The illustration 34 shows a
map, which is illustrated in the local position of the count location in the network, together with
the date of the last traffic count.
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Illustration 34: Visualization of the local position of count locations with the date of the count
Notes: Do not just use count locations to integrate count values into the network. Instead use
userdefined attributes on links. However, if the current project requires the visualization of
counts or count locationrelated values shall be managed externally, the effort for the
coverage of count locations and detectors can pay off.
Compared to assignments for example, count locations and detectors do not have an
influence on procedures. The only exception are detectors near nodes which can be taken
into account for trafficresponsive signal control. Information provided by these detectors are
also used for ANM export to Vissim.
2.1.18
Toll systems
Toll systems are network objects which can be used to integrate toll zones and tolls into the
network model (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.38, page 561). They represent the basis for the
calculation of road tolls in the Tribut procedure (see "Basics of the assignment with toll
consideration" on page 378).
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Area toll
In case of an area toll, a geographically contiguous part of the network is designated as a
toll zone and a distanceindependent charge applies if a portion of the route is located
within the toll zone. In Visum, you can define such toll zones by inserting a polygon and
specifying a toll for all associated chargeable links.
The "Congestion Charge" in London is an example of an area toll. In the city center, a toll
is charged as soon as the specified area is entered.
Matrix toll
This type of toll model is the typical road pricing scheme for motorway corridors. A subset
of links is designated as a toll zone with a small number of connections (entries and exits)
to the rest of the network. Toll prices are not defined as a total of link toll prices, but there
is an individual price for each pair (entry exit). Because of these pairs, this type of road
pricing scheme is called a matrix toll. Toll typically increases with distance but in a
degressive way, i.e. the toll per km decreases with distance.
2.1.19
GIS objects
GIS objects are POIlike network objects (n categories with m objects of the type point, polyline
or polygon) that are only available during a Personal Geodatabase (PGD) connection (see
"Connection to the Personal Geodatabase and GIS objects" on page 671). This is how GIS
data can constantly be synchronized between the PGD and Visum.
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2.1.20
Screenlines
A screenline is a polygon, which can be inserted into the network by the user with any number
of intermediate points. The screenline is inserted so that it intersects multiple links. The values
of any attributes of all links, which are intersected by the screenline, can then be aggregated
with the screenline. The following aggregate functions are thus available respectively for all or
only for the active links (see "Indirect attributes" on page 95).
The orientation of a screenline depends on the sequence of the polygon points along its
course. It is always oriented to the right in the direction of creating. By default, arrow heads
along the course indicate the orientation. For the aggregation, you can take into account all
links in screenline orientation, all links against the screenline orientation, or all links,
independently of the direction.
In the following example, the screenline intersects two links whose volume amounts to 1,000
and 3,000 persons. The screenline then aggregates the values of the links that it intersects. In
the example it identifies a total of 4,000 persons in screenline orientation for all links and an
average of 2,000 persons.
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With the aid of screenlines, you can for example determine the traffic that enters and exits the
downtown area every day in a traffic engineering study which analyses the traffic volume of a
downtown area. In illustration 37, 149,334 vehicles in PrT and 76,370 persons in PuT are
entering the downtown area.
2.1.21
Junction modeling
Visum provides the possibility to model junctions in detail. There are two major fields of
application, namely the use of a detailed node impedance model among others in assignment
procedures, and the export for a microsimulation in Vissim.
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Element
Description
Geometry
Geometries are used to describe the geometry of nodes and main nodes in
detail. The principal elements of geometries are legs.
Leg
A leg geometry consists of a set of legs. A leg describes an entry to the node
section and the corresponding exit. A set of legs at a node or main node is
defined by the set of link orientations.
Lanes
A leg consists of a set of incoming and outgoing lanes. Through lanes are the
ones that lead right up to the adjacent node and pocket lanes start and end at
a certain distance from the node area.
Lane turn
Lane turns define a relation between an incoming lane and an outgoing lane.
They are used for detailed transport system and lanebased descriptions of the
turn conditions at a node.
Signal control
A signal control describes the total of all signal control data at one or more
nodes or main nodes. There are stage based and signal group based signal
controls, as well as external signal controls of the type RBC.
Stage
A stage is the basic unit of a signal plan in case of stagebased signal controls.
A set of signal groups is allocated to each stage. Then the green times of the
signal group result from the green times of the stages.
Signal group
Crosswalk
Detector
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roads and outgoing oneway roads in one leg (see "Geometries" on page 80), if you give them
the same orientation.
Whether Visum calculates the link orientations automatically at a node or main node or not,
depends on the attribute Use automatic link orientation. If the link orientations are calculated
automatically, the type of calculation depends on the option set under Network > Network
parameters > Network objects > Link orientations (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.14.4,
page 280). Normally, the value is set to 8. This means that Visum picks the best orientations
from the four main directions (N, E, S, W) and the four secondary orientations (NE, SE, SW,
NW). The entry angle of the link at the node or main node is decisive when selecting the
orientation. If the orientations do not suffice i.e. the node or main node has more than eight
legs Visum adds the subordinated secondary orientations (e.g. NNE).
Notes: In Visum versions prior to 11.5, this setting did not exist for the calculation. Visum used
to implicitly calculate with today's setting 4. This means that Visum first tried to allocate only
the main orientations, and only switched to the secondary orientations in case of nodes with
more than four legs. The subordinated secondary orientations were not used in earlier Visum
versions.
Please note that you can define varying numbers of legs at a node or main node, depending
on the number of pairs of incoming and outgoing oneway roads that are given the same
orientation.
2.1.21.2 Geometries
In macroscopic traffic models, an atgrade junction is represented by a node (point object) with
turns. Macroscopic modeling, however, does not reveal anything on the detailed geometry or
the geometric design of a junction. Nearly the same applies to the node control. The optional
extension of the Visum network model by node geometry and junction control can be used in
the following fields:
A node geometry consists of the items node legs, lanes, lane turns, detectors, and crosswalks.
If a signal control is allocated to a node, its data refer to the node geometry. By default, no
geometry data are provided at a node. These are generated not until the first access.
Legs
The principal elements of the geometry are the legs. A node/main node can have up to sixteen
legs. The set of legs is determined by the orientations of the incoming and outgoing links (see
"Network objects of the junction model" on page 79). For each used link orientation, exactly
one leg is generated. Legs can thus either consist of an incoming link and its opposite direction,
or of an incoming oneway road and an outgoing oneway road.
Legs can have a center island, a channelized island, or both. For a center island to exist, the
center island length and width both need to have a value > zero. For a channelized island to
exist, the channelized island length needs to be > zero. The Stop line position attribute is only
used for the export to Vissim. Legs also possess a set of lanes.
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Lanes
There are incoming lanes and outgoing lanes, as well as through lanes and pockets. The
number of through lanes at a leg cannot be changed. It is based on the set number of lanes at
the links which underlie the leg. Therefore, if the incoming link of the leg has three lanes
(Number of lanes attribute on the link) and at least one transport system, the leg features
three incoming through lanes. If the number of lanes at this link is changed, the number of
through lanes at the leg will be adjusted automatically. We recommend doublechecking the
adjusted geometry data after such modifications. Since at least one open link underlies each
leg, each leg features at least one through lane.
The number of lanes at a leg can be changed by creating pocket lanes (pockets). Pocket lanes
always refer to a through lane on which they originate (origin lane). In contrast to through lanes,
pockets can be removed again. For pockets, a length can be specified. This is used during
Vissim exports and for specific methods of impedance calculations at nodes.
By default, the transport system set permitted on a lane corresponds to the transport system
set of the underlying link. For pockets, the transport system set of the origin lane is used by
default.
Note: The numbering of the lanes differs from the one in Vissim.
Lane turns
A lane turn connects an incoming lane with an outgoing lane. When generating a geometry
automatically, a set of lane turns is also generated automatically. In order to define a lane turn,
the turn or main turn between the link underlying the incoming lane and the link underlying the
outgoing lane must be open. This means that it needs to have at least one transport system.
It is usually not desired that lane turns intersect. Two lane turns, for example, intersect if one
of them makes a left turn on a right lane and the other one goes straight on a left lane. This is
yet possible and desired, if the left turn is a PrT turn and the other one a PuT turn. In this way,
a tram can, for example, be modeled in central position.
The set of lane turns basically determines the results of the node impedance calculations at a
node/main node.
Crosswalks
Crosswalks are objects that connect the sides or the islands of a leg per direction. Depending
on the combination of islands at a leg, you can define up to six crosswalks. If the node leg e.g.
has a center island (i.e. its center island length and width are both > zero) and a channelized
turn, six crosswalks can be defined: One between a side and the center island, one between
the center island and the channelized island, one between the channelized island and the other
side, and one each in the opposite direction.
Crosswalks are exported to Vissim. For crosswalks, a pedestrian volume can be specified.
This is relevant when calculating the node impedance using ICA (see "Intersection Capacity
Analysis according to the Highway Capacity Manual (ICA)" on page 229).
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of stagebased SCs, green time start and green time end of a signal group correspond to the
green time start and green time end of its stage. If for a signal group or stage, the Green time
start attribute is 0 and the Green time end attribute is identical with the SC cycle time, this is
interpreted as permanent green. Both attributes are restricted by the cycle time of the SC. The
Green time end can have a smaller value than the Green time start. In this case, the green
time is calculated by subtracting the difference of both values from the SC cycle time. The
green time cannot fall below the minimum green time of a signal group.
Signal groups also have the attributes Amber and Allred. Furthermore, intergreens can be
defined between signal groups. All of these values are important when calculating the signal
cycle and split optimization. Hereby, the Used intergreen method attribute of the signal
control determines whether the amber and allred time or the intergreen matrix is used for
optimization. The ICA loss time adjustment attribute is used in the calculation of the
impedances with ICA to determine the effective green times with the aid of the specified green
times. The Minimum green time attribute is used for signal cycle and split optimization,
serving as a low threshold value for the green time calculated. The Vissim coordinated
attribute is only relevant for the Vissim export.
The relation between the signal control and the network is established when allocating the
signal groups to lane turns. Each signal group can be allocated to any number of lane turns.
Prerequisite is, that the lane turns are located at nodes or main nodes which are allocated to
the SC of the signal group. Likewise, any number of signal groups of the SC can be allocated
to each lane turn that is allocated to the node or main node of the lane turn. A signal group can
also be allocated to any number of crosswalks. A crosswalk, however, can only refer to one
signal group. The data model is not restricted here. As an example, Visum does not check
whether a signal group is allocated to each lane turn. It does not check either whether
conflicting volumes have overlapping green times. Should the signal control be used to
determine node impedances, it is recommended to carry out the respective ICA network check
option to detect incomplete junction models (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.41, page 640).
Note: It is recommended to complete the modeling of a node or main node, before allocating
signal groups to lane turns. When deleting or inserting lane turns, the signal control data can
get lost.
External controls
A special feature of external SCs is that the data are not saved in the version file. Vissig control
files are saved in the *.sig format. This way, they can also be accessed by other programs, for
example Vissim. To edit external control data in Visum, you use the Vissig program. In external
controls, multiple signal programs can be stored. This is not the case for signal group based or
stage based controls. Therefore, the SC attribute Signal program number is only relevant
when dealing with external controls. Visum accesses the data saved in the control file at certain
times. This is, for example, the case when opening a version file or when running the
operations Signal cycle and split optimization and Update impedances at node via ICA.
Note: Up to Visum 12, RBCs belonged to the external controls. Now RBC files in the *.rbc
format are still read in, but are no longer used.
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Stage templates
Stage templates can be used to easily generate signal control data at a node or main node
(see User Manual, Chpt. 2.40.13.3, page 629). If a stage template is allocated to a node, the
SC of the node then possesses a lot of stages and signal groups. Lane turns are already
allocated to the signal groups. This means, for example, that conflicting volumes are signalized
with different green times.
Note: Prerequisite for the use of a stage template is, however, that a stagebased SC is
already allocated to the node or main node.
2.1.22
Network check
Visum supports the user when checking the consistence of the network model. If the network,
for example, contains zones which are not connected to the rest of the network, this indicates
a modeling error. To identify such errors, several tests are provided (see User Manual, Chpt.
2.41, page 640).
2.2
2.2.1
Calendar
Valid days
Time series
Analysis time slots
2.2.1.1
Calendar
With the aid of the calendar, the modeling of transport supply (in PuT and for the DUE
procedure in PrT) and demand (for the dynamic procedures of PrT and the headwaybased
and timetablebased assignments of PuT) can be refined considerably. It is not only possible
to model any day, but also to manage any combination of weekdays or individual days. The
calendar is global, i.e. only one of the following three calendar options can be applied to the
entire model. Use of the calendar is optional. The following options can be selected for a
network model:
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No calendar
The transport options for one day are indicated. The analysis period is thus automatically
one day and cannot be edited by the user.
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Weekly calendar
The demand (for the dynamic procedures of the PrT and for the headwaybased and
timetablebased procedures of the PuT) and the PuT supply can be differentiated for the
individual weekdays Monday to Sunday. It is possible to specify for each vehicle journey
section weekdays on which there will be a service. The analysis period can be any time
period of entire days within the week (such as Monday to Friday).
Annual calendar
Valid days can be defined for any day of the year. The analysis period can be set to any
time period (in entire days) within the calendar period (e.g. 14th July 2008 to 20th July
2008).
The calendar takes effect in the following procedures (all other procedures are not affected):
2.2.1.2
Valid days
Valid days are closely linked to the calendar as they can be specified on the basis of the
selected calendar. First the kind of calendar is thus chosen when modeling, and then valid
days are specified on the basis of the respective calendar.
Valid day is a freely definable set of days of the calendar used. If a weekly calendar is used, a
valid day may comprise the days Monday to Friday, for example (the valid day then is
designated Mondays to Fridays).
In PuT the timetable is based on a calendar (see "Calendar" on page 84). A valid day can be
assigned to each vehicle journey section. Optionally, this can consist of an individual day or an
example week, however, a defined period on the calendar can also be used. In each case, the
availability of individual vehicle journey sections can be specified by valid days. A valid day is
a freely definable set of days of the underlying calendar. For each valid day a separate name
can be allocated. Valid days usually represent regularly recurring patterns, such as Monday to
Friday, but these could also be individual days (for example 01.01.2009). How to define a valid
day depends of the selected calendar:
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No calendar
Exclusively uses the valid day daily. It is not possible to create further valid days. Demand
and supply are modeled for an unspecified, recurring day in this case.
Weekly calendar
Apart from the predefined valid day daily any desired valid days can be created, which are
specified by entering one or several valid weekdays (e.g. all weekdays with the valid day
name MonFri).
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Annual calendar
Valid days can be defined for any day of the year within the calendar period. The following
possibilities are provided:
fixed time period (e.g. 01.01.2008 to 30.06.2008)
weekdays (e.g. MonFri)
hard rule (for example during the summer holidays)
free selection of calendar days (for example 24.12.2007 and 31.12.2007)
Valid days play a minor part in PrT. Valid days can be used in the following assignment
procedures:
Tip: In these procedures, the transport supply can be timevarying. Timevarying attributes
are used (see "Timevarying attributes" on page 105). When using a calendar, valid days can
be specified for these timevarying attributes, on which they should have an effect.
2.2.2
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For time series as percentages a weight is specified for each time interval. It specifies
which share of the total demand accounts for the respective time interval. If a time series
as percentages is used for a demand segment, a demand matrix must also be specified,
whose demand is distributed temporarily with the specified weights. This matrix must
contain the number of travel demands in the time period, defined by the starting time and
the length of the time series.
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However, for time series of matrix numbers for each time interval a separate demand matrix
is specified. It contains the travel demands of this time interval only.
Note: When using time series of matrix numbers, it is possible to specify a value for the
demand for each OD relation and time interval. This way, asymmetric changes of the demand
(load direction) can be illustrated. For time series as percentages however, the same factor
applies to each OD relation per time interval.
Time series of matrix numbers require a full matrix for each time interval, which must be
generated and also saved. In order to save the effort and still be able to model a certain load
direction in the demand, Visum provides demand time series as a compromise. These are
generated on the basis of a standard time series, whereas a different standard time series can
be specified for each pair of zone types. In this way, it is possible to specify deviating time
series for selected pairs of origin and destination zones with known structural features (for
example purely residential or commercial areas).
For each demand segment, either a fixed demand matrix together with a time series as
percentages is specified, or a demand time series which itself is a time series of matrices.
Moreover, a start day and the start time per demand segment must be specified.
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Note: The start time shifts the time intervals of the time series since it is specified relative to
this start time point. If the time series defines an interval A from 0 am to 1 am and an interval
B from 1 am to 2 am, and the start time is set to day 2 at 2 pm, the share of the demand
defined in interval A will arise on day 2 from 2 pm to 3pm, and the share of interval B on day
2 from 3 pm to 4 pm. Outside of these times, for example on the first day of the calendar,
there is no demand.
2.2.3
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The calendar period calendar period covers the set calendar, i.e. one, seven or any
number of days.
The Time reference of the demand determines the number of travel demands within the
assignment time interval. The time reference is established by the start time of the demand
segment and the time series allocated to the demand segment (see User Manual, Chpt.
3.1, page 731).
The assignment time interval mainly serves to determine the share of the demand that
needs to be assigned. It is crucial that the assignment time interval of each assignment lies
within the analysis time period. In the assignment, the share of the demand that accounts
for the assignment time interval according to the time series is assigned to the paths found
in this time period. The assignment area and the demand time series need to overlap, since
otherwise no demand exists within this time period and no assignment can be calculated.
An assignment time interval can only be specified for dynamic assignments (DUE, Dynamic
Stochastic assignment) of the PrT and for the headwaybased and timetablebased
assignment of the PuT. The assignment time interval is specified in the parameters of the
assignment procedure. In all statistic PrT assignments (Equilibrium assignment,
Incremental procedure, Equilibrium_Lohse, Stochastic assignment, Tribut), the assignment
time interval automatically corresponds to the analysis period.
The analysis period (AP) represents the period on which all evaluations are based. If no
calendar is used, the analysis period is one day. If a weekly or annual calendar is used, the
analysis period is specified in the procedure parameters. The analysis period is a time
period between at least one day and a maximum of the whole calendar period Initially,
calculated results are available for the analysis period, before they are converted into
analysis time intervals or the analysis horizon. The analysis period must be within the
calendar period. The assignment intervals must lie completely within the analysis period.
For the analysis period projection factors can be specified at the demand segments, which
project the assignment results from the assignment time interval to the analysis period.
They serve to scale the demand to the analysis period. If the time period of the demand
matrix is identical to the analysis period, the projection factor is 1. If the demand matrix is
based on one day, yet the analysis period on a week, the factor would have to be set to 7
(when assuming that the traffic is the same on all 7 days of the week).
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The analysis horizon (AH) is a longer time period on which the results can be projected.
It is not specified explicitly. Instead, the projection factors on the analysis horizon are
predefined. These can be specified at the demand segment (for the volumes) and at the
valid day (for the operator model) (see "Basic calculation principles for indicators" on
page 641). As a rule, an analysis horizon of a year is regarded. Since a different projection
factor can be specified for each demand segment, the projection factor of daily values to a
year can for example be smaller for a demand segment Pupils than for a demand segment
Commuters, as the pupils have more vacation days on which they do not generate any
traffic. The volume of a network object in terms of the analysis period is the total of the
volumes of all paths traversing the network object, multiplied by the projection factor of the
demand segment. This projection factor compensates that the assignment time interval
may cover only a part of the analysis period.
Analysis time interval (AI)
For a more refined temporal evaluation of calculated results, analysis time intervals can be
defined (see "Temporal distinction with analysis time intervals" on page 92). Each analysis
time interval needs to lie completely within a calendar day of the analysis period.
Note: Contrary to the analysis period, which incorporates the assignment time interval and
thus requires a projection of the volumes, the analysis time intervals identify the exact volume
which arises in the respective time period. Thus, the projection factors of the individual
demand segments do not have an effect on the volume per analysis time interval. If the
analysis period is completely covered by analysis time intervals, the relationship between the
total volumes for the intervals and the volume related to the analysis period exactly
corresponds to the projection factor.
DSeg 1
DSeg i
Demand segments
Calendar period CP
Day n
Day 1
Analysis period AP in CP
AP
AI
ATI
Illustration 40: The relationship between the different analysis time slots
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Projection factor AP
Projection factor AH
365
 5 = 260
7
Saturday
52
Sunday
52
DSeg
DSeg
start day start
time
Standard
Standard
Assignment
time series time series can be
from
to
calculated
Ex. 1 Weekly
calendar
MonMon Mon
01:00:00 00:00:00
a.m.
02:00:00
No
Ex. 2 Weekly
calendar
MonMon Mon
05:30:00 00:00:00
02:00:00
Yes
Ex. 3 Weekly
calendar
MonMon Mon
00:00:00 05:30:00
07:30:00
a.m.
Yes
Table 16: Example of the interaction of analysis time intervals and time series
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Mo
Tu
Calendar period CP
1:00
3:00
6:30
Analysis period AP in CP
7:30
AP
Assignment interval AI in AP
AI
Illustration 41: Assignment not possible because the validity of the demand and the assignment time
interval do not overlap.
Share of the demand
that is assigned
Mo
Tu
Calendar period CP
5:30
Analysis period AP in CP
Assignment interval AI in AP
6:30
7:30
AP
AI
Illustration 42: The demand between 6:30 and 7:30 a.m. is assigned.
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Mo
Tu
Calendar period CP
5:30
Analysis period AP in CP
Assignment interval AI in AP
6:30
7:30
AP
AI
Illustration 43: The demand between 6:30 and 7:30 a.m. is assigned.
2.2.4
2.2.4.1
If a period which is shorter than the analysis period shall be analyzed for the temporal
differentiation of calculation results, several analysis time intervals can be specified (see User
Manual, Chpt. 4.2.2, page 949). The analysis time intervals must lie within the analysis period.
They have to neither be consecutive nor of the same length. The analysis time period, must
however, be within a day, is therefore not allowed to contain a day changeover. Provided that
attributes can be assigned on a time basis, the portion assigned to each defined analysis time
interval can be identified separately.
In addition, you can show aggregated data across multiple analysis time intervals. To do so,
you can create additional analysis time intervals, assign them existing time intervals, and
specify an aggregation function. Using these time intervals, you can output data for more than
a day.
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In PrT, evaluations broken down by time slices can only be made for the dynamic assignment
DUE and the dynamic stochastic assignment (see "Dynamic User Equilibrium (DUE)" on
page 389 and "Dynamic stochastic assignment" on page 419). The reason is that only in those
assignments, the traffic demand can be timevarying. Therefore, evaluations for analysis time
intervals within the analysis period can only be made in the course of these procedures. The
link volume of the rushhour traffic from 7 to 9 am can thus for example be evaluated
separately.
In PuT, evaluations broken down to time slices are only possible for the timetablebased
assignment procedure. In the timetablebased assignment procedure however, there are no
connections that are fixed in time, so that it is not possible to apply assignment results to a
specific analysis time interval.
2.2.4.2
For spatial distinctions, the user initially defines territories (see "Territories" on page 52). These
are network objects, which are only relevant for analysis purposes and possess a polygon
(boundary) as the most important feature. Provided that attributes such as the passenger
kilometers of a line can be spatially localized, the share assigned to each territory can be
identified separately. Thus all passenger kilometers will be calculated, which arise within the
territory polygon. To calculate such an evaluation, the Territory indicators procedure must be
run (see User Manual, Chpt. 4.4.3, page 970). The results can be displayed in the list
Territories > Basis (see User Manual, Chpt. 12.1.10, page 1386) and are also available in the
filters and in the graphic parameters in the form of territory attributes.
In PuT even more detailed evaluations can be carried out (see "Operator model PuT" on
page 521). Here you can even calculate indicators for combinations of territories, objects of the
line hierarchy (transport system, main line, line, line route, time profile, vehicle journey) and as
an option, vehicle combinations. You can thus for example calculate the number of service
kilometers traveled by the vehicle combination tram on line 2 in the urban area. Here, an
additional distinction can be made for most of the indicators on a temporal basis. You would
thus get just the service kilometers between 5 and 6 pm for example. Use the procedure PuT
Operating Indicators to carry out such an evaluation (see User Manual, Chpt. 7.3.1,
page 1219). The results can be displayed in the Territories > PuT detail list (see User
Manual, Chpt. 12.1.10, page 1386).
2.2.5
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More detailed information on which units are used for capacity and demand in the individual
procedures will be given in the section on input and output attributes of each assignment
procedure (see "User model PrT" on page 211).
2.3
Attributes
In Visum, network objects have many attributes you can save your input or output data to.
Generally, there are two types of attributes:
Direct attributes
Indirect attributes
Direct attributes contain data that refer directly to a network object, e.g. the length or volume of
a link (see "Direct attributes" on page 94).
Indirect attributes refer to the relations between one network object and other network objects.
E.g. the sum of volumes of all outgoing links is an indirect attribute of a node (see "Indirect
attributes" on page 95).
The number of attributes available in Visum is not static, but can be extended by userdefined
attributes (see "Userdefined attributes" on page 101).
Timevarying attributes play a special role in dynamic assignments (see "Timevarying
attributes" on page 105).
2.3.1
Direct attributes
Each network object is described by means of Visum attributes (direct attributes). The following
types are differentiated as follows:
Note: The Attribute.xls file in the Doc folder of your Visum installation contains a complete list
of all types of Visum network objects (which in connection with databases are also called
tables) and of all attributes of each network object. There, you find the ID of each attribute, by
which it can be identified clearly, its name and code as well as the description of what each
attribute indicates.
The table 17 shows an example of some input and output attributes of the link.
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Attribute
Input attribute
Calculated attribute
Number
TSysSet
Capacity PrT
Number of lanes
t0PrTSys
tCurPrTSys
Passenger kilometers
Apart from predefined Visum attributes, for each network object type, userdefined attributes
(see "Userdefined attributes" on page 101) can be created and edited. They are also direct
attributes of the respective network object type and can be edited, saved, displayed graphically
and in tables like Visum attributes.
In addition, for some network object types, it is possible to overwrite defined attribute values
with other values for a limited time (see "Timevarying attributes" on page 105).
2.3.2
Indirect attributes
Besides the direct attributes of the currently selected network object, you can also access its
indirect attributes. These are direct objects of other network object types that are network
modelrelated to the selected object. Therefore, for a network object, both the direct attributes
as well as its relations to other network objects can be selected.
Indirect attributes give access to properties of other network objects, which bear a logical
relation to the base object. It is often convenient to filter network objects not only by their own
properties, but also by the properties of their logical neighbors in the network, or to display
these properties next to their own properties in listings or graphics (for example displaying the
aggregated values of the attributes of all stop points, which belong to a stop, in a list).
Relations between network object types are displayed explicitly in the user interface and allow
access to all attributes of the referenced network object types (e.g. Link From node
Outgoing Links). The three existing kinds of relations between the currently selected network
object type and other network object types are indicated as follows.
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exactly one relation (1...1). Such a relation, for example, exists between connector and
zone: each connector connects exactly one zone with the connector node. In the example
of table 18, for connectors, the indirect attribute Zone\Number of connectors is output.
For each connector, you can thus see how many other connectors the zone of this
connector has.
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either one or no relation (0..1). Such a relation, for example, exists between nodes and
main nodes. A node can be allocated to a main node, but does not have to be. Besides,
each node can be allocated to just one main node. As depicted in table 19, with the aid of
indirect attributes you can see for each node to which main node it is allocated by selecting
the name of the main node as indirect attribute (Main node\Name).
Selection of the indirect attribute Main node\Name The indirect attribute is displayed in the list next to
in the attribute selection window
the direct attributes of the node.
Table 19: Example of a 0..1 relation in the Visum network model
several relations (0..n). Such a relation, for example, exists between stop areas and
stop points. Since no 1:1 link exists between the network objects types in this case, you
need to select an aggregate function which pools all related network objects (the aggregate
function Sum for example ensures that all indirect attributes are allocated with the sum of,
for example, all boarding passengers at all stop points that have a relation to the selected
stop area). Below, an example is given for each of the aggregate functions provided in
Visum.
If a 0..n relation has been selected at the Visum interface, the aggregate functions of either all
network objects or merely the active ones are displayed. Aggregate functions are not provided
in case of 1..1 and 0..1 relations, as there is only one relation from the current network object
to another network object in this case (just one link type is for example allocated to each link).
For 0..n relations, the following aggregate functions are provided:
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Histogramand HistogramActive
Contrary to the aggregate function Concatenate, each occurring value is issued only once
along with the frequency of its occurrence. This display offers more clarity especially if the
user wants to see which values occur at all and how many times. The table 26 illustrates
the difference between the Concatenate and the Histogram display. Here, for each line, the
number of stop points of the associated line routes is displayed. For example, 13 line routes
are allocated to line S4. Two of the line routes have 10 stop points, 4 line routes have 20
stop points, and 7 line routes have 21 stop points.
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Indirect attributes can also be used as source attributes for operation Intersect and thus allow
the combination of logical and geometric relations (see "Intersect" on page 677).
2.3.3
Userdefined attributes
For all network objects  just as in databases or other geographical information systems  you
can define your own attributes in addition to the default input and output attributes in Visum.
Userdefined attributes can be edited and stored just like predefined Visum attributes.
The following data can thus be included in the model.
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Structural data of traffic zones (such as the number of households or the number of
workplaces), which serve as input data for demand modeling.
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Line name
Costs [CU]
001
13,012.86
22.94
567.06
002
22,797.80
36.02
632.83
003
13,390.06
14.60
916.71
004
10,428.43
19.99
521.58
005
10,109.21
17.87
565.65
006
6,833.93
23.03
296.65
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Note: Use formula attributes if you want the attribute Cost_per_Km to be updated
automatically when costs or link lengths change (see "Formula attributes" on page 104).
Then you need not repeat the calculation procedure in order to update the attribute. Visum
will automatically calculate the current values for you.
Each userdefined attribute has one data type. The following data types can be selected.
Bool (for example for a userdefined attribute "in scenario active", which can only be 0 or 1)
File (for example for a userdefined attribute at count locations which specifies which file
contains further information on the count location)
Formula (for automatic update of calculated attribute values) (see "Formula attributes" on
page 104)
Integer
Precise duration
Number with decimal places
Kilometers
Meters
Long text
Text
Time period
Time (for example 06:32:45)
2.3.3.1
Formula attributes
Userdefined attributes of the formula type largely differ from other userdefined attributes.
They are not used to save data (they do not belong to the input attributes), but consist of an
arithmetic expression that contains other attributes. This expression is created when you
create the attribute, but can be changed later on.
The advantage of using formula attributes is that Visum automatically recalculates the formula
when one of the input values changes. Then your values are always uptodate. Just as the
other attributes, you can also use formula attributes to graphically display data, filter data or to
perform analyses.
Example
For a PrT and PuT assignment, Visum calculates link volumes for PrT and PuT that are saved
to the attributes volume PrT [Pers] and volume PuT [Pers]. When creating a formula attribute
Advantage PrT = Volume PrT [Pers]  Volume PuT [Pers]
, you have direct access to the difference between the two volumes. This difference is
automatically updated if one of the input values changes.
Formula attributes are always numerical. When creating a formula expression, you have the
same options as for the procedure Edit attribute (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.3.8, page 176): A
formula is the sum of (a number of) subexpressions that each consist of an attribute or two
attributes combined with a binary operator. The operators available are the four basic
arithmetic operations, division in percent, raise to higher power, and minimum and maximum.
Each subexpression may be included in the amount. The formula total can additionally be
rounded or truncated.
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There are no restrictions concerning the attributes you can use in a formula. You can use
formula attributes within other formula attributes to form more complex expressions. This
implies that you can also use brackets.
Example
2.3.4
Timevarying attributes
The procedures DUE (see "Dynamic User Equilibrium (DUE)" on page 389) and dynamic
stochastic assignment (see "Dynamic stochastic assignment" on page 419) allow you to model
timedependent transport supply. In Visum, timevarying attributes are used for this purpose.
Timevarying attributes only affect these assignment procedures.
Otherwise timevarying attributes override the valid value of an attribute with a deviating value
for a certain amount of time. They can thus model, for example the impact of tidal flow lane
allocation or transient road works.
Timedependent attributes can be assigned to the following network objects.
Links
Turns
Main turns
Nodes
Main nodes
For these network objects, only specific attributes can be timevarying, and the deviating value
of the attributes is not relevant to all procedures. The table 28 gives an overview of which
attributes can be timevarying in which assignment procedures. For details, please refer to the
description of the dynamic stochastic assignment (see "Dynamic stochastic assignment" on
page 419) and DUE (see "Dynamic User Equilibrium (DUE)" on page 389).
Network object
Timevarying attribute
Links
DUE
X
TollPrTSys
X
X
v0 PrT
TSysSet
AddValue 13
AddValueTSys
Turns
Capacity PrT
TSysSet
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AddValue 13
Main turns
Capacity PrT
t0 PrT
TSysSet
AddValue 13
Nodes
Capacity PrT
t0 PrT
AddValue 13
Main nodes
Capacity PrT
t0 PrT
AddValue 13
Table 28: Timevarying attributes and their allocation to assignment procedures
The example in table 29 illustrates the effect of timevarying attributes using the example of the
Dynamic Stochastic assignment. The upper image shows the volumes and the capacity PrT on
the links in time period from 5 am to 7 am. The lower image shows the volumes and the
capacity PrT in the time period from 7 am to 9 am (a constant time series has been used here
to simplify the comparison of both conditions, so that the traffic supply is the same in both of
the time intervals).
The links 11  41 and 41  40 are charged with the full capacity of 800.
Table 29: Impact of timevarying attributes in the Dynamic Stochastic assignment
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With the aid of a timevarying attribute for the capacity PrT on the two links (1141 and 4140), both links
are charged with a reduced capacity of 100. Therefore, the volumes of the links are lower.
Table 29: Impact of timevarying attributes in the Dynamic Stochastic assignment
2.4
Subnetwork generator
With the Subnetwork generator addon module, a subnetwork together with the associated
partial matrices can be generated from the overall network in such a way that, generally
speaking, comparable assignment results are obtained for the subnetwork.
The subnetwork is generated on the basis of the following rules:
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The basis are all active links and all active line routes.
Apart from that, the following network objects are transferred to the subnetwork:
All From nodes and To nodes of the active links.
All junction editor / junction control data for nodes with at least one leg in the
subnetwork
Turns whose From link and To link belong to the subnetwork
All connectors at a node located in the subnetwork
All zones with connectors at a node located in the subnetwork
All PrT paths that belong to path sets
All count locations located on active links
All active POIs and, if applicable within the subnetwork; all references to nodes, links,
POIs, stop points and stop areas are copied
All screenlines
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In addition, the following network objects are transferred from the entire network to the
subnetwork:
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Demand segments
Modes
Transport systems
Link types
Main zones
Calendar periods
Valid days
Fare zones
Ticket types
Directions
Operators
Vehicle combinations
Vehicle units
Surfaces
Demand matrices
Time series
Demand time series
Activities, activity pairs, activity chains *
Person groups, structural properties *
Demand strata *
Skim matrices
Procedure parameters
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Demand matrices
Apart from the selected partial matrices (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.44, page 726), all other
matrices that exist in the original network are saved to the subnetwork. The values of these
matrices are set to zero. In order to indicate that they are part of the subnetwork, a suffix is
attached to the matrix file names. If the version file contains references to matrices, they
are updated accordingly.
Example
Subnetwork version name: tgen_ver
Matrix file name in the original network: car.mtx
Matrix file name in the subnetwork: car_tgen.mtx
The subnetwork generator considers the paths of an existing assignment and generates new
zones at the networks interfaces at which traffic flows enter or leave the network. These
virtual boundary zones (subnetwork cordon zones) are added to the partial matrices of the
demand segments so that no traffic demand in the subnetwork is lost.
If all line routes of all links are active, the total of the stop point matrix equals the total of the
demand matrix.
For matrices on path level and path leg level the following applies: If the PuTAux transport
system is used in a PuT assignment, the subnetwork generator manages routes that contain
PuTAux as follows:
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If there is a passive link on a route section that uses PuTAux, a subnetwork cordon zone is
generated at the From node of this link. As soon as the next active link is found, the
subnetwork generator creates another subnetwork cordon zone at the From node of that
link. The volume is transferred as demand data from one subnetwork cordon zone to the
next one.
In contrast, the following applies to the PuT Walk transport system: If there is at least one
passive link within a walk link, subnetwork cordon zones are created at the last stop point
before the walk link and at the next stop point after the walk link and not at the nodes of the
passive link, as for PuTAux.
The example in illustration 46 illustrates the differences. The Numbering of cordon zones
with offset option has been selected in order to clarify the connection with the nodes. The
offset specified is 10.
Walk link via active links
Zone
12
External zone
Node
Stop point
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
50
50
50
50
12
14
15
18
8
Stop point matrix:
12
14
15
18
12 14 15 18
50
50
Illustration 46: Generating a subnetwork with stop point matrices regarding path legs and stop point
matrices regarding paths
Procedure parameters
All procedure parameters that exist in the original network are transferred to the
subnetwork. In order to indicate that they are part of the subnetwork, a suffix is attached to
the files that store procedure parameters.
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2.5
2.5.1
Point
Edge
Edge item
Face
Face item
Surface
Surface item
Note: In Visum, you can save polygons together with the network object type using them to a
network file (see User Manual, Chpt. 1.4.6, page 48). However, thereby all polygons are
saved, independent of whether they were used for an object of the type specified or not.
Example
In the following example, the seven tables are displayed and explained for a network that
contains three main nodes with surfaces.
The network includes the three main nodes with the IDs 2, 3 and 4. These main nodes are
allocated via the SurfaceID attribute to the surfaces with the IDs 866, 867 and 868 (table 30).
* Table: Main nodes
$MAINNODE:NO;SURFACEID
2;866
3;867
4;868
Table 30: Table Main nodes
In the Surfaces table, all surfaces contained in the network are stored with their IDs. Since, in
the example, only the three main nodes have a surface, there are exactly three entries for the
main node surfaces in this instance (table 31).
* Table: Surfaces
$SURFACE:ID
866
867
868
Table 31: Table Surfaces
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Each surface is composed of one or multiple faces. The allocation of surfaces to faces is
carried out in table Surface items. In the example, the surfaces 866 and 868 have exactly one
face, whereas surface 869 has two faces. Thus, there are four faces in total with the IDs 1139,
1141, 1144 and 1145 (table 32).
