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ENGINEERING THE PLUMBING SYSTEM

Sanjay Joshi, Nathan Paden, Shane Graber


Directions: Select a pump from the Select Pump dropdown menu. Next, enter your system data in the spaces provided.
Pipe Length refers to the total length of pipe from the output of your sump to the input into your tank (both horizontal
and vertical). Static Head refers only to height that you need to pump the water vertically. If there are any valves, elbows,
couplings, etc, enter that data into the spaces provided. Once all of the system data is entered into the required fields,
click the SOLVE button to find out what you overall system flow and plumbing losses will be with the given pump/plumbing

information. Please note that you need to have the Solver Add-In installed in Excel to make this spreadsheet function properly
Reset the form after every calculation, otherwise erroneous data might be displayed.
For additional plumbing and pump information, please see the January 2003 issue of Advanced Aquarist for Sanjay Joshi,
Nathan Paden, and Shane Graber's "An Engineering View of Aquarium Systems Design: Pumps and Plumbing" article.
For technical pump data, please see the following URL: http://www.reefs.org/library/pumps/

Enter Plumbing System Data


Select Pump:

Mag18

PVC pipe Nominal Diameter


Pipe Length

<-- Click on this cell to select pump from dropdown l


0.75 inches
8 feet

# of Ball Valves
# of Gate Valves
# of 90 Elbows

2
0
4

# of 45 Elbow
# of Couplings/Unions
# of Swing Check Valves

0
2
0

Expansion Couplings
Sudden Contactions

0 Smaller Diameter
0 Smaller Diameter

Static Head

0 feet

System Results

(inches)
0.75
0.75

Plumbing Loss

Flow Rate (GPM)


System Flow Rate (GPH)
Velocity at Output (ft/sec)

0.00
0
0.00

Fluid Power:

0.00 Watts

Difference between pump curve


and system curve:

SOLVE

31.017

Friction head (ft)


Minor Loss (ft)
Static Head
Total Dynamic Head (ft)

Sometimes the SOLVE button does not function properly. To remedy this, click Tools-Solver-Solve.

G SYSTEM

ber

ata in the spaces provided.


tank (both horizontal
ere are any valves, elbows,
into the required fields,
h the given pump/plumbing

spreadsheet function properly .

Aquarist for Sanjay Joshi,


s and Plumbing" article.

o select pump from dropdown list.

SOLVE

Larger Diameter
Larger Diameter

(inches)
1.5
1.5

Plumbing Losses
Friction head (ft)
Minor Loss (ft)
Static Head
Total Dynamic Head (ft)

0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

Pipe Water Loss Calculation for Water


Based on Darcy-Weisbach
hf=f*L/D*v^2/2g

Kinematic Viscosity (ft2/sec) at 75F


0.00001
Roughness of Plastic Pipe/ Tubing (ft)
0.000005
Specific Gravity of Fluid
1.024
CHECK !!! :Valid for Relative Roughness 10^-6 to 10^-2 and Reynolds Number 5000 to 10^8
Pipe Nominal Diameter
Pipe Length (ft)
Pipe Inside Diameter (in)
Flow Rate (gpm)
Kinematic viscosity (ft2/sec)
Roughness (ft)
Total Equivalent Length
Relative Roughness
Velocity (fps)
Reynolds Number
friction factor
friction head loss (ft)

0.75
8
0.824
0.00
9.2521E-006
0.000005

OK
Reynolds Number to low: Results Invalid - Results Invalid
OK
OK

8
7.28155E-005 dimensionless
0.000000006
4.45976E-005 dimensionless
0.0114368992 dimensionless
7.47099E-019

9.3E-006
0

esults Invalid - Results Invalid

Hazen Williams Calculator for head loss due to Friction


Pipe Size
Actual size
GPM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

1/2"

Frictional Head loss in ft per 100ft of pipe


3/4"
1"
1.25"
1.5"
0.622
0.824
1.049
1.38
1.61
0.991
3.576
7.577
12.909
19.515
27.354
36.392
46.602
57.961
70.450

