Anda di halaman 1dari 19

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

lrFR ipa n
zix a r A miiqi
q A
Basic Verb Patterns
in Hebrew

iel awri xc ly xeriyl xfr xneg

-1-

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

In English we have different types of present tense. They depend on


different conditions.
Simple present (or present simple) is used to describe actions which
are general, happen all the time, or happen or are true always.
Examples: I live in Israel"; I do not live in Chicago"; We learn
Hebrew in school"; We learn Hebrew every wednesday"; He does
not eat meat"; Do you play tennis?"; Do you play everyday?"; etc.
The present continuous (also called the present progressive) tense is
used describe an action is happening at the time of speaking/writing
or temporary actions (the verb "to be" is used with the main verb. ing is added to the main verb), or the actions is going to happen in
the near future: or future actions that are planned (in this case the
verb "going to" is used). Examples: I am reading a book"; He is
watching TV"; We are going to Minnesota next week"; They are
not doing their homework"; etc.
Present Perfect (also called the present perfect simple) tense is used to
describe an action that happened in the past, but has a connection to the
present. The exact time of the action is not known, or the action is not
completed at the time of speaking/ writing, the action has been repeated
numerous time, and is expected to be repeated in the future, etc.
Examples; I am not hungry; I have eaten at the school cafeteria"; I
have played tennis since 2003"; I have known him for a long time";
Have you been to Jerusalem?"; I have studied Hebrew for two year";
Have you learned Hebrew for a long time?"; etc.
Present perfect continuous tense is used when the action started in the
past and continued at the time of speaking/writing, or just finished at the
time of speaking/writing; or the statement answers "how long" an action
has been happening, or the action has happened continuously with
stopping. Examples: I have been waiting for you for two hours"; We
have been learning Hebrew since the age of five"; I have been living
here since I was born"; Have you been learning Hebrew for a long
time?; etc.
-2-

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

To summarize, in English there are different present tense forms:

Simple
Present

Present
Continuous

I study Hebrew I am studying


every day.
Hebrew now.

Present
Perfect

Present
Perfect
Continuous

I have studied I have been


Hebrew in
studying
several
Hebrew for five
schools.
years.

English uses the verb "have" as an auxiliary verb, as I do have


homework; They do not have to go; He does not have a new car;
etc.
Hebrew does not use a verb here. Just skip it!

Hebrew has only ONE type of present tense, which replaces all four
English types!

How dose Hebrew indicate the circumstances for the English verbs as
described above? Hebrew adds indicators of time, for example eiW k r
(right now); meid (today); rEayd

(this week); ycegd

(this
month); on fA
or rbxA
(at the moment/present); etc.
Unlike its future and past tenses, Every Hebrew verb conjugated in the
present tense has only four possible variations for any given verb, by
singular/plural/masculine/feminine.

-3-

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

But before we go into the Hebrew verb we need to understand the


concept of WxFW - root.

All Hebrew verbs are based on basic consonants (or letters) which
create the pattern. Usually, the number of consonants is three, but they
can also be two or four, and very rare (with non-Hebrew words) five
letters.

The yxey by itself has no meaning, and cannot be translated unless it is


inserted into a specific pattern. When the verb moves from one pattern
to another it can change the meaning. For example:
az
M - write aiz k d - dictate; az
Mz d - correspond.
There are different groups of roots, depending on their grammatical
behavior.
The ordinary roots, which have three letters that remain throuhout the
conjugation are called min
lW - the strong or ordinary verb.

The roots with two consonants and a vowel between them (that remain
throughout the conjugation) are called e"r - Ayin-Vav or led i"r Ayin-yod, depending on the vowel in the middle.

The roots with two consecutive consonants (that remain throuhout the
conjugation) and a vowel following them are called d"l - Lamed-He
or i"l - Lamed-Yod.

Also, there are different verb patterns which are called mipiip A.
We
will study verbs in one of them only, called lrR or lw.

-4-

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

Here are a few examples:


The pattern of the min
lW is F for singular masculine. Setting the
following roots into the blue boxes create the following verbs:

azk
az FM

cnl
cn Fl

xbq
xbFq

xny
xnFy

ayg
ayFg

You probably noticed that they all rhyme.


Let us emphasize again:
Any singular masculine (I, you, he, it) has one verb form (for
all!)
Any singular feminine (I, you, she, it) has one verb form (for
all!)
Any plural masculine (we, you, they, these/those) has one
verb form (for all!)
Any plural feminine (we, you, they, these/those) has one verb
form (for all!).