* Table: Surface items
$SURFACEITEM:SURFACEID;FACEID;ENCLAVE
866;1139;0
868;1141;0
869;1144;0
869;1145;0
Table 32: Table Surface items
In the Faces table, all faces contained in the network are stored with their IDs. In this example,
there are thus four faces (table 33).
* Table: Faces
$FACE:ID
1139
1141
1144
1145
Table 33: Table Faces
In the Face items table, each face is allocated the IDs of the edges which define the face. As
you can see in table 34, the faces with the IDs 1141, 1144 and 1145 are squares each, as they
are defined by four edges. Face 1139 however, is a pentagon with five edges.
* Table: Face items
$FACEITEM:FACEID;INDEX;EDGEID;DIRECTION
1139;1;33136;0
1139;2;33137;0
1139;3;33138;0
1139;4;33139;0
1139;5;33140;0
1141;1;33145;0
1141;2;33146;0
1141;3;33147;0
1141;4 33148;0
1144;1 33160;0
1144;2 33161;0
1144;3;33162;0
1144;4;33163;0
1145;1;33164;0
1145;2;33165;0
1145;3;33166;0
1145;4;33167;0
Table 34: Table Face items
The table Edges contains all edges which are required for the description of the face items.
Each edge is defined by a start point and an end point, which bear the attribute names
FromPointID and ToPointID in the table (table 35).
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* Table: Edges
$EDGE:ID;FROMPOINTID;TOPOINTID
33136;9449;9450
33137;9450;9451
33138;9451;9452
33139;9452;9453
33140;9453;9449
33145;9458;9459
33146;9459;9460
33147;9460;9461
33148;9461;9458
33160;9473;9474
33161;9474;9475
33162;9475;9476
33163;9476;9473
33164;9477;9478
33165;9478;9479
33166;9479;9480
33167;9480;9477
Table 35: Table Edges
In the Points table, all points are displayed which in turn define the edges. Each one contains
information on the coordinates (XCoord and YCoord). This establishes the spatial reference of
the surface to the network (table 36).
* Table: Points
$POINT:ID;XCOORD;YCOORD
9449;3456991.5413;5430055.0204
9450;3456991.5413;5430004.3885
9451;3457052.3873;5429991.7699
9452;3457070.0872;5430048.9542
9453;3457026.8560;5430057.9988
9458;3458808.0227;5431086.8027
9459;3458821.3171;5431061.4225
9460;3458848.5102;5431078.9469
9461;3458835.5180;5431101.9100
9473;3456956.4483;5430005.5296
9474;3456948.8422;5430060.3735
9475;3456887.1928;5430052.7674
9476;3456903.2057;5429996.7225
9477;3456896.8005;5430097.6033
9478;3456938.0336;5430071.1821
9479;3456961.6525;5430097.6033
9480;3456945.2393;5430125.2254
Table 36: Table Points
No intermediate points were generated in the example. The table is therefore empty (table 37).
* Table: Intermediate points
$EDGEITEM:EDGEID;INDEX;XCOORD;YCOORD
Table 37: Table Intermediate points
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2.5.2
Multipart surfaces
A surface can be made up of several faces (multipart surfaces). Generally, a multipart surface
is defined by a set of socalled faces. Each face is a polygon with a sign. This is positive, if
coordinates encircle the polygon anticlockwise and negative, if the coordinate sequence is
clockwise. Positive faces are thus digitalized anticlockwise, negative faces clockwise. This
way, the type of polygon is clearly defined when interactively modifying polygons in the network
display. This orientation of a face is thus a significant object feature. Positive faces add to the
surface, negative surfaces subtract from it (holes).
a n ti c
c lo c
kwi
lo c k
w is e =
p o s it
iv
se =
neg
a t iv
anticlockwise
= positive
Visum automatically normalizes the definition of any surface it encounters. Faces never
intersect and a positive face will always (directly) contain only negative faces and vice versa.
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Specified surface
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The simple example of the area calculation suffices to understand why a normalized
representation facilitates geometrical operations. The area of normalized surfaces results
directly from the sum of the areas of its faces. The sign depends directly on the orientation.
Without normalization, the areas of all occurring intersections of the faces would have to be
subtracted from the result. This would imply a significant increase in computation time.
Computation time particularly increases because the mere determination of the intersection of
sets with multiple overlaps is a complex algorithmic procedure.
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2.5.3
The study area is a onepiece surface. The surrounding consists of two surface areas, the
outer, positive outline and a hole. The gap has the same edge points as the study area, but
its own face object, edges, points and intermediate points. This is because during
digitization of the surrounding, the existing edge points of the study area are snapped, but
the option Merge snapped points has not been activated. If one of the two surfaces is
digitized again later on, this does not affect the other surface. The edges of the two
surfaces do not remain congruent, but a gap or an overlapping area (or both) is created.
The study area consists of a onepiece surface that is also used as its negative face. This
is because during digitization of the surrounding, the existing edge points of the study area
are snapped and the option Merge snapped points has been activated. If one of the two
surfaces is digitized again later on, this will affect the other surface in terms of the face that
is used by both. The edges of the two surfaces still remain congruent, even after changes
have been made.
Which type of modeling is best suited depends on the individual case. However, it is always
helpful to combine points of the same coordinates into an object, if the surfaces have the same
borders. If you are working with larger models, the aspect of saving memory space may also
play a role. Since if points (intermediate points, edges, faces) are combined into an object, less
memory space is required.
You can also combine all points with identical coordinates of an existing network later on (see
User Manual, Chpt. 2.10.7, page 236).
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Demand model
One of the main uses of Visum is modeling demand. Demand modeling deals with traffic
conditions. The most common travel forecasts analyze the daily travel behavior of people.
These forecasts provide answers to the questions, when, how often, where and how do people
travel.
Visum offers three demand modeling procedures.
The result of these procedures are matrices, which contain trips between the origin and
destination zones of the network. These matrices are assigned to one or more demand
segments. Assignment takes place on the basis of demand segments (see "User model PrT"
on page 211 and "User model PuT" on page 429).
It is not mandatory to create a separate demand model in Visum, which calculates the matrices
for the assignment. You can also use and assign matrices from external sources. Therefore, a
complete demand description in Visum (that of course allows you to calculate an assignment)
first only consists of the following elements:
There are several demand objects (see "Demand objects" on page 119) that allow you to
display the demand within the Visum data model. Which of these demand objects are applied
in your model, depends on the type of demand modeling in your network.
Subjects
3.1
Demand objects
Demand modeling procedures
Displaying and editing matrices
Matrix correction
Demand objects
A demand model consists of a set of demand objects which contain all relevant demand data,
for example, the origin and destination of demands and the number of them in demand
matrices. The demand object types in Visum are described below.
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Matrices
119
Demand segments
Time series
Demand model structure
Person groups
Activities, activity pairs, activity chains
Demand strata
In addition, the EVA and tourbased demand models also contain the demand structural
properties (see "Structural properties" on page 132 and "Tourbased data model" on
page 161).
3.1.1
Matrices
Matrices are one of the most important components of demand models. There are several
matrix types:
Demand matrices are used to show the transport demand between origin and destination
zones.
Skim matrices show the origindestination zone skims, e.g. the travel time.
Weighting matrices are only used to calculate the Weighting step of EVAP demand models
(see "EVA model for passenger demand" on page 132).
In OD matrices, the demand is coded (by the number of trips) from origin zone i to destination
zone j. The temporal distribution of travel demand within the analysis period is described by a
start time and a time series that is considered during PuT assignment and dynamic PrT
assignments (see "Time series" on page 121). The demand distribution is ignored in the case
of static PrT assignments.
The Matrix editor integrated in Visum allows you to process existing matrix data and perform
calculations based on the gravity approach (see "Gravity model calculation" on page 174).
In Visum, OD matrices and time series are independent objects which can freely be allocated
to demand segments for assignment. This means that you can also use a matrix for more than
one demand segment.
Note: It is not mandatory to create a separate demand model in Visum, which calculates the
matrices for the assignment. You can also use and assign matrices from external sources.
3.1.2
Demand segments
A demand segment is a demand group or class, which is allocated in one step to a network,
because the demand is homogeneous to the group. Examples for a demand segment could be
pupils or commuters. The journey times from origin zones to destination zones are calculated
per demand segment (see "Demand segments" on page 36).
Demand segments are different from demand strata (see "Demand strata" on page 124).
Demand strata contain demand groups for the steps trip generation, trip distribution and mode
choice of the Standard 4step model. Another important difference is that each demand
segment is assigned to exactly one mode (for example PrT or PuT).
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The demand strata of a mode are generally aggregated to create demand segments. These
aggregated demand segments are then assigned to the network. Aggregation is possible since
the variables used to differentiate between the demand strata have no effect on the
assignment. Demand strata, for instance, are often distinguished by employment, e.g.
employees with a car and nonemployees with a car. If the study area has no toll roads, the
employee status plays no role for route choice during the assignment. In other words:
Everyone chooses the same route between the origin and destination zone, irrespective of
their income level. So demand strata can be aggregated to a demand segment for assignment.
To calculate an assignment, the system needs to assign each demand segment exactly one
matrix (see "Matrices" on page 120). For dynamic PrT assignments and all PuT assignments,
a demand time series must also be assigned to each demand segment (see "Time series" on
page 121). Visum establishes the link between demand and transport supply.
Notes: A possibly specified time series is ignored in the case of static PrT assignments.
A matrix can also be assigned to several demand segments. The same applies to time series.
3.1.3
Time series
The temporal distribution of trip demand over the evaluation period is described using a start
time and a demand time series. The demand time series is considered for PuT assignment and
dynamic PrT assignment. The demand distribution is ignored in the case of static PrT
assignments (see "Temporal distribution of travel demand" on page 5 and "Time reference of
the demand (time series)" on page 86).
Note: A time series can also be assigned to several demand segments.
There are two types of standard time series:
3.1.4
Time series of matrix numbers, i.e. selection of several matrices that form the time series.
proportional time series of a demand matrix
with distribution of travel demand in time intervals (in percent)
if required modified per pair of zone type relation
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Attribute
Description
Code (Key)
Name
Type
Type of calculation model (Standard 4step, EVA passenger demand or Tourbased model)
Mode codes
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3.1.5
Person groups
The population living in the planning area is broken down into socalled behaviorhomogenous groups. The traffic behavior of the different groups should be clearly different,
but within the individual groups it should be as homogenous as possible.
This documentation uses examples in which the person groups are normally broken down
according to the criteria employment/education and motorization. The following table shows a
division into groups with homogenous behavior and their codes (Schmiedel 1984).
Employees with car available
E+c
Ec
NE+c
NEc
Apprentices
Appren
Stud
SPup
PPup
Child
Description
Code (Key)
Name
DemandModelCode
Abbreviation of the demand model the person group belongs to (any string), e.g.
DEFAULT
When using the Standard 4step model, generally only one single person group is required, i.e.
there is a 1:1 relation between activity chain and demand stratum.
3.1.6
122
Work
Shopping
Education: university
Recreation
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Home
Description
Code (Key)
Name
IsHomeActivity
This Boolean attribute is true (= 1) if the activity is the starting point and end point
of an activity chain. This is typically the case for the activity Home.
DemandModelCode
Abbreviation of the demand model the activity belongs to (any string), e.g. EVAP.
Note: Activities are optional and can be defined interactively only for EVA and tourbased
models. In case of Standard 4step models one activity corresponds to exactly one activity
pair.
An activity pair corresponds to the trip between two successive activities in the daily routine of
a person.
The demand object activity pair is described by the following attributes:
Attribute
Description
Code (Key)
Name
DemandModelCode
Abbreviation of the demand model the person group belongs to (any string), for
example DEFAULT.
The following attributes describing activity pairs are only relevant for EVA models.
Attribute
Description
OrigActivityCode
Code of the activity where the trip starts, for example H (home)
DestActivityCode
Code of the activity where the trip ends, for example W (work)
OD type
An activity chain describes a sequence of typified activity pairs. For example, the chain home
work shopping home (HWOH). Such a sequence of activity pairs implies trips, in this
example here three different trips (HW, WO, OH).
The following attributes describe the demand object activity chain.
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Attribute
Description
Code (Key)
Name
ActivityCodes
DemandModelCode
Abbreviation of the demand model the person group belongs to (any string), for
example DEFAULT.
In the tourbased demand model, the average mobility program of persons is described by
activity chains. The Standard 4step model and the EVA model allow singleelement activity
chains only. So an activity chain corresponds directly, i.e. 1:1, to the activity pair.
3.1.7
Demand strata
The demand stratum constitutes the basic demand object for calculating trip generation, trip
distribution and mode choice. It links an activity chain with one or several person groups (in the
tourbased model with exactly one person group). The pointers to activity chains and person
groups in the Standard 4step model are optional.
The correlations between demand objects can be depicted graphically as follows (see
"Correlations between different demand objects" on page 124).
Activity
e.g. Work
1
OrigActivity n
n DestActivity
Activity Pair
e.g. HW
n
m
Standard4Step Model
and EVA Model:
1 : 1 (=Activity Pair)
Activity Chain
e.g. HWWH
Person group or
Household group
Person Group
e.g. E+c
n
n
m
Demand Stratum
e.g. HWWH x E+c
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Attribute
Description
Code (Key)
ActChainCode
DemandGroupCodes
Name
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Attribute
Description
DemandModelCode
DistribMatrixNumber
DemandTimeSeriesNumber
The following attributes describing demand strata are only relevant for EVA models.
Attribute
Description
3.2
Balancing
Quantity as potential
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There are also the following functions available to calculate the transportation demand:
3.2.1
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production
rates
zone
attributes
(inhabitants,
jobs)
Trip generation
skim
matrix
utility
function
production
& attraction
(per zone)
Trip distribution
skim matrix
per mode
utility
function
demand
matrix
Mode choice
Per
demand
segment
demand
matrix
Assignment
demand
matrix
demand
matrix
Assignment
demand
matrix
Assignment
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In the normal case carry out each of the operations trip generation, trip distribution and mode
choice for all demand strata of the model. For special purposes, however, they can also be
carried out for individual demand strata if the required input attributes are known.
If necessary, operations on matrices may be fitted in between the individual stages, for
example in order to prepare skim matrices (e.g. setting the values on the matrix diagonal) or to
add externally predetermined demand data (e.g. throughtraffic) (see "Displaying and editing
matrices" on page 184).
3.2.1.1
Trip generation
In that stage for each zone and each demand stratum the origin and destination volumes are
calculated. These parameters are also called productions and attractions. The productions
either correspond to the actual origin traffic of the zone i.e. the number of trips starting there,
or the attractiveness of the zone for the demand stratum, meaning they have an influence on
the probability of trips starting in that zone with the next Trip distribution procedure. Which of
the two cases applies can be determined by a procedure parameter of Trip distribution. The
same holds for destination traffic.
The productions of a demand stratum in a zone depend on its structural or demographical
indicators describing the intensity of the production activity. For the production activity Home
the number of inhabitants of a zone, if necessary, disaggregated into age, income and/or car
availability can be used. For the production activity Work the number of jobs may be
appropriate, perhaps broken down into different sectors. For such skims userdefined zone
attributes are the best. First, production Qi of zone i is calculated with the help of a formula,
Qi = g SGg (i )
g
whereby SGg is summed up across all structural properties. SGg(i) corresponds to the value of
SGg in zone i. The coefficient g is a production rate that shows the number of trips per
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structural property unit. They specify the production rates per demand stratum and zone
attribute used. The same calculation is performed for the attraction Zj.
In most applications the total production of a demand stratum (added up over all zones)
corresponds to the total attraction.
Qi = Z j
i
If equality has not already been the outcome of the attributes and production rates used, it can
be set by means of a procedure parameter whether all productions and attractions have to be
scaled so that their totals are equal. As reference values you can predetermine total
productions, total attractions or the minimum, maximum or mean value of both parameters.
You can limit calculation to the active zones. This might be useful in cases where the network
model covers both the actual planning area and its surrounding sub network cordon zones. If
you only want to calculate planning areainternal trips by means of the demand model, first of
all define a filter for the zones of the planning area only. Proceed in a similar way if the
production rates are not uniform for all zones. Break the zones down into groups of
homogeneous production rates and insert the operation trip generation for each of the groups
into the process. Prior to each such operation set a filter for the zones of that group (operation
Read filter (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.7.5.2, page 208)) and calculate trip generation only for
the respective active zones.
For each zone the results of trip generation are stored per demand stratum in the zone
attributes productions and attractions.
3.2.1.2
Trip distribution
The productions and attractions calculated in the operation trip generation only determine the
constraints of the total demand matrix of a demand stratum. The elements of the matrix
themselves are calculated in the operation trip distribution. On the one hand, the allocation of
a certain destination zone to a given origin zone is based on its attractiveness for the demand
stratum (measured by its destination demand = attractions), on the other hand the impedance
of the trip from origin to destination zone is vital (measured by the skim matrices for journey
time, fares and other elements of generalized costs).
These input data being available, a gravity model is formulated and solved (see "Gravity model
calculation" on page 174).
Notes:
Origin and destination traffic of the individual zones have to be available per demand
stratum as zone attributes productions and attractions.
To each demand stratum for which Trip distribution is to be calculated a demand matrix
has to be allocated into which the results are stored.
The parameters for the gravity model can be estimated beforehand (see "Estimate
gravitation parameters (KALIBRI)" on page 173).
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3.2.1.3
Mode choice
The operation Mode choice breaks down the total demand (total demand matrix) into the
individual transport modes per demand stratum (for example PrT, PuT) based on modespecific impedance skims (for journey time, costs, etc.).
First of all for each mode m the utility is calculated as a linear combination of the impedance
parameters.
U ijm = g cijmg
g
Whereby
The impedance of the cost type g for the trip from zone i to zone j by mode m.
cijmg
The respective shares of the trips of each relation result from the utilities of the different modes.
Hereby, you can choose between several distribution functions (see "Gravity model
calculation" on page 174). As an example see below the calculation for the Logit model.
p ijm =
c U ijm
c U ijk
k
Tijm = p ijm Tij
whereby Tij is the total number of trips of the demand stratum in the relation ij, Tijm is the
number of trips made by mode m and c is a procedure parameter.
There are two types of demand strata.
Those referring directly to a demand matrix allocated to one single demand segment or
several demand segments
Those whose demand matrix is not related to any demand segment
No mode choice will be calculated for demand strata referring directly to a matrix with demand
segment(s).
For demand strata whose demand matrix is not related to any demand segment it is
determined per mode to which demand matrix the demand allocated to that mode has to be
added in mode choice.
3.2.1.4
For nested mode choice, the total demand (total demand matrix) per demand stratum is
distributed to the transport modes defined in the network (for example car PrT, bus PuT), using
modespecific skims of several stages (illustration 51).
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For the Logit model (mode choice), the decision model determines the utility of a leaf node as
usual through a linear combination of skim matrices of the respective mode. For a nest node,
the utility consists of two components:
Nest utility that does not depend on the individual subnode, e.g. fare.
Summary of individual utility of all subnodes, e.g. travel time.
This leads to
As a result, the procedure calculates a demand matrix for each leaf node and  optionally  also
for each nest node.
For each leaf node or nest node, the calculated result can be saved to an existing skim matrix
for further analyses (Ortzar 2001, pages 228235).
3.2.1.5
Timeofday choice
By trip distribution or mode choice, demand matrices can be calculated which are used by
demand segments for assignments (see "Trip distribution" on page 129 and "Mode choice" on
page 130). In addition to the demand matrix further entries may be required for an assignment.
A demand segment can refer to a time series for an analysis time interval dependent
assignment.
With operation TimeofDay Choice, a demand matrix of a demand segment can be spread
over the time intervals of a standard time series. This standard time series can then be used
as demand time series in PuT assignments or in the dynamic PrT assignments.
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131
3.2.2
If trip generation and trip distribution are calculated independently, i.e. one after the other
and above all separately for each activity pair as in the Standard 4step model, it often
happens that differences occur between the origin and destination traffic of the zones. The
EVA model links generation and distribution by an explicit constraints step to make up for
the differences.
In the EVA model trip distribution and mode choice are performed simultaneously, i.e. by
applying a onestage discrete choice model to threedimensional utility matrices indexed
according to origin zone, destination zone and mode.
3.2.2.1
The data model for EVA also comprises the relevant demand object types (see "Demand
objects" on page 119) for other models such as the additional demand object types structural
property. Compared to the standard4stage model, these demand objects have some
additional attributes in the EVA model. These attributes have an effect on EVA trip generation
(see "EVA trip generation" on page 135).
Meaning
Activity
IsHomeActivity
bool (0,1)
Activity pairs
OD type
{1, 2, 3}
Structural properties
Structural properties are used to measure the zone attractiveness as origin or destination of a
journey, they e.g. include sales floor areas or the number of school places. Structural
properties are very simple demand objects, their only attributes are a code and a name.
Instead, you could also use userdefined zone attributes. However, defined as structural
properties, they better reflect their role in the demand model.
To each structural property SP defined in the demand model the numerical zone attribute
ValueStructuralProp(SP) in which the values of the structural property per zone can be filed
is created automatically.
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Demand strata
Demand strata, too, have several additional properties, particularly in connection with their
constraints. Moreover, demand strata refer to an activity pair having an origindestination type.
Since that type determines the treatment of the demand strata in the different operations and
therefore is referred to frequently, it is called the origindestination type of the demand stratum
itself below.
PTV AG
Attribute
Origin Structural
Property Codes
Destination Structural
Property Codes
Balancing
(Balancing on the user
interface)
Value 1 specifies the demand stratum in which the differences between total
origin and destination traffic are absorbed during balancing. Just one
demand stratum can be marked as such, it has to be of origindestination
type 3.
Range: bool (0, 1)
Quantity as potential
133
Attribute
Zones
Due to the definition of the objects of the demand model several zone attributes are created.
134
Attribute
Subattribute
Balance factor
Productions
Demand stratum
Balance factor
Attractions
Demand stratum
Demand stratum
Demand stratum
Demand stratum
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Attribute
Subattribute
Demand stratum
Number of persons
Person group
Structural property
value
Structural
property
Mobility rate
Demand stratum
Person group
Production rate
Demand stratum
Structural
property
Attraction rate
Demand stratum
Structural
property
Demand stratum
Person group
Demand stratum
Structural
property
Demand stratum
Structural
property
3.2.2.2
In the EVA model and Standard 4step model, productions and attractions are calculated
similarly, namely based on demographic (number of inhabitants) and structural (jobs, size of
retail sales floor, ) parameters as well as on mobility rates (taken from statistical surveys on
traffic behavior). It is performed separately for each demand stratum, which means for each
activity pair and its major person groups.
In EVA trip generation productions and attractions normally refer to a closed time interval with
regard to traffic (generally the average working day). The following model stages, EVA
Weighting and EVA Trip distribution and Mode choice, too, refer to the overall period. The
demand matrices available at the end of the model chain only can be combined with an
empirically determined or standardized daily time series (illustration 52) to get the shares of
demand for the individual times of the day. The daily time series depend on the demand
stratum.
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135
Illustration 52: Daily time series for origindestination groups of HW and WH (SrV 1987 Dresden)
The following table shows the allocation of activities, activity pairs, structural properties and
person groups on demand strata. Thereby the abbreviations used stand for the following: H:
Home; W: Work; C: Child care facility, S: School; F: Shift; P: Shopping; R: Recreation; O:
Others.
From/To
H
W
WH
CH
SH
FH
PH
RH
OH
HW
HC
HS
HF
HP
HR
HO
WO
OW
OO
Table 39: Typical breakdown of a demand stratum into 8 activities and 17 demand strata = activity pairs
Demand stratum
136
HW
Employees
HC
Young children
HS
HF
Employees
HP
Inhabitants
HR
Inhabitants
HO
Inhabitants
WO
Jobs
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Demand stratum
WH
Jobs
CH
Jobs / capacity
SH
Jobs / capacity
FH
Jobs
PH
RH
Jobs / capacity
OH
Other jobs
OW
Other jobs
OO
Other jobs
DStr
HW
Jobs
HC
Jobs / capacity
HS
Jobs / capacity
HF
Jobs
HP
HR
Jobs / capacity
HO
Other jobs
WO
Other jobs
WH
Employees
CH
Young children
SH
FH
Employees
PH
Inhabitants
RH
Inhabitants
OH
Inhabitants
OW
Jobs
OO
Other jobs
Table 40: Examples of relevant structural properties and person groups of the demand strata
Thus, for the demand strata HW and WH only the Employees person group (which could be
broken down into further subgroups) is relevant, whereas for the demand strata HO and OH
generally all person groups are relevant. The number of persons of all person groups in each
zone make up an important part of input attributes for the trip generation of a certain demand
stratum. Further structural properties measure the intensity of the activities at the origin or
destination. An example of the allocation of certain structural properties to individual demand
strata is illustrated by table 40.
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137
The person groups specified here can be broken down into further subgroups according to
other features (car availability, age) and used for trip generation.
For each demand stratum and each relevant person group mobility rates have to be defined.
The mobility rate of a person group is defined as the average number of trips per day and
person.
MR pc =
In most cases, the MRpc values are known from national surveys on traffic behavior and are
assumed to be constant for all zones of the study area. If the individual zones feature different
specific traffic demands, for example distinguishing between urban and rural areas, they can
be used, too. Then MRepc specifies the particular demand of the person group or reference
person group p in zone e (in a certain demand stratum c).
Analogously production rates defined as the number of trips per day and structural property
are determined for the major structural properties like number of jobs, sales floor, etc.. To do
so empirical studies or available historical values can be referred to. Here, too, a differentiation
according to zones is possible. The structural potential of the zone results from the value of the
structural property and the related production rate.
A certain number of trips of the total production of a zone remains within the study area only,
the rest targets destinations outside. The same holds for destination traffic. Since the EVA
Model usually serves the calculation of study areainternal traffic (incoming and outgoing traffic
as well as throughtraffic are often added by other sources), the share of trips of the total origin
(or destination) traffic made within the study area can be determined for all origin (or
destination) zones.
Example: The origin traffic of the demand stratum of HomeWork (HW) results from the number
of persons of the person group of Employees (EP) and the mobility rate MREP,HW. In a zone R
on the edge of a study area, however, part of the employees will commute to destination zones
outside the study area. It is not available for a later trip distribution and mode choice. In that
case, the study area factor UR,EP,HW is below 1, conveying that only that share of trips remains
within the study area. For a zone Z in the center, however, all trips of the demand stratum lie
within the study area. Therefore the following applies: UZ,EP,HW = 1. Study area factors do not
only depend on the zone but also on the demand stratum and the person group. It is more
probable that employees with car (E+c) commute over great distances and therefore to
destinations outside the study area than those without car (Ec). If you differentiate these two
person groups in the model, then would typically be UR,Ec,HW > UR,E+c,HW. And in analogy
hereto would be UR,Child,HC > UR,E+c,HW, because child care facilities are rather found in the
proximity of homes than jobs.
As the mobility rate of a person group the production rate of a structural property, too, can have
partial impacts in the study area only. So, for example, the structural potential of the demand
stratum HW is determined by the number of jobs (structural property J) and the related
production rate. On the edge of the study area part of the jobs are taken by employees living
outside the study area. Therefore, these jobs are not available as potential destinations of HW
trips of the study area. Therefore, in that case, too, the total structural potential is multiplied by
a study area factor VR,J,HWA < 1.
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You can limit calculation to the active zones. This allows you to e.g. exclude cordon zones from
the calculation.
In the trip generation stage (table 41, table 42 and table 43) from the structural data and values
mentioned for all demand strata c, the productions Qic and attractions Zjc or the upper limits
The calculation specifications can be taken from table 41, table 42 and table 43. For the types
1 and 2 calculation starts with the home trips (of number of persons, mobility rate, study area
factor) which independently from the travel direction always occur in the origin zone. For type
1 the number of trips corresponds exactly to the production, for type 2 to the attraction of the
respective zone. For type 1 the total production (of all zones) is distributed onto the destination
zones, in proportion to their potentials (taken from structural properties, production rates and
study area factors). Type 2 is treated equally. The total attraction is distributed proportionally to
the potentials onto the origin zones. For type 3 total volume is equally calculated on the basis
of the total home trips. However, the sizes of the road users origin zones are relevant, which
do not have to correspond with origin or destination of the trip. Proportionally to the potential
the total volume is then distributed onto the origin zones on the one hand and onto the
destination zones on the other hand.
The productions and/or attractions so calculated can have various meanings.
Hard constraints
Traffic demand solely results from the spatial structure and has to be fully exhausted by the
trips calculated in the model.
Example: if the number of employed inhabitants and jobs per zone is known, hard
constraints will be applicable to the demand stratum Home Work (HW), since every
employed person necessarily has to commute to work and each job has to be destination
of commutation.
Weak constraints
Traffic demand does not only depend on the spatial structure but also on the convenience
of the location and the resulting competitive conditions. In these cases traffic demands
resulting from trip generation are like upper limits. With Trip distribution and Mode choice it
turns out to which extent the limits will be exhausted by the actually determined origin and/
or destination traffic.
The structural potential of the destination zone for the demand stratum Home Shopping
(HP) is usually calculated based on the structural property of sales floor and a production
rate for example. It is conceivable that there may be overabundance of sales floor so that
the shopping facilities are not used to their full potential. Therefore, the attraction calculated
by trip generation from the potential only constitutes an upper limit for real destination
traffic. Therefore, the constraint is hard on the destination side, whereas weak on the origin
side, because each road user has to shop (somewhere).
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139
Elastic constraints
Open constraints
The potential of the structural properties merely represents the attractiveness of the zone
as an origin or destination of a demand stratum. Production or attraction, however, are not
linked to any constraint.
The attractiveness of some destinations in recreational traffic can even be measured by
means of their attributes if capacity impacts do not play a role. For example, the structural
potential of a nearby recreational area can be determined by its forest. During trip
distribution this attractiveness is to impact as potential of the destination zone, but no
constraints are linked herewith because there is neither a minimum number of persons
seeking recreation nor do visitors go to other places, because the "capacity" of the forest is
fully exhausted.
In table 41, table 42 and table 43 the calculation formulas are listed up separately for the cases
for which they differ.
Step 1
Home trips H
Step 2
Production Q, Qmax
Q ic = H ic
Step 3
Total volume V
Vc =
fc =
Q ic
i =1
Vc
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PTV AG
Step 4
Attraction Z, Zmax
ER jsc SG js v jsc
sS
max
b ) Z jc Z max
jc = ER jsc SG js v jsc
sS
jc = ER max
jc Z jc Z jc Z jc
c )Z
jsc SG js v jsc ; Z jc Z
sS
d ) Z pot
jc = ER jsc SG js v jsc
sS
a ) Z jc = f c
Step 1
Home trips H
Step 2
Attraction Z, Zmax
Z jc = H jc
Step 3
Total volume V
Vc =
fc =
Z jc
j =1
Vc
Production Q, Qmax
c )Q
is isc ic Qic Qic Qic Q
ic
ic
sS
pot
d )Q
= ERisc SGis visc
ic
sS
a ) Q = fc
ic
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141
Step 1
Home trips H
Step 2
Total volume V
Vc =
Step 3
H ec
e =1
Production Q, Qmax
ER jsc SG js v jsc
Z jc =
sS
Vc
sS
142
e
i
j
s
p
c
m
MRepc
ERisc
BPep
SG
uepc
Structural property
visc
Hepc
Hec
Qic
Zjc
PTV AG
Qicmax
Zjcmax
Q ,Qic
ic
Z jc , Z jc
Qicpot
Zjcpot
Vc
fc
V =
Qi
i
Zj
j
for the
Qic*,
Zjc
When analyzing the passenger demand flows it turns out that certain activity chains dominate
in the course of a day. So, for example, the chain of H W  P H occurs more often than the
chain of H P W H. With this, imbalances in the respective demand stratum pairs arise (for
example HW compared to WH) that are expressed in mobility or production rates.
Consequently, when calculating the total production of a certain zone i across all demand
strata, this sum does generally not correspond to the total attraction. This, however, should be
the case for a period considered closed with regard to traffic. Hence, in the EVA model, the
production or attraction of a selected ca demand stratum of the type 3 (mostly Others Others,
OO) is modified, so that the total production equals the total attraction across all demand
strata. This procedure is called balancing (see "EVA trip distribution and mode choice" on
page 152).
Balancing can either be performed after trip generation or trip distribution and mode choice. It
takes place after trip generation if the following conditions are fulfilled.
The total volume in ca is higher than the difference between production and attraction that
needs to be balanced.
All modes are interchangeable.
Q*i =
Qic Z *i = Z ic
c ca ;
c ca
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143
~
~
3. Correction of traffic volume in ca, whereby Qica and Zica are "preliminary" values taken
from the formulas in table 41, table 42 and table 43.
*
*
1
1 Q ic = Q
Q l + Z i
ic a
V c l
a
a
1
*
*
Z ic = Z ica 1  Z l + Q i
Vc
a
l
a
If there are noninterchangeable modes, you need to perform the balancing procedure for each
of them individually. Then you perform a single balancing procedure for the sum of all
interchangeable modes. This, however, is only possible during distribution and mode choice.
The following example will illustrate the method. For simplification it is limited to five demand
strata covering all origindestination types.
Activity
No.
Code
OD type
Person group
Origin
Destination
Origin zone
HW
Home
Work
Employees
HO
Home
Others
Inhabitants
WH
Work
Home
Employees
OH
Others
Home
Inhabitants
OO
Others
Others
Inhabitants
Origin zone
Destination zone
Code
HW
OD type
1
Like home
Jobs
HO
Like home
WH
Jobs
Like home
OH
Like home
OO
The model covers 18 zones, 10 of which belong to the actual study area (type 1) and 8 zones
form a cordon around them (type 2). The zones of type 1 feature study area factors of 1.0,
those of type 2 of 0.9. The relevant zone attributes are set as follows.
Zone
144
Type
Inhabitants
Employees
Jobs
Jobs tertiary
7,000
3,000
2,000
1,100
10,500
5,500
7,000
4,500
7,000
3,000
2,000
1,300
5,000
2,000
1,700
1,000
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Zone
Type
Inhabitants
3,000
Employees
Jobs
2,000
900
1,600
1,000
500
200
2,000
1,200
1,200
Jobs tertiary
2,500
1,600
5,000
2,000
1,000
600
7,000
3,100
2,500
1,400
10
5,000
2,000
1,500
1,000
11
3,500
1,200
1,000
600
12
3,000
1,100
1,000
600
13
2,500
1,000
1,000
600
14
1,500
700
500
100
15
1,500
600
500
100
16
2,000
900
1,000
600
17
2,000
800
500
300
18
2,000
800
500
300
Depending on demand stratum and zone type the following mobility rates are applicable (trips
per person in relevant person group).
Zone type
HW
HO
WH
OH
OO
0.7800
0.9000
0.6200
0.9000
0.6000
0.8100
0.9000
0.6400
0.9000
0.6000
The production rates of the structural properties equally depend on demand stratum and zone
type.
Demand stratum
Structural property
HW
HO
OO
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Zone type 2
1.00
1.00
Inhabitants
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
WH
OH
Zone type 1
1.00
1.00
Inhabitants
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
Inhabitants
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
145
All demand strata feature hard constraints. This results in the productions and attractions of the
demand strata displayed in the following table, from the formulas in table 41, table 42 and
table 43. For clarification the respective step of the calculation process is indicated on top of
each column.
H = Home trips
Q = Production
Z = Attraction
QP = Structural potential origin
ZP = Structural potential destination
Demand stratum
HW
Origin
Like home
Jobs
Destination
Zone
Zone Type
ZP
2,340
2,340
2,000
1,578
4,290
4,290
7,000
5,523
2,340
2,340
2,000
1,578
1,560
1,560
1,700
1,341
936
936
2,500
1,972
702
702
1,600
1,262
156
156
2,000
1,578
1,560
1,560
1,000
789
2,418
2,418
2,500
1,972
10
1,560
1,560
1,500
1,183
11
875
875
900
710
12
802
802
900
710
13
729
729
900
710
14
510
510
450
355
15
437
437
450
355
16
656
656
900
710
17
583
583
450
355
18
Total
146
Home
Employee
s
583
583
450
355
23,038
23,038
29,200
23,038
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Demand stratum
HO
Person groups or
structural property
Calculation step
Home
Origin
Inhab.
Like
home
Destinati
on
Jobs in tertiary sector and inhabitants
3.1
3.2
Zone
Zone Type
ZP Inh.
ZP Jobs
tert
ZP Total
6,300
6,300
3,500
550
4,050
5,796
9,450
9,450
5,250
2,250
7,500
10,733
6,300
6,300
3,500
650
4,150
5,939
4,500
4,500
2,500
500
3,000
4,293
2,700
2,700
1,500
800
2,300
3,292
1,800
1,800
1,000
500
1,500
2,147
450
450
250
600
850
1,216
4,500
4,500
2,500
300
2,800
4,007
6,300
6,300
3,500
700
4,200
6,011
10
4,500
4,500
2,500
500
3,000
4,293
11
2,835
2,835
1,575
270
1,845
2,640
12
2,430
2,430
1,350
270
1,620
2,318
13
2,025
2,025
1,125
270
1,395
1,996
14
1,215
1,251
675
45
720
1,030
15
1,215
1,251
675
45
720
1,030
16
1,620
1,620
900
270
1,170
1,674
17
1,620
1,620
900
135
1,035
1,481
18
Total
1,620
1,620
900
135
1,035
1,481
61,380
61,380
34,100
8,790
42,890
61,380
Demand stratum
WH
Home
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Destination
Origin
Like home
Jobs
Zone
Zone Type
QP
1,860
1,860
2,000
1,253
3,410
3,410
7,000
4,384
1,860
1,860
2,000
1,253
1,240
1,240
1,700
1,065
147
744
744
2,500
1,566
558
558
1,600
1,002
124
124
2,000
1,253
1240
1,240
1,000
626
1,922
1,922
2,500
1,566
10
1,240
1,240
1,500
939
11
691
691
900
564
12
634
634
900
564
13
576
576
900
564
14
403
403
450
282
15
346
346
450
282
16
518
518
900
564
17
461
461
450
282
18
461
461
450
282
18,288
18,288
29,200
18,288
Total
Demand stratum
OH
Person groups or
structural property
Calculation step
148
Home
Destinati
on
Origin
Inhab.
Like
home
3.1
3.2
QP Inh.