0.252
0.910
1.929
3.286
4.967
6.962
9.263
11.862
14.753
17.932
21.394
25.134
29.151
33.439
37.997
42.821
47.909
53.259
58.868
64.734
70.856
77.231
83.858
90.735
97.861
105.234
112.852
120.715
128.821
137.168

0.078
0.281
0.596
1.015
1.535
2.151
2.862
3.664
4.558
5.540
6.609
7.765
9.006
10.330
11.738
13.229
14.801
16.453
18.186
19.998
21.889
23.859
25.906
28.031
30.232
32.510
34.863
37.293
39.797
42.375

0.021
0.074
0.157
0.267
0.404
0.566
0.754
0.965
1.200
1.459
1.740
2.045
2.371
2.720
3.091
3.484
3.897
4.333
4.789
5.266
5.764
6.283
6.822
7.381
7.961
8.561
9.181
9.820
10.480
11.159

0.010
0.035
0.074
0.126
0.191
0.268
0.356
0.456
0.567
0.689
0.822
0.966
1.120
1.285
1.460
1.645
1.841
2.047
2.262
2.488
2.723
2.968
3.222
3.487
3.760
4.044
4.337
4.639
4.950
5.271

L
C

100
150

2
2.067

2.5 3"
2.469

3.068

0.003
0.010
0.022
0.037
0.057
0.079
0.106
0.135
0.168
0.204
0.244
0.286
0.332
0.381
0.433
0.488
0.546
0.607
0.671
0.738
0.807
0.880
0.955
1.034
1.115
1.199
1.286
1.375
1.468
1.563

0.001
0.004
0.009
0.016
0.024
0.033
0.044
0.057
0.071
0.086
0.103
0.121
0.140
0.160
0.182
0.205
0.230
0.256
0.282
0.311
0.340
0.371
0.402
0.435
0.470
0.505
0.542
0.579
0.618
0.658

0.000
0.002
0.003
0.005
0.008
0.012
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.036
0.042
0.049
0.056
0.063
0.071
0.080
0.089
0.098
0.108
0.118
0.129
0.140
0.151
0.163
0.176
0.188
0.201
0.215
0.229

e
D
Re
kinematic visc
Flow rate
velocity
friction

0.000005
0.824
4.5E-005
9.3E-006
1.0E-008
6.0E-009
0.01146

e
D
Re
kinematic visc
Flow rate
velocity
frcition

0.000005
0.824
4.45976E-005
9.2521E-006
13
7.8213368366
0.0114409951

Friction Coefficents for Fittings and Valves (K) & Minor Loss Calculations
K values for Fittings and Pipe Exit and Entrance
0.50
0.75
1"
1.25"
1.5

0.06
0.15
0.57
0.3
0.38
1.14
1

0.05
0.14
0.54
0.29
0.36
1.08
0.9

2
0.878906
0.738525
0.5625
0.371338
0.191406
0

3
0.945216
0.878906
0.790123
0.682919
0.5625
0.308642
0

Fitting
Ball Valve
Gate Valve
Standard Elbow-90
Standard Elbow-45
Standard Tee - Flow through
Standard Tee- Branch
Swing Check Valve
pipe Exit- Sharp
Pipe Entrance - Inward Projecting
Pipe Entrance - Flush

Sudden Expansion
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
2
3

Sudden Contraction

0.08
0.22
0.81
0.43
0.54
1.62
1.4

0.08
0.2
0.75
0.4
0.5
1.5
1.3

0.07
0.18
0.69
0.37
0.46
1.38
1.2

0.07
0.18
0.66
0.35
0.44
1.32
1.1

0.06
0.15
0.63
0.34
0.42
1.26
1.1

Sudden Expansion K = (1 -(d1^2)/(d2^2))^2)


0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
0.308642
0.5625
0.7056 0.790123
0 0.191406
0.4096
0.5625
0
0.1296 0.308642
0 0.093364
0

Sudden Contraction K = 0.5 (1 - (d1^2)/(d2^2))