The Strong Verb- min


lW
od ,oz ` ,Epg
p` md ,mz ` ,Epg
p`

`id ,z ` ,ip`

`Ed ,dz` ,ip`

zF F

mi F

z F

zFcnFl

mic nFl

zcnFl

cnFl

zFazFM

mia zFM

zazFM

azFM

zecaer

micaer

zcaer

caer

-5-

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

The verb with e (=i) in the Middle - i"r/e"r


od ,oz ` ,Epg
p`

md ,mz ` ,Epg
p`

`id ,z ` ,ip`

mi

zFxW

mix W

dxW

xW

zexb

mix
b

dxb

xb

zenw

minw

dnw

mw

zF

`Ed ,dz` ,ip`

The verb with d (=i) in the End - i"l/d"l


od ,oz ` ,Epg
p` md ,mz ` ,Epg
p`

`id ,z ` ,ip`

`Ed ,dz` ,ip`

zF F

mi F

d F

d F

zFvFx

mivFx

dvFx

dvFx

zFzFW

mizFW

dzFW

dzFW

zeUer

miUer

dUer

dUer

-6-

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

A few important things we need to remember:


The negation of the verb no/not) is through `l, though in a
higher register (level) of Hebrew, a fancier one, it can be through
oi`
(or its conjugated forms).
azFM
ip` = I write or I am writing.
azFM
`l ip` = I do not write or I am not writing.

The auxiliary verb do (when not used for action, such as I am


doing my homework) does not have an equivalent in Hebrew. In
other words, we skip it: What do you think? will be ?ayeg
dz` dn.
Do you eat soup will be ?wxn lkF` dz`.

I do eat soup will be


!wxn lkF` (oM) ip`. He does not go will be jlFd `l `Ed.

Write the correct verb in each of the following boxes:

The Strong Verb- min


lW
od ,oz ` ,Epg
p` md ,mz ` ,Epg
p`

zF F

mi F
ad`

ip`

`id ,z ` ,ip`

z F

cnl
cnel

azk

F
xn`
mixne`

md
z`

xbq

`Ed ,dz` ,ip`

zazek
-7-

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

ad`

cnl

azk

`id

xbq
zxbeq

xn`

Epgp` miade`
`Ed

ade`
zexne`

oz`

zecnel

od

xbeq

dz`
miazek

mz`

Write the correct verb in each of the following boxes:

od ,oz ` ,Epg
p`

zF

md ,mz ` ,Epg
p`

`id ,z ` ,ip`

mi

ux

mw

xy
xy

ip`

`a

mU
miny

md
z`

`Ed ,dz` ,ip`

dvx
d`a

`id
-8-

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

ux
Epgp`

mw
minw

xy

`a

mixy

`Ed

zeny

oz`

zenw

od
dz`

mU

zevx
mi`a

mz`

The verb with d (=i) in the End - i"l/d"l


od ,oz ` ,Epg
p`

zF F

md ,mz ` ,Epg
p`

mi F
dvx

ip`

`id ,z ` ,ip`

d F

dpa
dpea

dzy

dpw

dzey

z`

d`a

`id
Epgp`

d F

mipew

md

mivex
-9-

`Ed ,dz` ,ip`

d`x

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

dvx

dpa

dzy

dpw

`Ed

d`x
d`ex

zezey

oz`

ze`ex

od
zevx

dz`

mipea

mz`

mi`a

A reminder:

Note: = l =d+
l. in the = A =d+
A.

Match by dragging the pronouns from the right side to the


matching sentence:

mixiy zade`
mihxq zeade`
dcilb ade`
mixiy miade`

`ed
md
`id
od

- 10 -

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

Arrange the following words in the right order:


dpge izexl dxU zeazek azkn

xwFAa ciec meid ux

meid dn dzika `id zcnel


caer zAya ip` `l

daeh od dcilb zevex


epgp` lecb ziia mipea

Translate the following:


1. I (m.) want water. ________________________________________
2. I (f.) want good juice! _____________________________________
3. Deenah writes a letter. ____________________________________
4. Sarah is doing homework. _________________________________
5. Yitzchak sings well (good). ______________________________
6. Yehoshua wants a small house. _____________________________
7. Daniel and Rachel do not drink wine. ________________________
8. Yehudit goes with Irit to the (f.) teacher. ______________________
9. Sarah and Rachel write a letter to Aharon. _____________________
10. Brachah and Malkah go from the house to the classroom.
_______________________________________________________
11. We (m.) see a little house there. _____________________________
12. You (f.s.) go with Sarah. ___________________________________
13. Golda and Channah see a good (f.) movie.
_______________________________________________________
14. Aharon writes a letter in Hebrew. ____________________________
15. Rachel is a student here. ___________________________________
16. The woman buys wine in the store. __________________________
17. This man is a teacher. _____________________________________
18. Rivkah sees Daniel in the store. _____________________________
19. Sarah lives in Minnesota. __________________________________
- 11 -