QP Jobs
tert
QP Total
Zone
Zone Type
6,300
6,300
3,500
550
4,050
5,796
9,450
9,450
5,250
2,250
7,500
10,733
6,300
6,300
3,500
650
4,150
5,939
4,500
4,500
2,500
500
3,000
4,293
2,700
2,700
1,500
800
2,300
3,292
1,800
1,800
1,000
500
1,500
2,147
450
450
250
600
850
1,216
4,500
4,500
2,500
300
2,800
4,007
6,300
6,300
3,500
700
4,200
6,011
10
4,500
4,500
2,500
500
3,000
4,293
11
2,835
2,835
1,575
270
1,845
2,640
12
2,430
2,430
1,350
270
1,620
2,318
13
2,025
2,025
1,125
270
1,395
1,996
14
1,215
1,215
675
45
720
1,030
PTV AG
15
1,215
1,215
675
45
720
1,030
16
1,620
1,620
900
270
1,170
1,674
17
1,620
1,620
900
135
1,035
1,481
18
1,620
1,620
900
135
1,035
1,481
61,380
61,380
34,100
8,790
42,890
61,380
Total
Demand stratum
OO
Home
Origin
Calculation step
2.1
2.2
2.3
Zone
Zone Type
QP Inh.
QP Jobs
tert
QP Total
4,200
3,500
550
4,050
3,864
6,300
5,250
2,250
7,500
7,156
4,200
3,500
650
4,150
3,959
3,000
2,500
500
3,000
2,862
1,800
1,500
800
2,300
2,194
1,200
1,000
500
1,500
1,431
300
250
600
850
811
3,000
2,500
300
2,800
2,671
4,200
3,500
700
4,200
4,007
10
3,000
2,500
500
3,000
2,862
11
1,890
1,575
270
1,845
1,760
12
1,620
1,350
270
1,620
1,546
13
1,350
1,125
270
1,395
1,331
14
810
675
45
720
687
15
810
675
45
720
687
16
1,080
900
270
1,170
1,116
17
1,080
900
135
1,035
987
18
Total
1,080
900
135
1,035
987
40,920
34,100
8,790
42,890
40,920
Demand stratum
OO
Destination
PTV AG
3.2
3.3
149
Zone
Zone Type
ZP Inh.
ZP Jobs tert
ZP Total
3,500
550
4,050
3,864
5,250
2,250
7,500
7,156
3,500
650
4,150
3,959
2,500
500
3,000
2,862
1,500
800
2,300
2,194
1,000
500
1,500
1,431
250
600
850
811
2,500
300
2,800
2,671
3,500
700
4,200
4,007
10
2,500
500
3,000
2,862
11
1,575
270
1,845
1,760
12
1,350
270
1,620
1,546
13
1,125
270
1,395
1,331
14
675
45
720
687
15
675
45
720
687
16
900
270
1,170
1,116
17
900
135
1,035
987
18
Total
900
135
1,035
987
34,100
8,790
42,890
40,920
Since all demand strata feature hard constraints, balancing can be performed immediately
after trip generation. First of all the total origin and destination traffic of each zone and of the
demand strata HW, HO, WH, OW is calculated and the resulting differences are compensated
in the OO demand stratum.
Note: Note that neither total origin and nor total destination traffic of this demand stratum
change.
Total HW+HO+WH+OH
150
Differences
Zone
16,800
14,422
2,378
26,600
31,373
4,773
16,800
14,709
2,091
11,800
10,993
807
7,080
10,121
3,041
4,860
6,558
1,698
1,180
5,263
4,083
11,800
9,429
2,371
PTV AG
16,940
15,559
1,381
10
11,800
10,710
1,090
11
7,236
6,555
681
12
6,296
5,911
385
13
5,355
5,267
88
14
3,344
2,698
646
15
3,213
2,698
515
16
4,415
4,623
208
17
4,284
3,599
685
18
4,284
3,599
685
Total
164,086
164,086
13,804
13,804
OO before balancing
Zone
OO after balancing
Z
3,864
3,864
2,561
4,938
7,156
7,156
9,515
4,742
3,959
3,959
2,624
4,715
2,862
2,862
1,897
2,704
2,194
2,194
4,495
1,454
1,431
1,431
2,646
948
811
811
4,621
537
2,671
2,671
1,770
4,141
4,007
4,007
2,655
4,036
10
2,862
2,862
1,897
2,987
11
1,760
1,760
1,166
1,848
12
1,546
1,546
1,024
1,409
13
1,331
1,331
882
970
14
687
687
455
1,101
15
687
687
455
971
16
1116
1116
948
740
17
987
987
654
1,339
18
987
987
654
1,339
Total
40,920
40,920
4,0920
40,920
The results of operation EVA trip generation are stored in zone attributes.
PTV AG
Attribute
Subattribute
HomeTrips
Demand stratum
151
Attribute
Subattribute
ProductionsTarget
Demand stratum
AttractionsTarget
Demand stratum
Productions
Demand stratum
Attractions
Demand stratum
3.2.2.3
In gravity models, trip distribution or destination choice is made according to the bilinear
approach (for example Kirchhoff 1970), using various evaluation or utility functions Wij.
Tij = Wij fq i fz j
Wij fqi fz j
( i = 1,..., m; j = 1,..., n)
Tij = Qi
j =1
j =1
m
m
Wij fqi fz j = Tij = Z j
i= 1
i =1
Hereby Tij is the number of trips from i to j, Wij is the cost function for the trip from i to j, Qi is
the production of zone i and Zj is the attraction of zone j. The factors fqi, fzj are calculated so
that productions and attractions are kept as marginal sums.
The EVA model generalizes this approach of a simultaneous trip distribution and mode choice
to a trilinear model.
Tijk = Wijk fqi fz j fa k
Wijk
fqi fz j fa k =
Tijk = Qi
j =1 k = 1
j =1 k =1
m p
m p
Wijk fqi fz j fa k = Tijk = Z j
i= 1 k = 1
i =1 k =1
m n
m n
Wijk fqi fz j fa k = Tijk = VK k
i= 1 j = 1
i =1 j =1
152
PTV AG
Here, index k is the mode (means of transport) and Wijk assesses the costs for the trip from i to
j by modes k. For each demand stratum c there is a separate equation system to be solved
independently. For more clarity index c has been dropped for all variables in the problem
formulations above.
For the trilinear case, besides origin and destination traffic, the total number VKk of trips with
mode k is required. There are two possibilities.
If EVA trip distribution and mode choice for the analysis case is performed, which means
without having run a precalculation for the same study area, specify the modal split as
input data.
If, however, a forecast case is calculated, the modal split of the analysis case can be reused. You thus assume that the modal split may change on single relations, but modal split
of the whole model (including all relations), however, remains unchanged.
The problem formulation is applicable in case of hard constraints. For weak, elastic or open
constraints equations will be replaced by inequations in the side conditions or a side condition
will be dropped completely. This will be dealt with when describing the problem solutions.
The models can be justified by the probability theory using Bayes axiom or the information
gain minimization. Both ways lead to the same result.
Minimizing the gain of information has the target that the deviations from a priori assessments
of trip relations which would lead to the actually desired trips road users have to experience are
as minor as possible, but which have become necessary due to the constraints of the system.
The demand matrix T can be interpreted as the solution to the convex optimization task
pijk
Minimum
I = pijk ld
wijk
ijk
Tijk
;
V
Wijk
Wrsl
rsl
taking account of the constraints. The solution is the trilinear equation system previously
determined.
with pijk =
wijk =
The parameter I represents the information gained through the replacement of distribution wijk
(solely determined by the weighting matrix) by distribution pijk (additionally derived from
marginal totals).
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153
aA
f a ( c aijk )
Here Mijk stands for the availability of mode k on OD pairs (i,j) and Cijk stands for the capacity
utilization of mode k on (i,j). a, a and a are the predefined assessment types: journey time,
competing walk time and external weighting matrix. A is the number of userdefined
assessment types.
Mijk and Cijk are defined independently from the demand stratum as follows:
OD type
Type 1
Mijk = mk(i) for all j, i.e. value of zone attribute mk set for source zone i
Cijk = ck(j) for all i, i.e. value of zone attribute ck set for destination zone j
Type 2
Mijk = mk(j) for all i, i.e. value of zone attribute mk set for destination zone j
Cijk = ck(i) for all j, i.e. value of zone attribute ck set for source zone i
Type 3
n mk ( n ) hn P nik P jnk
M ijk =  hn
n
aA
f a ( c aijk )
For demand strata of the origindestination type 3 (which are calculated accounting for the
home zone), the assessment type External weighting matrix is used to produce a specific
weighting between zones and modes. This weighting has an immediate impact on the total
product, since it is not part of the scaling using home zones, as in the formula for Mijk. In all
other cases, this assessment type has the same effect as a userdefined one.
You can use different function types as fa evaluation functions. All distribution functions of the
gravity model (cf. chap. 5.1.4.17) can be taken, but additionally the EVA1, EVA2, Schiller and
BoxTukey functions (see "Gravity model calculation" on page 174), too.
EVA1
EVA2
154
a
f (x ) = ( 1 + x ) ( x ) whereby ( x ) = 1 + exp( b cx )
b
x
f (x ) = 1 +
c
PTV AG
Schiller
f (x ) =
1
x
1+
b
Logit
f (x ) = e (c x )
Kirchhoff
f (x ) = x c
BoxCox
xb 1
c
f ( x ) = e
BoxTukey
( x + 1 )b 1 / b ,
) whereby
(
c
x
=
f (x ) = e
Combined
f (x ) = a x b e (c x )
TModel
f (x ) =
None
ln( x + 1 ),
b >0
b =0
1
b
x + c xa
f(x) = x
In practice particularly the functions EVA1 and EVA2 have proved to be suitable. The EVA1
functions are monotonously falling with f(w) 1 for w 0. In illustration 53 some of them have
been illustrated. Their parameters can be interpreted geometrically.
Parameter marking the horizontal asymptote of function (w), thus influencing the degree of
approximation of the function f(w) to the w asymptote.
Parameter influencing the degree of approximation to the horizontal F(w)=1 in the proximity
of low assessment
c
b/c
f ( w )=
1
G exp( F G w )
Ew
+ ln( 1 + w )
.
1 + exp( F G w )
1 + exp( F G w ) 1 + w
f ( w + h ) f ( w ) h df ( w )
w
=
is defined as the
f (w)
w
dw
f (w)
limit of the quotient of the relative variation of the function f and the relative variation of the
impedance w.
It is obvious that the elasticity functions first take values near zero for low impedances, then for
a limited range in which the impedance sensitivity is at its highest take various values, but all
far from zero and for high impedances approximate the limit of E.
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155
Thus, this curve very much differs from the constant or linear elasticity functions of simple
power and exponential functions. Therefore, this type of function allows the adaptation to
various basic weighting situations (person groups, trip purposes, means of transport etc.). In
the range of low assessment or utility the weighting probability should be almost one, drop
further in the clearly noticeable range of assessment and utility which is relevant for the
respective type of traffic or purpose before asymptotically approximating zero. For example,
the assessment in the proximity of or in smaller towns plays a minor or no role at all for the road
users when choosing the destination or the means of transport (here mainly the random model
with WP = 1 is applicable).
1,1
1
0,9
0,8
0,7
f(w) 0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110120
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100110 120
0
5
10
eps(w) 15
20
25
30
Illustration 53: EVA1 function in dependence of impedance w
156
Exponents whose product determines the asymptotic behavior for high impedance values.
For b > 1 the curve is similar to that of the EVA function (1).
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c ...
f ( c ) = 1 / 2 applies.
The illustration 54 shows the influence of a and b on the progression of the function. The two
other parameters are both kept constant.
EVA2 Function (a variable)
1,0
0,9
Utility f(x)
0,8
0,7
a=0
0,6
a=1
a=2
0,5
a=3
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
0,0
Assessment x
Utility f(x)
0,7
b=1
0,6
b=3
0,5
b=5
0,4
b=7
0,3
0,2
0,1
Assessment x
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
0,0
The Schiller function is a special case of the EVA2 function, however, with one parameter less.
As the first applications in practice have shown, the function can also be adapted sufficiently
well enough to observed data. Due to the lower number of parameters the calibration effort is
by far lower than for EVA2.
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157
during iteration step p (p=1,2,), the system calculates approximations for fqi, fzj and fak as
follows.
fqi ( p + 1) =
n
Qi
K
fz j ( p + 1) =
m K
(j = 1,,n)
i =1k =1
VK k
fak ( p + 1) =
m n
Wijk fqi ( p + 1) fz j ( p + 1)
(k = 1,,K).
i =1 j =1
For convergence of the method (towards the solution of the trilinear problem), the condition for
unique solvability of the optimization problem is necessary and sufficient, i.e. existence of a
matrix Tijk that matches the constraints and for which Tijk = 0 is true for all pairs (i,j) with Wij =
0. This condition is fulfilled when Wij > 0 is true for all (i,j), since then the matrix with elements
Qi Z j fak
(the matrix that corresponds to the random model) can be chosen as a
V
feasible solution. For this special case A. W. Evans provided a convergence proof that also
allows for a (however rough) estimation of the convergence rate (Evans 1970). The practical
experience has shown that the method quickly converges in most application cases.
Tijk =
158
(i = 1,...,m;
j = 1,...,n; k = 1,..., K )
PTV AG
q ( p ) z j ( p ) ak ( p )
V
Tijk ( p + 1) = Tijk ( p ) i
qqi ( p ) zz j ( p ) aak ( p ) m n K
Trst ( p )
r =1 s =1t =1
(p = 1, 2,)
with
Qi
qi ( p ) =
n K
Tist ( p )
s =1t =1
n K
Tist ( p ) [zs ( p ) + at ( p )]
qqi ( p ) = s =1t =1
n K
2 Tist ( p )
s =1t =1
z j ( p) =
Zj
m K
Trjt ( p )
r =1t =1
m K
Trjt ( p ) [qr ( p ) + at ( p )]
zz j ( p ) = r =1t =1
m K
Trjt ( p )
r =1t =1
VK k
ak ( p ) =
m n
Trsk ( p )
r =1 s =1
m n
Trsk ( p ) [qr ( p ) + zs ( p )]
aak ( p ) = r =1 s =1
m n
Trsk ( p )
r =1 s =1
Strictly speaking the method presented solves the problem with hard constraints only. If some
constraints are weak or elastic, there will be an optimization problem with inequations as side
conditions instead of equations. At the example of weak constraints it is illustrated how the
problem and correspondingly its solution alters (according to Schiller 2004). It is assumed that
a demand stratum shows weak constraints on the destination side, which means attraction
calculated by trip generation constitutes an upper limit. Thus, the trilinear problem changes into
PTV AG
159
Tijk
= Qi
j k
Tijk
i k
Tijk
Z max
j
= VK k
i j
The procedure for multiproblem solving is mostly identical with the constraint equation
method, except that zj(p) and zzj(p) are calculated differently.
Z max
1
j
z j ( p ) = min
;
; fz j (0 ) = 1
fz
p
1
Z
p
(
)
(
)
ijk ( p ) (qi ( p ) + ak ( p ))
1
zz j ( p ) = min
; i k
fz
p
1
2
Z
p
(
)
(
)
j
j
If some demand strata do not feature hard constraints, not only has the method to be adapted
but also balancing has to be made up.
Note: Differences in marginal sums can only be balanced after trip generation if all demand
strata feature hard constraints.
In that case first of all the trilinear problem is solved for all demand strata except for the
balancing one. This results in the total productions and attractions of the zones covering these
demand strata and all modes. According to the formula for calculating productions and
attractions (see "EVA trip generation" on page 135), the productions and attractions of the
balancing demand stratum are modified. Finally Visum runs trip distribution and mode choice
for this last demand stratum, too.
The proceeding assumes that differences have to be balanced within the framework of the total
volume. This is only true if all modes are exchangeable, which means if they can be used
alternatively in a closed trip chain. If at least one mode cannot be exchanged, a second phase
begins after the total balancing in which calculations are performed for each nonexchangeable
mode separately and for all exchangeable modes jointly. Hereby, the productions and
attractions of the respective modes are calculated over the nonbalancing demand strata,
their differences are compensated by an adaptation of the demand of the balancing demand
stratum, and based on that modified demand Trip distribution and Mode choice are calculated
for the last time. For nonexchangeable modes this last step corresponds to a simple mode
choice.
The implementation of the EVA model for trip distribution and mode choice has been
established in two separate operations. EVA Weighting uses skim matrices to calculate the
weighting matrices Wijk (one weighting matrix each per demand stratum). During EVA trip
distribution and Mode choice, the equation systems for determining the demand matrices are
set up according to the constraints of the demand strata and solved by applying one of the
abovedescribed methods. The result of the operation is one demand matrix per demand
160
PTV AG
stratum and mode. You can also display the balance factors for productions and attractions fqi
and fzj, that result from the equation system. The balance factor for mode choice fak is
calculated for analysis, but not for forecast scenarios.
The EVA weighting procedure can be applied to all active OD pairs or only to those OD pairs
whose origin or destination zone are active. This allows you to perform an analysis based on
filtering by several OD pairs with different parameters. This option is not available for combined
distribution and mode choice, as for successful balancing, all traffic types need to be
accounted for in one step.
3.2.3
3.2.3.1
The tourbased model is based on the assumption that external activities cause mobility. In the
following examples previously defined activities are already being used (see "Activities, activity
pairs, activity chains" on page 122).
An activity chain describes a sequence of typical activities during a person's day. An example
would be: Home Work Shopping Home (HWOH). Such a sequence of activity pairs
implies trips, in this example here three different trips: HW, WO, OH. The average mobility
program of persons is described by activity chains for the tourbased model.
You can find the demand object activity chain attributes in the general description of the
demand objects (see "Activities, activity pairs, activity chains" on page 122).
Some changes in the demand objects, which are especially necessary for the tourbased
model, are described below.
Note: In a Visumtourbased demand model, a demand stratum is specified by exactly one
person group (e.g. E+c) and one activity chain (e.g. HWOH). In the other demand models,
several person groups can be assigned to one demand stratum.
PTV AG
161
Activity
Structural property
Work ('W')
Jobs
Shopping ('O')
Recreation ('R')
Recreational facilities
School ('S')
School places
University ('U')
University places
You can specify whether a possible destinationbinding can be considered for trip distribution,
per activity. If desired, a constraint for the destination side (for example hard, weak, elastic,
open) can be defined analog to the EVA demand model using two realvalued factors
ConstraintMinFactorDest and ConstraintMaxFactorDest. Depending on the constraint on
origin and destination side, the doublyconstrained trip distribution is calculated for each
activity transfer.
This results in the following new attributes:
Type of demand Attribute and range of values
object
Meaning
Activity
StructuralPropertiesCodes
Range: set of structural properties
Activity
ConstraintDest
Range: bool {0, 1}
Activity
ConstraintMinFactorDest /
ConstraintMaxFactorDest
Range: floating point number 0
162
Type of demand
object
Subattribute
Meaning
Activity pairs
TimeSeriesNo
Range: set of standard time
series (see "Time series" on
page 121)
Person group
Reference to a standard
time series, which has to be
proportional
PTV AG
3.2.3.2
Trip generation uses a list of groupspecific activity chains, which for example, can be
determined from the sample of the KONTIV 89 (EMNID 1991) by applying a PTV company
optimization procedure for activity chains. For each activity chain probabilities of your daily
practice have to be specified for each person group. The following table (to calculate the
probabilities, these values must be divided by 100) contains examples of activity chain
percentages for each person group.
E+c
Ec
NE+c
NEc
Appren
Stud
SPup
PPup
Child
HWH
74.25
62.60
8.18
2.82
33.48
11.08
1.92
0.30
0.00
HSH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
47.57
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
HPH
17.42
25.94
60.60
62.93
12.37
23.91
12.99
9.08
0.00
HRH
27.03
25.32
52.50
39.74
38.08
37.33
40.12
38.67
0.00
HPH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
74.99
0.00
HSH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
45.19
0.00
0.00
0.00
HOH
0.90
1.82
0.96
0.47
0.00
0.00
80.48
0.00
0.00
HWWH
3.12
0.85
0.13
0.06
0.52
0.16
0.11
0.00
0.00
HWOH
4.67
7.05
0.96
0.33
1.79
0.80
0.37
0.00
0.00
HWRH
1.64
1.46
0.18
0.02
0.86
1.56
0.09
0.00
0.00
HWOH
0.08
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
HSWH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.16
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
HSSH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
HSPH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.97
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
HSRPH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.23
0.00
0.00
0.00
HSRRH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.55
0.00
0.00
0.00
HSRSH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.76
0.00
0.00
0.00
HSSOH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.17
0.00
0.00
0.00
HSSSH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.12
0.00
0.00
0.00
HOWWH
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
HOWPH
0.01
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
HOWRH
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
HOWOH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.12
0.00
0.00
HOPPH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.25
0.00
0.00
HOPRH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.14
0.00
0.00
HOPOH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.00
0.00
HPRRH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.17
0.00
0.00
HOROH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.11
0.00
0.00
HOOOH
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00
Table 44: List of the activity chains: mobility rates per person group in %
PTV AG
163
The sum of the probabilities of a person group is often greater than 1.0 (or 100 %), because a
person can complete more than one activity chains one after the other in a day (for example,
person group E+c first HWH, then HRH).
The list displayed above, describes an average mobility for persons depending on the group
they belong to. In the tourbased model, trip generation (i.e. determining the absolute number
of activity chains and thus the trips starting from any of the individual zones) is calculated by
multiplying the inhabitants of each person group with the probabilities of all activity chains. Trip
generation can be limited to the active zones.
Thus, in the tourbased model, trip generation (the number of trips created with each activity in
the activity chain) is determined together with the number of inhabitants and distribution of
person groups. The result is saved in the zone attribute Home trips for each demand strata.
3.2.3.3
Using tourbased calculation, you can save output matrices with different aggregation levels.
The demand matrices are calculated from possible combinations of person group, mode,
production and attraction activity, and time interval.
The utility matrix, which shows the separation from the origin zone (spatially and trafficwise)
The utility is inversely proportional to impedance values, such as run times or distances, so
that the greater the run time or distance to a destination zone, the less its utility.
The utility matrix may also include the log sum of modespecific use. In this way, specific
skims (e.g. PrT journey time or PuT number of transfers) are included in the total utility with
their share in the respective mode.
This is how a multitude of trip chains is created through each activity chain. The result of trip
distribution is not only a total traffic matrix, but also a set of all route chains.
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With the destination choice model, the tourbased model needs a target potential Zj for each
activity. The target potential specifies the quantitative attractiveness of a zone. This target
potential for each zone j, corresponds to the value of the structural property (see "Tourbased
data model" on page 161) that belongs to the activity.
The utility function f(uij) is pivotal in the destination choice model. It specifies the probability Pij
with which one of the zones j is selected as destination zone (from all destination alternatives)
of origin zone i.
F ij = Q i P ij
Z j f ( u ij )
P ij = B
k = 1 Z k f uik
whereby
Fij
Qi
Productions in zone i
Pij
Zj
Index of zones (with k = the smallest zone number and B = the number of zones)
whereby uij describes the utility relation ij and the utility function f(uj)) (e.g. of the type Logit) can
consequently be defined as f ( u ij ) = e
cu ij
model can also be used as utility functions in the tourbased model (see "EVA trip distribution
and mode choice" on page 152).
In this case, the choice of parameter c for every activity is pivotal for destination choice. c
stands for the influence of utility on the destinations of the respective activity. If c = 0, then the
utility uij has no influence on the choice of destination. The larger c is, the larger is the impact
of utility uij on the choice of the destination (see "Gravity model calculation" on page 174).
You define function parameters for each person group.
To give you a better idea of what the three main model elements of destination choice, namely
destination potential, utility function and utility matrix, stand for, we will continue with the
example we used for trip generation (see "Example of trip generation with the tourbased
model" on page 164).
cu ij
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165
To make it easier, let us assume that zone 2 is the only zone with jobs, which therefore has a
positive destination potential for the activity work. Expressed in numbers this would be
approximately Z1 = 0, Z2 = 100, Z3 = 0. The tourbased trip distribution formulas produce the
following results P11 = 0, P12 = 1 and P13 = 0, and therefore F11 = 0, F12 = 93.4 and F13 = 0.
Zone 2 is therefore the destination of all trips of zone 1.
Note: The definition of the utility function in this case does not influence the calculation.
After the activity work, based on zone 2, the probability for the choice of shopping destinations
is calculated for the subsequent trips WO. It is assumed, that the destination potentials for the
activity "Shopping" are defined as follows: Z1 = 0, Z2 = 50, Z3 = 50. Based on travel times and
distances, the utility defined for changeover WO, with the relation 22, is twice as high as the
changeover with the relation 23, thus approximately u22 = 2 and u23 = 1. The tourbased trip
distribution formulas produce the following results P21 = 0, P22 0.6 and P23 0.4, and
therefore F21 = 0, F22 56.0 and F23 37.4. 40 % of the trips thus lead to zone 3 and 60 % to
zone 2 (i.e. trips within the cell).
Here, multiplication of the destination probability of the work and shopping destinations takes
place in the system.
For the last activity pair of the chain, namely PH, destination choice is no longer necessary,
because zone 1 as a residential district and origin of the first trip of the chain, is also the
destination of the last trip of the chain.
This results in the following transition matrices.
Zone
93.4
93.4
Total
93.4
93.4
93.4
166
Zone
93.4
93.4
Total
56.0
37.4
93.4
56.0
37.4
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Zone
93.4
93.4
Total
93.4
56.0
56.0
37.4
37.4
280.2
280.2
Total
93.4
149.4
37.4
93.4
93.4
149.4
56.0
56.0
37.4
37.4
37.4
Notes: The following behavioral aspects should be taken into consideration when you define
the utility parameters.
Traffic behavior analyses show, that persons with a car cover greater distances than
persons without a car. Accordingly, the absolute value of parameter c of the Logit function
for groups E+c and NE+c have to be smaller than for groups Ec or NEc.
This also complies with the empirical perception, to give activity Work a c parameter with
a low absolute value, rather than for example activity Shopping.
The tourbased model allows specific utility matrices to be imported for each activity.
Combinations of distances and journey times can be used as a basic parameter in utility
matrices.
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167
Note: The absolute value of a destination potential is first of all irrelevant, because it only
flows into the destination choice model comparatively to the sum of destination potentials of
all zones. Destination potential " jobs = 1,000" for a zone does not necessarily mean that the
tourbased model produces 1,000 trips for destination activity work. In fact, the destination
traffic depends on the product of destination potential and utility function value in relation to
the other zones.
If, however, the absolute value of the destination potential of an activity is very important, as for
example for the number of jobs, this can flow into the calculation via the Destinationsided
attraction option. If there are approx. 6,000 jobs in the study area, 1,000 jobs mean there is a
relative destination potential of 1,000/6,000 = 1/6 for the activity work. If a demand stratum has
a total of 3,000 home trips, the absolute zone destination potential standardized to the total of
home trips for this demand stratum is 3 1/6 = 500. This absolute value for the demand stratum
is used as a constraint in the doubly coupled gravity model (see "Gravity model calculation" on
page 174).
You can save your trip distribution results in an aggregated form to total demand matrices per
person group as well as per combination of time interval, mode, origin and destination activity.
The socioeconomic position and the mode availability of the person making the decision
(by differentiating according to person groups)
Different attributes of all modes (through the utility model)
Freedom of choice restrictions within trip chains (by definition of exchangeable and nonexchangeable modes)
This decision problem is illustrated in a discrete distribution model, which specifies the
probability for mode choice in every available route link.
To do so, the subjective use has to be calculated in dependency of the mode skims (invehicle
time, access and egress times, fare, etc.). If required, you can define several utilities per
destination activity.
This model has the following functional form.
f ( u ijm )
P ijm = M
k = 1 f ( uijk )
whereby
168
i, j
m
Pmij
umij
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f ( u ijm ) can e.g. be a Logit utility function and thus be defined as f ( u ijm ) = e cu ij . As an
alternative, all available types of evaluation functions can be used from the EVA demand
method as a utility function for the tourbased mode choice (see "EVA trip distribution and
mode choice" on page 152).
As a base parameter for the utility matrices any distance combinations and mode specific
skims can be used, such as travel times, access and egress times, and fares. You can also use
the LogSums of modespecific use as an input parameter.
Last but not least, we would like to explain the importance of the route chain concept for mode
choice.
In Visum the modes are divided into the following groups:
The tourbased model calculates a discrete distribution model (for example Logit) when first
calculating the trip of each route link (for a person group) and chooses one from all modes. If
the first mode is a nonexchangeable mode, the entire trip chain is maintained independent of
the attributes of this mode of the successive trip. If an exchangeable mode was selected for the
first trip, mode choice is carried out for the remaining chain trips, however, only within the
exchangeable modes.
modes X and W in short is also designated with A. A Logit utility function f ( u ijm ) = e cuij (with
parameter c = 0.4) is used again to represent the changeovers from and to the individual
activities. The utility matrices um for each mode m are provided by
Zone
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uC
uX
Zone
169
uW
Zone
After analyzing the formula above, the following probability matrices apply.
PC
Zone
0.472
0.526
0.526
0.526
0.472
0.472
0.526
0.472
0.472
Zone
PX
0.316
0.237
0.237
0.237
0.316
0.316
0.237
0.316
0.316
Zone
PW
0.212
0.237
0.237
0.237
0.212
0.212
0.237
0.212
0.212
PA = PX + PW
Zone
0.528
0.474
0.474
0.474
0.528
0.528
0.474
0.528
0.528
Interesting are also the probabilities for modes X and W within the exchangeable modes.
PAX = PX / PA
Zone
170
0.598
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.598
0.598
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Zone
0.5
0.598
0.598
PAW = PW / PA
Zone
1
0.402
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.402
0.402
0.5
0.402
0.402
The matrix of the first nonexchangeable mode Car for all activity transfers is calculated. The
matrix for the first activity transfer is the product of PC with the total demand matrix F1 of the
first transfer.
Total demand matrix F1 for the first activity transfer (Destination activity W)
Zone
93.4
93.4
Total
93.4
93.4
93.4
Matrix FP1 for mode C and the first activity transfer (destination activity A)
Zone
49.12
49.12
Total
49.12
49.12
49.12
With the next activity changeover, these 49.12 trips will be distributed across zones 2 and 3
according to the distribution probabilities (P22 = 0.6 or P23 = 0.4).
Matrix FC2 for mode C and the second activity transfer (Destination activity O)
Zone
49.12
49.12
Total
29.47
19.65
49.12
10
29.47
19.65
Finally, the trips have to end back at the last activity transfer in their origin zone 1.
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171
Matrix FC3 for mode C and the third activity transfer (Destination activity H)
Zone
49.12
49.12
Total
49.12
29.47
29.47
19.65
19.65
Summed up, the following Car total demand matrix applies: FCT
Zone
147.36
147.36
Total
49.12
88.59
19.65
49.12
49.12
88.59
29.47
29.47
19.65
19.65
19.65
To determine the total demand matrix for nonexchangeable modes, this Car matrix is
subtracted from the total demand matrix FT (from trip distribution).
FT
Zone
280.2
280.2
Total
93.4
149.4
37.4
93.4
93.4
149.4
56.0
56.0
37.4
37.4
37.4
The difference first results in the total demand matrix for all nonexchangeable modes.
FA
Zone
132.84
132.84
Total
44.28
70.81
17.75
44.28
44.28
70.81
26.53
26.53
17.75
17.75
17.75
For this matrix mode choice now takes place within the exchangeable modes PuT and Walk,
to obtain the total demand matrices for modes PuT and Walk. The matrix is multiplied with the
probabilities PAX and PAW.
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Zone
70.75
70.75
Total
22.14
38.00
10.61
22.14
22.14
39.74
13.27
15.86
10.61
8.87
8.87
Zone
62.09
62.09
Total
22.14
32.81
7.14
22.14
22.14
31.07
13.26
10.67
7.14
8.88
8.88
Make sure that the Car total demand matrix has identical row and column sums for each zone,
whereas this is not mandatory for the PuT and Walk matrices.
The mode choice results are saved in an aggregated form to demand matrices per person
group and mode. In addition, you can limit the usage of time interval and origin and destination
activity data for matrices with disaggregated data.
3.2.4
( )
f U ij = a U ij b e
c U ij
whereby
Uij
Value of the utility (for example distance or travel time) between zone i and zone j
a,b,c
Parameters to be estimated
2.
( )
f U ij = a e
cU ij
whereby
Uij
Value of the utility (for example distance or travel time) between zone i and zone j
a,c
Parameters to be estimated
The KALIBRI function adjusts these utility functions to a given trip length distribution.
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173
Then the Trip distribution function calculates the traffic flow Fij (from zone i to zone j) with the
aid of the gravity model and known data, namely the source traffic Qi (of zone i), destination
traffic Zj (of zone j) and the parameters a, b, c (or a, c) specified here (see "Gravity model
calculation" on page 174).
The KALIBRI function provides two options that allow you to estimate the parameters for the
gravity model.
( )
(2)
( )
(3)
ln f U ij = ln a + b ln U ij + c U ij
or
ln f U ij = ln a + c U ij
Within each KALIBRI iteration a temporary demand matrix is calculated (for example via Multi
procedure with option doublyconstrained gravity model). The resulting values of the utility
function are smoothed by linear regression until the maximum number of KALIBRI iterations is
reached or the values do not change anymore. The smoothed values then describe a function
of type (2) or type (3).
3.2.5
F ij = k ij Q i Z j f ( U ij ) whereby
Logit
174
f ( U ij ) = e
cU ij
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Kirchhoff
f ( U ij ) = U ij
BoxCox
f ( U ij ) = e
Combined
U ij 1
c b
f ( U ij ) = a U ij e
TModel
cU ij
1
f ( U ij ) = b
a
U ij + cU ij
The distribution formula is referred to an attraction or utility function, with the following
parameters.
Uij
Value for the utility between zones, for example distance or travel time from zone i to zone j
Qi
Origin zone i
Zj
Destination zone j
kij
Number of zones
Determining the scaling factor kij and formulating the utility function f(Uij) are essential for
various modifications and extensions.
The scaling factor kij must be chosen so that the boundary conditions of the distribution models
n
j = 1 Fij
= Qi
(4.1)
= Zj
(4.2)
and
n
i = 1 Fij
F ij = k i Q i Z j f ( U ij )
with the following secondary conditions for zone i.
n
j = 1 Fij
PTV AG
= Qi
175
From the n secondary conditions, all ki can thus be determined by substitution in the
distribution function:
n
Qi =
j = 1
F ij =
j = 1
k i Q i Z j f ( U ij ) = k i Q i
j=1
Z j f ( U ij )
This results in
1
k i =  for Qi 0
n
Q i Z j f ( U ij )
F ij =  for all i, j
n
Q i Z j f ( U ij )
1
F ij =  for all i, j with k j = n
The adjustment of the model to reality (calibration) by variation of the free parameters is very
important.
Since the input parameters Qi and Zj have been specified, the only free parameters that remain
besides the scaling factors ( k and k ) are the parameters of the utility function f(Uij .
i
Since for doubly constrained calculation both directions of the distribution, (4.1) and (4.2) must
be met at the same time, the following must also apply for the scaling factors k and k as well
i
constrained calculation can only be achieved with much more complex iteration models.
As an iteration model the Matrix Editor uses the socalled Multi procedure according to Lohse
(Schnabel 1980) (see "The multiprocedure according to Lohse (Schnabel 1980)" on
page 189).
The general form of the utility function f(Uij) is
b
f ( U ij ) = a U ij e
cU ij
176
PTV AG
f(Uij)
0,8
0,7
c = 0,01
0,6
c = 0,1
0,5
0,4
c = 0,3
c = 0,5
0,3
c = 1
0,2
0,1
0
Uij
0
10
12
14
16
18
20
f(Uij)
1,2
b = 0,3
b = 0,5
0,8
b = 0,7
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
Uij
0
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Notes: Choose a suitable specification for the utility functions, which means suitable
parameters. Among other things, the specification depends on the trip purpose and the mode
used. A trip to work is for example, on average longer than a trip for shopping. This means
that the utility function for the trips to work, depending on the town's size, is only slightly
dependent on the use (distance or travel time) or not at all. Shopping trips on the other hand,
are much more dependent on the use.
The use of a trip distribution model can therefore call for a separation of the travel demand
based on the trip purpose. This depends essentially on the requirements in terms of accuracy
and the demands on the matrix to be calculated. Benchmark figures for the percentage split
based on the trip purpose can be obtained for example from the KONTIV 89 (EMNID 1991)
or local surveys.
The following four examples show gravity models that are differently constrained and with and
without balancing.
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177
With the distribution method that includes coupling for EITHER attraction or production, the
source or destination traffic is adjusted to the marginal totals in the code file. The location factor
then only affects the "complementary" destination or origin demand. However, the following
applies
n
j = 1 Zj
i = 1 Q i k i
or
i = 1 Q i
j = 1 Zj kj
j = 1 Zj + i = 1 Qi ki
i = 1 Qi = j = 1 Z'j 2
Zone numbers
1
2.66
*
*
1.00
0.33
0.33
1.00
2
1.75
2.08
0.50
2.33
0.50
1.41
0.25
2.08
0.50
3
1.99
4
1.50
0.33
0.25
1.00
0.50
0.33
0.50
0.33
0.25
* 7.90
*Zone
1
2
3
4
Production
10.0000
20.0000
30.0000
40.0000
Attraction
50.0000
10.0000
20.0000
20.0000
Factor
0.50000000
1.00000000
1.00000000
1.00000000
External
0
0
0
1
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Result matrix
Zone numbers
1
36.76
*
*
2
15.91
10.00
3.11
1.45
20.01
6.76
2.81
30.00
9.97
3.76
40.00
16.92
7.89
3
30.79
4
16.55
2.80
2.64
4.82
5.62
7.98
8.29
15.19
0.00
100.01
Input data for calculating balancing and scaling according to average value
*Zone
1
2
3
4
Production
10.0000
20.0000
30.0000
40.0000
Attraction
50.0000
10.0000
20.0000
20.0000
Factor
0.50000000
1.00000000
0.30000000
1.00000000
External
0
0
0
1
Direction of the distribution according to the production distribution with boundary sum
balancing enforced by the multi procedure.
Combined utility function (exponential)
Parameter a = 1, b = 0.5 and c = 1
Scaling according to mean value of both sums
Max. number of iterations = 10, Quality factor = 3
Result matrix
Zone numbers
1
32.99
2
13.19
8.04
2.22
0.94
16.10
4.62
1.74
24.16
6.95
2.38
32.19
19.20
8.13
*
*
80.49
3
7.92
4
26.39
0.56
4.32
0.93
8.81
1.57
13.26
4.86
0.00
Zone numbers
*
*
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1
2
166.183 107.560
165.571
0.001
22.700
107.414
22.700
0.001
90.008
35.926
16.284
134.633
50.387
31.017
155.524
57.169
37.558
3
88.972
4
134.710
5
155.725
35.183
50.387
57.300
15.991
31.017
37.705
0.001
15.153
22.644
15.153
0.001
38.075
22.644
38.152
0.001
653.150
179
Input data
*Zone
1
2
3
4
5
Production
18990.0
4960.0
7110.0
16080.0
2300.0
Attraction
18990.0
4960.0
7110.0
16080.0
2300.0
Location factor and zone property external are not specified. Default values are used.