0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
2
0.5
0.75 0.277778
1
0.375 0.21875
1.25
0.42
0.32
0.18
1.5 0.444444
0.375 0.277778 0.152778
2 0.46875 0.429688
0.375 0.304688 0.21875
3 0.486111 0.46875 0.444444 0.413194
0.375 0.277778

Coupling/Unions

0.03

Pipe Size
# of ball valves
Gate Valve
# of Elbows - 90
# of Elbows-45

0.75
2
0
4
0

0.16
0
3
0

# of Couplings/Union
#of Swing Check Valve
Sudden Expansion
Sudden Contraction
pipe Exit
Pipe Entrance
Total K
Minor Head Loss

2
0
0
0
1
0.5

0.06
0
0
0
1
0.5
4.72
2.6E-018

Calculations

1
0.78
0.5

d1 is smaller diameter

Pump List
Mag18
Mag12
Mag9
Mag7
Mag5
Mag3
Mag2
Mag1.9
Mag1.5
Mag1
MaxiJet 400
MaxiJet 600
MaxiJet 900
MaxiJet 1200
MiniJet 404-1
MiniJet 404-2
MiniJet 606-1
MiniJet 606-2
MicroJet 320-1
MicroJet 320-2
MicroJet 450-1
MicroJet 450-2
Rio 50
Rio 90
Rio 180
Rio 400
Rio 600
Rio 800HP
Rio 1100
Rio 1400
Rio 1700
Rio 2100
Rio 2500HP
Rio 3100
Rio 4100
Rio 4600
Iwaki 15 RT
Iwaki 20 RT
Iwaki 20 RXT
Iwaki 20 RZT
Iwaki 30 RT
Iwaki 30 RXT
Iwaki 30 RZT
Iwaki 40 RT
Iwaki 40 RXT
Iwaki 55 RT
Iwaki 70 RT
Iwaki 70 RZ
Iwaki 100 RT

Selected Pump:
Input TDH:

Pump Name
Mag18
Mag12
Mag9
Mag7
Mag5
Mag3
Mag2
Mag1.9
Mag1.5
Mag1
MaxiJet 400
MaxiJet 600
MaxiJet 900
MaxiJet 1200
MiniJet 404-1
MiniJet 404-2
MiniJet 606-1
MiniJet 606-2
MicroJet 320-1
MicroJet 320-2
MicroJet 450-1
MicroJet 450-2
Rio 50
Rio 90
Rio 180
Rio 400
Rio 600
Rio 800HP
Rio 1100
Rio 1400
Rio 1700
Rio 2100
Rio 2500HP
Rio 3100
Rio 4100
Rio 4600
Iwaki 15 RT
Iwaki 20 RT
Iwaki 20 RXT
Iwaki 20 RZT
Iwaki 30 RT
Iwaki 30 RXT
Iwaki 30 RZT

GRI 510
GRI 518
GRI 520
Sequence 2400SEQ10
Sequence 3000SEQ11
Sequence 3600SEQ12
Sequence 2900SEQ21
Sequence 3500SEQ21
Sequence 4000SEQ19
Sequence 4600SEQ22
Sequence 5200SEQ22
Sequence 6000SEQ23
Dolphin Ampmaster 3000
Dolphin Aqua Sea 2100
Dolphin Aqua Sea 2700
Dolphin Aqua Sea 3600
Dolphin Aqua Sea 4700
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 4800 HHS
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 5000 HHS
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 5900 HHS
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 8250 HHS
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 9400 HHS
Dolphin DP-70
Dolphin DP-115
Dolphin DP-270
Dolphin DP-385
Dolphin DP-560
Dolphin DP-800
Dolphin DP-1200
Little Giant 1.5 MDQ-SC
Little Giant 2 MDQ-SC
Little Giant 2 MDQX-SC
Little Giant 3 MDQ-SC
Little Giant 3 MDQX-SC
Little Giant 4 MDQ-SC
Little Giant 4 MDQX-SC
Little Giant TE-5.5 MDQ-SC
Gen-X Mak4
Gen-X Mak5
Velocity T1/S1
Velocity T2/S2
Velocity T3/S3
Velocity T4/S4
Sen700
Sen900
CAP 800
CAP 1200
CAP 1800
CAP 2200
CAP 5000
Eheim 1046