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

20. Deenah gets up, and Aharon doesnt get up.


_______________________________________________________
21. This is a big house. _______________________________________
22. This house is big. ________________________________________
23. The big house is there. ____________________________________
24. Shira lives in a big house. __________________________________
25. Michael lives in the small house. ____________________________
26. Deenah sees the a house of the good man.
_______________________________________________________
27. Yitzchak is a good singer. __________________________________
28. He sings a good song. _____________________________________
29. We (f.) buy juice in the store. _______________________________
30. They build a small house. __________________________________
31. Aharon doesnt want wine, he wants juice.
_______________________________________________________
32. Daniel and Tovah sing a good song with Yitzchak.
_______________________________________________________
33. Zehavah writes a song in Hebrew. ___________________________
34. Daniel sings a song _______________________________________
35. Yehudit sings with Aharon in the classroom.
_______________________________________________________
36. Sarah comes to the classroom. ______________________________

Translate the following:


_____________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

- 12 -

.xiy dxy zixir .1

.dziMl jled rEyFd

i .2

.dxi`nl
az k n zazeM dpic .3

. zixar micnel l`ipce

oexd` .4

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg


__________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

.uin dzey zicedi .5

.miin dzey `l dxU .6

.oehqFAA dxb `l lg x .7

_____________________________________________________________________

.dzikl zekled dxUe zicEdi .8

______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

.aeh oii dzey l`ipc

.9

_______________________________________________________________________

.miaeh dl`d
miind
.10

________________________________________________________________________

.ycg xiy dxy dpic .11

_______________________________________________________________

.my lecb ziia mi`ex Epgp` .12

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

?zEpga
uin dpew in .13

.zilb p`a
xiy azek reyedi .14

___________________________________________________________________

?zepga oexd` dUer dn .15

_________________________________________________________

.qilet`pina dxen
z`fd dyi`d .16

________________________________________________________

.dzikl mikled dl`d


micinlzd .17

______________________________________________________________________

.miaeh micinlz dl` .18

_______________________________________________________________

.zixara mixiy miazek md .19

_______________________________________________________________

.my dxb z`fd zihpcEh


qd
.20

_________________________________________________________

.ziiaA uin zezey zixire dxi` n .21

_____________________________________________________________

.lecb ziia mipea l`ip


ce
wgv
i .22

___________________________________________________________________________

.my lecbd ziiad .23

___________________________________________________________________________

.alM d`ex oexd` .24

__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

.zixir mr xiy dxy dxU .25

?reyedi mr zepgl jled in .26

_________________________________________________________________

.lecb ziiade dphw zepgd .27

_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

?daeh zihpcEhq

dxU .28

?wgv
i mr dzikl `a in .29

.miin mr oii dzey `l l`ipc .30

_____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

- 13 -

!lecb xn
f wgv
i .31

.zixa ra
mixiy xy `ed .32

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg


_________________________________________________________________________

?zicEdi dxb in mr .33

________________________________________________________________________

.zilbp`a dfd xiyd .34

____________________________________________________________

.miti mixiy mixy micinlzd .35

____________________________________________________________________________

.dlFcb zepg z`f .36

Fill in the blank (you may fill any meaningful word):


.xiy ____________________ xn z .1
.miin ____________________ wgvi .2
.zixar ____________________ oexd`e zicedi .3
?zepga ____________________ dpic dn .4
.z`fd dzika ____________________ zEx .5
.uin ____________________ wgvi .6
.ohw ziia ____________________ sqei
.7
.azkn ____________________ dxUe l`ipc .8
.dzika car ____________________ dMlne
dpic .9
?miin ____________________ in .10
.lecb ziiaa ____________________ dfd dxFnd

.11
.____________________ dfd yi`d .12
.zixar ____________________ od .13
.dzikl ____________________ zixir .14
?zepga ____________________ dz` dn .15
.uin ____________________ `l wgvi .16

Translate the Following:

- 14 -

xweaa

hxq d`ex `l dpic

.1

xgE`n dnw dxy

.2

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

xwFA-zgEx`

lke` `l wgvi

.3

ax
r-zgex` zlke` zicEdi

.4

zixar xeriyl ux ipc

.5

ax
ra zixa r micnel epgp`

.6

dzikl mikled l`ipce wgvi

.7

meid caer oexd`

.8

zixara
zayeg d`
l

.9

?zelke`
oz`
iz n .10

Translate the following:


Ehud gets up early

.1

When do you eat breakfast?