The parameters are set as follows:
Direction of the distribution according to the production distribution with boundary sum
balancing enforced by the multi procedure.
Combined utility function (exponential)
Parameter a = 1, b = 0.5 and c = 1
Scaling according to the production total
Max. number of iterations = 10, Quality factor = 3
Result matrix
Zone numbers
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
1
2
18990.000 4959.951
1
18990.000
18990.000
0.000
2
4959.999
0.000 4959.897
3
7110.000
0.000
0.054
4
16080.000
0.000
0.000
5
2300.000
0.000
0.000
49439.999
3
4
7109.758 16080.290
5
2300.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.102
0.000
0.000
7109.426
0.520
0.000
0.230 16079.770
0.000
0.000
0.000
2300.000
* Zone numbers
1
2
1.00
0.50
0.33
0.50
0.33
0.25
1.00
0.50
3
0.33
1.00
0.33
0.33
4
0.25
0.50
0.50
0.25
*Zone
1
2
3
4
Production
10
20
30
40
Attraction
50
10
20
20
180
1
0,37
2
0,43
3
0,41
4
0,39
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2
3
4
0,41
0,41
0,37
0,43
0,39
0,43
0,37
0,41
0,41
0,43
0,43
0,39
Q 1 Z 1 f ( U 11 )
and so F 11 = n
i = 1 Qi f ( Ui 1 )
10 50 0.37
F 11 = 10 0.37 + 20 0.41 + 30 0.41 + 40 0.37
F11 = 4.71
The matrix is produced after the other 15 equations have been calculated.
Result matrix
Zone numbers
1
50.00
*
*
99.98
2
10.00
9.68
4.71
1.03
20.47
10.58
2.06
31.09
15.87
2.80
38.74
18.84
4.11
3
19.99
4
19.99
2.04
1.90
3.64
4.19
6.13
6.29
8.18
7.61
The desired values for destination demand were very well approximated, while the values for
origin demand were not reached so well. This circumstance is characteristic for such
distribution formulas. Either the origin or the destination sums are reached close enough. If
both boundary sums are to be aligned as closely as possible, it is necessary to use a boundary
compensation model. The function offers doubly constrained projection (MultiProcedure) (see
"Projection" on page 188).
* Zone numbers
1
2
1.00
0.50
0.33
0.50
0.33
0.25
1.00
0.50
3
0.33
1.00
0.33
0.33
4
0.25
0.50
0.50
0.25
Input data
* ZoneNo
1
2
3
4
Productions
10
50
20
10
30
20
40
20
Attractions
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Direction of the distribution according to the production distribution with boundary sum
balancing enforced by the multi procedure.
Combined utility function (exponential)
181
Zone numbers
1
3.2.6
1
50.00
*
*
2
10.01
10.01
4.87
1.06
20.00
10.34
2.01
30.00
15.32
2.70
40.00
19.47
4.24
3
20.00
4
20.00
2.11
1.97
3.55
4.10
5.91
6.07
8.43
7.86
100.01
Iteration
Iteration allows the repetition of the different steps of a procedure and therefore can be used to
reincorporate skims calculated during the assignment into previous stages.
3.2.6.1
Go to procedure
Use the Go to procedure to carry out a convergence check. You can choose between the
following checks
1. It is checked whether, during the last iteration, attribute or matrix data has changed by less
than the userdefined threshold value. To find the values that have changed, the following
formula is used:
The following figure shows how the tolerance value is applied. For smaller attribute values, it
allows for acceptance of larger relative deviations than for larger attribute values. In
illustration 55, the green curve represents the relative deviation, whereby the tolerance value
was considered part of the attribute value.
182
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2. It is checked whether a userdefined attribute lies under a specific value. This is useful
when you first add a script that recalculates the respective value.
If the convergence condition has been fulfilled, Visum continues with the next step of the
procedure. If not, Visum returns to the point specified as Go to target (procedure or group) and
iterates the procedure from there (procedure) or from the next step (group). Independent of
this, the convergence check is canceled as soon as a maximum number of iterations is
reached.
3.2.6.2
Using MSA (method of successive averages), you can calculate the mean value of two
matrices (demand or skim matrices).
This function is meant to improve convergence in demand models used for feedback. You can
add it prior to the Go to procedure if you want to use an averaged matrix of all iterations
instead of a matrix of the current iteration as a GoTo criterion.
The operation calculates
i
1
A =  B +  C
i+1
i+1
whereby
A
B
C
i
Result matrix
Matrix of current iteration
Matrix average of all previous iterations
iteration counter
Notes: The iteration counter starts counting from iteration 0 and when Go to procedures are
triggered it always uses the innermost loop as point of reference.
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183
3.2.6.3
As for matrices the average values of attributes can be determined by means of MSA (Method
of Successive Averages), too.
This function is meant to improve convergence in demand models used for feedback. You can
add it prior to the Go to procedure if you want to use the average values of attributes of all
iterations instead of the attribute values of the current iteration as a GoTo criterion.
The operation calculates
i
1
A =  B +  C
i+1
i+1
whereby
A
B
C
i
Notes: The iteration counter starts counting from iteration 0 and when Go to procedures are
triggered it always uses the innermost loop as point of reference.
During an operation you can exchange the two weightings.
3.3
Visum offers both simple and more complex operations for editing and calculating matrices.
Most operations can be performed directly in the Matrix editor (see User Manual, Chpt. 3.3,
page 823), others are available as procedures (see User Manual, Chpt. 4, page 937).
Functions for copying / replacing matrix values
184
Matrix editor
window
Procedure
x*
x*
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Matrix editor
window
Procedure
Transpose
Set diagonal
x*
x*
Matrix editor
window
Procedure
Round
x*
x**
x**
Symmetrize matrix (calculate average values pairwise from top and bottom
triangle)
Calculate matrix using marginal totals, i.e. trip distribution (see "Gravity
model calculation" on page 174)
Generate main zone matrix, using zone matrix (aggregate)  and
generate zone matrix, using main zone matrix (disaggregate)
x
x
* Not a procedure of its own, but possible via Combination of matrices and vectors
** Possible in procedures via addin CalculateMatrix
Functions for structural changes to matrices
Extend matrix (include new OD pairs in matrix for arithmetic operations)
Aggregate (summarize rows/columns of a matrix)
Split/Extend (rows/columns of a matrix into/to several ones)
Form partial matrix (nonsymmetric aggregation)
3.3.1
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185
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
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The Reflect lower triangle function offers the option of copying the matrix section below the
diagonal into the upper triangle (see User Manual, Chpt. 3.4.8, page 872). The Reflect upper
triangle function offers the option of copying the matrix section above the diagonal into the
lower triangle (see User Manual, Chpt. 3.4.7, page 871).
3.3.5
3.3.6
Round
With the Round function you round all matrix values to a specified precision. The matrix values
are rounded up or down so that the new value is a multiple of the value rounded. Therefore, it
is possible to round up to 0.1 or 0.25, for example (see User Manual, Chpt. 3.5.1, page 875).
3.3.7
3.3.8
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187
3.3.9
3.3.10
3.3.11
3.3.12
Projection
The functionality is primarily used if origin or destination total values of a zone are to be
multiplied by a particular value, or a particular expected value is to be attained, which can be
necessary in some circumstances after origindestination studies. Matrices collected are often
just random samples and must be projected to census values.
Matrix values can be projected per row (singly constrained projection regarding the
generation), per column (singly constrained projection regarding the production) or by row and
column (doubly constrained projection) (see User Manual, Chpt. 3.5.14, page 896).
Singly constrained projection means that each row or column is multiplied by a fixed value.
This value can be a procedure parameter or for zone and main zone matrices an attribute
of the zone or main zone. The complexity of doubly constrained projection is illustrated in the
example below.
Objective: projection of origin and destination demand as follows:
188
zone 1 by 10 %
zone 2 by 20 %
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Zone
Origin traffic
20
30
50
40
50
90
Destination traffic
60
80
140
Line by line multiplication, therefore for purely singly constrained projection of the demand
regarding production originating from zone 1 by 10% and zone 2 by 20%, produces the
following matrix.
Zone
Origin traffic
22
33
55
48
60
108
Destination traffic
70
93
163
While the origin traffic has been increased correctly, the destination traffic has not.
For the doublyconstrained projection, the Matrix editor uses an iterative process, also called a
Multiprocedure. In an iterative progression, this process searches for the solution that best
achieves the expected values (see "The multiprocedure according to Lohse (Schnabel 1980)"
on page 189).
The Matrix Editor thus provides the following solution which correctly projects the origin and
destination traffic.
Zone
Origin traffic
21
34
55
45
62
107
Destination traffic
66
96
162
Q ip
q i ( n ) = Z jp
j Fij Zj ( n )
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189
Z jp
z i ( n ) = Q ip
i Fij Qi ( n )
Gp
f ( n ) = G(n)
Qip
Zjp
Gp
Fij(n)
Qi(n)
Zj(n)
G(n)
This iterative calculation is done repeatedly until the following conditions are met for all
boundary values (origin and destination expected values).
Qi ( n )
 1 for all zones i
Q ip
Zj ( n )
 1 for all zones j
Z jp
The threshold suggested by Lohse was used. It states that
1
1
=  or = ( QF Q ip )
( QF Z jp )
3.3.13
If you are using a matrix with network references, i.e. a zone or a main zone matrix, you can
choose an attribute of the zone or main zone to separate the rows and/or columns into groups.
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If in this case, you e.g. select the attribute Main zone number for a zone matrix, singly
constrained projection will use a specific factor per main zone for projection. Projection by item
would use a different factor per main zone relation.
Note: The term "territory" used here merely describes a group of rows or columns and is not
to be confused with the network object of the same name.
3.3.14
b ij
(2)
w ij w ij
=  a IJ
(1)
(2)
w kl w kl
k Index ( I )
l Index ( J )
whereby
i, j
i, j
Index(I), Index (J)
bij
Zone indices
aij
wij(1), wij(2)
Use case
You would like to correct a matrix or adjust it using count data. The count data available refers
to a rougher zone structure than your network. In this case, you first aggregate the zone
matrices, then perform a correction procedure (e.g. TFlowFuzzy) and finally disaggregate the
matrix again.
3.3.15
Extending matrices
You can extend external matrices during an arithmetic operation, i.e. you can add columns and
rows. To do so, choose an arithmetic operation that allows you to combine external matrices
with matrices that have different OD pairs.
You can use any arithmetic operation that requires a second operand, e.g. the basic ones or
forming the maximum or minimum.
The matrix data is calculated as follows:
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191
The arithmetic operation is performed for the OD pairs that occur in all matrices.
If an OD pair is not listed in all matrices, a null is entered for it before the arithmetic
operation is performed. Then the arithmetic operation is performed.
For OD pairs that are not listed in any of the matrices, a default value is set in the results
matrix.
3.3.16
99
99
99
99
i = 0 qi
n
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Weighted mean
i = 0 qi gi
n
i = 0 gi
with
qi
gi
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193
3.3.17
If you only specify one factor for an object generated during splitting, this factor applies to
both the source and destination traffic in the demand matrix.
If origin and destination value are to be distributed with different proportions in a zone
generated by splitting, a destination traffic factor must also be specified after the origin
traffic factor.
For a demand matrix, the matrix value is generally distributed across the zones (1.0 = 100 %)
created through splitting. When choosing the splitting factors for zone generation, you can
decide whether or not you want to include the expected gains (total > 1.0) or losses (total < 1.0)
per split zone.
For a skim matrix, the matrix value per split zone is generally assigned to the new zones using
the factor 1.0, i.e. they remain unchanged.
100
1,001
0.3
0.1
100
1,002
0.5
0.2
100
1,003
0.2
0.7
200
2,001
0.7
0.7
200
2,002
0.3
0.3
In addition, all trips created within the cell are set to null.
This produces the following matrix:
Total of matrix data for all OD pairs from/to 1,001..1.,003 equals 1,000.
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3.4
Matrix correction
You have different possibilities of correcting the demand matrix values with count data.
3.4.1
A demand matrix based on empirical survey data is outdated and you want to update it
without having to conduct a new (origindestination) survey. The update shall be based on
based on census data only.
A matrix generated from the transport network model is to be calibrated, therefore counted
volume data are to be used.
A matrix generated from incomplete or not reliable data is to be improved by more
comprehensive/reliable volume data counted simultaneously.
A survey contains the journey distance distribution, but the model does not reflect the data
with the level of accuracy required.
TFlowFuzzy will solve this problem for PuT as well as for PrT. The update only affects the
demand matrix  not the time series  and always refers to total volumes (instead of volumes
per time interval).
The flow of information always follows the given order.
Old
matrix
data
New
count
data
TFlowFuzzy
New
matrix
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195
Count data
Network
model
Assignment
TFlowFuzzy
Demand
matrix
Link volumes
Origin/destination travel demand per zone
Volumes of turns at nodes and main turns at main nodes (as long as they are defined)
Volumes via screen lines
Volumes on lanes
PuT passenger trips unlinked per line
PuT passenger kilometers per line
Boarding/alighting passengers at stop areas
Skim data distribution, e.g. journey distance distribution
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selected network object are then taken from the assignment result of this demand result, and
the count values also only refer to this demand segment. TFlowFuzzy can also simultaneously
update the demand matrices of several demand segments, if only total count values are
specified for all demand segments. Then the count data specified is distributed proportionally
to the respective demand segment share of the assignment volumes. The demand matrix for
each demand segment is then updated individually.
Compared to other procedures, the outstanding quality of TFlowFuzzy is
that you can combine the following for matrix correction: origin/destination traffic, link
volumes, turns, main turns or screen lines, passenger trips unlinked and passengers
boarding/alighting at stop areas and distributions (e.g. journey distance).
Count values do not have to be available for all network objects.
The statistical uncertainty of the count figures can be modeled explicitly.
You can specify that the distribution of the result matrix must correspond to the distribution
of an existing demand matrix.
You can use count data that only covers part of the PuT lines. In this case, only volumes or
boarding/alighting passengers that refer to active line route elements are taken into
account for calculation.
3.4.1.1
Since the eighties, primarily in Englishspeaking countries, socalled matrix correction (or
matrix update) techniques have been used to produce a current demand matrix from an earlier
travel demand matrix (base matrix) using current traffic count values. Based on research by
Van Zuyten/Willumsen (1980), Bosserhoff (1985) and Rosinowski (1994) which focuses on
matrices for private transport, PTV has extended the application of these techniques to public
transport.
The starting point for the classic procedure is the travel demand for the individual OD pairs fij.
Travel demand is usually described as a matrix, but for our purposes a vector representation
containing all nonzero OD trips is more suitable.
0
f 21
f 31
f n1
f12
0
f32
f n2
f13
f 23
0
f n3
f1n
f 2 n
f 3n =
0
f12
f13
f1n
f 21
f 23
f 2n
f 31
While it is usually assumed, that a matrix based on an earlier time is known, only partial
information is provided for the current state. Important is the situation where there are no data
based on relations (from an origin destination survey) available, but only count values at
individual positions in the network. These can be both origin / destination traffic as well as link
volumes. We note the count values as another vector.
v r = (v1 v2
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v3 vm )
197
The trips of any OD pair provides a certain share to each traffic count. In case of boarding and
alighting passengers the marginal sums of the demand matrix are known. In case of link counts
the counted volumes correspond to the sum of all (proportional) OD trips traveling on this link.
In general there is a linear relation between the demand on the OD pairs and the traffic counts.
Af=v
whereby A is called flow matrix. ask is "the share of passengers on movement k, traversing link
s". For origin / destination traffic count values, A is especially constant, as specified with
example n = 3, m = 6.
1
0
0
1
0
1 0 0 0 0 t12 board1
0 1 1 0 0 t13 board 2
0 0 0 1 1 t21 board3
=
0 1 0 1 0 t23 alight1
0 0 0 0 1 t31 alight2
1 0 1 0 0 t32 alight3
In this case, A does not depend on the timetable. However, the supply dependent trip choice
flows into A for link volumes; the flow matrix is obtained for example, through assignment of
any matrix (for example the old demand matrix) on the supply at the time of the count. Both
types of count values can be also be used next to each other without a problem.
A problem for the matrix correction is that, usually m << n2 and therefore the new matrix is
underdetermined by the count values. Out of the countless matrices which match the count
values "match", only the best is selected according to a evaluation function q, thus solves
max q(f), so that A f = v
A combination of entropy and weighting with the proportions of the old matrix usually serves as
an evaluation function; q is usually nonlinear, which is why the problem is solved iteratively (for
example with Newton's method).
In this wording of the matrix correction problem there is, however, another weakness of the
classic approach: vector v of the count values is assumed as a known parameter, free of every
uncertainty. A q maximum is only selected from the matrices which fulfill the exact secondary
conditions. The count values thus receive an inadequate weight, because each survey
provides a snap shot, which is afflicted with a statistical uncertainty. Conventional procedures
(for example from Willumsen) do not allow such a state, because the boundary sums are
perceived as "strict" secondary conditions.
PTV has therefore taken on the approach by Rosinowski (1994), who modeled the count
values as fuzzy measured data according to the Fuzzy Sets Theory. If it is known that in a
zone, the origin traffic fluctuates up to 20 % from day to day, in other zones however about
25 %, this is illustrated with the respective bandwidths. In the secondary conditions of the
matrix estimation problem, there are thus Fuzzy Sets ~
v s with sets of variables of different
widths which replace strict values.
max q(f), so that A f = v
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The illustration of Fuzzy Sets compared to pure limits allows the preference of central values
to be expressed within the set of variables. This means, that values close to the mean values
are generally preferred, but values within the margin are also accepted, if this means that a
much better q value is achieved.
How can the Fuzzy Sets now be treated numerically for the solution of the optimization
problem? The obvious trip is, to include the membership function of the individual Fuzzy Sets
in the evaluation function and in comparison weighted appropriately. To be able to continue
using standard procedures of nonlinear optimization, the resulting objective function must also
be twice continuously differentiable, producing restrictions regarding the form of membership
functions. Especially the usually partial linear triangles or trapezoids are eliminated. Instead we
use the same mechanism as for the weighting with the original matrix, to support the choice of
central values from the set of values. As a comparison, here the evaluation function of the
weighted entropy maximization.
q( f ) =
n n
f ij
f ij ln f ij
f ij
i =1 j =1
If f ij is already set as a demand from the original matrix, the maximization of q benefits
matrices which slightly differ from the original matrix. This principle can be transferred to our
new optimization problem:
max q(f, s, s), so that
Af+s=v
A f  s = v
s0
s 0
199
Membership
function
0
3
Membership
function
0
z*s
z
s
z+*s
the count value itself, where the membership function assumes its maximum
the distance between the count value, where the membership function drops to value 0
a predefined scaling factor ( > 0)
Values z, s and are entries for TFlowFuzzy (see User Manual, Chpt. 3.7.1, page 910). z and
s are specified individually for each count value (link volume, origin / destination traffic, turn
volume or main turn volume, as long as a main node is defined), whereas is a global
parameter for the procedure.
3.4.1.2
A calculation example is used to illustrate the matrix correction procedure. A PuT service is
defined in the very simple network with four zones shown here.
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The link bars show the assignment result for the following matrix, which we assume were
obtained a long time ago by means of a passenger survey:
$VR
* PTV
* Time interval
0.00
24.00
* Factor
1
* Mode of transport No. 3
*
3 Mode of transport PuT
*
4 Mode of transport PrT
* Number of zones
4
1
2
3
*Zone
1
Total =
0
100
100
*Zone
2
Total =
100
0
100
*Zone
3
Total =
100
100
0
*Zone
4
Total =
100
100
100
4
300
100
300
100
300
100
300
0
Counts have since been completed on all links of the network, and the following volumes
obtained.
The counted values for this example are based on the assumption that the demand matrix has
since changed as follows.
$VR
* PTV
* Time interval
0.00
24.00
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201
Factor
1
4
350
100
330
80
300
100
280
0
The counted values from the figure are loaded into Visum LinkAddValues. Additionally, for
each individual counted value or collectively, a random sample fuzzy value can be added,
which means a bandwidth, within which the counted values actually fluctuate from one survey
date to another. This fuzzy value can be accepted as it is or obtained empirically by counting
the same OD relations on different dates.
TFlowFuzzy now calculates a new matrix, which on the one hand exhibits to a very high degree
similar ratios between the number of trips in the individual OD relations as in the old matrix (by
maximizing the weighted entropy), and on the other hand, during assignment matches the
counted values from the new survey within the specified bandwidth.
In the above example TFlowFuzzy, with a random sample accuracy of 5 %, calculates the
following matrix, which matches the assumed "ideal solution" very well.
$VN
4
*
*
1
346
1:
2:
3:
4:
3
298
4
281
148
99
99
100
83
100
99
83
99
346
0
2
331
331
148
298
99
281
99
* 1256
3.4.2
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3.4.3
3.4.3.1
The projection of the matrix corresponds to the Increase factor model with justification, known
in traffic planning. By comparing the calculated volume with the count data, the counted cross
sections supply information on "adjustment factors" which need to be taken into account. Here
it has to be taken into account that an origin/destination relation can traverse several counted
cross sections, that is, it might be influenced by several adjustment factors.
The calculation process has two stages.
1. Determination of the adjustment factors
First, the calibration function calculates an adjustment factor ki for each count value zi.
3.4.3.2
The Fij matrix of the last assignment serves as the basic matrix.
Zone
Origin traffic
20
30
50
40
50
90
Destination traffic
60
80
140
If the traffic of Zone 1 is to be increased by 10 % and the traffic of Zone 2 by 20 %, the following
matrix (for a projection of the origin only) will result:
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Zone
Origin traffic
22
33
55
48
60
108
Destination traffic
70
93
163
203
It is clear that, although the origin traffic increased by the required amount, the destination
traffic did not, because
1.1 * 60 = 66 and 1.2 * 80 = 96.
This is why an iterative procedure, the Multiprocedure according to Lohse (Schnabel 1980), is
used for origin and destination projection, as in an iterative process it searches for that one
solution that is best used to reach the target values (see "The multiprocedure according to
Lohse (Schnabel 1980)" on page 189).
For the above example the following solution is found:
204
Zone
Origin traffic
21
34
55
45
62
107
Destination traffic
66
96
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Impact models
An impact model contains all methods to calculate the impact of traffic. It calculates results on
the basis of data and thus represents the computation kernel of the application. Components
of the different impact models offered in Visum are in particular assignment, skim calculation,
line blocking, line costing calculation (PuT operating indicators) and emission calculation,
including the impedance models used in them. Each of these methods is part of at least one of
the impact models for users, operators and the environment.
Subjects
4.1
4.1.1
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205
Methods to model the travel behavior are based upon search algorithms which determine
routes or connections between an origin and a destination. Procedures used as search
algorithms are those which determine the best, meaning those which determine paths with the
lowest impedance or a set of sufficient paths. Impedance can consist of times, distances, and
costs. Depending on the search algorithm used, the paths found represent routes or
connections. The trips by OD pair are distributed among the paths found. This combination of
path search and trip distribution is called assignment. Private transport assignment assigns
vehicle trips; public transport assignment assigns passenger trips.
For every route or connection between two zones skims can be calculated which describe the
service quality of the route/connection. In addition to this, an assignment produces traffic
volumes for links and turns, and in PuT projects also for stops and stop points plus all objects
of the PuT line hierarchy from the transport system down to the level of individual vehicle
journeys. In contrast to a quality skim such as, for example, journey time, the volume is only an
indirect skim which by itself is not suited for evaluating the transport supply system. The
volume is rather used to deduce
saturation of PuT lines which affects the comfort of passengers and the revenues of
operators
noise and pollution emissions which indicate the environmental impact
Thus, the volume resulting from the user impact model serves as a basis for the procedures
provided by the operator impact model and those of the environmental impact model as well.
Visum offers various assignment procedures for private and public transport. They differ by the
search algorithm and by the procedure used for distributing demand. These assignment
procedures are a central part of Visum. There are PrT models and PuT models.
4.1.2
Compared to the PuT, the PrT network is generally operated by the state, countries or councils,
but also more and more by private investors. Decisions are geared towards the impact on the
general public, rather than on the impacts on the operators themselves, which is why in general
a different operator model has to be used for PrT. Here the economical analysis (EWS) impact
model is available in Visum. This model comprises methods on economical return of
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4.1.3
4.2
Impedance functions
An impedance function generally measures the effort connected to a traffic process. All
instances are summarized to this effort, which prevent participants from carrying out this
process and therefore create an impedance. Effort examples are especially time and costs
connected to the process. You can also enter subjective criteria in the impedance. Thus, the
impedance of a certain connection in the PuT may increase, if certain comfort criteria are not
satisfied.
Impedance functions play an important role in several impact models. In the assignment, the
impedance function assigns a route or connection an effort. In PrT, especially the journey time
in the loaded network flows into the impedance, but it can also be additional properties such as
traveling expenses and possible toll. For dynamic assignments, it is also the discrepancy
between the departure time and the desired departure time. In PuT, in addition to the travel
time, it is mainly the number of transfers and the fare which have an effect on the impedance.
A problem for impedance functions is that completely different aspects are included and have
to finally arise from conjoint evaluation in form of a number. These different aspects which are
partially measured in different units, must therefore be recalculated and weighted against each
other. In general, weighting of the factors for different groups of assessing personnel is
different. For this reason, impedance functions for example can be defined at the assignment
per demand segment (see User Manual, Chpt. 5.2, page 977) and at line blocking per vehicle
combination (see User Manual, Chpt. 7.1.3.2, page 1169).
In Visum, impedance functions are used in the following contexts:
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Assignment (User model): The impedance function assigns the effort to each path, thus
depending on the type of assignment, each route or connection, which the passenger has
to make, if he decides to take this path. The most natural criterion is the travel time which
has the corresponding unit time [s]. Especially in PrT, the travel time of a link is not
constant, but depends on the volume, the coherence is described in a VD function.
207
Demand models (User model): Within the framework of trip distribution, mode choice, as
well as combined procedures for trip distribution and mode choice, the impedance function
allocates an OD pair or the mode choice for this relation to the effort, which has to be
overcome for this choice. In this context we are traditionally talking about utility functions.
Although the supporting concept is identical, the benefit of it is, however, only the negative
impedance of the process.
Line blocking (Operator model): The impedance function assigns each activity (vehicle
journey, empty trip, layover, etc.) in a cycle the effort which arises, if the activity is
performed by this cycle. The most natural criteria here are the costs.
Despite these different application areas, the impedance function structure is always the same:
Each impedance function consists of a sum, in which each summand evaluates a certain
aspect of the effort and is weighted by a coefficient (see illustration 56). To calculate the
impedance of a traffic process, the properties of the process are first determined regarding
each aspect. Each aspect is then evaluated separately, in PrT especially by evaluating the VD
function. This evaluation of individual aspects is then provided and summed up with the
weighting factors.
Illustration 56: Impedance calculation for a PuT connection, for clarity illustrated in the unit [min]
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4.3
4.4
Skims / indicators
A skim is a measurement taken from the traffic model. Typical examples are the mean travel
time from a zone A to a zone B, which is calculated from the travel times of all paths found, as
well as the total PuT journey time, which is the sum of the journey times of all PuT passengers.
Skims can be divided into global skims, which describe properties of the entire traffic model,
and into skims gained per OD pair. The latter are stored in skim matrices, whereby the entry xij
for the skim value, refers to the relation from zone i to zone j.
Generally, skims measure the properties of the traffic model. In feed back models they are also
the input data for the demand modeling procedures, especially for trip distribution and mode
choice.
4.4.1
Skim matrices
Skim matrices describe properties of each relation from an origin zone A to a destination zone
B in the traffic model. Each individual skim (for example the travel time in a vehicle) is extracted
from the path properties from A to B, which belong to a demand segment. The skim data is then
aggregated with the relative share of demand, which the path would attract, to a skim value for
the OD pair. This also applies, if there is no demand for the relation from A to B, because
distribution does not depend on the demand.
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209
The calculation of skim matrices differs between PrT and PuT on some points. The calculation
of PrT skim matrices is either based on present paths from a previously calculated assignment,
or for each OD pair the optimum path with regard to the impedance is determined (in the
possibly loaded network). Compared to an assignment, the network is not loaded in this case.
Because in this case there is only one path per relation, the skim value is extracted directly
from this path. If, however, paths from an assignment are used for skim matrix calculation, the
value of the minimum or maximum path impedance can be output as skim value, or the
weighted or unweighted mean value calculated from all paths by OD pair.
In PuT always more than one route or connection is calculated per OD pair, and the skim value
is derived from these. In addition to the average determination, optionally weighted with the
demand share, the output of properties of the path with the least perceived journey time (PJT,
timetablebased procedure) or with the least impedance (headwaybased procedure) as well
as quantiles are available as additional aggregate functions. The skim is especially directly
dependent on the applied search strategy. Because not only the saved, but all paths found are
included in skim matrix calculation, the result differs from the result subsequently derived from
the paths. This is the case, if the demand becomes zero on some paths by an explicitly
requested rounding and the path is therefore not saved, but used for skim matrix calculation. If
demand and volume rounding is switched off, such differences cannot occur.
4.4.2
Global indicators
In addition to the skims by OD pair and demand segment, which are available in skim matrices
and are only calculated on demand, Visum automatically calculates a specified set of global
indicators with each assignment. These are properties of the overall assignment result, i.e., of
the traffic model itself. Typical values are the mean travel time in the network, the total vehicle
impedance in PrT, the total journey time of all PuT passengers, as well as the number of
passenger trips by PuT line. The global values are displayed via lists (see "Evaluation lists" on
page 731).
If several assignments are carried out subsequently, the global values represent the properties
of all paths in these assignment results. Compared to the skim matrices, these values orientate
themselves towards the loaded paths contained in the result. They are thus consistent with
properties of the saved paths.
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Subjects
5.1
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The Incremental assignment divides the demand matrix on a percentage basis into
several partial matrices. Then, these partial matrices are successively assigned to the
network. The route search considers the impedance which results from the traffic volume
of the previous step (see "Incremental assignment" on page 315).
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The Dynamic Stochastic assignment differs from all the previously named procedures as
a result of the explicit modeling of the time axis. The assignment period is divided into
individual time slices, with volume and impedance separated for each such time slice. For
each departure time interval, the demand is distributed across the available connections (=
route + departure time) based on an assignment model as in the case of the stochastic
assignment. With this modeling, temporary overload conditions in the network are
displayed, a varying choice of routes results in the course of the day, and possibly also a
shift of departure time with respect to the desired time (see "Dynamic stochastic
assignment" on page 419).
For each of the mentioned assignment procedures any number of demand matrices can be
selected for assignment.
One demand matrix of one PrT transport system, for example, a car demand matrix is
assigned.
Multiple demand matrices which contain the demand for one or multiple PrT transport
systems, for example, a car demand matrix and a HGV demand matrix are assigned
simultaneously.
Abbreviations which are used together with the User Model PrT, shows the table 47.
v0
t0
vCur
tCur
Impedance = f (tCur)
Volume of a network object [car units/time interval] = sum of volumes of all PrT transport systems
including basic volume (preloaded volume)
NumTSys
q =
i = 1
( q i PCU i ) + q preloadedVolume
qmax
Sat
Volume/capacity ratio
Fij
5.2
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Access and egress times are not considered, that is, they are set to 0 minutes.
Turn penalties are not considered.
Capacity and demand refer to one hour.
213
The traffic demand between AVillage and XCity is 2,000 car trips (car.fma matrix) during
peak hour.
To explain simultaneous assignment of multiple demand matrices 200 additional HGV trips
(hveh.fma matrix) are considered. One HGV corresponds to two car units.
On federal roads (link type 20) there is a speed limit of 80 km/h for HGVs.
The example network contains three routes which connect AVillage and XCity. The routes
run via the following nodes:
Route 1: 10 11 41 40
Route 2: 10 11 20 21 30 31 40
Route 3: 10 12 21 30 31 40
Route 1 mainly uses country roads and is 26 km long. It is the shortest route. Route 2 is 30 km
long. It is the fastest route because the federal road can be traversed at a speed of 100 km/h
if there is free traffic flow.
Route 3 which is also 30 km long is an alternative route which only makes sense if the federal
road is congested.
village A
10
10
12
11
11
41
20
40
21
30
city X
31
Type
Length [m]
v0PrT [km/h]
10
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
11
11
20
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
20
21
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
20
40
90 Rail track
10,000
21
30
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
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LinkNo
Type
Length [m]
v0PrT [km/h]
30
31
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
31
40
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
11
41
30 Country road
16,000
800
80
40
41
30 Country road
5,000
800
80
10
10
12
40 Other roads
10,000
500
60
11
12
21
40 Other roads
5,000
500
60
5.3
PrT Paths
All assignments in Visum in the PrT as well as in the PuT are route based. This means that
possible paths in the assignment are calculated for each origindestination relation and loaded
with a demand share. All other results, especially the different network object volumes and the
skim matrices are derived from these loaded paths. Paths are therefore the central result of the
assignment procedure.
The table 49 displays the PrT paths provided by an equilibrium assignment in Example.ver, in
linkbased display.
Origin zone
100
100
100
200
200
Index
Link
From node
To node
1
1
10
11
11
20
20
21
21
30
30
31
31
40
10
11
11
41
41
40
10
10
12
11
12
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Origin zone
Index
3
Link
From node
5
21
To node
30
30
31
31
40
For private transport, you can edit paths manually, because paths are available as network
objects here (see "Paths" on page 52).
5.4
5.4.1
The route choices of travelers depend on objective and subjective factors. The route choice is
particularly determined by the following skims:
In addition to this, a multitude of other factors can influence route choice. One can imagine, for
example, that road users who know their way around will choose other routes than people who
do not know the area and who mainly orient themselves according to the signposted traffic
network. Impedance is therefore defined for each transport system and can be customized by
the user. By default, it depends on the following variables:
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You can also define the impedance in detail. You are then provided with all direct and indirect
numerical attributes of the network objects links, turns, connectors and main turns, for the
definition of the impedance of a route (see User Manual, Chpt. 5.2.2, page 992).
When composing the impedance summands, it can be differentiated between two basic
components:
Summands, which apply depending on the traffic volumes (for example value calculated
tCur with a VD function)
Summands, which are not dependent on the network object volume (for example, toll or link
length)
The time tCur of a network object is calculated with capacity restraint functions (VD functions).
Based on the assumption that the travel time (impedance) of network objects increases with
increasing traffic volume, all assignment procedures are in turn based on the assumption that
travel times of network objects are a monotone incremental function of traffic volume. Thus, in
case of increased traffic in the network the effect of deterrence to alternative routes can be
modeled (see "Predefined VD functions" on page 218).
Because the variables have different units (seconds, meters, money units), impedance cannot
be written in a universally applicable unit. For a combination of the variables, travel time, and
road toll, it may be convenient to express impedance in terms of money units. In this case,
travel times are converted into money units using a "value of time" factor.
Impedances of links
For every PrTtransport system of a link, a TSysspecific travel time (t0_TSys) for free flow is
defined which is calculated from:
link length
permitted speed (v0_PrT) of the link used
Impedances of connectors
Connector impedances are regarded as follows:
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Absolute connectors are regarded as being volumedependent. This means, that the TSysspecific connector time (t0_TSys) does not represent actual impedance which is volumeindependent.
217
Note: The impedance of turns and connectors in contrast to links only depends on the
variable tCur and possibly on the AddValue. Because the impedance of a connector is not
capacitydependent, the following applies to the access and egress impedance: tCur = t0. The
proportional distribution of traffic demand onto different connectors is, however, reached
through a virtual capacity, so that tCur > t0 can also apply to connectors. For each assignment,
the particular virtual capacity (100%) is then recalculated from the summed up volume total
and the demand to be assigned in the current assignment, e.g. Vol(carbusiness) + Vol(carprivate) + Demand(HGV) = 100% Connector capacity.
Preloaded volume
When impedances are determined, preloaded volumes can be considered. Preloaded volumes
can be either userdefined additional values or volume values which result from the
assignment of a different matrix.
5.4.2
Predefined VD functions
Travel times for PrT are determined by the saturation of links and turns which result from the
traffic volume and the capacity of these network objects. Due to this, PrT travel times vary in
contrast to PuT journey times, and can only be anticipated to a certain degree before a trip. The
PrT travel time of a route between two zones consists of the following components:
For free traffic flow, the travel time t0 of a link can be determined from the link length and the
freeflow speed v0. For turns at an intersection, the turn time t0 is specified directly. In loaded
networks, the link travel time and the turn time is determined by a socalled volumedelay
function (or VD function). This capacity restraint function describes the correlation between the
current traffic volume q and the capacity qMax. The result of the VD function is the travel time in
the loaded network tcur. Visum provides several function types for the volumedelay functions:
1. the BPR function from the Traffic Assignment Manual of the United States Bureau of Public
Roads (illustration 58)
2. a modified BPR function with a different parameter b for the saturated and unsaturated
state (table 52)
3. a modified BPR function, for which an additional supplement d per vehicle can be specified
in the saturated state (table 53)
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4. the INRETS function of the French Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur
Scurit (illustration 59)
5. a constant function where the capacity does not influence travel time (tCur = t0)
6. and several functions for turning processes (i.e. t0 is added, not multiplied) as well as
function type linear bottleneck which are used by turn type
7. another modified BPR function (LOHSE) with a linear rise in the oversaturated section, in
accordance with the queuing theories, in order to achieve more realistic times in the
oversaturated section and a better performance in assignments since small changes to the
volume do not result in disproportionate travel time changes. The function is monotonic,
continuous, and differentiable even where sat = satcrit
Note: In addition to the volumedelay functions provided in Visum, you can also specify
userdefined VD functions (see "Userdefined VD functions" on page 225).