Iwaki 40 RT
Iwaki 40 RXT
Iwaki 55 RT
Iwaki 70 RT
Iwaki 70 RZ
Iwaki 100 RT
GRI 510
GRI 518
GRI 520
Sequence 2400SEQ10
Sequence 3000SEQ11
Sequence 3600SEQ12
Sequence 2900SEQ21
Sequence 3500SEQ21
Sequence 4000SEQ19
Sequence 4600SEQ22
Sequence 5200SEQ22
Sequence 6000SEQ23
Dolphin Ampmaster 3000
Dolphin Aqua Sea 2100
Dolphin Aqua Sea 2700
Dolphin Aqua Sea 3600
Dolphin Aqua Sea 4700
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 4800 HHS
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 5000 HHS
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 5900 HHS
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 8250 HHS
Dolphin Super Aqua Sea 9400 HHS
Dolphin DP-70
Dolphin DP-115
Dolphin DP-270
Dolphin DP-385
Dolphin DP-560
Dolphin DP-800
Dolphin DP-1200
Little Giant 1.5 MDQ-SC
Little Giant 2 MDQ-SC
Little Giant 2 MDQX-SC
Little Giant 3 MDQ-SC
Little Giant 3 MDQX-SC
Little Giant 4 MDQ-SC
Little Giant 4 MDQX-SC
Little Giant TE-5.5 MDQ-SC
Gen-X Mak4
Gen-X Mak5
Velocity T1/S1
Velocity T2/S2
Velocity T3/S3
Velocity T4/S4
Sen700
Sen900

Eheim 1048
Eheim 1250
Eheim 1060
RK2 4021.EM
RK2 4021
RK2 4031
RK2 4031.HF
RK2 4050
RK2 4060
RK2 4070

CAP 800
CAP 1200
CAP 1800
CAP 2200
CAP 5000
Eheim 1046
Eheim 1048
Eheim 1250
Eheim 1060
RK2 4021.EM
RK2 4021
RK2 4031
RK2 4031.HF
RK2 4050
RK2 4060
RK2 4070

Mag18
3.393572478E-018 Output GPM:

31.01667

Pump Operating Curve - Coeff's for Poly Approx


a3
a2
a1
a0
-0.0029716667
0.0990333333 -2.403333 31.01667
0.0030983333 -0.1334666667 0.004402
20.05
-0.0006668333
-0.0447
-0.395 15.94667
-0.0008091667
0.0068333333
-0.874
11.43
0.0087733333 -0.1271833333
-0.4045 8.228333
0.007835 -0.1349333333 -0.027833
6.11
0.0128366667 -0.1481833333 -0.252667 4.563333
-0.007575
0.0200166667
-0.246 3.356667
-0.00463
0.0615 -0.592667 2.388333
0.0277833333 -0.1666666667
-0.1945 1.333333
-1.1633166667
0.38305 -1.095517 1.763833
-0.2653333333
0.2283666667
-1.1031 2.653333
-0.8006666667
0.7523333333 -1.836167 3.844333
-0.19325
0.1166666667
-1.4293
4.8665
-0.0074066667 -0.0269833333 -0.084657 0.496833
-0.0925933333
0.1626983333
-0.5463
1.808
-0.013895 -0.0153516667 -0.090695
1.3731
-0.0384566667
0.064005
-0.3793 2.687167
-0.35455
0.27955 -0.103788 0.133333
-0.5953666667
0.3258 -0.448783 1.217083
-0.016385
0.0165516667 -0.072752 0.234883
-0.05644
0.011635 -0.34685
1.9305
0 -0.0916666667 -0.391667
1.15
0 -0.1916666667
-0.325 1.416667
1.67E-15 -0.0416666667 -0.541667
2
-0.0416666667
0.1333333333
-0.825
2.4
-0.0027783333
-0.063095
-0.5365
3.3305
0.00169 -0.0001383333 -0.645533 3.508833
-0.0045283333
-0.05031 -0.60095 6.408333
0.0099633333 -0.1427466667 -0.360583 6.851667
0.0016233333 -0.0371816667 -1.168983 10.93017
0.01905 -0.2721166667 -0.491917 11.67483
-0.0360883333
0.28375 -1.598633 13.17533
-0.0570483333
0.4498166667
-1.852 15.3205
0.0036083333 -0.1630266667 -0.080032 23.31667
0.001155
-0.088075 -0.377467 25.04667
-0.0013766667
0.0004416667 -0.29265
5.0225
-0.00026 -0.0155733333 -0.24885 7.989667
-0.002945 -0.0626666667 -0.915817 14.01883
-0.00007
-0.00045 -0.092917 3.506333
-0.002275
0.03774 -0.495867 10.00767
-0.00365
-0.004285 -0.546383 18.49833
-0.00021
0.0072516667 -0.095548 4.643667