.2

I want a shekel!

.3

When do you see a movie?

.4

Daniel and Channah get up,


eat breakfast, go to the
classroom, and learn

.5

Yehudit and Miryam want


ice-cream. They buy
ice-cream with lemon. Daniel
also wants ice-cream. Now
he its ice-cream.

.6

He reads and writes Hebrew,


but she is running in the rain.

.7

- 15 -

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

Sarah drinks tea (dz)


in the
morning and eats soup for
lunch.

.8

Deenah! What are you


eating?

.9
.10

Aharon writes to Sarah. He


asks (l`ey) what she is
doing.

Fill in the blank:

.mixagl azkn ___________________________________ (azk) ip`

.1

.xtqd-zial __________________________________ (jld) epgp`

.2

?zixar __________________________________ (cnl) z` dti`

.3

(uex)e _______________________________ (mew) ip` xwea lk

.4

?__________________________________ (xnb) md izn

.5

.xtq __________________________________ (`xw) ip` meid

.6

?xweaa __________________________________ (mew) `id izn

.7

?replewl (tickets) miqihxkd __________________________________ (dpw) in

.8

.mixag __________________________________ (d`x) md axra

.9

.mixag mr __________________________________ (jld) `id

.10

?xwea mixiy __________________________________ (rny) z`

.11

?______________________________ (jld) epgp`y ____________________________ (xn`) in

.12

.__________________________________ (car) `l md zaya

.13

._______________________________

- 16 -

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

.l`xyil __________________________________ (qeh) md

.14

.aeh lke` __________________________________ (dvx) izex

.15

?__________________________________ (cnl) `id dti`

.16

.mely __________________________________ (xn`) md

.17

?dziiAd
__________________________________ (jld) od izn

.18

.dg R W nl
az k n _______________________ (ip` ,azk)

.19

?dAiq n A _______________________ (cwx ,z `)


in mr

.20

.(quiz) ogFA
l _______________________ (cnl) ipce lkin

.21

.aFh xt q _______________________ (`xw ,epgp`)

.22

.zeycg milin _______________________ (cnl) dpyeye dpic

.23

._____________________ (cwx) `l md la` ,dAiqnl


__________________ (jld) ciece dwax

.24

?ycg xtq _______________________ (`xw) z` ,lkin

.25

(lk`) `idy _______________________ (xn`) ia`

.26

.xweaa _______________________ (lk`) `id dn _______________________ (l`y) ipc

.27

Note - a word placement - wx (only):


When wx appears before the verb, it relates to the verb:
lke` wx ip` - I only eat (meaning, I do not do anything else).
When it appears after the verb, it relates to the part coming after
the verb.
...wx lke` ip` - I eat only (meaning, I eat only... and nothing
else).

- 17 -

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

Note - a word placement - mb (also):


When mb appears before the verb, it relates to the verb:
lke` mb ip` - I also eat (meaning, I do something else, too).
When it comes after the verb, it relates to the part coming after
the verb.
...mb lke` ip` - I also eat (meaning, I eat [something], and I
also eat...).

VOCABULARY - milin-x
vF`

z y x w v t r q p n l k i h g f e d c b a `
move
remember

ff
xkf

love, like

ad`

man

Wi`

store

zEpg

woman

dWi
`

think

ayg

in

good

aFh

come

fly (airplane)

qh

quiz

ogFA

wine

oii

build

dpa

write

azk

big, great

lFcb

a
`a

to the

finish

xnb

to

steal

apb

wear, dress

yal

live (=dwell)

learn, study

cnl

go, walk
- 18 -

xb
jld

iel awri x"c ly xeriyl xfr xneg

get up

mw

from

(n)
n

buy

dpw

teacher (m.)

dxFn

read

`xw

teacher (f.)

dxFn

happen

dxw

water

miin

tie (verb)

xyw

juice

uin

see

d`x

sell

xkn

fight, quarel
want
homework

ax

letter

az k n

dvx

party

dAiq n

ziia-ixEri
W

gp

rest

song

xiW

close

xbq

of

lW

work (verb)

car

there

mW

count

xt q

put

mU

movie

hxq

keep, watch,
guard
sing
drink

xny

eiW k r

now

xy
dzy

go up

dlr

with

mr

fly (bird etc.)

sr

do, make

dUr

laugh

wgv
mv

fast (verb)
yell,
scream
small, little

- 19 -

shout,

wrv
oh w