The table 50 shows the variables used in the descriptions of the VD functions.
sat
q
q max c
satcrit
Degree of saturation at which the linear section of the volumedelay function starts
tcur
t0
Current volume = sum of volumes of all PrT transport systems including preloaded volume
[car units/time interval]
NumTSys
q =
qmax
i = 1
( q i PCU i ) + q preloadedVolume
a, b, c
Userdefined parameters
a [0.00;), b {0.00...10.00}, c [0.00;)
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f(q/qMax)
6
b=2
b=3
b=4
b=5
0
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,2
1,4
1,6
q / qMax
Illustration 58: VD function type BPR according to the Traffic Assignment Manual
satcrit
satcrit = 1
a, b, b, c
, where
satcrit
satcrit = 1
a, b, c, d
with
a, c
a [1.1;100), c [0.00;100)
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with
a, c
, where
a [1.1;100), c [0.00;100)
, where
satcrit
satcrit [0.00;10]
a, b, c, d
The function models queuing at entry legs whose inflow is restricted by ramp metering signals.
, where
satcrit
satcrit = 1
current volume = sum of volumes of all PrT demand segments [car units/time unit] including
basic volume (preloaded volume)
AnzNSeg
q =
i = 1
( q i PkwE i ) + q Vorbelastung
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f(sat)
a = 0,0
a = 0,2
a = 0,4
a = 0,6
a = 0,8
0
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
1,6
sat
The impedance functions listed in table 58 are particularly suited to the modeling of turn
impedances. A capacitydependent wait time is thus added to each basic wait time t0.
LOGISTIC
QUADRATIC
SIGMOIDAL_MMF_NODES (formerly SIGMOIDAL_MMF)
a, b, c, d
Table
222
a, b, c, d [0.00100.00}, f {0.00...10.00}.
The value of parameter f of VD function types SIGMOIDAL_MMF_NODES and
SIGMOIDAL_MMF_LINKS ranges from 0..100.
58:
VD
function
types
SIGMOIDAL_MMF_LINKS
LOGISTIC,
QUADRATIC,
SIGMOIDAL_MMF_NODES,
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AKCELIK
a = duration in hours
b = family parameter
d = 1 / Number of lanes (of the link)
qmax = capacity of the network object (of the link)
Unlike AKCELIK, the denominator of this function references directly to the capacity of the network
object. Besides, AKCELIK2 is no wait time function at a node but models the speed reduction on a link.
Value d is intentionally a free parameter, although alternatively the link attribute 'Number of lanes' could
be evaluated directly. By removing this attribute which should always carry the physically existing number
of lanes (for example for the Vissim export), a suitable value of d for example, can model the frictional
loss by pulling in and out events for parking. d = 0.6 would therefore correspond to a slightly lower
capacity than two lanes.
Table 60: VD function type AKCELIK2
satcrit
satcrit [0.00;10]
a [0.00;1000]
b
b [0.00;10]
c
c [0.00;100]
Table 61: VD function type LOHSE
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LOHSE
45,0
40,0
35,0
30,0
tcur
b=2
25,0
b=3
b=4
b=5
20,0
15,0
10,0
5,0
2,50
2,40
2,30
2,20
2,10
2,00
1,90
1,80
1,70
1,60
1,50
1,40
1,30
1,20
1,10
1,00
0,90
0,80
0,70
0,60
0,50
0,40
0,30
0,20
0,10
0,00
0,0
sat
This function type stems from Metropolis and should not be used in static assignments, as it rises
strongly when reaching the saturation while the previously augmenting VolCapRatio is unaccounted for.
Table 62: VD function type Linear Bottleneck
Some projects may require nonstandard VD functions, e.g. because they include further link
attributes or because the conversion of volumes to passenger car units (PCUs) is projectspecific. In this case, you can add your own functions to the predefined volumedelay
functions (see "Userdefined VD functions" on page 225).
5.4.3
10,000 m
130 km/h
100 km/h
Capacity
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Car volume
HGV volume
18 /h = 0.005 /s
36 /h = 0.010 /s
with a = 1, b = 2, c = 1
HGV speed only declines if the volume is more than 1644 car units/h, if
tCur = 277 (1+(1644/3000)) = 360s
Table 65: HGV travel times and speeds
Car impedance in loaded network
5.4.4
Userdefined VD functions
You can set up userdefined VD functions for the following use cases:
To include further attributes for links, turns and connectors in the calculation
To calculate PCUs in a nonstandard way
To define separate volumedelay functions for different transport systems
Volumedelay functions are very often evaluated within the assignment methods, so
computational efficiency is a key consideration. Therefore Visum adopts a compiled rather
than an interpreted approach to userdefined volumedelay functions. Users program their
functional forms as a dynamiclink library (DLL) following a given template. All such *.dll files
need to be copied into the following project directory, which is created during the installation
and which is scanned by Visum at startup: %APPDATA%\PTV Vision\PTV Visum
13\UserVDFDLLs (see User Manual, Chpt. 5.2.1.6, page 984).
Note: A *.bmp file with identical file name which is stored in the same folder will be displayed
for VDF selection.
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5.5
Impedances at node
Intersections are modeled as nodes or as main nodes in Visum. Intersections of roads and/or
railway tracks are bottlenecks in an urban transport network. At the intersections, conflict
points have to be passed in succession by the noncompatible traffic flows. The order in which
the flows traverse the conflicting areas depends on the type of control:
To choose the route within an assignment procedure, the impedance on alternative routes is
decisive, which results in the sum of impedances of all traversed network objects. The
bottleneck effect of a node is thus displayed for all variants of the traffic control by the
impedance of the turn used. The impedance of turns usually corresponds exactly to the travel
time tCur, thus the time required to traverse the node in the turning direction of the route.
For calculating tCur per turn Visum offers three different models that represent the different
compromises between data entry and computing time on the one hand and accuracy and reallife situations on the other.
Turns VDF (see "Impedance of turns from Turns VD function" on page 228)
Nodes VDF (see "Impedance of turns from Nodes VD function" on page 228)
Intersection Capacity Analysis ICA (see "Intersection Capacity Analysis according to the
Highway Capacity Manual (ICA)" on page 229)
To use ICA during assignment, select the method Node impedance calculation (ICA).
Alternatively you can based on an assignment result select method From previous
assignment with ICA.
Comparing advantages and disadvantages in table 67 is to help you choose the appropriate
calculation model for your project.
Model
Advantage
Disadvantage
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Model
Advantage
Disadvantage
Node impedance
Impedance calculation precisely
Input complexity considerably higher:
calculation (ICA) (see
considers lane allocation and signal
Instead of capacity and t0, model the
"Intersection Capacity
control. Special turn pockets for
lane allocation at the node and Analysis according to
example, are capacityincreasing
where available  the signal control in
the Highway Capacity
and dependent on the entered signal
detail
Manual (ICA)" on
timing, protected and permitted turns Calculation more time consuming
page 229)
are calculated correctly
Assignment convergence slow due to
the inseparable impedance model,
sometimes without additional
measures not at all
From previous
assignment with ICA
(see "Assignment with
ICA" on page 354)
Due to the reasons mentioned we recommend the following for the selection.
For comprehensive models, modeling with VD functions for turns or nodes is appropriate.
ICA cannot be recommended here, because the input complexity for the detailed supply of
nodes with geometry and control data is usually too high. Furthermore, the result after each
acceptable computing time due to the slow convergence of the assignment still contains
approximation errors, which are around the same size as the accuracy gained through ICA.
ICA however, is the method of choice if you want to subsequently calculate and analyze the
performance of one or more nodes of an existing assignment result. This is how you can
determine which aspects of the node contribute to a high impedance. It is therefore
sufficient to only model those nodes completely which have to be analyzed.
With a classical assignment method (Equilibrium or Equilibrium_Lohse, for example), ICA
is only conditionally recommended due to the known convergence difficulties, and it should
only be applied to smallscale analyses with some 100 nodes. To avoid these problems, the
Assignment with ICA method is recommended.
With an equilibrium assignment, best results can be achieved with either the
Equilibrium_Lohse method (see "Equilibrium_Lohse" on page 346) or the From
previous assignment with ICA method (see "Assignment with ICA" on page 354), since
these are more robust towards impedance variations.
In most cases you will globally decide on a calculation model. You can however also combine
different calculation methods within a network, (for example, Turns VD functions as standard
model and ICA simply for very important nodes with complex lane allocation or large conflicting
flows).
All calculation models are based on turn volumes in car units per hour, which are determined
through the user's settings, either from the assigned volume or from counted data via a factor.
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5.5.1
Attribute
Turn
Description / Effect
Turn
t0 PrT
Turn
Type
Table 68: Attributes for the impedance calculation from Turns VD function
5.5.2
Description / Effect
Turn
Turn
t0 PrT
Turn
Type
Node
Node
t0 PrT
Table 69: Attributes for the impedance calculation from Node VD function
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5.5.3
The method developed by R. M. Kimber, (Kimber 1980), (Kimber, Hollis 1979), (Kimber,
Daly 1986), which is also described in the British guideline TD 16/93 "The Geometric
Design of Roundabouts", is based on the empirical study of numerous roundabouts and
the statistical adjustment of a model which estimates capacities in dependency of the
geometry (see "Roundabouts according to the TRL/Kimber 2010 method" on
page 272).
The method described in the Highway Capacity Manual 2010, chapter 21 (see
"Roundabouts according to the HCM 2010 method" on page 267).
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The method according to HCM is recommended, if in theory you prefer consistency for all
control types (roundabouts also according to HCM like signalized and twoway stop nodes)
within a project. Furthermore, the method is not dependent on observations which were
only obtained through driving behavior studies in Great Britain.
For the calculation, the effective control type is decisive instead of the control type. These
values differ in the following: Signalized nodes are regarded as yieldcontrolled nodes, if no SC
has been allocated to them or if the SC has been turned off (Signal control attribute Turned
off).
Notes: Throughout the model description, special provision for right or left turns relates to
righthand traffic. For Visum models with lefthand traffic the roles of right and left turns are
reversed (see User Manual, Chpt. 1.5, page 65).
Uturns are never considered in HCM 2000. In Visum it is possible to treat Uturns as far left
turns through the corresponding setting in the procedure parameters for intersection
impedance analysis (in lefthand traffic accordingly as far right turns). This calculation is then
no longer HCM conform. HCM 2010 regards Uturns at twoway stop nodes. Here, the
processing is performed according to HCM 2010 in Visum. Other control types are processed
according to HCM 2000.
5.5.3.1
Uncontrolled nodes
For uncontrolled nodes the impedance of a turn is calculated using a VD function from the node
volume (= Sum of turn volumes) and the node capacity, therefore exactly like calculating the
model Nodes VD function (see "Impedance of turns from Nodes VD function" on page 228),
however without a term for each turn.
The Visum attributes listed in table 70 are considered for the calculation.
Network object Attribute
Description / Effect
Node
Node
t0 PrT
5.5.3.2
Signalized nodes
Notes: In the HCM 2000, chapter 16 describes signalized nodes. In HCM 2010, find the
descriptions in the chapters 18 and 31.
Instead of the method described here for signalized nodes, the method for yieldcontrolled
nodes is applied to nodes and main nodes of the signalized control type, to which no SC has
been allocated or whose SC has been turned off.
The basic flow chart for performing capacity analyses for signalized intersections is displayed
in illustration 61. You input the intersection geometry, volumes (counts or adjusted demand
model volumes), and signal timing. The intersection geometry is deconstructed into lane (or
signal) groups, which are the basic unit of analysis in the HCM method.
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A lane (or signal) group is a group of one or more lanes on an intersection approach having the
same green stage. For example, if an approach has just one pocketed exclusive left turn and
one shared through and right turn, then there are usually two lane groups the left and the
shared through/right.
Note: According to HCM 2010, the lane allocation follows different rules. Here, shared lanes
always form a separate lane group. For more details, please refer to HCM 2010, page 1833.
The volumes are then adjusted via peak hour factors, etc. For each lane group, the saturation
flow rate (SFR), or capacity, is calculated based on the number of lanes and various
adjustment factors such as lane widths, signal timing, and pedestrian volumes. Having
calculated the demand and the capacity for each lane group, various performance measures
can be calculated. These include, for example, the v/c ratio, the average amount of control
delay by vehicle, the Level of Service, and the queues.
I n p u ts
Ge om etry
V olum es
S ig nal tim in g
L a n e G ro u p s &
D em an d A d j
L an e Gro uping s
P ea k h our fa ct or
S atu ratio n F lo w R a te
(C ap a city)
Ba sic s
A djus tm en t F a ct ors
C ap ac ity A n alysi s
V /C R a tio
A v erage D elay
L ev el o f S ervic e
Qu eue s
Note: For HCM 2010, the corresponding flow diagram can be found in HCM 2010, page 1832.
If you use the HCM 2000 or HCM 2010 operations model for signalized nodes, the Visum
attributes in table 71 will have an effect. Make sure that they are set to realistic values prior to
running the analysis.
Alternatively to the calculation method according to HCM, you can apply one of the following
methods:
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ICU2
231
Attribute
Description / Effect
Link
ICAArrivalType
Link
ICAUpstreamAdj
Link
ShareHGV
Link
Link
Slope
Used in step 6
Node
ICAPHFVolAdj
Node
ICALossTime
Node
Node
ICAIsCBD
Node
ICASneakers
Node
SC number
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Network object
Attribute
Description / Effect
Geometry
All
Turn
ICAPHFVolAdj
Turn
Signal Control
All
SC
SC
Turned off
Signal group
Is added to the actual green time. The actual green time and
ICA loss time adjustment sum up to the green time on which
all computations are based.
Leg
Leg
ICA parking
Leg
Bicycle volume
Lane
Number of vehicles
Lane
Lane
Length
Lane
Width
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Network object
Attribute
Description / Effect
Lane
Lane
Lane
ICA userdefined
utilization share
Lane
Crosswalk
Pedestrian volume
Notes: The link attribute Turn on red is not regarded for calculation.
Output is possible through the attributes listed in table 72.
Network object Attribute
Description / Effect
Node
Node
Node
Node
Node
Level of service
Node
Turn
Turn
Turn
Turn
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Description / Effect
Turn
Turn
Turn
Turn
Level of service
Turn
tCurPrTSys
where
vi
vg
PHF
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3. Fully secured + permitted if during green time left turns are first fully secured and then
permitted.
4. Permitted + fully secured if during green time left turns are first permitted and then fully
secured.
5. Without left turn stage, all other cases.
Step 5: Proportions of left turning and right turning vehicles calculation by lane
group
The proportion of right and left turn volume by lane group needs to be calculated.
PLT = vLT / vi
PRT = vRT / vi
where
PLT
PRT
vi
vLT
vRT
In HCM 2010, the iterative method mentioned in step 1 is used for the calculation of the turning
movement proportions on shared lanes. For the description in detail, please refer to HCM
2010, page 3130 et seqq.
2 stages
3 stages
4+ stages
Planning
1,500
1,425
1,375
Operations
1,800
1,720
1,650
This number decreases due to various factors. The SFR is defined as:
si = (so)(N) (fw)(fHV)(fg)(fp)(fa)(fbb)(fLu)(fRT)(fLT)(fLpb)(fRpb)
where
236
si
so
N
fw
fHV
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fg
fp
fa
adjustment factor for the position of the link to city center (CBD true/false)
fbb
fLu
fRT
fLT
fLpb
fRpb
First the description of the main calculation is described and then the various SFR adjustment
factors are calculated.
If an ICAIdealSatFlowRate is specified for a turn, it will replace the final result of step 5. All
adjustment calculations are then bypassed.
The calculations according to HCM 2000 or HCM 2010 are similar. The set of factors taking
effect on the saturation flow rate is the same. Merely the calculations of the factors fw (HCM
2010, page 1836), fLpb and fRpb differ. The latter are calculated by means of the iterative
method, which is described in HCM 2010, pages 3130 to 3137.
Deviating from HCM, the optimal saturation flow rate so of pocket lanes can also be calculated
by the number of vehicles which can be accommodated there. The number n of vehicles can
be set by lane. Alternatively, it results from the division of the pocket lane length by the
standard vehicle length which is set by link.
The alternative calculation method using lane length data is only applied, if the lane group
consists of one or more straight through lane(s) and exactly one pocket lane. The pocket lane
must be of a straight through lane or a throughleft type or a throughright type lane. If these
conditions are not satisfied, the regular HCM calculation method will be applied.
The optimal saturation flow rate so of a twolane group, which consists of a through lane and a
pocket, where there is space for n vehicles, then is as follows:
n 3600
s f = s o + min s o, 
gi
Here, so is the ideal saturation flow rate, n is the number of vehicles which can be
accommodated on the pocket, gi is the effective green time and sf is the resulting saturation
flow rate of the lane group.
For shared lanes, the calculation is more complex. Taking a through lane with only straight
turns and a shared left/straight pocket, then the resulting saturation flow rate sf is as follows:
s ST s LT
s f = v LT
v ST
 s LT
 s ST + v LT v ST
v LT + v ST
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237
Here, vLT and vST are the volumes of the left and the straight turns, sLT is the ideal saturation
flow rate of the left turn  therefore 1,900 vphpl  and sST is the ideal saturation flow rate of the
through lanes which results from the first equation.
where
gi
Gi
li
where
ci
capacity i
si
C
gi / C
cycle time
green ratio i
Step 9: Calculation of the critical vol/cap ratio for the entire intersection
The critical v/c ratio of nodes is defined below. The HCM method is concerned with the critical
lane group for each signal stage. The critical lane group is the lane group with the largest
volume/capacity ratio unless there are overlapping stages. If there are overlapping stages,
then the maximum of the different combinations of the stages is taken as the max. For the
description of this method, please refer to HCM 2000, page 1614, or HCM 2010, page 1841.
Only if the intergreen method Amber and allred is used for the signal control, loss times will be
determined at all. Per signal group, the loss time results from the amber time and allred time
total minus loss time adjustment.
Xc =
i s ci + CL
where
Xc
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PTV AG
v
s ci
C
L
cycle time
loss time total of the signal groups of all critical lane groups
Below is an example calculation of critical lane group per signal stage with overlap.
For computation variant ICU1, Xc is defined as follows:
Xc =
i s ci + Cv
Xc =
i s ci
v
1 1 + C

L 1
where
di
dUi
uniform delay
dIi
dRi
PF
permanent adjustment factor for coordination quality (see "Signal coordination (Signal offset
optimization)" on page 281)
In HCM 2010, the equation looks likewise. However, factor PF has been implemented in factor
dUi. For the description of the calculation procedure, please refer to HCM 2010, page 1845.
1 R gi f
P C
PA
PF = gi
1 C
where
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fPA
RP
239
Step 10a: Calculation of the uniform delay for each lane group
The uniform delay is the delay expected given a uniform distribution for arrivals and no
saturation. It is calculated as follows:
d Ui
2
1 gi
C
= 0.5 C g
i
1  ( min ( X i, 1 ) )
C
where
dUi
gi
Xi = v/c
volume/capacity ratio
Step 10b: Calculation of the incremental delay for each lane group
The incremental delay is the random delay that occurs since arrivals are not uniform and some
cycles will overflow. It is calculated as follows:
2 8 ki Ii Xi
d Ii = 900 T ( X i 1 ) + ( X i 1 ) + ci T
where
dIi
ci
Xi = v/c
volume/capacity ratio
T
ki
Ii
Step 10c: Delay calculation for the residual demand per lane group
The residual demand delay is the result of unmet demand at the start of the analysis period. It
is only calculated if an initial unmet demand at the start of the analysis period is input (Q). It is
set to 0 in the current implementation. It is calculated as follows:
1800 Q bi ( 1 + u i ) t i
d Ri = ci T
where
240
dRi
Qbi
initial unmet demand at the start of period T in vehicles for lane group (default 0)
ci
Capacity
T
ui
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ti
di Vi
d A =  Vi
where
dA
di
Vi
dA VA
d I =  VA
where
dI
dA
VA
Mean delay/vehicle
0 10 sec.
10 20 sec.
20 35 sec.
35 55 sec.
55 80 sec.
80 + sec.
In HCM 2010, the level of service is automatically classified as F, if v/c (volume/capacity ratio)
exceeds the value 1.
For the variants ICU 1, ICU2, and Circular 212, the level of service is defined through the
saturation v/s (volume/saturation flow rate) of the node:
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241
LOS
0.000  0.600
0.601  0.700
0.701  0.800
0.801  0.900
0.901  1.000
>1.000
where
Q
mean queue length maximum distance measured in vehicles the queue extends on
average signal cycle
Q1
Q2
incremental term associated with random arrival and overflow to next cycle
where
PF2
progression factor 2
vi
C
gi
cycle time
Xi
1 R gi 1 vi
P C
s i
PF2 =  1 gi 1 R vi
P s
C
i
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where
PF2
progression factor 2
vi
C
gi
cycle time
si
RP
Step 14b: Calculate secondterm of queued vehicles, estimate for mean overflow queue
Q b 2 8 k i X i 16 k Q b
Qb
Q 2 = 0.25 c i T ( X i 1 ) +  + X i 1 +  +  + 
2
ci T
ci T
c i T
(c T )
i
where
T
k
Qb
ci
P3
Q % = Q P1 + P2 e
where
Q
percentile
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pretimed signal
actuated signal
70%
P1
P2
P3
P1
P2
P3
85%
1.2
0.1
1.1
0.1
40
90%
1.4
0.3
1.3
0.3
30
95%
1.5
0.5
1.4
0.4
20
243
percentile
pretimed signal
98%
1.6
1.0
actuated signal
1.5
0.6
18
1.7
1.5
1.71.7
1.0
13
(W 12 )
30
where
fw
This method differs in HCM 2010. For a description, please refer to HCM 2010, page 1836.
100
100 + % HV (ET 1)
where
fHV
%HV
EP
%G
200
where
fg
%G
18 N m
N 0.1 3600 f = N
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PTV AG
where
fp
N
Nm
In Visum, enter fP which is calculated by the formula, as attribute ICA parking directly at the
node leg.
where
fa
CBD
f bb
14.4 N
N B3600
= N
where
fbb
N
NB
In Visum, enter fbb which is calculated by the formula, as attribute ICA bus blockage directly
at the node leg.
where
fLu
vg
vgl
unadjusted (input) volume for lane with highest volume in lane group (veh per hour)
For this adjustment factor, an HCM lookuptable is regarded (HCM 2000: table 1023 on page
1026; HCM 2010: table 1830 on page 1877). Alternatively, lane attribute values can be used
(ICA userdefined utilization share and ICA use userdefined utilization share).
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245
or
= 0.85
for exclusive right turn lane
or
1.0  (0.15) P
RT for shared right turn lane
f RT
where
fRT
PRT
The calculation according to HCM 2010 differs. For shared lanes, the adjustment factor is no
longer explicitly calculated. For more details, please refer to HCM 2010, page 1838.
f LT
where
fLT
PLT
For permitted staging, there are five cases. When there is protectedpluspermitted staging or
permittedplusprotected staging, the analysis is split into the protected portion and the
permitted portion. The two are analyzed separately and then combined. Essentially this means
treating them like separate lane groups. Refer to the HCM for how to split the effective green
times among the protected and permitted portions.
1. Exclusive lane with permitted phasing use the general equation below
2. Exclusive lane with protectedpluspermitted phasing use 0.95 for the protected portion
and the general equation below.
3. Shared lane with permitted phasing use the general equation below
4. Shared lane with protectedpluspermitted phasing use the equation above for protected
phasing portion and the general equation below for the permitted portion
5. Single lane approach with permitted left turns use the general equation below
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The general equation for calculating fLT for permitted left turns is below. Note that this is not the
exact HCM 2000 equation since there are a few different versions depending on the situation
shared/exclusive lane, multilane/single lane approach, etc. But the equation is similar
regardless of the situation. This general equation is the equation for an exclusive left turn lane
with permitted phasing on a multilane approach opposed by a multilane approach.
The equation is basically the percentage of the time when lefts can make the turn times an
adjustment factor. The adjustment factor is based on the portion of lefts in the lane group and
an equivalent factor for gap acceptance time that is based on the opposing volume. The
calculation of the percentage of the time when lefts can make the turn is a function of the
opposing volume and their green time. The equation is as follows:
gu
1
f LT =  
g 1 + P L ( E L 1 1 )
( f LTmin f LT 1 )
fLTmin = 2 (1 + PL) / g
(N 1) g
P L = 1 + g u ( E L 1 + 4.24 )
gu = g  gq (if gq 0, else gu = g)
v olc qr o
t
g q = 0.5 [ v olc ( 1 qr o ) g o ] l
where
PTV AG
fLT
fLTmin
g
gu
PL
EL1
gq
Effective nonprotected green time, while leftturns are blocked completely and the spillback
of the conflict flow is reduced
go
N
volc
No
vo
fLUo
qro
Opposing queue ratio = max[1  Rpo (go / C), 0] (Rpo = lookup value depends on ArrivalType)
tl
vo C
3600 N o f LU
247
The opposing volume is calculated from the signal groups that show green while the subject
lane group has green. To calculate the opposing volume for a subject lane group, the entire
opposing volume is used even if there is an overlap.
The permitted left movement calculation does not need to be generalized to 4+ legs since only
one opposing approach is allowed. If more than one opposing approach is coded, an error is
written to the log file.
Step 6j: Calculate pedestrian adjustment factors for left and right turns
The computation of the factors for leftturning and rightturning pedestrians and bicyclists is a
considerably complex operation. It is performed in four steps. For the computation, the bicycle
volumes of the legs are regarded and the pedestrian volumes of the crosswalks. A traffic flow
has potential conflicts with two crosswalks on the outbound leg. These two crosswalks head for
the opposite directions.
Note: At a leg which is a channelized turn no conflicts occur between right turn movements
and pedestrians.
Step 1: Determination of the pedestrian occupancy rate OCCpedg.
The pedestrian occupancy rate OCCpedg is derived from the volume. The following applies:
1
C
2
C
v pedg = min 5000, v ped 1 + v ped 2
gp
gp
v pedg 2000, if v pedg 1000
OCC pedg =
0.4 + v pedg 10000, else
Here, vpedg is the pedestrian flow rate, v1pedg and v2pedg are the pedestrian volumes of the
crosswalks, C is the cycle time of the signal control and g1p and g2p indicate the duration of
the green for the pedestrians.
Note: In the HCM2000 it is implicitly assumed, that the green for the left turn movements
and the green for the pedestrians start at the same time. In Visum, this is not the case,
however. Thus, the following distinction of cases applies in Visum: If the pedestrian green
time overlaps (or touches) the green or amber stage for vehicles, an existing conflict is
assumed. In this case, the duration of the green of the pedestrian signal group is fully
charged. Otherwise it is assumed, that there is no conflict. In this case, gp = 0 is assumed.
Step 2: Determination of the relevant occupancy rate of the conflict area OCCr
Case 1: Right turn movements without bicycle conflicts or left turn movements from
oneway roads
Decisive for left turns from oneway roads is, that there is no opposite vehicle flow.
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Here, vbicg is the bicycle flow rate, vbic is the bicycle volume, C is the cycle time of the signal
control, g is the effective green time of the lane group, and OCCbicg is the conflict area's
occupancy rate caused by bicyclists.
These are left turn movements which do not originate from a oneway road. Here, a
distinction of cases is made for the values gq and gp. gq is the clearing time of the vehicle
flow on the opposite leg, and gp is the green time for the conflicting pedestrians. The
following applies:
gp = max(g1p, g2p)
Case 3a: gq gp
Pedestrians and bicyclists are irrelevant here, since the left turn movements have to wait
until the vehicle flow on the opposite leg is cleared.
( 5 3600 ) v 0
Here, OCCpedu is the occupancy rate of pedestrians after the clearance of the vehicle flow
on the opposite leg, and OCCpedg is the pedestrians occupancy rate.
Step 3: Determination of the adjustment factors for pedestrians and bicyclists on permitted
turns ApbT
Here, two cases are distinguished with regard to the values Nturn which is the number of
lanes per turn and Nrec, which is the number of lanes per destination leg.
Here, vehicles have the chance to give way to pedestrians and bicyclists. The following
applies:
ApbT = 1  0.6 OCCr
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249
Step 4: Determination of the adjustment factors for the saturation flow rates for pedestrians
and bicyclists fLpb und fRpb.
fLpb is the adjustment factor for left turns, and fRpb is the adjustment factor for right turns.
The following applies:
fRpb = 1  PRT (1  ApbT) (1  PRTA)
fLpb = 1  PLT (1  ApbT) (1  PLTA)
PRT and PLT represent the proportions of right turn and left turn movements in the lane
group, and PRTA and PLTA code the permitted shares in the right and left turn movements
(each referring to the total number of right turn and left turn movements of the lane group).
5.5.3.3
Notes: For the description of this control type, please refer to HCM 2000, chapter 17, in HCM
2010 refer to chapter 19. In most instances, the calculation complies with HCM 2000.
Especially the explicit Uturn handling has been added.
In Visum, twoway nodes are modeled by the control types twoway stop and twoway
yield. In the HCM, the description refers to twoway stop nodes. Basically, the computation
is the same. The only difference is the determination of wait times in step 8.
Nodes of the signalized control type are also calculated according to the method for yieldcontrolled nodes, if no SC has been allocated or the SC has been turned off.
The twoway stop analysis method is based on the gap acceptance theory. The basic idea is
to calculate potential capacities for all movements, and then subtract capacity from these
movements based on movement rank (priority). The calculation flow chart looks like displayed
in illustration 62.
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PTV AG
Inputs
Geometry
Volumes
%HGV, Ped Vol
Volume
PHF
Identify Conflicts
Potential Movement
Capacity
Capacity Analysis
Delay, LOS, Queues
If you use the HCM 2000 operations model for twoway stop nodes, the Visum attributes in
table 73 will have an effect. Make sure that they are set to realistic values prior to running the
analysis.
Network objects
Attribute
Description / Effect
Link
Share of HGV
Link
Slope
Used in step 3
Node
Geometry
All
Turn
Turn
Turn
Turn
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251
Network objects
Attribute
Turn
ICA Use preset follow Optionally, you can overwrite the followup time, used in step
up time
4
Activate this option, to use the followup time set.
Description / Effect
Lane
Lane
Lane
Lane
ICA Use preset follow Optionally, you can overwrite the followup time, used in step
up time
4. The analogous value of the turn is not used.
Activate this option, to use the followup time set.
Output is available through the same attributes as for signalized nodes (table 72). Additionally,
the calculated critical gap and followup time data is provided.
The method works with movements (Left, Through and Right) at each approach. Each
movement is ranked according to table 74.
Rank
1
Major Through
Major Right
Pedestrian passage minor flow
Major Left
Minor Right
Pedestrian passage major flow
Major Left priority to gaps in the opposing flow
Minor Right priority to gaps in the flow of the rightmost lane of the major flow
Pedestrians Priority to any other flow
Minor Through
Minor Left
Note: HCM 2010 also regards Uturns on major flows. They are given rank 2. If the calculation
is based on HCM 2010, the Uturn related setting in the procedure parameters will not affect
these Uturns.
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Notes: Rank 1 movements do not have conflicting flows since they have the highest priority.
Mainly, rank 1 movements are excluded from the analysis, with the exception of one
additional evaluation (see "Calculation of the critical vol/cap ratio for the entire intersection"
on page 238).
According to HCM 2010, pocket lanes for left turns (rights for lefthand traffic accordingly) in
the major flow are dealt with separately.
Only nodes with three or four legs are described in the HCM. In Visum, also multileg nodes
can be calculated. The 'Uncontrolled' rule is applied to conflicting flows between minor legs
which are not separated by a major leg.
For lefthand traffic, the righthand calculation is performed symmetrically.
For righthand traffic, the following example models the conflict flow of a left turn on a major
flow:
Volume through traffic in opposing direction + volume right turns in opposing direction
(does not apply, if right turns in opposing direction are separated by a channelized turn and
need to attend a yield sign or a stop sign) + pedestrian volumes minor flow crossing
Conflicting flows
Major Left
OT + OR* + ToP
Minor Right
Minor Through
where
O
Opposite direction
Through
Right
Left
Major
Minor
Far (for minor through/left turns the second major flow encountered)
ToP
FrP
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If the major flow (right) is separated by a channelized turn and needs to attend a yield sign
or a stop sign then this flow will not be considered in the conflicting volume calculation for
other flows..
If the major flow has more than one lane, only the right lane volume of the major flow (= vol
/ num through lanes) applies as conflicting, for minor right and minor left turns.
If the major flow has a right turn lane, then the right turns of the major flow do not count for
the conflicting volume.
253
For left turns from the minor flow, the right turn volume of the opposing direction does not
count for the conflicting flow, if the destination link of the two turns has more than one lane.
Notes: Apart from the Uturns, the HCM 2010 differs from HCM 2000 in subtle differences.
For the determination of conflicting flows, please refer to HCM 2010, pages 199 to 1914.
The HCM does not regard bending twoway stop/yield cases. In this case, conflicting flows
are determined according to Brilon and Weinert, 2002.
Example
Sarah needs 4 seconds of space between vehicles to make her left turn and merge with other
traffic safely.
The critical gap equation is:
tcx = tcb + (tcHVPHV) + (tcGG)  tcT  t3LT
where
tcx
tcb
tcHVPHV
tcGG
tcT
two stage adjustment factor (currently set to 0 for one stage modeling)
t3LT
0, otherwise
The base values for the critical gap are calculated as shown in table 76.
Movement
Major Left
4.1
4.1
Minor Right
6.2
6.9
Minor Through
6.5
6.5
Minor Left
7.1
7.5
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If the calculated values differ from the observed values, manually set values per turn can be
used.
Example
Suppose Frank was waiting behind Sarah in the intersection. If he turns just after Sarah, he
would need a followup time of 2 seconds, rather than another 4 seconds to be able to merge
safely with other traffic. So, if the gap between vehicles was at least 6 seconds, both Sarah and
Frank could safely make their turns.
The followup time equation is:
t fx = t fb + t fHV P HV
where
tfx
tfb
tfHVPHV
followup time adjustment factor for heavy vehicles percent heavy vehicles
Major Left
2.2
Minor Right
3.3
Minor Through
4.0
Minor Left
3.5
If the calculated values differ from the observed values, manually set values per turn can be
used.
Step 5: Calculate the potential (or ideal) capacity for each movement
The potential capacity is the capacity which is achieved if this movement uses all potential
gaps (i.e. no higher ranking movements take up the gaps). Furthermore, it is assumed that
each movement is made from an exclusive lane. The potential capacity is defined as follows:
e (vcxtcx 3600 )
c px = vcx
1 e vcxt fx 3600
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255
with
cpx
vcx
tcx
tfx
p vi
p pj
where
cmx
cpx
pvi = 1
P pj
vi
cmi = probability impeding vehicle movement i is not blocking subject movement
wv j SP
= 1  = probability impeding ped movement j is not blocking subject movement
3600
vi
volume movement i
vj
w
SP
Since the calculation depends on higher rank movement capacities the calculation proceeds
from the top down (from rank 1 to rank 4 movements). Impeding vehicle and pedestrian
movements for each subject movement are listed in table 78:
Movement
Rank
Impeding movements
Major Through
None
Major Right
None
Major Left
ToP
Minor Right
FrP, ToP
Minor Through
Minor Left
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PTV AG
where
J
Major
Minor
Opposite direction
Through
Right
Left
Far (for minor through/left turns the second major flow encountered)
ToP
FrP
pvJL
vJT
vJR
sJT
sJR
Note: Please refer to HCM 2010 page 1920, for the description of a short pocket lane on the
major flow scenario.
ii
i
ii
ii
p
p = 0.65 p + 0.6 p
ii
p +3
i
where
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257
pvJL
pvJLF
pvIT
pvR4
pvIR
ppIP
ppJP
vi
c i
where
CSH
vi
cm
Note: Note that the upstream signal and platoon flow adjustments are currently omitted from
the calculation. The same applies for the twostage gap acceptable adjustment, as well as for
the flared approach adjustment.
c mx
c mx
450 T
mx
where
dx
cmx
T
vx
A similar formula is used for the calculation of either twoway control type (yield or stop):
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vx
3600
 vx
vx
c mx c mx
vx
3600
Control delay per movement is aggregated to approach with a weighted (by volume) mean of
all approach movements/shared lanes. Mean approach delay is then aggregated to the entire
intersection with a weighted mean as well. The equations are the same as the ones for
signalized intersections.
Note that rank 1 movements get no delay. If, however, there is no exclusive left turn pocket,
then rank 1 movements may experience delay. There is therefore, an additional delay equation
for rank 1 movements when there are no left turns pockets on the major approaches. The
equation is as follows:
dR 1
v
( 1 p vJL ) d JL TN
if N > 1
=
vT + vR
(1 p ) d
if N = 1
vJL
JL
(5)
where
dR1
N
pvJL
dJL
vT
shared through lane volume (for multilane sites, only the volume in the shared lane)
vR
shared right turn lane volume (for multilane sites, only the volume in the shared lane)
This delay is then substituted by the zero delay of rank 1 movements when calculating
approach and/or intersection delay.
Mean delay/vehicle
0 10 sec.
10 15 sec.
15 25 sec.
25 35 sec.
35 50 sec.
50 + sec.
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259
Note: For LOS analyses, HCM 2010 additionally takes into consideration whether the
capacity was exceeded. If this is the case, always level F of service will be allocated (HCM
2010, page 192).
The intersection queue length calculation is:
Q 95 x
3600 v x
 2
c mx
v
c mx c mx
vx
x
= 900 T  1 +  1 +  
3600
c mx
c mx
150 T
where
Q95x
cmx
T
vx
5.5.3.4
Allway stop
Note: For the description of this control type, please refer to HCM 2000, chapter 17, in HCM
2010 refer to chapter 20. The calculations described in HCM 2010 and HCM 2000 are
identical.. HCM 2010 additionally includes the guidelines for queue length calculations (HCM
2010, page 2017), which is missing in HCM 2000. Furthermore, the volume/capacity ratio is
regarded for the LOS calculation. In case of overload, automatically level F is assigned.
The HCM 2000 AllWay stop controlled (AWSC) capacity analysis method is an iterative
method. The model looks at all possible scenarios of a vehicle either being at an approach or
not being at an approach. Based on the input volumes the probability of each scenario
occurring is calculated as well as the mean delay. The v/c ratio is calculated for each scenario
which in turn impacts the others. Therefore, an iterative solution is needed to find the capacity
of each approach.
Unlike the signalized method, which works with signal groups, or the TWSC method, which
works with movements, the AWSC model works with lanes by approach.
The basic calculation is described in the flow chart in illustration 63. The user inputs
intersection geometry and volumes, along with a couple of additional attributes such as PHF
and %HGV. The volumes are adjusted and allocated to the lanes. The next step is to calculate
the saturation (capacity) followup time adjustment factors. Then the departure followup times
(i.e. the mean time between departures for a lane at an approach) are calculated based on all
the combinations of the probability states. This departure followup time for each lane for each
approach is dependent on the other approaches and so it is calculated in an iterative manner.