Calculations
pump curve
if-then-else
31.0166666667 31.01666667
20.05
0
15.9466666667
0
11.43
0
8.2283333333
0
6.11
0
4.5633333333
0
3.3566666667
0
2.3883333333
0
1.3333333333
0
1.7638333333
0
2.6533333333
0
3.8443333333
0
4.8665
0
0.4968333333
0
1.808
0
1.3731
0
2.6871666667
0
0.1333333333
0
1.2170833333
0
0.2348833333
0
1.9305
0
1.15
0
1.4166666667
0
2
0
2.4
0
3.3305
0
3.5088333333
0
6.4083333333
0
6.8516666667
0
10.9301666667
0
11.6748333333
0
13.1753333333
0
15.3205
0
23.3166666667
0
25.0466666667
0
5.0225
0
7.9896666667
0
14.0188333333
0
3.5063333333
0
10.0076666667
0
18.4983333333
0
4.6436666667
0

-0.0021133333
-0.0154633333
-0.0003166667
-0.0002
-1.33333333E-005
-0.0013933333
-0.010675
-0.0068466667
-0.0041233333
-0.03858
-0.051825
-0.0185933333
-0.004185
-0.008385
-0.0118933333
-0.0084966667
-0.0150816667
-0.0162366667
0.0045416667
-0.0732583333
-0.085725
-0.017055
-0.0061983333
-0.0085033333
-0.00011
-4.33333333E-005
-8.33333333E-005
-0.00011
-0.23375
0.019865
-0.0003183333
0.0009316667
0.0039516667
-0.0019933333
-0.002755
-0.0025133333
-0.0052366667
-0.027935
-0.001975
-0.00887
-0.001305
-0.0022116667
-0.0007
-0.0014916667
0
-0.0009283333
-0.00237
-0.00015
-0.0078966667
0.0012916667
-0.0007583333

0.0378766667
0.2497
-0.0074716667
-0.0026433333
-0.0014666667
0.0616133333
0.25505
0.1254316667
0.128725
0.2959666667
0.5310666667
0.0743016667
0.0551766667
0.1486466667
0.13578
0.1029216667
0.28455
0.3313
-0.23335
0.9121833333
1.09925
0.1644816667
0.0661516667
0.3081166667
-0.00318
-0.0048883333
0.0010816667
0.0040816667
0.62115
-0.1958166667
-0.0555733333
-0.063345
-0.135665
0.000485
0.0335516667
0.0166833333
0.07569
0.1960166667
0.0232266667
0.104475
0.0248333333
0.0028766667
0.0307333333
0.020585
-0.0198
0.0152566667
0.03167
-0.0031066667
0.1325016667
-0.0311066667
0.01441

-0.413717
-1.793667
-0.230567
-0.486833
-0.026167
-1.2194
-2.289833
-1.559717
-1.56485
-3.096333
-3.9875
-2.553833
-1.597267
-2.1475
-1.775
-1.5956
-2.7565
-3.0725
-0.751683
-4.5985
-5.235333
-3.663667
-2.682167
-5.178333
-0.904633
-0.397767
-0.5736
-0.644583
-0.542467
-0.007058
-0.430917
-0.217767
-0.041473
-0.57905
-0.612183
-0.270267
-0.6341
-1.504233
-0.4489
-1.105
-0.432783
-0.75065
-0.878117
-0.543833
-0.3197
-0.121488
-0.360467
-0.219917
-1.10695
-0.775
-1.1323