Once a converged value is found, then the service time, mean delay and LOS can be
calculated.
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Inputs
Geometry
Volum es
Volume
PHF
Lane volumes
Base Headway
Adjustments
Probability States
Departure H eadway
Final D egree of
Utilization
If you use the HCM operations model for AllWay stop nodes, the following Visum attributes in
table 80 will have an effect. Make sure that they are set to realistic values prior to running the
analysis.
Network object
Attribute
Description / Effect
Link
ShareHGV
Node
ICAPHFVolAdj
Geometry
All
Turn
ICAPHFVolAdj
Output is available through the same attributes as for signalized nodes (table 71).
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261
The first step is to PHF adjust the volumes by lane by movement by approach. In addition the
% heavy goods vehicles by lane by movement by approach are also input if available. Since in
Visum volumes are specified by movement and not by lane by movement, they are first
disaggregated per lane according to a standard method.
The next step is to calculate the followup time adjustment factors for each lane. The
calculation applies as follows:
hadj = hLTadj pLT + hRTadj pRT + hHVadj pHV
where
hadj
hLTadj
hRTadj
hHVadj
PLT
pRT
pHV
Adjustment factor
Saturation
LT
RT
HV
0.2
0.6
1.7
0.5
0.7
1.7
After calculating the followup time adjustment factor the departure followup time is calculated
in an iterative manner. It involves five steps.
j P ( a j )
where
P(i)
P(aj)
aj
This probability states calculation has a few parts. For each lane type j the P(aj) is calculated.
P(aj) is calculated based on a lookup table (table 82).
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aj
P(aj)
>0
Xj
>0
1  Xj
Notes:
If iteration is 1, then Xj = (Vj hd) / 3,600
Value aj is taken from the DOC table (table 83). This table contains all the combinations of 0
and 1 per lane for each approach. For two lanes per approach it looks like displayed in table 83
(see exhibit 1730 in the HCM 2000 for the full table).
i
Number of
vehicles
Oppsoing
approach
L1
Left
(subject approach)
Right
(subject approach)
L2
L1
L2
L1
L2
64
Table 83: Excerpt from the DOC table for two lanes per approach
The combined probability states probability P(i) is then calculated for each row (i) for each
column (lane type) (j). To calculate P(i) we take the product of all probabilities of each opposing
lane and each conflicting lane P(aj). The result P(i) = P(aj) is the probability state for row (i).
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P( C1 ) = P( 1 )
4
P( C2 ) = P( i )
2
10
P( C3 ) = P( i )
5
37
P( C4 ) = P( i )
11
64
P( C5 ) = P( i )
38
adjP( C1 ) = a [ P( C2 ) + 2 P( C3 ) + 3 P( C4 ) + 4 P( C5 )] / n
adjP( C2 ) = a [ P( C3 ) + 2 P( C4 ) + 3 P( C5 ) P( C2 )] / n
adjP( C3 ) = a [ P( C4 ) + 2 P( C5 ) 3 P( C3 )] / n
adjP( C4 ) = a [ P( C5 ) 6 P( C4 )] / n
adjP( C5 ) = a [ 10 P( C5 )] / n
where
a
n
where
P(i)
P(i)
adjP(i)
where
hsi
hadj
hbase
For each DOC case i, the base followup time hbase is taken from a lookup table which is based
on the particular DOC case (1 5) and geometry group (table 84).
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Number of lanes
Subject
approach
Opposing
approach
Conflicting
approach
Intersection type
Geometry group
4 leg or T
4 leg or T
4 leg or T
3a / 4a
3b
4 leg
4b
12
12
4 leg or T
1*
1*
4 leg or T
4 leg or T
Note: * If subject is 3 lanes and either opposing or conflicting approach is 1 lane then
geometry group 5, else geometry group 6.
The model is generalized for 3+ lanes in order to apply it to 4+ leg intersections. The extension
is that these 4+ leg cases are geometry group 6.
The table 85 shows the saturation followup time base values.
Geometry group
DOC case
Number of
vehicles (Sum of
the [0,1] for the
case)
1
2
>=3
1
2
>=3
2
3
4
>=5
3
4
5
>=6
3.9
4.7
5.8
7.0
9.6
3.9
4.7
5.8
7.0
9.6
3a
4.0
4.8
5.9
7.1
9.7
3b
4.3
5.1
6.2
7.4
10.0
4a
4.0
4.8
5.9
7.1
9.7
4b
4.5
5.3
6.4
7.6
10.2
4.5
5.0
6.2
6.4
7.2
7.6
7.8
9.0
9.7
9.7
10.0
11.5
4.5
6.0
6.8
7.4
6.6
7.3
7.8
8.1
8.7
9.6
12.3
10.0
11.1
11.4
13.3
The DOC case is dependent on the 64 types of a 4 leg intersection. Nodes with more than 4
legs are first collapsed to four legs.
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i I P' ( i ) hsi
where
hd
hsi
P(i)
I
These five steps are repeated until the departure followup time values converge (change is <
0.1). Now, the calculated departure followup time hd differs from the original value. Thus, the
next iteration will return a different result.
Now that the departure followup time for each lane is calculated, service time and capacity can
be calculated. The service time is calculated as follows:
t = hd  m
where
t
hd
Service time
move up time (2.0 s for geometry groups 14 and 2.3 s for groups 56)
The capacity is calculated as follows: the volume of the subject lane is incremented until its
degree of utilization (vjhd)/ 3,600 is 1.0. The volume of the other approaches is held constant.
At this point, the subject lanes volume value is taken to be the subject lanes capacity.
Capacity is therefore dependent on the input volumes for each approach.
The search for capacity is slow in a linear implementation. Thus a binary search is performed
with an upper bound of 1,800 vphpl.
Mean delay per lane is calculated from the equation below. The weighted mean delay for an
approach is calculated based on lane volume weights. Intersection average delay is calculated
based on the weighted mean by approach volumes. The equations are the same as the ones
for signalized intersections.
hd x
2
d x = t + 900 T x 1 + ( x 1 ) + +5
450 T
where
266
dx
t
T
x
Service time
hd
Vh
3600
d
Utility rate 
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Mean delay/vehicle
0 10 s
10 15 s
15 25 s
25 35 s
35 50 s
50 + s
Table 86: Determining the LOS based on the mean delay per vehicle
The proposed extension for 4+ legs is to combine multiple lefts or rights into one left or right by
adding the number of lanes together when calculating conflicting flows. For example, when
there are two conflicting lefts for a subject approach, one with one lane and one with two lanes,
they are merged into one conflicting left with three lanes. This allows the existing framework to
be used. It probably slightly understates the delay, but it will work within the existing framework
and will result in additional delay for additional legs.
5.5.3.5
For this analysis method, please refer to HCM 2010, chapters 21 and 33. It is similar to the one
for twoway stop nodes and mainly differs from it in the following points:
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In p u ts
V ol um es
Vo lu m e
In co m i ng l eg s
C on flic ting v ol um e s
T im e g a p s
C ri ti c al g aps
F ol l ow up t im es
C ap a city
W a itin g tim e
Q u eu e l en g th
If you use the HCM 2010 operations model for roundabout nodes, the Visum attributes in
table 87 will have an effect. Make sure that they are set to realistic values prior to running the
analysis.
Network objects
Attribute
Description / Effect
Geometry
All
Node
ICAPHFVolAdj
Turn
ICAPHFVolAdj
Leg
Leg
Leg
Channelized turn
length
Leg
Leg
Length of splitter
island
Leg
Leg
Table 87: Input attributes for roundabout nodes according to HCM 2010
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Network objects
Attribute
Description / Effect
Leg
Share of bypass
volume
Lane
Lane
Lane
Lane
ICA Use preset follow Optionally, you can overwrite the followup time, used in step
up time
5 The analogous value of the turn is not used.
Activate this option, to use the followup time set.
Table 87: Input attributes for roundabout nodes according to HCM 2010
Output is available through the same attributes as for signalized nodes (table 72).
The calculation method according to HCM 2010 consists of twelve consecutive steps. Here,
the description is reduced to the most important steps.
Step 2: Calculating traffic flows for each lane and conflicting volumes for each
approach
All calculations are based on the traffic flows and conflicting volumes at each approach. These
flows are derived from the turn volumes (in illustration 65 for a roundabout with four
approaches designated with v1 to v12).
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For the distribution of the volumes to the lanes please refer to HCM 2010, pages 2114 and 2115.
Example
The flow from the south is the sum of turn volumes v7 + v8 + v9. The conflicting flow which
applies to this flow is however the sum v1 + v2 + v10. This approach can be applied to
roundabouts with a countless number of approaches. Uturns can also be considered in the
same way, if you want to integrate them in the ICA calculation.
If an approach has more than one lane, the total inflow is distributed on lanes.
1. If only one lane is permitted for left turns, its volume is the sum of all volumes of left turns.
2. If only one lane is permitted for right turns, its volume is the sum of all volumes of right turns.
3. The remaining volume is distributed to all lanes in such way, that they all have the same
volume if possible.
Step 3: Capacity
The capacity of an approach depends on various factors: the number of lanes per approach
and the number of lanes in the roundabout and whether a lane is a bypass lane. For each of
the cases, predefined formulas can be used (HCM 2010, equations 211 to 217). This is the
basic formula:
c = 1130 e
Bv
Here B equals 0.001 for onelane and twolane entry roads to singlelane roundabouts. For
singlelane approaches to twolane roundabouts B equals 0.0007. Twolane approaches to
twolane roundabouts use the following values for B: 0.00075 for the innermost (let) lane, and
0.0007 for the right lane. For bypass lanes, with one conflicting exit lane, B is assumed to be
0.001. 0.0007 is used if there are two conflicting exit lanes.
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Users with detailed knowledge of critical gaps and followup times can replace these formulas.
For the control type 'roundabout', critical gap and followup time are set by lane. Turnrelated
values of this attribute are not regarded. For the extended computation, the capacity is derived
from the following data (HCM 2010, page 333):
Bv
c = Ae
A = 3600
gap f
gap
gap c f
2B = 3600
where
c
v
gapc
capacity in PCU/h
gapf
followup time in s
Visum uses the following standard values: 4 s for the critical gap and 3 s for the followup time.
You can optionally overwrite both values by lane.
Pedestrians have a bearing on the capacity. For a detailed description, please refer to HCM
2010, pages 2116 and 2117.
To the turns, the approach capacity is distributed in proportion to the volume. The result is
stored in the turn attribute ICA final capacity.
d
c
v
T
The mean delay of a turn is the volume weighted mean of the mean delay of lanes used. The
result is saved in the turn attribute tCur.
Note: For turns with lane turns without allocated signal group, tCur is set to zero.
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Q 95
3600 v
2 c 3600
v
v
c
where
Q95
c
v
T
The attribute ICABackOfQueueForDefPerc is the maximum of the Q95 percentiles for the
lanes used.
0  10
>10  15
>15  25
>25  35
>35  50
>50
The HCM does not determine the calculation of the LOS per approach, turn or node. In these
cases Visum calculates the LOS on the basis of the volume weighted mean delay. If the
volume exceeds the capacity, the LOS is automatically set to F.
5.5.3.6
This analysis method regards approach capacity as a function of geometry and the conflicting
volume in roundabouts. On the basis of numerous observations, this function was calibrated to
British roundabouts.
The illustration 66 shows the calculation process for roundabouts according to the TRL/Kimber
method.
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Inputs
Geometry
Volumes
Volume
Incoming legs
Conflicting volumes
Capacity
Waiting time
Queue length
Illustration 66: Calculation process for roundabouts according to the TRL/Kimber method
In Visum, the geometry of the roundabout is described through leg attributes. These attributes
are only important, if the node is a roundabout and if TRL/Kimber is selected as analysis
method. In all other cases, the parameters are ignored at ICA calculation. The meaning of the
parameter is illustrated in illustration 67, which has been taken from the DMRB guideline TD
16/93. For a better comparison with this guideline, the common English original attributes and
abbreviations are specified in the tabular overviews. Another parameter describes the
temporal variability of the inflow.
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Illustration 67: Description of the node geometry for the TRL/Kimber model
The table 89 shows the additional input attributes at legs for calculation according to TRL/
Kimber.
Name
DMRB definition
Value
type
Value range
(Default value)
Meaning
ICAInscribedLength
CircleDiameter (D)
10  200 m (40
m)
ICAEntryWidth (e)
Length
3  20 m (7 m)
ICAApproachHalfWidth (v)
Length
2  15 m (3.5
m)
ICAFlareLength
(L)
Length
1  100 m (20
m)
Table 89: Input attributes for calculation according to the TRL/Kimber method
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Name
DMRB definition
Value
type
Value range
(Default value)
Meaning
ICAEntryAngle () Integer
0..180 (45)
ICAGradeSeparation (SEP)
Length
Double
0 .. 10 (1.0)
See illustration 67
Table 89: Input attributes for calculation according to the TRL/Kimber method
These attributes are only important, if the ToNode of the link has the controller type
roundabout, i.e. the link represents an approach to a roundabout. In all other cases the
attributes are ignored.
The output attributes correspond to those for signalized intersections (table 72).
if F > f q c
else
where
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Cap
qc
k
F
f
303 x
0.21 t (1 + 0.2 x)
275
t
M
1 + 5 / (1 + M)
x
S
v + (e  v) / (1 + 2 S)
e(D  60)/10
1.6 (e  v) / L
The remaining variable descriptions refer to the attributes of the geometry description.
Different from the above mentioned, the following applies for roundabouts with RDistanceExit
> 0:
Cap =1.004F  0.036SEP  0.232 qc + 14.35  f qc(2.14  0.023 qc)
( 1 ) ( T ) + ( 1 L 0 )T 2 ( 1 C ) ( L 0 + T )
A = T + 1 C
4 ( L 0 + T ) ( T ( 1 C ) ( L 0 + T ) )
B = T + 1 C
1
2
L =  ( A + B A )
2
where
L
T
L0
C
v
= v / = Saturation
Visum uses the formula modified in (Kimber, Hollis 79) for increased accuracy.
The mean queue length of each turn is equal to the mean queue length of its approach and is
stored in the turn attribute ICAQueueLength.
Step 4: Delays
The mean controlbased wait time per approach results from the Kimber and Hollis formula
(Kimber, Hollis 1979), (Kimber, Daly 1986).
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T
1
J =  ( 1 )  ( L 0 C + 2 )
2
L0 + 1
4 T
1
K =   ( 1 ) +  TC  ( 1 C )
2
1
2
d =  ( J + K J )
2
where
d
T
L0
C
v
= v / = Saturation
The mean permitted delay of a turn is equal to the mean permitted delay of its approach and is
saved in the turn attribute tCur.
Visum evaluates, like in Step 3, the increased accuracy modified formula by Kimber and Hollis.
0  10
>10  15
>15  25
>25  35
>35  50
>50
Table 90: LOS for calculation according to Kimber based on the mean delay
Visum calculates the LOS of the entire node accordingly, on the basis of the volume weighted
mean delay of all approaches.
5.5.4
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277
Furthermore, with signal coordination you can optimize the time intervals between more than
one light signal control in the network (see "Signal coordination (Signal offset optimization)" on
page 281).
Note: Optimization regards only those nodes (main nodes), whose effective control type =
signalized. Optimization does not regard those nodes (main nodes) whose SC has been
turned off or to which no SC has been allocated.
5.5.4.1
The following attributes of network objects are relevant for the cycle and green time
optimization:
Network object type
Attribute
Description
SC
Reference to signal
coordination groups
Signal coordination
group
SC
SC
Optimization method
SC
Turned off
Turn
Turn volumes
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Description
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Description
Precision of
computation
5.5.4.2
Seconds or tenths of a Via this parameter you can decide whether seconds or
second
tenths of a second are permitted as green time start and
end.
The predefined cycle time applies as predefined for pure green time optimization.
(v s )ci
Gte
(v s )ci
i
where
Gi
(v/s)ci
ratio of volume v and saturation flow rate s for critical lane group ci in stage i
Gte
The total effective green time for a cycle is the same as the cycle time deducting all intergreens
between consecutive stages. The intergreen between two stages is zero, if the stages share
signal groups. Otherwise, intergreen is given by the attribute Default intergreen of the signal
control.
Each stage must also maintain the minimum green time, which is given by the Minimum green
time attribute of the signal control. If the calculated green time for a stage is less than the
minimum green time, then the green time split equation is rerun with the stage below its
minimum green time omitted. The omitted stage is assigned the minimum green time. That
minimum green is subtracted from the total effective green time and the green time split is
recalculated.
As a result of optimization, new values are assigned to the attributes Green time start and
Green time end of the stages.
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Max z
P, G( l ) P sl tP z ql l L
min
tP tP
tP C
P
P
where
L
cycle time
sl
ql
tP
min
tP
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The first secondary condition expresses that the share z of the volume per lane group
depends on the green times of the stages provided for this group. The share z is
maximized.
3. With the optimized signal timing plan, execute another ICA calculation.
4. If the total mean wait time has not improved, cancel the calculation and continue with step
5. If the saturation flow rates have changed, continue with step 2. Otherwise, continue with
step 5.
5. To the stages' attributes Green time start and Green time end, allocate the values
obtained from the recent optimum solution.
5.5.4.3
If you select the Signal cycle and split optimization for a node, Visum calculates an optimal
cycle time for the signal control at the node and at the same time an optimal green time split for
this cycle time. If several (main) nodes belong to a signal control, then automatically all (main)
nodes of this signal control will be optimized.
The calculation includes the following steps:
1. Determine the set T of permitted cycle times at the SC. If the procedure parameter Use
cycle times of coordination groups is active and if the SC belongs to a coordination
group, then only cycle times of the coordination group's cycle time family are permitted.
Otherwise, any cycle time (integer [in seconds]) from the interval between the SC attributes
ICA minimum cycle time for optimization and ICA maximum cycle time for
optimization is permitted
2. To each permissible cycle time t from T the following applies:
Specify optimal green times g*(t) for predefined cycle time t.
Use ICA to calculate the total wait time at the node for g*(t).
3. As an optimal cycle time t* select the t with minimum total wait time. In addition, set the
optimal green time split g*(t*).
The ICA calculation of the total wait time at the node only provides valid values, if the sum of
critical v/s ratios is smaller than or equal to 1. To greater sums always t* = max(T) applies. If
the sum of the minimum green time and intergreens for all stages or signal groups are larger
than the calculated t*, t* is set to the smallest t of T which is larger or equal to this sum. If no
such t exists, t* is set to the sum independently of T.
5.5.4.4
Signal cycle and split optimization always refers to individual signal controls. Signal offset
optimization, however, is used to optimize the offset between the signal times of neighboring
nodes in such a way, that vehicles can pass several consecutive signal controls on green. The
general aim is to minimize the total wait time for all vehicles at the signal control.
Notes: The method does not regard the attributes of the node geometry. Especially the stop
line position per lane is not taken into consideration.
Signal coordination dos not include signalized nodes or main nodes to which no SC has been
allocated or whose SC has been turned off.
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Example
We will demonstrate the task with the example network displayed in illustration 68.
In the network in illustration 68 the six inner nodes have signal controls and the outer nodes are
only there to connect the four zones. Link and turn volumes result from an assignment. Lane
allocation is usually selected, so that at each approach of a node, a shared lane exists for the
straight and right turns and a 100 m long pocket for left turns additionally. Additional lanes are
only located at individual approaches with an especially large traffic volume. All SC have the
same signal times (illustration 69).
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Illustration 69: Green time split at all nodes with succeeding left turns
With a cycle time of 80 s, straight and right turns each have a green time of 30 s. Signal groups
for left turns have 5 s more and are protected within this time.
Signal times and lane allocation are selected in such a way that the resulting capacity is
sufficient for all turns. Wait times can occur if neighboring SCs are badly coordinated. For this
example we first assume an offset time of 0 s for all SC. The assignment result illustrated by
link bars results as overlapping of seven paths and one of these is highlighted in the
illustration 70.
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283
Illustration 70: A path through the example network passes SCs at nodes 7003, 8003, 8002 and 9002
This route passes the signalized nodes 7,003, 8,003, and 9,002. Vehicles exiting node 7,003
in direction 8,003 form a group that starts at the beginning of the green time, i.e. at second 0.
Travel time tCur, on the link between 7,003 and 8,003, is 38 s. Without accounting for dispersal
of the group, the first vehicles reach node 8,003 at second 38. The distribution of the actually
driven speed by vehicles leads to a resolution of the original compact platoon (illustration 71).
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On the left, the diagram shows the arrival rate by cycle second. The first vehicles arrive at
second 30. The arrival rate then steeply increases and decreases as of second 52. The signal
group to continue the journey also has a green time between second 0 and 30. The major part
of the platoon therefore reaches the node at red. The second diagram shows the
corresponding development of the queue length and the third diagram the resulting wait time
in vehicle seconds dependant on the arrival second. The total wait time across all arrivals is
19,069 vehicle seconds, which corresponds to a mean value of 39.20 s per vehicle. This is an
example for bad coordination.
At node 8,002, the situation is much more favorable (illustration 72).
The vehicle group again starts driving at second 0. The travel time on link 8,003  8,002, with
tCur = 41 s, is similar to before. However, the continuing signal group 4 for left turns, at node
8, has a green time from second 40 to second 75. Most of the vehicle group arrives during
green time. The queues are distinctly shorter and the total wait time is only 1,608.80 vehicle
seconds (mean: 4.37 s per vehicle).
In this simple example, the aim of signal coordination would be to change the offset between
nodes 7,003 and 8,003, so that the entire vehicle group arrived at 8,003 during green time. At
the same time, however, you would want to maintain the favorable offset between 8,003 and
8,0002. Because a convenient coordination should be achieved not only for one but several
paths (in the example, seven) simultaneously, signal coordination usually minimizes the total
wait time of all SCs by changing the offset times.
Model
Signal coordination in Visum can be used for optimizing SCs in a network, not only along a
linear corridor, as it corresponds with the traditional optimization of the progressive signal
system. This section describes how the optimization model is set up, which Visum solves by
using a standard procedure for mixed integer linear optimization. All attributes which describe
input and output of the procedure are summarized in the following section (see "Input attributes
with effect at signal coordination" on page 288).
Good coordination requires the SCs either have the same cycle times or that the cycle times
are at least in a simple ratio (for example 2:1). Furthermore, SCs have to be located close to
each other, otherwise the platoon will have broken up so heavily by the time it has reached the
next SC, that the arrivals will virtually be uniformly distributed and the wait time cannot be
influenced through the choice of the offset. It is therefore generally not sensible to coordinate
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all SCs in one network. You determine which SCs should be coordinated, by defining signal
coordination groups and assigning them SCs (see User Manual, Chpt. 2.40.14, page 633). By
default, SCs are not assigned to any signal coordination group and are not coordinated.
For each signal coordination group define the set of the cycle times which are permitted for the
corresponding SCs. Please make sure that the cycle times actually make coordination
possible. Two SCs with cycle times of 60 s and 65 s can generally not be coordinated because
the platoon in each cycle takes place at a different cycle second. Suitable cycle times therefore
have a small LCM (least common multiple), for example, the family { 60 s, 80 s, 120 s } with
LCM = 240 s. Signal coordination optimizes offset times for each signal coordination group
separately and takes those SCs into consideration with cycle times belonging to the permitted
cycle times of the group. SCs with deviating cycle times are ignored and logged in the message
file.
Important for coordination is the behavior of the vehicle platoon during the journey from one SC
to another. Visum determines platoons by analyzing the assignment results for one or more
selected PrT demand segments. From the saved paths of the assignment, Visum determines
how many vehicles on their way first pass signal group SG1 of the SC SC1 and then signal
group SG2 of the SC SC2. We call such a combination of two consecutive signal groups with
one volume a coordination path leg or shorter path leg.
A path leg is relevant for the coordination, if the following properties apply.
All conditions except for the first one are aimed at a platoon remaining along the path leg.
Optimization treats the traffic flows on all path legs interdependently. In each case it is
assumed that within a cycle all vehicles start as a platoon at the beginning of the green time.
This means, that beginning with the green time start, outgoing vehicles flow off with the
saturation flow rate qmax, until the volume per cycle has been exhausted. The following applies:
PCU
q max = 1900  N
h
Here, N is the effective number of lanes for the turn. If the green time duration is insufficient and
does not allow the volume allocated to a cycle from the assignment to exit with qmax, Visum
ignores the excess volume and logs this in the message file.
The platoon resolution, solely caused by different vehicle speeds, describes the platoon
development formula according to Robertson. This model discretely divides the time in
increments (in Visum of 1 s) and displays the number at time t, at which a vehicle arrives at
the end of a path leg as a function of the number at time t < t, at the beginning of the path leg
departing vehicle.
q' t + T = F q t + ( 1 F ) q' t + T 1
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where
qt
the number of vehicles arriving at the end of the path leg in time step t
qt
the number of vehicles departing at the beginning of the path leg in time step t
1
F = with specified constants and
1 + T
For calculating queue lengths it is presumed that separate lanes of sufficient length exist for
separate signal groups at an approach. Visum generally assumes "vertical" queues for signal
coordination and does therefore not consider spillback upstream over several links or have an
effect on the capacity of the turns of other signal groups.
For the evaluation of the progression quality, Visum calculates a number of skims which are
used throughout literature. In the subsequent formulas CT determines the cycle time, GT the
green time and qt the number of vehicles arriving at a node in time step t.
t CT qt avg
t CT qt
Platoon index =  with avg = CT
q
t
t CT
This size measures the "distance" of a volume profile of an equal distribution. The value varies
from 0 (equal distribution) to 2 (for a distinct platoon). A high value means that coordination is
worthwhile at this node, because the arriving vehicles are focused on part of the cycle time, so
that there is a chance of moving the green time there, by changing the offset time.
t GT qt
Vehicles at green = 100  .
qt
t CT
This size directly measures how well coordination works. It calculates which part of the volume
passes the node without stopping at the SC.
q
t GT t GT
 Platoon ratio =
CT
q
t CT t
The size also measures how well coordination works, whereas high values imply good
coordination. Especially high values are achieved when a large share of arrivals enter at green,
although the green ratio itself is smaller.
The platoon ratio PR is the basis for the important ArrivalType parameter in waiting time
calculations according to HCM.
1
2
3
ArrivalType =
4
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if
if
if
if
if
if
PV < 0.5
0.5 PV < 0.85
0.85 PV < 1.15
1.15 PV < 1.5
1.5 PV < 2.0
2.0 PV
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Queue length queuet at a signal group to cycle second t results from the difference of
cumulative inflows and exit flows. For this calculation, Visum also calculates the delays of
travel times with specified arrival time in the queues and hence, the mean and total wait time.
Attributes
Note
PrT paths
Volume
From assignment
A freely selectable
attribute
All
Signal coordination
groups
Name
Meaning
Double
0.0 .. 100.0
Double
0.0 .. 2.0
Double
0.0 ..
Integer
1 .. 6
Time
0 s ..
Double
0.0 ..
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Note: By the name component 'SC coord', the attribute SC coord arrival typeis indicated as
signal coordination output attribute. It is not identical to the ICA arrival type attribute, which
is used as entry for ICA calculation. If you want to calculate the ICA impedance with an arrival
type which corresponds with the given offset time intervals, first perform the Signal offset
analysis and then copy the SC coord arrival type values to the ICA arrival type attribute.
Procedure parameters
Alongside the network object attributes, the procedure parameters listed in table 93 control
signal coordination.
Name
Meaning
Automatic Analysis
Boole (True)
Set of assigned
PrT_DSeg (all assigned
PrT_DSeg)
MaxSaturation
MinPlatoonIndex
RobertsonAlpha
RobertsonBeta
TravelTimeLinkAttr
TravelTimeLinkFac
TravelTimeTurnAttr
TravelTimeTurnFac
TravelTimeMainTurnAttr
TravelTimeMainTurnFac
MaxCalculationTime
Time
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Problem solution
To determine an optimal set of offset times per SC, Visum sets up a mixed integer linear
optimization problem. The deciding variables in this problem are the differences of the offset
times of neighboring SCs, the objective function is an in sections linearized approximation of
the wait time in dependency thereof. Secondary conditions express that the differences
between the offset times of adjacent SCs along each circle in the network have to be added to
an integer multiple of the cycle time.
A detailed description of the method is found in Mhring, Nkel, Wnsch 2006.
5.6
PrT skims
With the Calculate PrT skim matrix procedure the PrT skims which are listed in table 94 can be
calculated (see User Manual, Chpt. 5.8, page 1061). The abbreviations in parentheses
indicate the file extensions which are used by default for skim matrix output in version files.
t0PrTSys (TT0)
tCurPrTSys (TTC)
Sum of AddValue
Toll (TOL)
ImpedancePrTSys (IMP)
AddValueTSys (ADS)
Userdefined (UDS)
Calculating skims is either done via the best path as regards to the set criterion or via
aggregation from the paths of an assignment result calculated beforehand. In this case you can
select one of the aggregation functions listed in table 95.
Minimum impedance
Maximum impedance
Skim value calculated as a mean over all paths weighted with the
corresponding path volume
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Moreover, the set of origindestination relations for skims can be calculated, and also restricted
like the type of network objects which are included in the skim calculation.
5.7
Free distribution
During route search, only the connector time is considered and traffic demand is distributed
without further constraints onto the routes with the lowest impedance.
60 %
Zone3
Zone1
Zone2
40 %
1
Illustration 73: Example network for proportional distribution of the traffic demand
Example: Connector capacity determination for proportional distribution of the total traffic
(illustration 73)
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5.8
The original volumes of links, connectors and (main) turns resulting from the assignment are
stored with the following attributes:
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The blocking back model is divided into two phases, the second phase is optional.
5.8.1
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You can calculate the blocking back model postprocessed following an assignment. It
therefore does not influence the route choice.
293
Alternatively, you can execute the blocking back model in the external iteration of an
assignment procedure. The results are then included in the link impedance and therefore
in the route choice. This modus operandi is not recommended, since it significantly
downgrades the convergence of the particular assignment procedure. To take the blocking
back impact on the route choice into consideration during the assignment, you should
rather use the procedure Assignment with ICA (see "Assignment with ICA" on page 354).
In either case it can be combined with the following assignment procedures: Incremental,
Equilibrium, Equilibrium_Lohse, TRIBUT and any stochastic procedure. However, it cannot be
combined with a dynamic assignment procedure.
If an assignment has already been calculated for at least one demand segment, which is not to
be recalculated, the blocking back model is calculated prior to the execution of the assignment
of the already assigned demand segments. This is to ensure that the values for tcur and tw are
consistent with the current network status and to avoid that assignments with a blocking back
model share and those without are combined.
If the blocking back model is calculated as an integrative part of other procedures, one has to
differentiate between iterative procedures (Incremental assignment, Equilibrium_Lohse and
Stochastic assignment) one the one hand and balancing procedures (Equilibrium assignment
and TRIBUT) on the other hand. During those procedures running stepbystep a corrected
volume will always be calculated after the volume determination and also the wait times will be
calculated by the blocking back model. Then, in the ith iteration, from the corrected volume a
new value tiCur will be calculated for the current travel time and the wait time tiw will be added.
i
t = t Cur + t w
As new value, the arithmetic mean Ti of all former ti is used, which is also considered in the
subsequent route search.
i
k = 0 t
k = 0 tCur + tw
k
T =  = i+1
i+1
For the calculation of the travel time tCurNew, using the corrected volume is necessary, since
the increase of the travel time above the capacity limit is no longer determined by volumedelay functions but modeled by explicitly calculated wait times.
If there is neither any congestion nor a decrease in the volume due to a flowrate loss, tCur
= tCurNew and tw = 0 apply in any case. The impedance is unchanged compared to a
conventional assignment in this case.
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If the blocking back model is integrated into an equilibrium assignment (not recommended), the
selected procedure is calculated first and the blocking back model is calculated subsequently
in an outer loop. Both methods are based on the fact that the volume of a link equals the total
volume of all routes traversing that link. For that reason a linkrelated modification of the
volume, as performed by the blocking back model would have no effect.
Instead, the result of the calculation of the blocking back model is used to modify the VD
functions of each link temporarily so that identical travel times result for unchanged network
volumes and for the changed network volumes with the original VD functions. These modified
VD functions can then be used for another iteration of an equilibrium assignment. If the network
volume has not changed, an equilibrium state has been reached which regards the modified
travel times tCur that result from the blocking back model. Otherwise a further iteration is carried
out, that includes blocking back model and assignment. As is the case with other methods, the
modified VD functions are averaged over several iteration steps in order to suppress the
alternation of the route choice between several alternatives.
The equilibrium state that is reached by this integrated calculation procedure is characterized
as follows: in due consideration of the changes to the travel times (and thus to the impedances)
which result from the volume calculated by means of the blocking back model, the travel time
(the impedance) is the same for each route of an OD pair.
Limiting capacity
According to rule 1, the traffic flow from link to link along a route is limited by the capacity of the
link and the capacity of the link's ToNode and the capacity of the turn during the blocking back
model calculation. In the blocking back model parameters you can select individually, whether
link and turn and node capacities are to be regarded. The settings have the following meaning:
Link capacity restricts the outflow per link. As threshold, either the link attribute Capacity
PrT can be used or the summed up Capacity PrT of the outgoing turns. The latter option
is only provided for compliance with outdated versions. It is no longer recommended. It is
recommended to use the option Turn capacity instead.
Node capacity restricts the flow per node (sum of all turn volumes) to the node attribute
Capacity PrT. These node capacities are only regarded for traffic flows on secondary links
(tmodelspecial = true) towards the node. Traffic flows on major legs therefore also have an
effect on crossing routes via secondary links.
Turn capacity restricts the flow per turn to the turn attribute Capacity PrT.
5.8.2
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Here, VolDem(L) is the link volume resulting from assignment, Cap(L) is the PrT capacity of the
link, and ScalingFactor is the scaling factor for capacities from the blocking back model
parameters. Furthermore, VolBasic volume(L) is a basic link volume. You can select it in the
general procedure settings via PrT settings > Assignment.
Analogously, excess congestion factors Turn(T) and Node(N) are defined for turns T and nodes
N. Since basic volumes can only be preset for turns and links in Visum, the sum of the basic
volumes of the turns at the node is used as basic volume for nodes. Now, the excess
congestion factor of the network is the maximum of the excess congestion factors of all links,
nodes, and turns whose capacities are to be taken into account. It indicates by which factor the
(remaining) capacity in the network is exceeded at most.
The percentage of traffic corresponding to the reciprocal of this number can pass through the
network without any congestion. If 1, the procedure is not carried out. In this case, the
corrected volumes (Vol) equal the volumes calculated in the assignment (VolDem), thus no
congestion occurs.
If the denominator in the formula for the excess congestion factor calculation falls below 0 or
becomes 0 for a link or node or turn, there is no more free capacity available and the procedure
terminates.
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VolDem
Volume demand: volumes from the assignment without consideration of withheld vehicles in
the blocking back model (i.e. if no blocking back model is calculated or no congestion occurs,
VolDem equals the volume Vol)
Vol
Cap
K
Q
P
Firstly, the network is loaded with that portion of demand which does not cause congestions
yet. Then, the remaining demand flows into the network stepbystep. At first, the greatest
natural number n is determined, that satisfies n/N 1/. The general is then as follows:
Initialize Vol for all links, turns, nodes and connectors by entering 0.
Initialize Q or all links and connectors by entering 0.
For all links L and connectors C, load Vol(L)*n/N or Vol(C)*n/N, respectively.
For j = n+1 to N
For each demand segment
For each route R of the demand segment
Load VolDem(R) / N to route R.
Loading a volume flow to a route R with the nth part of VolDem (flow) is performed as follows.
Let L0, L1, ..., Lk be the generalized links of a route, i.e. L0 is the origin connector, Lk is the
destination connector, and the real links are in between. Now, the traffic from the origin zone
flows via L0, L1, ..., Lk to the destination zone, at which the traffic flow is always limited by the
capacities of the links and turns and nodes and by congestions that might have formed.
Capacities bear limiting effects as described below. Let toNode(L) be the To node of a link L and
let Turn(Lj, Lj+1,T) be the turn from L to Lj+1 for the links L and T. Now, the flow from Lj to Lj+1
is limited by the capacity of Lj, and by the capacity of the To node of Lj, and by the capacity of
the turn from Lj to Lj+1.
Note: If you have decided that a particular capacity should not have an effect, then the
calculation assumes an infinite capacity. Connectors have an infinite capacity by definition.
The maximum volume maxFlow from Lj to Lj+1 then is
maxFlow(Lj, Lj+1) = min{Cap(Lj) ScalingFactor  VolBasic volume(Lj),
Cap(toNode(Lj)) ScalingFactor  VolBasic volume(toNode(Lj)),
Cap(Turn(Lj, Lj+1)) ScalingFactor  VolBasic volume(Turn(Lj, Lj+1))}
If the amount of inflowing traffic on a link of the route exceeds the amount, that can flow off to
the next link, then the portion of traffic that keeps flowing depends on the remaining free
capacity:
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Traffic that cannot flow into the next link is added to the queue length. If the queue on a link
exceeds the maximum stocking capacity K, then backups will arise on previous links of the
route. In that process, the backup has to be subtracted from the volume(s) of the previous
link(s) again (also nodes and turns are concerned), since this flow actually cannot have
reached the congested link being located ahead in the route course:
Function PropagateQueue(R):
propagatingQ = 0
For j = k1 to 1
If Q(Lj) > K(Lj)
propagatingQ := Q(Lj)  K(Lj)
Q(Lj) = K(Lj)
Q(Lj1) := Q(Lj1) + propagatingQ
Vol(Lj1) = Vol(Lj1)  propagatingQ
Vol(toNode(Lj1)) := Vol(toNode(Lj1))  propagatingQ
Vol(Turn(Lj1, Lj)) := Vol(Turn(Lj1, Lj))  propagatingQ
After phase 1, nodes require a special treatment for the following reason: Though there are no
turns at connectors, connector nodes are loaded in the process. To achieve the state, that the
node volume = sum of all turn volumes at connector nodes after phase 1, the node volume of
connector nodes is recalculated from the turn volumes after the procedure.
We use a simple example with two routes to illustrate the procedure. Route 1 leads from A to
D, route 2 from B to C. Both routes have a volume VolDem of 200 vehicles. The volume is
distributed to the routes in four iteration steps with 50 vehicles each. The number of iteration
steps is based on the procedure parameter Number of shares for flow distribution in phase
1. For reasons of simplification, only the link capacity is considered as limiting capacity in the
example. Route 1 is always charged first. There is a bottleneck on route 1. On route 2, a
backup arises though this route does not traverse the bottleneck link.
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Illustration 74: Blocking back model, phase 1: Formation of congestion Iteration steps 1 and 2.
In the first two iteration steps, each of the two routes is loaded with 50 vehicles. Queues do not
form yet (illustration 74).
Illustration 75: Blocking back model, phase 1: Formation of congestion Iteration step 3, route 1
Route 1: On the highlighted link, a bottleneck is located in iteration step 3. Due to the
insufficient stocking capacity of this link, the queue propagates to the preceding link
(illustration 75).
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Illustration 76: Blocking back model, phase 1: Formation of congestion Iteration step 3, route 2
Since there is now a congestion on the link in the middle, also the vehicles following route 2 get
stuck in the queue (illustration 76).
Illustration 77: Blocking back model, phase 1: Formation of congestion Iteration step 4, route 1
Another 50 vehicles are added to route 1 in iteration step 4. As the stocking capacity of the link
in the middle is fully exhausted, vehicles continue to propagate backwards (illustration 77).
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Illustration 78: Blocking back model, phase 1: Formation of congestion Iteration step 4, route 2
The 50 vehicles with route 2 cannot even reach the link in the middle; they all get stuck in the
congestion on the first link (illustration 78).
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Illustration 79: Blocking back model, phase 2, relief of congestion. Initial situation
The illustration 79 shows the initial situation prior to relief of congestion in phase 2. Only the
queue lengths from phase 1 are regarded, there is no further influx. For congestion relief, four
portions are used (M = 4).
Illustration 80: Blocking back model, phase 2, relief of congestion. Iterations step 1, route 1
On route 1, the maximum congestion efflux is limited by the link capacity Cap = 100. Thus, Cap
/ M = 25 vehicles can flow off in iteration step 1 (illustration 80).
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Illustration 81: Blocking back model, phase 2, relief of congestion. Iteration step 1, route 2
On route 2, the maximum congestion efflux is limited by the capacity of the link in the middle.
Since two routes traverse the link in the middle, only a certain portion of the capacity is
available for route 2 for this iteration, (Cap / M = 100); this portion is (Cap / M) (VolDem(Route
2) / VolDem(link in the middle)) = 100 (200 / 400) = 50 (illustration 81).
Illustration 82: Blocking back model, phase 2, relief of congestion. Iteration step 2, route 1
During iteration step 2, again 25 vehicles flow off via route 1 (illustration 82).
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Illustration 83: Blocking back model, phase 2, relief of congestion. Iteration step 2, route 2
Illustration 84: Blocking back model, phase 2, relief of congestion. Iteration step 3, route 1
During iteration step 3 only some (12.5) vehicles flow off via route 1 which are part of the
remaining queue on the link in the middle (like in iteration 1 for route 2). The link on the right,
however, is traversed by only one route; that is why the total capacity is provided for the flow
off of the congestion for this iteration (Cap / M = 25) (illustration 84).
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Illustration 85: Blocking back model, phase 2, relief of congestion. Iteration step 3, route 2
On the link in the middle, the remaining congestion can flow off via route 2 (illustration 85).
The congestion efflux in phase 2 thus works in a similar way as the formation of the congestion
in phase 1, save that the traffic does not enter the network via the connectors, as usual, but
exists at the links with congestion in the network. In each iteration, we let flow off a portion of
the traffic which is restricted by the capacities of the links and nodes and turns; thus, new
queue lengths will be obtained. This is repeated until either the maximum number of iterations
set for phase 2 is reached (userdefined parameter for the blocking back model) or until the
congestion is no longer available. More accurately, the procedure is described as follows.
Initialize prevQ with queue lengths on links and connectors after phase 1
For j = 1 until (max. number of iterations in Phase 2) or until any prevQ = 0
For each demand segment
For each route R of the demand segment
Calculate the congestion flow off for R according to M and the
capacities
and thus obtain currQ
Calculate wait time
prevQ:= currQ
In detail, the relief of congestion goes like this: In each iteration step, the Mth portion of the
capacity of links, nodes and turns is available. Thus, the maximum traffic that can flow off of
link L due to the link's capacity, is Cap(L) / M per iteration. To each route R, that traverses link
L, a certain share in the capacity is provided; this share equals the route's share in the original
total link volume, i.e. VolDem(R) / VolDem(L). For a link L that belongs to a route R, the
maximum outflow of a congestion results from the following formula:
maxOutflow(L) = (Cap(L) / M) (VolDem(R) / VolDem(L))
Furthermore, the outflow is restricted by the capacity of the ToNode and by the turn capacity.
Let L0, L1, ..., Lk again be the generalized terms for links of a route, i.e. L0 is the origin
connector, Lk is the destination connector, and the real links are in between. Thus, the
maximum outflow from Lj to Lj+1 results as follows:
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The traffic flow that actually flows out comes from the existing queues. For each route R, the
traffic originating from the queue on link Lj is as follows:
sourceVolQ(Lj) = prevQ(Lj) (VolDem(R) / VolDem(Lj))
The origin traffic of a link (limited by the maximum outflow maxOutflow) flows to the next link.
This traffic is then added to the origin traffic on the next link. If maxOutflow is smaller than the
origin traffic, queues will form again. The following therefore applies:
Function QueueOutflow(R, M):
arrivedFlow = 0
For j = 0 to k1
totalSourceVol := sourceVolQ(Sj) + arrivedFlow
propagatingFlow:= min(totalSourceVol, maxOutflow(Lj, Lj+1))
currQ(Lj) := currQ(Lj)  propagatingFlow
arrivedFlow := propagatingFlow
Propagate queue backwards
Please note that the results of the blocking back model may depend on the order of routes that
are processed. However, the more shares you choose for the distribution of the traffic flow, the
smaller the possible differences will be. If the blocking back model is applied to the same
network for example, on the one hand with an equilibrium assignment and with LUCE on the
other hand, then the results might differ slightly even if all routes are identical.
This is due to the fact, that  in contrast to other assignment procedures  LUCE does not
directly provide routes, but bushes in the first instance, which represent multiple routes at the
same time. In conjunction with LUCE, the blocking back model calculations are performed
directly on the bush level. Since the bushes can include various fromlinks and tolinks for each
link, the traffic flows need to be distributed appropriately. This is performed in a way as if
several routes were processed simultaneously. From this, slightly deviating results may be the
outcome.
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Illustration 86: Integral indicating the overall wait time over the interpolated measured queue lengths
with I being the duration of the first simulation interval in seconds. The sum extends over the
measured values with QL(0) indicating the queue length QL after the first simulation phase. If
the second phase is not calculated, the second term in the bracket is omitted and the wait time
results in the duration of the simulation interval for phase 1 and the queue length at the end of
the first phase.
0
if Q ( L ) = 0
=
WL
else
 effectivecapacity
On inks with traffic jams, the effective capacity results from the minimum of link capacity
attribute Cap and reduced volume Vol, created through spillback congestion.
5.9
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Minimum impedance value calculated hypothetically for the next iteration step on the
assumption that all vehicles based on the current impedances in the network use the
best path.
TEC =
ij r P
min
[ Rr R ij ] q r
ij
where
TEC
Difference between total impedance in the charged network and the hypothetical
impedance resulting if all vehicles took the shortest path per OD pair.
Pij
Rijmin
5.10
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1. Impedance Ria is converted to the utility Uia of route i in the time interval a:
Uia = f(Ria)
2. From this utility Uia the percentage of demand Pia is calculated (where n is the total number
of routes).
a
a
P i :=
Ui
n
j = 1 Uj
The models reveal differences in the functional relation f of impedance and utility.
5.10.1
Ui = Ri
a
P i :=
Ri

a
Rj
j
The sum of all routes j is taken and is used as a parameter for modeling the impedance
sensitivity. In this distribution method, the ratios of the various impedances are decisive. It
does not matter, therefore, whether two routes have impedances of 5 and 10 minutes, for
example, or 50 and 100 minutes the distribution is the same. The illustration 87 shows the
parameterization of the Kirchhoff distribution model on the interface.
5.10.2
Ui = e
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Ri
309
a
P i :=
Ri
e
a
j e
Rj
5.10.3
()
x 1
(x)
log ( x )
if 0
if = 0
When calculating the utility, b()(Ria) is now included in the Logit model instead of Ria, thus
a
Ui = e
()
( Ri )
results.
The percentage Pia of the route i in terms of the demand for time interval a is then calculated
as follows:
a
P i :=
()
( Ri )
e
a
()
j e
( Rj )
The importance of the BoxCox model is illustrated by the two special cases below.
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With these parameter settings, b(0)(Ria) = log(Ria) applies, thus the following applies to the
choice:
a
a
Pi
log ( R )
i
Ri
e
 = = a
log ( R j )
a
Rj
e
a
Pi
( Ri 1 )
i
e
e
 = = a
a
( Rj 1 )
Rj
e
e
5.10.4
 1
R amin
e
a
P i := applies.
2
a
j e
Rj
 1
R amin
Here, Rmina := minjRja is the smallest occurring impedance, and is again a parameter to
control the impedance sensitivity. When calibrating, do not forget that is squared.
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In this case, the impedance of a route is related to the minimum impedance, which therefore
measures the relative difference from the optimum. Due to this different approach, the Lohse
model can be used as an alternative to Kirchhoff and Logit. It should be noted, that the Lohse
distribution formula cannot be regarded as a special form of BoxCox transformation. The
illustration 90 shows the parameterization of the Lohse distribution model on the interface.
5.10.5
Ui = e
R ai
 1
R amin
 1
R amin
e
a
P i := 2
a
j e
Rj
 1
R amin
= a
1+e
( R min )
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The following example illustrates the effect of the distribution model Lohse with variable beta.
The illustration 91 compares different best paths (10 min, 50 min, 150 min, 300 min) with
"detour" alternatives. The distribution to the routes is done on the basis of the sumptuary ratio
and the absolute value of the best path.
For shorter best paths and their alternatives lower detour sensitivity is assumed than for longer
best paths.
Illustration 91: Distribution with variable beta according to the modified Kirchhoff rule
(please refer to Schnabel / Lohse)
10
0.800
Rmina
0.010
10 min
3.32
10
0.800
0.010
50 min
4.26
10
0.800
0.010
150 min
6.68
10
0.800
0.010
300 min
9.00
Table 96: Parameters for the distribution with variable beta in illustration 91
The illustration 92 shows the parameterization of the Lohse distribution model with variable
beta on the interface.
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Illustration 92: Parameterization of the Lohse distribution model with variable Beta
5.10.6
Example 1
Alternative 1 has an impedance of 5, alternative 2 an impedance of 10. Thus alternative 2
has a 5unit higher impedance or a double impedance compared to alternative 1.
Example 2
The impedance of example 1 is increased by 100 units, so that alternative 1 now has an
impedance of 105 and alternative 2 an impedance of 110. This means that alternative 2
thus has a 5unit higher impedance, as in example 1; however, the impedance ratio is now
0.95 rather than 0.5.
Example 3
The impedance of example 1 is doubled, so that alternative 1 now has an impedance of 50
and alternative 2 an impedance of 100. This now means that alternative 2 has a 50unit
higher impedance; the impedance ratio is 0.5 as in example 1.
The distribution results demonstrate that in the Logit model the difference of impedances is
decisive, so that examples 1 and 2 result in the same distribution values. The Kirchhoff model,
on the other hand, evaluates the ratio of the impedances and thus generates the same
distribution values for examples 1 and 3. The BoxCox model allows a combination of Logit
and Kirchhoff, which is also illustrated by the distribution values.
It would seem that the Logit model cannot be recommended for practical use, because the
basis for a passengers choice is different for short and long connections. In practice, it will
certainly make a difference whether a passenger has to travel 5 and 10 minutes (table 97), or
105 and 110 minutes (table 98). In the case of long journeys, the additional 5 minutes are not
as important as in case of short trips. The weaknesses of the Kirchhoff model in the example
in table 99, where one can expect all passengers to chose alternative 1, are not relevant for the
assignment, because connections that differ to such an extent would not be found in the search
at all and would therefore not be real alternatives for the roaduser.
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No.
Kirchhoff
Logit
BoxCox
Lohse
94 %
78 %
86 %
100 %
10
6%
22 %
14 %
0%
Kirchhoff
Logit
BoxCox
Lohse
105
55 %
78 %
62 %
51 %
110
45 %
22 %
38 %
49 %
Table 98: Distribution for two alternatives with impedance 105 and 110
No.
Kirchhoff
Logit
BoxCox
Lohse
50
94 %
100 %
100 %
100 %
100
6%
0%
0%
0%
Table 99: Distribution for two alternatives with impedance 50 and 100
Kirchhoff
=4
Logit
= 0.25
BoxCox
= 1, = 0.5
Lohse
=4
5.11
Incremental assignment
The incremental assignment procedure models how a network continuously fills up. At the
beginning, road users can use a free network for which exactly one shortest route exists for
every origin/destination relation. The traffic network is then successively loaded. Every step
congests the road network with additional vehicles and, in this way, increases impedance on
the congested links, turns and connectors. Because of the changed impedance, alternative
shortest routes may be found in every step.
The matrix is incrementally assigned to the network in the form of several parts. In this process,
the entire demand is proportionally distributed over the number of iteration steps defined by the
user (maximum 12). The default is an incremental assignment with three iteration steps (33 %,
33 % and 34 %).
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The first step determines lowest impedance routes for all required ODrelations of the
current network for either a free network or based on a basic volume.
The defined percentage of the first incremental step of the matrix is then assigned to these
routes.
Subsequently, the new network impedances resulting from these volumes are calculated
via the VD functions.
On this basis, the next iteration step again calculates lowest impedance routes.
315
This procedure is continued until the entire matrix has been assigned to the network.
If 100% is entered for the first iteration step, Visum calculates the impedances of the current
network and carries out a socalled bestroute assignment.
5.11.1
Iteration step 1
The shortest route, in the unloaded network, is route 2 with an impedance of 18:00 min. It
is loaded with 50 % of the car trips, i.e. 1,000 car trips.
Iteration step 2
The shortest route in the unloaded network is route 1 with an impedance of 20:50 min. It is
loaded with 25 % of car trips, that is, with 500 car trips.
Iteration step 3
After the second iteration step, route 1 remains the shortest route with an impedance of
29:50 min. It is again loaded with 25 % of the car trips, i.e. with another 500 car trips. It now
has a total of 1,000 car trips.
After the third iteration step, route 3 turns out to have the lowest impedance.
This route, however, is no longer found because all trips have been assigned.
In the example above, the impedance of a route results from the sum of the link impedances of
the route. Additional impedances for connectors and turns are not considered. In addition to
this, it is assumed that impedance results from current travel time tCur, and that current travel
time in turn results from the BPR function with a=1, b=2 and c=1.
LinkNo
316
Type
Length [m]
v0 [km/h]
Capacity
t0 [min]
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
30
16,000
80
800
12:00
30
5,000
80
800
03:45
10
40
10,000
60
500
10:00
11
40
5,000
60
500
05:00
PTV AG
Route
Length [m]
t0 [min]
1+8+9
26,000
18:45
1+2+3+5+6+7
30,000
18:00
10+11+5+6+7
30,000
24:00
LinkNo
Volume
tCur
Step 1 (50%)
Volume
tCur
Step 2 (25%)
Volume
tCur
Step 3 (25%)
1,000
05:05
1,500
07:41
2,000
11:20
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
1,000
05:05
12:00
500
16:41
1,000
30:45
03:45
500
05:13
1,000
09:37
10
10:00
10.00
10.00
11
05:00
05:00
5:00 AM
Route
Volume
tCur
Step 1 (50%)
Volume
tCur
Step 2 (25%)
Volume
tCur
Step 3 (25%)
20:50
500
29:35
1,000
51:42
1,000
30:30
1,000
33:06
1,000
36:45
30:15
30:15
30:15
Table 101: Example of the incremental assignment (BPR function a=1, b=2, R=tCur)
5.11.2
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317
Input
Demand matrix F
Number of iteration steps N
Demand proportion Pn for each iteration step n = 1, N
n=0
Volume q 0 = 0 or basic volume
Impedance
determination
Route search
Volume
n = n +1
no
Query
n= N ?
yes
End
5.11.3
318
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PTV AG
x1
(X)
(*)
Apart from the parameters which are directly set in the assignment procedure
319
5.11.4
5.12
The number and the size of layers (partial matrices) mainly decide on the goodness of the
results. However, there is no procedure to specify optimal layers.
The calculation ends after the specified number of steps has been executed without
checking correspondence between the resulting traffic volume and link impedances.
Equilibrium assignment
The Equilibrium assignment distributes the demand according to Wardrop's first principle.
"Every road user selects his route in such a way, that the impedance on all alternative routes
is the same, and that switching to a different route would increase personal travel time (user
optimum)."
This behavioral hypothesis underlies the unrealistic assumption that every road user is fully
informed about the network state. In transport planning this hypothesis is approved of given a
fundamental methodical advantage of the equilibrium assignment  with quite general
320
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requirements, the existence and uniqueness of the assignment result (expressed in volumes
of the network object) is guaranteed. Moreover, measures for the distance of an approximation
solution from the equilibrium exist, from which an objective termination criterion can be derived
for the procedure, which generally is an iterative problem solution.
The equilibrium assignment determines a user optimum which differs from a system optimum,
as shown in table 104 and table 105.
A user optimum means that the same impedance results for all routes of a traffic relation
between zones i and j (within the scope of calculation accuracy). This results directly from
the condition, that changing to another route is not profitable for any road user (table 104).
A system optimum however means that the total impedance in the network, which is the
product of route impedance and route volume is minimized for all OD pairs. On average,
this procedure leads to shorter journey times per road user, but there are (few) road users
which use routes to serve the general public, with an impedance above average
(table 105).
Route
Links
Volume
tCur [min]
Volume tCur
1+8+9
736
38:19
470:05:53
1+2+3+5+6+7
995
38:21
636:01:21
10+11+5+6+7
269
38:20
171:50:02
Total
2,000
1277:57:17
Table 104: Calculation of the user optimum for the example network
Route
Links
Volume
tCur [min]
Volume tCur
1+8+9
734
37:43
461:46:27
1+2+3+5+6+7
919
37:13
569:58:45
10+11+5+6+7
347
41:13
238:11:24
Total
2,000
1269:56:36
Table 105: Calculation of the system optimum for the example network
5.12.1
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Because the procedure only terminates when all routes of any OD pair are in the balanced
state, the procedure provides more realistic results than the incremental procedure.
For a lower volume/capacity ratio, a similar result is achieved as with bestroute
assignment, because the route search does not find new routes. In this case it is
recommended to use an incremental assignment with suitable parameters as initial solution
or the Equilibrium_Lohse procedure.
The computation time required by the equilibrium assignment depends on the volume/
capacity ratio in the network. Because new routes are found in every iteration step for a
strongly saturated network, more computation time is required in this case.
Compared to stochastic assignment procedures (see "Stochastic assignment" on page 365
and "Dynamic stochastic assignment" on page 419) the equilibrium assignment provides
distinct network volumes. Compared to the number of calculated iterations, the gap is a
more objective termination criterion.
321
5.12.2
The impedance of the links is determined from the current travel time tCur. The current
travel time tCur is in turn calculated using the capacity restraint function BPR with a=1, b=2
and c=1.
The access and egress times for the connectors are not considered, that is, they are set to
0 minutes.
Turn penalties are not considered.
The traffic demand between AVillage and XCity is 2,000 car trips during peak hour.
Capacity and demand refer to one hour.
The example network contains three routes which connect village A and city X.
Route 1 mainly uses country roads and is 26 km long. It is the shortest route. Route 2 is 30 km
long. It is the fastest route because the federal road can be traversed at a speed of 100 km/h
if there is free traffic flow.
Route 3 which is also 30 km long is an alternative route which only makes sense if the federal
road is congested.
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village A
1
10
10
11
12
11
41
20
40
21
30
city X
31
Type
Length [m]
v0PrT [km/h]
10
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
11
20
20
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
21
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
20
40
90 Rail track
10,000
21
30
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
30
31
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
31
40
20 Federal road
5,000
1,200
100
11
41
30 Country road
16,000
800
80
40
41
30 Country road
5,000
800
80
10
10
12
40 Other roads
10,000
500
60
11
12
21
40 Other roads
5,000
500
60
As a result, the assignment provides values from table 107 for the three routes (PrT paths).
Route
tCur
Impedance
Volume(AP)
46min 39s
2,798
1,157.488
46min 34s
2,794
618.079
46min 12s
2,772
224.432
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323
The most important assignment results for the links are displayed in table 108.
Link tCur
11min
40s
700
1,908
9,537.839
5min 47s
347
1,157
5,787.442
5min 47s
347
1,157
5,787.442
7min 48s
468
1,450
7,249.603
7min 48s
468
1,450
7,249.603
7min 48s
468
1,450
7,249.603
26min
35s
1,595
750
12,001.270
8min 19s
499
750
3,750.397
10
15min
12s
912
292
72
2,924.321
11
7min 36s
456
292
72
1,462.161
5.12.3
324
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PTV AG
x1
(*)
Apart from the parameters which are directly set in the assignment procedure
325
If you use metric units, enter the long lengths for kilometers and speeds in km/h. For imperial
units enter the long lengths in miles and speeds in mph.
5.12.4
min!
aE
Ra ( x ) dx
0
r qijr = qij, ij
ijr : a P
a E
q ijr = q a, a
ijr
qa
aE
qa =
326
E
qa
Ra(x)
qij
qijr
Pijr
E+u
volume of object a
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Eu
Du
Ou
In Visum, edges are all links, turns and connectors, whereas nodes are zones and network
nodes.
The objective function shows that the sum of impedances of all edges is minimized. The
secondary conditions indicate the following (from top to bottom).
Due to the nonlinear objective function, the optimization problem is not solved directly but
iteratively. Because of the monotonicity of the impedance function, the minimum is reached, so
that starting with a starting solution between the alternative paths, a movement ij is shifted, so
that the paths all have the same impedance.
During the equilibrium assignment the steps showed in illustration 95 will be made.
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327
Input
n =0
Network
balancing
n = n +1
Route search
Query
yes
no
End
Illustration 95: Procedure of the equilibrium assignment
328
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Network balancing
The procedure of the network balancing is displayed in illustration 96.
Input
Route search
Pair balancing
Update
impedance
Query
no
yes
End
Illustration 96: Procedure of the network balancing for an OD pair in the equilibrium assignment
Termination criterion
Visum cancels the iteration process for calculating the equilibrium, if one of the following
conditions has been fulfilled:
PTV AG
Network balancing has been achieved, this means a permitted deviation of impedances of
the routes compared in pairs was reached or undercut.
The specified number of external iterations was reached without a network balancing being
reached (in very highly loaded networks it is possible that the permitted deviations which
were specified do not result in a state of balance because only integer vehicles are shifted).
The convergence criterion Max. gap is reached or undercut.
329
5.12.5
In case of an equilibrium assignment with blocking back model the maximum deviation was
reached or undercut (see "Blocking back model" on page 292). The procedure is cancelled
if the congestion volume values and the congestion wait times of two external iterations
deviate by the max. rel. difference or less.
Volume
tCur [min]
Starting solution
1,000
51:42
1,000
36:45
30:15
Network balancing 0
776
41:54
Routes 1 + 2
1,224
41:56
33:22
649
36:25
Routes 1 + 3
1,224
42:58
127
36:23
649
35:15
Routes 2 + 3
1,067
40:17
284
40:15
734
38:09
Routes 1 + 2
982
38:10
277
38:51
741
38:27
Routes 1 + 3
982
38:07
277
38:31
741
38:30
Routes 2 + 3
990
38:14
269
38:15
736
38:19
Routes 1 + 2
995
38:21
269
38:20
330
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The table 111 shows how the equilibrium procedure works on the example network (see
"Example network for the PrT assignment procedures" on page 213). The volume determined
with the incremental procedure is used here as the initial solution (see "Example of the
incremental assignment" on page 316). This starting solution encompasses two routes, each
loaded with 1,000 car trips. The specified absolute deviation is a value of five impedance units,
and the relative deviation is specified as being 0.1 %. Based on the starting solution, the
following steps are then carried out.
The absolute deviation between maximum and minimum impedance is smaller than 5
seconds.
The relative deviation between the maximum and minimum impedance is less than
0.1 %.
Network balancing by pairs always changes the volumes of the route with the minimum
impedance and the route with the maximum impedance.
Route search for iteration step 2
No new route is found, the equilibrium procedure terminates.
5.13
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331
5.13.1
cij
cij(fij)
ZN
Dod
Kid
ij
Demand flow between origin oZ and destination dZ, generic element of the (Z21) vector
D, that is the demand matrix in row major order
ijk = 1, if arc ijA belongs to path k, and 0, otherwise for kK, this is the generic element
of the (AK) matrix D
odk
Fk
Ck
The cost of path k for kK this is the generic element of the (K1) vector C
Wid
S
There are two fundamental relations between flow variables. The flow on arc ijA is the sum
of the flows on the paths that include it:
fij = kK ijk Fk
The travel demand between origin oZ and destination dZ must be equal to the sum of the
flows on the paths that connect them:
kKod Fk = Dod
(6)
By definition, the minimum cost to reach destination dZ from node iN is the cost of any
shortest path that connects them:
332
PTV AG
(7)
In this case, the traffic assignment problem can be formalized through the following program:
min (f) =
c
(
x
)
d
x
:
f
ij A ij
f ij
(8)
where
To ensure the existence and uniqueness of the solution to problem (8) we assume that:
cij(fij) is nonnegative, continuous, strictly monotone increasing;
Kod is nonempty;
Dod is nonnegative.
Problem (8), which is convex, can also be expressed in terms of path flows as follows:
k K ij Fk
min (F) =
c
(
x
)
d
x
:
F
(9)
ij
ij
f=0
where, although the solution uniqueness does not hold anymore, the convexity of the
mathematical program is preserved, implying that any descent algorithm in the space of path
flows will provide one of the global solutions, which then make up a convex set.
k
The relevance of program (9) to traffic assignment stands from the fact that, in the case of
additive path costs, its first order (necessary) conditions coincide with the following formulation
of the deterministic user equilibrium based on Wardrop's Principles, for each oZ and dZ:
kKod
(10.1)
Ck Wo ,
kKod
(10.2)
Fk 0,
kKod
(10.3)
Fk (Ck  Wod) = 0,
d
kKod Fk = Dod
(10.4)
all used paths (Fk > 0) have minimum cost (Ck = Wod);
any unused path (Fk = 0) has not a lower cost (Ck Wod).
We have a user equilibrium if conditions (10.1) to (10.4) hold jointly for each OD couple, while
considering that each path cost Ck is a function (potentially) of all the path flows F through the
arc cost function:
Ck = ijA ijk cij(kK ijk Fk), in compact form C = T c(F)
(11)
Since the gradient of (F) C = T c(F), by linearizing the objective function of problem (9) at
a given a point F, for X F we obtain:
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333
(12)
From equation (12) we recognize that a direction EF is descent if and only if:
CT(EF) < 0.
(13)
In other words, to decrease the objective function and maintain feasibility we necessarily have
to shift path flows getting a lower total cost with respect to the current cost pattern, i. e. move
the current solution from F towards an E such that CTE < CTF, where C = Tc(F). The
necessity derives from the convexity of the problem, since in this case at any point X such that
CT(XF) > 0 we have: (X) > (F).
This approach to determine a descent direction can be applied to each OD pair separately, to
each destination, or to the whole network jointly. Based on the above general rule, setting the
flow pattern E by means of an allornothing assignment to shortest paths clearly provides a
descent direction. If we adopt such a direction for all OD pairs of the network jointly, and apply
along it a line search, we obtain the well known FrankWolfe algorithm. However, at equilibrium
each OD pair typically uses several paths, implying that any descent direction that loads a
single path is intrinsically myopic; in fact such algorithms tail badly.
Once we get a feasible descent direction EF, since is convex, we can move the current
solution along the segment F+(EF) and take a step (0,1] such that the objective function
of problem (9), redefined as () = (F+(EF)), is sufficiently lowered. In this respect,
knowing that is C1 and convex, and thus also is such, several methods are available to
determine an which minimizes (). Visum uses an Armijolike search and determines the
largest step = 0.5k, for any nonnegative integer k, such that
(0.5k)/ < 0.
(14)
This method requires to compute the directional derivative of the objective function:
()/ = [c((F+(EF)))]T[(EF)],
(15)
which implies to evaluate the arc costs at the candidate flows F+(EF) and then the
difference between the corresponding total costs obtained with the flows E and F. If such total
costs with E are smaller than those with F, then ()/ is negative so that the optimal solution
is more toward E, and vice versa.
5.13.2
334
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To reach any destination dZ, at the equilibrium only shortest paths are utilized. Given that the
arc cost functions are strictly monotone increasing, they make up an acyclic [*1] subgraph of
G, i.e. a (reverse) bush rooted at d. At strict monotonicity, any arc cost can be null only if its flow
is such. However, in Visum links and connectors may have null impedance, producing twofold
consequences: a) the corresponding arc cost functions loose strict monotonicity, so that
uniqueness is not guaranteed anymore. b) The subgraph madeup by arcs with positive
destination flows at some of the possible equilibria may be cyclic. The implementation of LUCE
in Visum specifically addresses this issue and converges to one among the possible equilibria
by forcing an acyclic solution and equally splitting the flow among all alternatives with minimum
cost in presence of uncongested subpaths. This special case is not further dealt with below.
On this base, when seeking a descent direction, in the following we will limit our attention to the
current bush B(d) and introduce an updating mechanism to make sure that eventually any
shortest path will be included into it; equilibrium is actually only attained this way. Let us focus
on the local route choice at a generic node iN for road users directed to destination dZ.
For the topology of the bush we will use the following notation:
FSB(i, d) = {jN: ijB(d)} the forward star of node iN madeup by nodes that can be
reached from it through arcs belonging to the current bush B(d) of
destination dZ
BSB(i, d) = {jN: ijB(d)} the backward star of node iN madeup by nodes that can reach it
through arcs belonging to the current bush B(d) of destination dZ
yijd
yijd = fijd / fid current flow proportion on arc ijA directed to destination dZ, if
fid > 0, yijd = 0 else
eijd
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335
eid
gij
Gid
The average cost Cid is the expected impendence that a user encounters by travelling from
node iN to destination dN. Here it is defined recursively based on the current flow pattern:
if fid > 0, then Cid = jFSB(i, d) yijd (cij + Cjd), else
(16.1)
(16.2)
as if drivers utilize paths accordingly with the current flow proportions. In the following we
assume that the cost function cij(fij) is continuously differentiable for each arc ijA:
gij = cij(fij) / fij
(17)
Under the assumption that an infinitesimal increment of flow leaving node iN directed towards
destination dZ would diverge accordingly with the current flow proportions, we have:
if fid > 0, then Gid = Cid / fid = jFSB(i, d) yijd 2 (gij + Gjd), else
Gid
jFSB(i, d) [Cid
= cij +
Cjd]
(gij +
Gjd)
jFSB(i, d) [Cid
= cij +
(18.1)
Cjd],
(18.2)
where the derivatives gij + Gjd are scaled by the shareyijd of fid utilizing arc ij and then passing
through node j, that jointly with the flow proportion involved in the averaging yields the square
yijd 2.
The average costs and their derivatives can be computed by processing the nodes of the bush
in reverse topological order according to d, starting fromCdd = Gdd = 0.
We now address the local user equilibrium for the eid drivers directed to destination dZ, whose
available alternatives are the arcs of the bush exiting from node iN. To each travel alternative
we associate the cost function:
vijd(eijd) = (cij + Cjd) + (gij + Gjd) (eijd  yijd eid),
(19)
resulting from a linearization at the current flow pattern of the average cost encountered by a
user choosing the generic arc ij, with jFSB(i, d).
This problem can be formulated, in analogy to (10.1) to (10.4), by the following system of
inequalities:
eijd [vijd(eijd)  Vid] = 0,
jFSB(i, d),
(20.1)
vijd(eijd) Vid,
jFSB(i, d),
(20.2)
eijd 0,
336
jFSB(i, d),
(20.3)
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(20.4)
where we denote:
Vid
vijd
Cost of the local alternative jFSB(i, d), to reach destination dZ from node iN via j.
If eid = 0, the solution to the above problem is trivially: eijd = 0, for each jFSB(i, d). Consider
then the case where eid > 0. To improve readability, problem (20.1) to (20.4) can be rewritten
as:
xj (aj + bj xj  v) = 0,
jJ,
(21.1)
aj + bj xj v,
jJ,
(21.2)
xj 0,
jJ,
j xj = 1,
(21.3)
(21.4)
where:
J
aj
bj
xj
eijd / eid
Vid
Applying the usual Beckmann approach we can reformulate the equilibrium problem (21.1) to
(21.4) as the following quadratic program:
min{jJ 0 xj(aj + bj x) dx: xX} = min{jJ aj xj + 0.5 bj xj2: xX},
(22)
where X is the convex set of all vectors satisfying the feasibility conditions (21.3) and (21.4).
The gradient of the objective function is a vector with generic entry aj + bj xj, and then the
Hessian of the objective function is a diagonal matrix with generic entry bj. Therefore, if all
entries bj are strictly positive, the Hessian is positive definite and problem (22) has a unique
solution. In order to ensure such a desirable property we assume without loss of generality that
the derivates gij are strictly positive for all arcs ijA. Since the arc cost functions are strictly
monotone increasing, gij can be zero only if also fijd is zero. Therefore, at the equilibrium bj = 0
implies xj = 0. In practice we will substitute any gij = 0 with a small .
To solve problem (21.1) to (21.4) we propose the following simple method. In order to satisfy
condition (21.1), either it is xj = 0, and in this case condition (21.2) requires aj v, or it is aj + bj
xj = v. Let J0 J be the set of alternatives with zero flow, that is J0 = {jJ: xj = 0}. For any given
J0 the solution is immediate, since from (21.4) it is jJ (v  aj) / bj = 1; therefore we have:
v = (1 + jJ\J0 aj / bj) / (jJ\J0 1 / bj),
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(23.1)
xj = (v  aj) / bj,
jJ\J0,
(23.2)
xj = 0,
jJ0.
(23.3)
337
The flow proportions provided by (23.1) to (23.3) implicitly satisfy (21.4). But to state that the
chosen J0 yields the solution of problem (21.1) to (21.4), we still must ensure the following
conditions: aj < v, for each jJ\J0 (as required by (21.3), since xj = (v  aj) / bj > 0), and aj v, for
each jJ0 (as required by (21.2), since xj = 0). This implies that at the solution the value of v
resulting from (23.1) must partition the set J into two subsets: the set J0, made up by the
alternatives j such that aj v; and its complement J\J0, made up by the alternatives j such that
aj < v.
At a first glance the problem to determine the set J0 of alternatives with zero flow may seem to
be combinatorial. However, this is not the case. The equation (23.1) can be rewritten as a
recursive formula. It then shows the effect of removing an alternative k from the set J0:
v[J0\{k}] = (v[J0] jJ\J0 1 / bj + ak / bk) / (jJ\J0 1 / bj + 1 / bk).
(24)
The right hand side of (24) can be interpreted as an average between v[J0] and ak with the
positive weights jJ\J0 1 / bj and 1 / bk. Therefore, the local equilibrium cost increases by
removing from J0 any alternative kJ\J0, for which ak is higher than the current value v[J0]. Vice
versa it decreases by adding such alternatives to J0. Consequently, the correct partition set J0
can be simply obtained by adding iteratively to an initially empty set each alternative jJ\J0
such that aj > v, i.e. each alternative for which (23.2) yields a negative flow proportion.
5.13.3
Descent direction
To obtain a complete pattern of arc flows ed for a given destination dZ consistent with the local
user equilibrium we simply have to solve problem (20.1) to (20.4) at each node iN\{d}
proceeding in topological order, where the node flow is computed as follows:
eid = jBSB(i, d) ejid + Did
(25)
We have shown that a given direction is descent if, and only if (13) applies (see "Mathematical
formulation and theoretical framework" on page 332). In terms of arc flows directed to
destination dZ, the following results:
ijA cij (eijd  fijd) < 0,
(26)
d
expressing that the shift of flow from f to e must entail a decrease of total cost with respect to
the current cost pattern. The proof that the proposed procedure provides a descent direction
goes beyond the scope of this description. For more detailed information, please refer to
Gentile G., 2009.
In the following we present an example showing the computation of the descent direction
provided by the LUCE algorithm. We consider the graph of the Braess paradox, with 4 nodes
and 5 arcs.
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Illustration 98: Numerical example of the procedure to obtain the descent direction
The arc cost function is cij = Tij + Qij fij2, so that its derivative is gij = 2 Qij fij.
There is only one destination d = 4, and two origins with travel demand D14 = 9 and D24 = 2. We
consider an initial flow pattern where all available paths, the 3 routes from 1 to 4 and the 2
routes from 2 to 4, are equally used by each OD pair. In this case it is fij = fijd and the bush is
the entire network.
After we evaluate at the current flow pattern the arc costs and their derivatives, we can
compute for each node i the average cost Cid and its derivative Giditeratively starting from the
destination, where Cdd = Gdd = 0, and proceeding in reverse topological order. To this aim we
apply the formulas:
Cid = jFSB(i, d) yijd (cij + Cjd), Gid = jFSB(i, d) yijd 2 (gij + Gjd).
While the computation for node 3 is trivial, since its forward star is a singleton, for node 2 we
have:
C24 = y234 (c23 + C34) + y244 (c24 + C44) = 0.5 (21 + 52) + 0.5 (42 + 0) = 57.5,
G24 = y234 2 (g23 + G34) + y244 2 (g24 + G44) = 0.52 (8 + 14) + 0.52 (16 + 0) = 9.5,
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Illustration 99: Numerical example of the procedure to obtain the descent direction
Now we can compute for each node i the node flows eid and the arc flows eijd iteratively by
proceeding in topological order.
To this aim we shall focus on the local route choice of the eid users, whose available
alternatives are the arcs of the bush exiting from node i. To each travel alternative we
associate the cost function:
vij(eijd) = (cij + Cjd) + (gij + Gjd) (eijd  yijd eid),
resulting from a linearization at the current flow pattern of the average cost encountered by a
user choosing arc ij, and we look for an equilibrium. We have shown that the latter can be
determined using the following formulas:
Vid = (1 + jJ aijd / bijd) / (jJ 1 / bijd), eijd = eid (Vid  aijd) / bijd,
where: aijd = (cij + Cjd)  (gij + Gjd) eid yijd, bijd = (gij + Gjd) eid. J is set initially to the forward
star FSB(i, d); if some eijd results to be negative, then it is set to zero, j is removed from J and
the computation is repeated.