13.57317
23.13167
19.225
27.50667
12.0705
36.46667
15.468
25.605
29.69333
40.09333
50.42667
59.975
48.525
58.83167
67.065
77.25167
87.95833
101.5283
59.64167
45.545
50.67667
64.455
78.33167
65.19167
82.98
95.65333
132.2183
150.3117
1.167867
1.882833
4.503333
6.3765
8.826667
13.18833
20.04167
5.688333
9.0775
14.1695
12.07383
19.325
14.609
22.795
38.72667
19.84833
25.92
9.094
11.98183
13.37917
24.09167
14.19483
18.69

13.5731666667
23.1316666667
19.225
27.5066666667
12.0705
36.4666666667
15.468
25.605
29.6933333333
40.0933333333
50.4266666667
59.975
48.525
58.8316666667
67.065
77.2516666667
87.9583333333
101.528333333
59.6416666667
45.545
50.6766666667
64.455
78.3316666667
65.1916666667
82.98
95.6533333333
132.218333333
150.311666667
1.1678666667
1.8828333333
4.5033333333
6.3765
8.8266666667
13.1883333333
20.0416666667
5.6883333333
9.0775
14.1695
12.0738333333
19.325
14.609
22.795
38.7266666667
19.8483333333
25.92
9.094
11.9818333333
13.3791666667
24.0916666667
14.1948333333
18.69

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.0861116667
0.155555
0.0361116667
0.047685
-0.0063483333
0
-0.0579233333
-0.0007183333
0.012445
-0.0165316667
-0.0156016667
-0.06871
-0.0169683333
-0.0006133333
-0.0015633333
-0.0007283333

-0.575
-0.91905
-0.5386833333
-0.6073333333
0.0509616667
-0.0431166667
0.2807333333
-0.0818733333
-0.2216333333
0.26625
0.28755
1.4753833333
0.4129833333
0.0313316667
0.0975483333
0.051195

-0.027778
0.103968
0.699
0.919183
-1.063033
-0.226433
-0.47905
-0.13253
-0.014847
-2.579
-4.193667
-10.994
-4.597667
-1.487433
-2.707667
-2.255833

4.243333
5.325167
10.38333
11.25033
20.49333
1.320867
2.645667
5.280833
10.04567
41.21333
70.055
95.08833
90.26667
77.28167
120.9933
140.66

4.2433333333
5.3251666667
10.3833333333
11.2503333333
20.4933333333
1.3208666667
2.6456666667
5.2808333333
10.0456666667
41.2133333333
70.055
95.0883333333
90.2666666667
77.2816666667
120.993333333
140.66

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

IWAKI 55 RLT
30
f(x) = -250.0004796668x^3 + 0.0087788527x^2 - 0.6023151832x + 27.6873277472

GPM

20
Iwaki 55
f(x) = - 0.0006337197x^3 + 0.0098697323x^2 - 0.4781011025x + 19.5838427232
Polynomial (Iwaki 55)
15
Iwaki 70
10
Polynomial (Iwaki 70)
5
0
0

5 10 15 20 25 30 35
TDH

Ampmaster
70
60
f(x) = 0.0045420995x^3 - 0.2333565228x^2 - 0.7516824094x + 59.6413764125
50
Ampmaster 3000
40
Polynomial (Ampmaster
3000)
30
20
10
0
0

8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Iwaki 55 Curve
TDH
1
4
12
20
28
Iwaki 70RT
TDH
1
4
12
20
28
33

Iwaki 55 Curve
FLOW
19
18
14
9
0
Iwaki 70RT
FLOW
27
25.5
21
15
7.5
0

TDH

Ampmaster
FLOW
0
4
8
11
13
15
17.5

60
52
42
30
20
10
0