We start then with node 1, whose node flow is e14 = D14 = 6:
a134 = (c13 + C34)  (g13 + G34) e14 y134 = (29 + 52)  (12 + 14) 9 0.33 = 3
a124 = (c12 + C24)  (g12 + G24) e14 y124 = (41 + 57.5)  (12 + 9.5) 9 0.66 = 30.5,
b134 = (g13 + G34) e14 = (29 + 14) 9 = 387.
b124 = (g12 + G24) e14 = (41 + 9.5) 9 = 454.5.
V14 = (1 + a134/b134 + a124/b124) / (1/b134 +1/b124) = (1+ 3/38730.5/454.5) / (1/387+1/454.5) = 196.6,
e134 = e14 (V14  a134) / b134 = 9 (196.6  3) / 387 = 4.5,
e124 = e14 (V14  a124) / b124 = 9 (196.6 + 30.5) / 454.5 = 4.5.
Then we go on with node 2, whose node flow is e24 = e124 + D24 = 4.50 + 2 = 6.5:
a234 = (c23 + C34)  (g23 + G34) e24 y234 = (21 + 52)  (8 + 14) 6.5 0.5 = 1.5,
a244 = (c24 + C44)  (g24 + G44) e24 y244 = (42 + 0)  (16 + 0) 6.5 0.5 = 10,
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Finally, we consider node 3, whose volume is e34 = e134 + e234 + D34 = 4.5 + 2.43 + 0 = 6.93:
Since there is only one alternative, the following applies: e344 = e34 = 6.93. Only for completeness we compute V34 as follows:
V34 = (c34 + C44) + (g34 + G44) (e344  e34 y344) = (52 + 0) + (14 + 0) (6.55  6.93 1) = 46.7.
The flow pattern we have just found is a descent direction because we have:
ijA fijd cij = 949 > ijA eijd cij = 897.
The illustration 98 represents the AON assignment to shortest paths (marked by *). The
illustration 99 displays the equilibrium flow and cost pattern (marked by *). It can be seen that
one single iteration of the proposed descent direction allows a substantial step towards the
solution.
5.13.4
Assignment algorithm
Below we provide a pseudo code of the procedure within the framework of an assignment
algorithm.
function LUCE
f = 0
initialize the solution flows to zero
perform n iterations
for k = 1 to n
for each destination d
for each dZ
for each ijA
compute arc costs and their derivatives
cij = cij( fij)
gij = max{cij( fij)/fij, }
if fid > 0 then yijd = fijd / fid else yijd = 0
B(d) =B(B(d), c, f)
initialize or modify the current bush
Cd d = 0
the average cost of the destination is zero
Gdd = 0
so its derivative
for each i:ijB(d) in reverse topological order for each node i d in the bush
if fid > 0 then
Cid = jFSB(i, d) yijd (cij + Cjd)
compute the node average cost to d
and its derivative
Gid = jFSB(i, d) yijd 2 (gij + Gjd)
else
Cid = min{cij + Cjd: jFSB(i, d)}
Gid = jFSB(i, d) [Cid = cij + Cjd] (gij + Gjd) / jFSB(i, d) [Cid = cij + Cjd],
d
e = 0
reset the arc and node flows to d
for each oZ
load on the origins the demand to d
eod = Dod
for each i:ijB(d) in topological order for each node i d in the bush
J = FSB(i, d)
initialize the set of arcs with positive flow
= 0
until = 1 do
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=1
The bush of each destination dZ is initialized with the set of efficient arcs that bring closer to
the destination, where the minimum costs are evaluated at zero flow. At the generic iteration,
any nonefficient arc on the bush carrying no destination flow is removed from it, while any arc
that would improve shortest paths on the bush is added to it, if its reverse arc does not carry
destination flow. If the resulting subgraph is acyclic, then it is substituted to the current bush
of that destination. Since the LUCE algorithm tends to an equilibrium on the bush, eventually
the flow on nonefficient paths disappears and the bush can be properly modified.
Note that, beside the initialization of the bushes, the LUCE algorithm does not require shortest
path computations, but only simple visits of the bushes.
5.13.5
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5.13.6
Skim matrix (also for a freely definable skim) in case of routebased assignments:
for the Minimum weight, always the shortest path is used for calculation
for the Mean over route volumes weight, the shortest path is used only if the OD pair
is not in the bush; otherwise, the skim data is weighted with the volumes of the edges
from the origin to the destinations.
Flow bundle
TFlowFuzzy
COM: TFlowMatrix
OD pair filter
Blocking back
Generate demand matrix from paths
5.13.7
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5.13.8
Illustration 100: Example for the proportionality with balanced link volumes
The zones 1 and 2 are connected to node A, the zones 3 and 4 are connected to node B. A
and B are connected by the two links x and y, which have the same VDF. Demand is 500 trips
each from 1 to 3 and from 1 to 4. The image shows the resulting link volumes in the balanced
state. But the link volumes can result from the various route volumes overlaying on the links.
Three of them are listed in the table:
Volume
Variant 1
Variant 2
Variant 3
1x3
200
500
250
1y3
300
250
1x4
300
250
1y4
200
500
250
Table 112: Variants of route volumes for the link volumes in illustration 100
With regard to the impedance balance, all variants are equivalent, though variant 3 has the
advantage that the route distribution at node A is proportional for the relations to the zones 3
and 4. Since the links x and y have the same impedance one cannot assume that at node A
road users on their way to the destination x will not distribute to the links in the same way as
those heading to destination y.
Due to the separate handling of the OD pairs, the pathbased equilibrium procedure could
generate any of the indefinite number of path volume variants arbitrarily, whereas LUCE
always charges the paths proportionally as shown in variant 3. But this advantage is based on
the fact, that LUCE simultaneously balances all path volumes to an origin zone. Identical turn
proportions can therefore be generated within an origin zone only, they are not reached for the
routes of various origin zones.
This is illustrated by the extended example in illustration 101, now with 500 trips each between
the zones 2 and 3, and 2 and 4. Again, the image shows balanced link volumes.
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Illustration 101: Extended example for the proportionality with balanced link volumes
Even though the route distributions to the paths within an origin zone show consistent shares,
this does not apply to the paths of different origin zones. Again various volume variants can be
generated:
Volume
Variant 1
Variant 2
Variant 3
250
1x3
200
500
1y3
300
250
1x4
200
500
250
1y4
300
250
2x3
300
250
2y3
200
500
250
2x4
300
250
2y4
200
500
250
Table 113: Variants of route volumes for the link volumes in illustration 101
For the same reason as above, variant 3 is the preferable variant, since there is no need for
unequal loading of the routes. However, this balancing procedure cannot be performed in a
purely originbased way. LUCE provides the option to harmonize the path volumes over all
origin zones subsequently to the determination of meshes of the same impedance (compare
mesh AB in the example) which is based on the paths that were calculated during the actual
assignment. This is always the case, since in an isolated view the mesh is in a balanced state;
thus, volumes can be shifted between the path alternatives from different origin zones without
any changes to the link volumes or impedances. Thus, the equilibrium state can be retained.
Since mesh finding and route choice optimization are timeconsuming this procedure is
provided as an option which can additionally be activated in the LUCE procedure parameters.
For the reliable detection of balanced meshes the assignment should have finished with a gap
of 106 or better. In this case, the optimization of the route distribution will additionally take
another 20%  50% of the assignment run time.
The optimization of the route distribution is highly recommended if route volumes shall be
analyzed or used in further computations. This applies to the following operations:
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But if primarily linkrelated assignment results are required (volumes, travel times), then
optimization is not required, since this would not improve the given results.
5.14
Equilibrium_Lohse
The Equilibrium_Lohse procedure was developed by professor Lohse and is described in
Schnabel (1997). This procedure models the learning process of road users using the network.
Starting with an "all or nothing assignment", drivers consecutively include information gained
during their last journey for the next route search. Several shortest routes are searched in an
iterative process whereby for the route search the impedance is deduced from the impedance
of the current volume and the previously estimated impedance. To do this, the total traffic flow
is assigned to the shortest routes found so far for every iteration step.
During the first iteration step only the network impedances in the free network are taken into
account (like 100 % bestroute assignment).
The calculation of the impedance in every further iteration step is carried out using the current
mean impedances calculated so far and the impedances resulting from the current volume, i.e.
every iteration step n is based on the impedances calculated at n1.
The assignment of the demand matrix to the network corresponds to how many times the route
was found ("kept in mind" by Visum).
The procedure only terminates when the estimated times underlying the route choice and the
travel times resulting from these routes coincide to a sufficient degree; there is a high
probability that this stable state of the traffic network corresponds to the route choice behavior
of drivers.
To estimate the travel time for each link of the following iteration step n+1, the estimated travel
time for n is added to the difference between the calculated actual travel time of n (calculated
from the VD functions) and the estimated travel time of n. This difference is then multiplied by
the value DELTA (0.15...0.5) which results in an attenuated sine wave.
The termination condition arises from the requirement that the estimated travel times for
iteration steps n and n1, and the calculated actual travel time of iteration step n, sufficiently
correspond to each other. This is defined by the precision threshold EPSILON.
5.14.1
Type
Length [m]
20
5,000
v0 [km/h]
R0* [min]
1,200
03:00
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
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LinkNo
Type
Length [m]
v0 [km/h]
R0* [min]
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
20
5,000
100
1,200
03:00
30
16,000
80
800
12:00
30
5,000
80
800
03:45
10
40
10,000
60
500
10.00
11
40
5,000
60
500
05:00
Links
Length [m]
1+8+9
26,000
R0* [min]
0:18:45
1+2+3+5+6+7
30,000
0:18:00
10+11+5+6+7
30,000
0:24:00
Input parameters:
V2 = 4
V3 = 0.002
2.5
f ( TT ) = 
1+e
4 0.002 TT
TT1
f(TT1)
Delta 1
R1* [min]
2.78
0.0452
0.4796
07:00 a.m.
2,000
11:20 AM
2,000
11:20
2.78
0.0452
0.4796
07:00
2,000
11:20
2.78
0.0452
0.4796
07:00
2,000
11:20
2.78
0.0452
0.4796
07:00
2,000
11:20
2.78
0.0452
0.4796
07:00
2,000
11:20
2.78
0.0452
0.4796
07:00
12:00
0.00
0.0450
0.5000
12:00
03:45
0.00
0.0450
0.5000
03:45
10
10.00
0.00
0.0450
0.5000
10:00
11
05:00
0.00
0.0450
0.5000
05:00
Route
Volume 1
R1
R1*
0:27:05
0:22:45
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Route
Volume 1
R1
R1*
2,000
1:08:00
0:41:59
0:49:00
0:35:59
LinkNo
TT2
f(TT2)
Delta 2
R2* [min]
2,000
11:20
0.62
0.0450
0.4925
09:08
1,000
05:05
0.27
0.0450
0.4962
06:03
1,000
05:05
0.27
0.0450
0.4962
06:03
1,000
05:05
0.27
0.0450
0.4962
06:03
1,000
05:05
0.27
0.0450
0.4962
06:03
1,000
05:05
0.27
0.0450
0.4962
06:03
1,000
30:45
1.56
0.0451
0.4855
21:06
1,000
09:37
1.56
0.0451
0.4855
06:36
10
10.00
0.00
0.0450
0.5000
10.00
11
05:00
0.00
0.0450
0.5000
05:00
Route
Volume 2
R2
R2*
1,000
0:51:42
0:36:50
1,000
0:36:45
0:39:22
0:30:15
0:33:08
348
LinkNo
TT3
f(TT3)
Delta 3
R3* [min]
1,333
0.27
0.0450
0.4963
07:56
06:42
667
03:56
0.35
0.0450
0.4953
05:00
667
03:56
0.35
0.0450
0.4953
05:00
1,333
06:42
0.11
0.0450
0.4984
06:22
1,333
06:42
0.11
0.0450
0.4984
06:22
1333
0.0450
0.4984
06:22
667
20:20
0.0450
0.4994
20:43
0.04
667
06:21
0.04
0.0450
0.4994
06:28
10
667
27:47
1.78
0.0451
0.4842
18:37
11
667
13:53
1.78
0.0451
0.4842
09:18
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Route
Volume 3
R3
R3*
667
0:33:23
0:35:07
667
0:34:40
0:37:03
667
1:01:47
0:47:02
The table 114, table 115, table 116 and table 117 illustrate the first three iteration steps of the
Equilibrium_Lohse procedure for the example network.
Iteration step 1, n = 1
Volume 1
The volume of the first iteration step results from an "all or nothing" assignment onto the
lowest impedance route in the unloaded network. For impedance R0*, this is route 2 loaded
with 2,000 car trips.
Current impedance R1
The current impedance R1 of every link results from the BPR capacity function (a =1, b = 2,
c= 1). For link 1, for example, the following can be calculated:
R1 (link 1) = 3 min x (1+(2,000/1,200)) = 11 min 20s
V1
2.5
 = f ( TT 1 ) = = 0.0452
V 2 V 3 TT 1
4 0.002 2.78
1+e
1+e
1 = Bottom +
Top Bottom
0,5 0,15
= 0.15 +
= 0.4796
(
)
f
TT
(1 + TT1 ) 1
(1 + 2.78)0.0452
Iteration step 2, n = 2
Volume 2
The lowest impedance route for R1* is route 1. Now two routes exist, route 1 and 2. Each
route is loaded with 1/n, i.e. the demand, so that each route is used by 1,000 cars.
Current impedance R2
The current impedance R2 of every link increases on newly loaded links 8 and 9, and it
decreases on links 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7.
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Iteration step 3, n = 3
Volume 3
The lowest impedance route for R2* is route 3. 2,000 car trips are now equally distributed
across routes 1, 2 and 3.
Current impedance R3
The current impedance R3 again results from the current volume 3 via the VD function.
Iteration step 4, n = 4
The concluding route search based on R3* determines route 1 as the shortest route. Thus, the
following route volumes result:
5.14.2
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x1
(X)
(*)
Apart from the parameters which are directly set in the assignment procedure
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5.14.3
Input
n=n+1
Route
search
Route
volumes
TTn = Rn R *n 1 R *n 1
Impedance
determination
f (TTn ) = V1 (1 + e V2 V3 TTn )
n = lower +
upper lower
(1 + TTn ) f (TTn )
Query
no
Rn R
*
n 1
< E = E1 Rn 1
E2 / E3
yes
End
Illustration 102: Procedure of the Equilibrium_Lohse assignment
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5.14.4
5.15
5.15.1
Fundamental principle
In Visum, any variant of the equilibrium assignment uses volumedelay functions for links and
turns to model the impedance that increases with increasing volumes. In urban network
models, the Turn VDFs are of particular importance, since the nodes affect the network
performance to a much greater extent than links do. The mathematical formulation of the
assignment problem assumes, that the impedance which is calculated by the VDFs depends
only on the volume and the capacity of the individual network object (link, turn). Volume delay
functions with this property are called separable VDFs. In reality, this holds approximately for
links, but it does not apply to turns via nodes. Typical counterexamples are the permitted turns
at signalized nodes or turns from minor approaches at twoway nodes. In these cases, the
impedance does not only depend on the volume of the turn itself, but also from the volumes of
the conflicting flows, i.e. the volumes of other turns via this node. Thus, the associated volumedelay functions can no longer be separable. This is a problem for the mathematical solution of
the assignment problem, since existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium solution require
separable volumedelay functions.
Two requirements can be derived from this analysis:
354
Realistic impedance modeling for nodes premises that nodes are modeled in detail in a way
that conflicts between turns can be identified correctly. Transferred to Visum this means,
that for these nodes the geometry and control have to be modeled in the junction editor.
Subsequently, precise impedances and capacities of the turns can be calculated using the
Intersection Capacity Analysis (ICA).
For lack of separability, the values calculated by means of ICA may not directly be used to
replace the volumedelay functions in the assignment procedure, since the convergence
would get lost then.
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5.15.2
356
With the Use current assignment result as initial solution option set by default. the
assignment times required for subordinate LUCE assignment are short.
Stable route distribution, especially with option Optimization of the proportionality of
route volumes at meshes.
Calculation of the blocking back model, using socalled bushes, is considerably faster than
conventional calculation methods.
Due to the stable routes, also the blocking back result is more stable and thus convergence
can be reached sooner.
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5.15.3
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Prior to the assignment with ICA calculation, the geometry and control need to be modeled
correctly for the nodes the ICA impedance calculation has been activated for. To check
whether the calculation can be performed correctly for all nodes, from the Calculate menu,
choose >Network check and check the Viability for ICA option.
For turns, the design volume PrT needs to be a volumerepresenting attribute (Volume PrT
or Volume PrT with base). Enter the settings via menu Calculate > General procedure
settings > navigator entry PrT settings > Node impedances. For the design volume PrT,
only factor 1.0 is permitted. This is due to the fact, that the calibration of the VDFs by turn
would fail otherwise. The VD function used for turns is based on the hourly capacities
output by ICA. This means that you can only perform assignment with ICA for assignment
periods of 1h. As a result, hourly values for link and turn capacities must be defined.
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x2
(x)
Meaning
Indicates whether the ICATurn function is to be used for this turn in the
assignment with ICA.
Last capacity used during assignment with ICA. The Capacity PrTV
attribute is not used for turns at (main) nodes calculated with ICA.
t0 that was recently used with ICA assignment. The t0 PrT attribute is
not used for (main) turns at nodes calculated with ICA.
Table 121: Additionally calculated turn/main turn attributes for assignment with ICA
Attribute
Meaning
Table 122: Additionally calculated link attributes for assignment with ICA
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Furthermore, numerous diagnostic outputs are provided which can be used for convergence
check. If the procedure converges either slowly or not at all, the outputs provide useful
information, e.g. which turns show significant differences when calculated with ICA impedance
calculation or the VD function.
As long as the procedure is running, you can watch the process in the "Goodness of PrT
assignment with ICA" list.
*.csv files are created to which the program saves turn attribute data after each iteration.
These files are helpful when you want to compare the development of attribute values of
individual turns during the course of assignment with ICA.
Some result attributes of the assignment with ICA are saved to userdefined attributes, if
required. This data can be used for the comparison of the convergence reached in different
runs of the assignment with ICA. To do so, first copy the values of the userdefined
attributes, before they are overwritten during the next calculation.
Optionally, an Excel report is created which contains the results of the recent ICA
calculation. From the report it is to be seen, which volumes were used for the calculation
and which capacities resulted from that. For nodes of the allway stop type, the v/c value is
output the same way as for nodes of the twoway stop type.
The precise times, when attribute data is stored in an iteration is described with the procedure
(see "Procedure of the Assignment with ICA" on page 360).
5.15.4
360
If the assignment with ICA is not based on existing assignment results, the parameters
used in the VD function for turns and links are first initialized. For turns, the input values are
used that you have specified in the Procedure parameters window (Input tab). Depending
on the control type used, additional signal times and geometric data are considered. The
parameters initialized for turn capacities, t0, and the VD functions A and B are used to
perform the first subordinate assignment. The link attribute Effective capacity in
assignment with ICA is initialized with the Capacity PrT value. If your assignment with
ICA is based on existing assignment results, the parameters are available from the last
assignment with ICA and initialization is skipped.
First the subordinate assignment procedure is performed. Choose one of the following
assignment procedures: Equilibrium assignment, Equilibrium_Lohse or Equilibrium
assignment (LUCE). For nodes, for which ICA calculation has been activated, use turnspecific VD functions. In this case, no ICA calculations are carried out during the
subordinate assignment procedure.
The turnspecific VD functions used and the adaptation of link VD functions are described
in separate paragraphs (illustration 104).
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After completion of the subordinate assignment procedure, the blocking back model is
applied. For calculation of the blocking back model, the turn capacities at nodes calculated
with ICA are taken into account.. Optionally, you may additionally use the capacities
defined in the link capacity model. The link impedance results obtained through blocking
back model calculation are adjusted in order to account for the additional wait times caused
by traffic jams on the links.
Notes: By applying the blocking back model, only phase 1 is calculated.
The blocking back model is not applied while the subordinate assignment procedure is
performed.
During finalization of the ICA assignment, the global parameters of the blocking back
model (see User Manual, Chpt. 5.5.2, page 1008) are adapted to the procedure
parameters of ICA assignment, i.e. settings that differ are first ignored during ICA
assignment and then overwritten.
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Prior to the ICA calculation, the current values are determined for volume and impedance
and also the parameters of the VDFs are recorded (according to the settings: in attribute
files, as userdefined attributes and in the Goodness of PrT assignment with ICA list).
Then, the turn volumes calculated in the recent iteration and in the current iteration are
smoothed, i.e. the weighted mean is calculated.
Using ICA, the program calculates turn impedances and capacities. For this ICA
calculation, the design volume used is the smoothed turn volume (including the basic
volume, depending on the design volume set).
Calculation of the new, turnspecific VD functions is performed in two steps and separately
for each turn. In the first step, the parameters of the VD function are determined through
interpolation of three sampling points. One sampling point is given by the smoothed turn
volumes and the respective impedance (see previous step). To determine two additional
sampling points, reduce or increase the volume of the turn currently being processed, while
maintaining the other turn volumes passing via the node. The impedance of the current turn
is then recalculated with ICA. Since the VD function to be interpolated possesses three free
parameters (t0, A, B), it is clearly defined by the three sampling points. In the second step,
these parameters and also the capacity are smoothed by means of the values resulting
from the previous iteration. In the procedure parameters, a minimum capacity per turn can
be set. If the smoothing result is below the minimum capacity, the minimum capacity will be
used instead. The convergence check is performed after the determination of the new
VDFs. If the convergence constraints are satisfied, the parameters of the VDF will be reset
to the value of the recent iteration. This means the VD functions are in accordance with the
subordinate assignment last performed. In the flow diagram, qTn represents the volume of
turn T in iteration n.
If the convergence test is failed, the attributes Deterred upstream volume in assignment
with ICA, for links and turns, and Effective capacity in assignment with ICA, for links,
are updated. These values are required for application of the VD function during the next
subordinate assignment (or for an assignment based on existing assignment results).
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362
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5.15.5
max ( 0, q q
t 0 + A 
cap
t cur ( q, cap, t 0, A, B, q ) =
t + A
else
0
if q q cap
Thereby
tcur
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Turn attribute corresponds to tCur of the turnspecific VD function including the VD function
parameters. Attribute tCur_PrTSys for assignment with ICA contains the value calculated
at the end of the assignment with ICA.
363
A and B
q
t0
cap
Turn attribute that corresponds to smoothed capacity in the assignment with ICA.
Attribute Final capacity for assignment with ICA contains the value calculated at the end
of the assignment with ICA.
Turn attribute calculated as the difference between demand volume and volume. Deterred
volume refers to the part of the volume that, according to blocking back calculation, is held
back at bottlenecks upstream from the turn and so does not reach it.
Attribute Deterred volume upstream in assignment with ICA contains the value
calculated at the end of the assignment with ICA.
Turn attribute
Attribute Final t0 for assignment with ICA contains the value calculated at the end of the
assignment with ICA.
During the assignment, the factors A and B are updated with each ICA impedance calculation
per turn. You can find the values of the last iteration in the turn attributes Final A for
assignment with ICA and Final B for assignment with ICA. The following data are also
saved to turn attributes: t0 values (Final t0 for assignment with ICA), the capacity (Final
capacity for assignment with ICA), and the difference between demand volume and current
volume (Deterred volume upstream in assignment with ICA).
Thereby
364
tcur
vdfbase
q
cap
effcap
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Link attribute that represents the difference between demand volume and volume plus
queue length. Deterred volume refers to the part of the volume that, according to blocking
back calculation, is held back upstream and so does not reach the link.
Attribute Deterred volume upstream in assignment with ICAcontains the value
calculated at the end of the assignment with ICA.
By adapting the link VD function, you ensure that the additional impedance caused by spillback
congestion is accounted for in subordinate assignment, i.e. for route search and route choice.
5.16
Stochastic assignment
Stochastic assignment procedures assume that traffic participants in principle select the best
route, but evaluate the individual routes differently due to incomplete and different information.
In addition, in a stochastic PrT assignment the demand is distributed (see "Distribution models
in the assignment" on page 308) to the found routes as for a PuT assignment using a
distribution model (e.g. Logit, Kirchhoff, BoxCox, Lohse or Lohse with variable beta).
In order to take the spatial similarities of the routes into account during the distribution, a
similarity measure is determined from overlapping routes (analogous to independence during
timetablebased PuT assignment) it is called the Commonality Factor (CLogit) or the
independence of each route (according to Ben Akiva) is determined.
This results in the following sequence:
1. Route search for all traffic cells for current impedance.
2. Commonality Factor or independence calculated from overlapping of all routes of an origin/
destination pair.
3. Distribution of demand to the routes of each OD pair, taking the Commonality Factor or
independence into account.
4. Repeat from step 3 until demand for all OD pairs is in equilibrium.
5. Repeat steps 1 4 until no new routes are found or until the change in the link volumes
between two iteration steps is very small.
During the route search, the number of possible routes can be increased in that it is not just the
shortest route that is found, but a number of alternatives are found using a multiple best path
search and a variation in the link impedances.
5.16.1
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365
5.16.2
366
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(x)
(*)
Apart from the parameters which are directly set in the assignment procedure
5.16.3
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The external (global) iteration with iterator n is used for the route search. This loop is
repeated until either n = N or until no new shortest routes are found.
The internal iteration with iterator m is used to assign the volume to the routes. This loop is
repeated until either m = M or until the deviations of the impedances on the network
elements and the deviation of the volumes on the routes between two iteration steps is very
small.
367
Start of
external
iterartion
Search
impedance
Counter for
external
iteration
Route search
Termination
external
iteration
R oute
preselection
Independence
368
n =0
n= n + 1
no
stop
ja
Delete all routes with R > a R* min + b and
t0 > c t 0,min + d
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Start of internal
iteration
Initialisation of
choice
impedance
m =0
Counter for
internal
iteration
m= m +1
Choice
impedance
Route choice
q rm =
Route volume
Update search
impedance
q r (m1) ( m 1) + q rm '
m
*
*
Rnew
= Ro*ld + Rnew Rold
Termination
criterion for
internal
iteration
no
Termination of
external
iteration
ja
n = max. number of external iteration
stop
no
yes
The alternative route search by stochastic variation of the impedances is closely related to
other procedures used to determine kshortest paths and shares their common drawback that
often new routes are found that differ insignificantly from previous routes. Such routes are not
desirable as they hardly change the volume situation in the network and only increase the route
quantity, which leads to extended computing time and higher memory requirements. For this
reason a detour test is offered as part of the stochastic assignment that discards a route r2 if a
route r1 already exists that matchesr2, with the exception of a subsection, and if this subsection
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369
in r2 is significantly longer than in r1. More precisely, r2 is discarded in favor of r1 if the following
applies (illustration 106).
r1 = AT1B
r2 = AT2B
The route sections A and B can be empty if the subsection is at the start or the end of the
routes.
5.16.4
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Case 1
Portion
Route 1
expected
Logit
Route 1
50%
50%
Route 2
50%
50%
Route 2
Impedance R1 = R2
Case 2
Portion
Route 1
expected
Logit
Route 1
33%
33%
Route 2
33%
33%
Route 3
33%
33%
Route 3
Impedance R1 = R2 = R3
Case 3
Portion
Route 2
Route 1
expected
Logit
Route 1
approx.
28%
33%
Route 2
approx.
44%
33%
Route 3
approx.
28%
33%
Route 3
Impedance R1 = R2 = R3
Route 2
The CLogit approach proposed by CASCETTA is a suitable way of overcoming this problem.
To do this, a socalled commonality factor C is introduced to measure the overlapping of the
two routes r and s as follows:
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371
t 0 rs
l rs
C rs =  or C rs = t0 r t0 s
lr ls
with
Crs
t0rs
t0r
Time t0 of route r
lrs
lr
Length l of route r
Thus, Crs equals 1, if the two routes are identical, and will be 0, if the two routes do not overlap.
The commonality factor Crs is determined for all route combinations. Then, the correction factor
CFr of a route r compared to any other route s is defined as follows:
1  = 1
CF r =  Crs 1 + Crs
rs
The correction factor of a route r is 1 if the commonality factors Crs for all routes s have the
value 0, i.e. the route has no overlap with another route. In any other case it is below 1. The
correction factor CFr is then regarded in the Logit model as follows:
Vr
e CFr
P = N
s = 1 ( e
Vs
CF s )
In the case of BoxCox, Kirchhoff, Lohse or Lohse with variable beta, its inclusion is also
carried out in the same way.
Alternatively, the correction factor CFr can be determined using a simpler approach according
to Ben Akiva. It is then defined as:
CF r =
t0 a
 
a P t 0 r N ija
or
CF r =
la
with
372
t0a
Time t0 of link a
t0r
Time t0 of route r
la
Length l of link a
lr
Length l of route r
Nija
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5.16.5
= 8 R0.5
Compared to the "objective" impedances (resulting from impedance definitions and VDFs),
the impedances of the network objects are changed for alternative shortest path searches.
They are drawn randomly from a normal distribution which has the objective impedance R
as mean value and whose standard deviation is given as a function of R.
LinkNo
Type
v0 [km/h]
Length [m]
R0* [min]
R0* [s]
20
100
5,000
1,200
03:00
180
20
100
5,000
1,200
03:00
180
20
100
5,000
1,200
03:00
180
20
100
5,000
1,200
03:00
180
20
100
5,000
1,200
03:00
180
20
100
5,000
1,200
03:00
180
30
80
16,000
800
12:00
720
30
80
5,000
800
03:45
225
10
40
60
10,000
500
10:00
600
11
40
60
5,000
500
05:00
300
Route
Links
Length [m]
R0* [min]
R0* [s]
1+8+9
26,000
0:18:45
1,125
1+2+3+5+6+7
30,000
0:18:00
1,080
10+11+5+6+7
30,000
0:24:00
1,440
Input parameters
BPR function with a = 1, b = 2, c = 1
Bottom = 0.5, Top = 0.5 = 0.5
Assignment with Logit, = 0.001
Table 125: Impedance in the unloaded network, input parameters for stochastic assignment
After completing the search, the correction factor for the independence of each route is
determined according to Cascetta. It is based on the similarity of the individual route pairs with
reference to time t0 or to the length. The table 126 shows the commonality factors C. From this,
the correction factor CFr of route r is calculated.
Route 1
1  = 1
CF 1 = = 0.8596
+
1.0
0.16
+ 0.0
C
1j
j
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373
Route 2
1  = 1
 = 0.6264
CF 2 = +
0.16
1.0
+ 0.43
C
2
j
Route 3
1  = 1
CF 3 = = 0.6978
+
0.0
0.43
+ 1.0
C3 j
j
Route pair
t0ij
t0i
t0j
Cij
1,1
1,125
1,125
1,125
1.00
1.2
180
1,125
1,080
0.16
1.3
1,125
1,440
0.00
2,1
180
1,080
1,125
0.16
2.2
1,080
1,080
1,080
1.00
2,3
540
1,080
1.440
0.43
3,1
1,440
1,125
0.00
3,2
540
1,440
1,080
0.43
3.3
1,440
1,440
1,440
1.00
Table 126: Calculation of the commonality factor C for all route pairs
The share by route is calculated from the correction factor according to Cascetta and from the
impedance Rmin0 in the unloaded network.
For Route 1, the portion is calculated using the Logit model as follows:
0.0011125
0.8596 e
P 1 = = 0.425
0.0011125
0.0011080
0.0011440
0.8596 e
+ 0.6264 e
+ 0.6978 e
In the same way, the portions showed in the table 127 result for Routes 2 and 3. The volume
of each route qr1 in the first iteration step results from the product of portion P and demand F.
For Route 1, the calculation is as follows: 0.425 2000 = 849.4 PCU. From the route volumes,
the link volumes and thus the network impedances can then be calculated (illustration 108).
This results in the impedances R1 of the routes. These interim results can be verified in Visum
if the maximum number of internal iterations are set to M = 1 in the assignment parameters.
Route
Rmin0
exp(Rmin0)E
Portion P
qr1
R1
0.8596
1,125
0.279079049
0.425
849.4
2,470
0.6264
1,080
0.212737561
0.324
647.5
1,961
0.6978
1,440
0.165335421
0.252
503.2
2,848
0.657152032
1.000
2,000.0
Total
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A Village
X City
Illustration 108: Volumes and link run times after the first internal iteration step m=1
For the route choice in the second iteration step, an estimated impedance Rmin1 is calculated.
Since = 0.5, this impedance results from the formation of the mean value of Rmin0 and R1. On
the basis of Rmin1, as in the first iteration step, the assignment is then made for the 3 routes.
For each route, the interim result is qr2. To smooth the volumes between two iteration steps,
the MSA method (Method of Successive Averages) is used.
q r ( m 1 ) ( m 1 ) + q rm'
q rm = m
This route volume then leads to the link volumes and impedances of the second iteration step
(table 128). The iterations are repeated until the termination criteria are met.
Route
Rmin1
exp(R)E
Portion P
qr2
qr2
R2
0.8596
1797.6
0.142432
0.3944
788.8
819.1
2,405.2
0.6264
1,520.7
0.136919
0.3791
758.3
702.9
2,016.0
0.6978
2,144.0
0.081775
0.2264
452.9
478.0
2,785.6
Total
0.361126
2,000
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375
5.17
TRIBUT
Taking road toll into consideration, a constant value of time is set in conventional procedures,
which in principle can be used to convert the costs (toll) into time and the conventional
monocriterial assignment procedures are directly applicable.
Compared to the conventional approach, TRIBUT uses a concurrent distributed time value.
Accordingly, TRIBUT calculates in the route search as well as in the route choice with two
separate criteria, namely with time and costs (bicriterion).
This method has been used for many years in France, for the evaluation of privately financed
freeways with toll management. Compared to the conventional approach, this approach is a
more realistic price elasticity when using toll roads.
Road tolls are transport systemspecific and can either be defined for a link or a link sequence.
Using link sequences allows modeling of nonlinear toll systems.
Road toll modeling is an addon which basically can be used with any equilibrium assignment
procedure. Visum provides two extensions of this kind: TRIBUTEquilibrium (as extension to
the "Equilibrium" method) and TRIBUTLearning procedure (as extension to the
"Equilibrium_Lohse" method).
5.17.1
376
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377
5.17.2
Here, VT is the value of time in [/h], for example. Though this equation applies to all tollregarding assignment procedures, the TRIBUT procedure differs from other procedures in two
properties:
Link toll
In the simplest case, the route's monetary costs result from summing up the toll amounts by
link along the route.
The following applies:
378
tL = t(VolL)
VolL
Volume of link L
CL
VT
PTV AG
This toll type applies to the HGV toll in Germany, for example: On parts of the network
(highways), heavy goods vehicles have to pay a toll amount which is precisely proportional to
the covered distance. Thus to each link of the highway link type the product from the link length
x constant km cost multiplication can be allocated as toll amount. For any other link and for any
other transport system, the toll amount = 0. The total of these amounts summed up along a
route represents the cost resulting from the distance traveled on highway links for the transport
system HGV.
For link toll, no toll system has to be defined. It is not necessary either to include the link
attribute TollPrTSys in the impedance definition, since TRIBUT regards this amount
automatically.
Note: The TRIBUTEquilibrium assignment always regards the linkspecific toll values. The
TRIBUTLearning procedure only regards the linkspecific toll values of links which do not
belong to any toll system.
Area toll
Especially toll systems for inner city areas often use a different type. For the area toll, a
geographically coherent section of the network is stated as toll area. A distanceindependent
fixed amount is charged, if a section of a route runs through the toll zone.
c
R r = t r + r =
VT
c
t
+
L r L VT
0
Illustration 109: Example for area toll: The London Congestion Charging Zone
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379
At first view, the monetary costs of a route do not depend on the individual links being
traversed, but on the route course as a whole in this case. Basically this is right, however,
TRIBUT  like any other assignment procedure  is based on shortest path searches via links
and requires the impedances by link therefore. That is why TRIBUT puts the area toll down to
the link toll case. For that, define the toll area first by creating a network object 'toll system' of
the area toll type and then allocating the toll area's number to all links which are located in the
area as value for the attribute Toll system number. The toll system additionally stores the
fixed toll amount for each transport system. For the clear definition of the figure described
below, all connector nodes of a zone need to be located either within the toll area or outside of
it.
On this basis, TRIBUT defines the toll amounts for links, turns, and connectors as follows:
cL = 0 for all links L
cC = 0 for all connectors C
c
c T = T  for all turns T, with T = 1, if turn T leads from a link inside the toll area to a link
2
outside or vice versa, i.e. if the toll area border is crossed. Otherwise, T = 0.
c
c X = X  for all transitions X from connectors to links, where X = 1, if the transition X leads
2
Zone 1
Link outside
of toll area
Link inside
of toll area
Turn with toll
Connector
with toll
Connector
without toll
Illustration 110: Reducing the area toll to the link toll case
(For clarity reasons, turns without toll are not displayed)
Summing up the toll amounts along a route results in an amount null for routes that do not
touch the toll area at all. Any other route (origin traffic, destination traffic, through traffic, internal
traffic of the toll area) is charged with the toll amount of c, since they traverse exactly two
network objects with toll amount = c/2 each.
In a Visum model, you can define multiple toll systems of the area toll type. Then, the
definitions for turn and connector cost are applied to each toll system with the associated fixed
toll amount. For turns between two toll areas the two toll amounts are charged.
Please note the two characteristics. For routes, that cross the border of the toll area multiple
times the toll amount is charged multiple times. This might not correspond to reality, however
it cannot be avoided for the required reduction to additive toll amounts per network object.
Furthermore, the internal traffic within the toll area can be excluded from toll calculations in
380
PTV AG
reality. For the TRIBUT route choice it is no problem that these flows are nevertheless charged
with toll amounts, since the toll comparably refers to all route alternatives and thus this additive
constant value does not modify the equilibrium solution. But when calculating a skim matrix of
the impedance for future use in a demand model for example, you need to perform an
additional matrix operation after skim matrix calculation to subtract the toll amount from the
internal traffic OD pairs data.
Note: Only the TRIBUTLearning procedure takes the area toll into consideration.
For links that belong to a toll system the link attribute TollPrTSys is not regarded.
Matrix toll
Another type of toll models is often applied to arterial highways. In this case we have a
physically cohesive subnetwork with a limited number of connections (entries and exits) to the
remaining network (illustration 111).
Toll amounts are not defined as the sum of toll amounts by link, but arbitrarily as fee by pair
(entry, exit). Using such a fee matrix, the operator has more flexibility since the tol