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# 1

Code: 9A03502

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

A railway car has two axles. The mass of car is 5000 kg. It has two axles. One of these axles is driven by a
motor directly. The axis of motor is parallel to the axle. The distance between rails is 1.5 m. The mass
2
moment of the inertia of axles along with wheels is 35 kg.m . The mass moment of inertia of motor
2
armature is 25 kg.m . The radius of each wheel is 50 cm. Determine limiting speed for the railway car when
it moves around a curve of 200 m that no wheel leaves the rail. The centre of gravity of car is at 1.2 m
height.

A body is to be moved up an inclined plane applying a force parallel to the plane surface. It Is found that a
0
force of 3 kN is required to just move it up the plane when the angle of inclination is 10 , where as the force
0
needed increases to 4 kN when the force inclination is increased to 15 . Determine the weight of body and
the co-efficient friction.

A single plate clutch is required to transmit 8 KW at 1000 r.p.m. The axial pressure is limited to 70 kN/m .
The mean radius of the plate is 4.5 times the radial width of the friction surface. If both the sides of the plate
are effective and the co-efficient of friction is 0.25, find: (i) The Inner and the outer radii of the plate and
mean radius. (ii) The width of the friction lining.

The cast iron flywheel is fitted to a punch press to run at 90 rpm and must supply 12 kN.m of energy during
th
1/5 revolution and allow 15% change of speed. The ring speed is limited to 350 m/minute. Find the mean
diameter and weight of the flywheel and the motor power. Assume overall efficiency as 80.5.

## With a neat sketch, explain the working of Wilson-Hartnell governor.

(a)
(b)
(c)

A shaft carries four rotating masses A, B, C and D in this order along its axis. The mass A may be assumed
concentrated at a radius of 12 cm, B at 15 cm, C at 14 cm and D at 18 cm. The masses of A, C and D are
15 kg, 10 kg and 8 kg respectively. The planes of revolution of A and B are 15 cm apart and B and C are
18 cm apart. The angle between A and C is 90. If the shaft is in complete dynamic balance, determine:
The angles between the radii of A, B and D.
The distance between the planes of revolution of C and D, and
The mass B.

(a)
(b)

Crank and connecting rods of a 4-cylinder in-line engine running at 1800 rpm are 6 cm and 24 cm each
respectively and the cylinders are spaced 15 cm apart. If the cylinders are numbered 1 to 4 in sequence
from one end, the cranks appear at intervals of 90 in an end view in the order 1 - 4 - 2 - 3. Reciprocating
mass corresponding to each cylinder is 1.5 kg, determine:
Unbalanced primary and secondary forces, and
Unbalanced primary and secondary couples with reference to central plane of engine.

(a)
(b)

A machine weighs 18 kg and is supported on springs and dashpots. The total stiffness of the spring is 12
N/mm and the damping is 0.2 N/mm/s. The system is initially at rest and a velocity of 120 mm/s is imparted
to the mass. Determine the:
Displacement and velocity of mass as a function of time.
Displacement and velocity after 0.4s.

*****

Code: 9A03502

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

A diesel locomotive moving at a speed of 100 km/h turns the around a curve of radius 400 m to the
right. The pair of driving wheels is 2 m in diameter and long with the axle has a mass of 2000 kg. The
radius of gyration of wheels together with axel may be taken has 0.6 m. Find the gyro effect on the pair
of driving wheels.

A single plate clutch transmits 25 kW at 900 rpm. The maximum pressure intensity between the plates
2
is 85 kN/m . The outer diameter of the plate is 360 mm both the sides of the plate are effective and the
coefficient of the friction is 0.25. Determine:
The inner diameter of the plate.
The axial force to engage the clutch.

(a)
(b)

A cone clutch with a semi-cone angle of 15 transmits 10 kW at 600 rpm. The normal pressure intensity
2
between the surfaces in contact is not to exceed 100kN/m . The width of the friction surfaces is half of
the mean diameter. Assume = 0.25, determine: (i) The outer and inner diameters of the plate. (ii)
Width of the cone face. (iii) The axial force to engage the clutch.

Differentiate between the functions of a flywheel and a governor. In a diesel generating set, is it
possible to use only a flywheel or a governor? Give your answers with justifications. In the design of
flywheels, a permissible speed variation is an important parameter. State the approximate range of
permissible speed variation in percent in case of a diesel engine and a punching machine. Justify your

A Proell governor has equal arms of length 300 mm. The upper and lower ends of the arms are pivoted
on the axis of the governor. The extension arms of the lower links are each 80 mm long and parallel to
the axis when the radii of the rotation of the ball are 150 mm and 200 mm. The mass of the each ball is
10 kg and the mass of the central load is 100 kg. Determine the range of speed of the governor.

6 (a)
(b)

What is meant by static and dynamic unbalance in machinery? How can the balancing be done?
What is field balancing of rotors? Explain the procedure.

7 (a)
(b)

## What do you mean by balancing of reciprocating engine?

The following data relate to a single-cylinder reciprocating engine:
Mass of the reciprocating parts = 40 kg
Mass of the revolving parts = 30 kg at crank radius
Speed = 150 rpm
Stroke = 350 mm.
If 60% of the reciprocating parts and all the revolving parts are to be balanced, determine the balance
mass required at a radius of 320 mm and unbalanced force when the crank has turned 45 from the

A machine part of mass 2 kg vibrates in a viscous medium. Determine the damping coefficient when a
harmonic exciting force of 25 N results in resonant amplitude of 12.5 mm with a period of 0.2 seconds.
If the system is excited by a harmonic force of frequency 4 Hz, what will be the percentage increase in
the amplitude of vibration when the damper is removed as compared with that with damping?

*****

Code: 9A03502

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

A four wheeled trolley car has a total mass of 3000 kg. Each axle with its two wheels and gears has a total
2
moment of inertia of 32 kgm . Each wheel is of 450 mm radius. The centre distance between two wheels
on an axle is 1.4 m. Each axle is driven by a motor with a speed ratio of 1:3. Each motor along with its
2
gear has a moment of inertia of 16 kgm and rotates in the opposite direction to that of the axle. The
centre of mass of the car is 1 m above the rails. Calculate the limiting speed of the car when it has to
travel around a curve of 250 m radius without the wheels leaving the rails.

## The following data relate to a screw jack:

Pitch of the threaded screw = 8 mm
Diameter of threaded screw = 40 mm
Co-efficient of friction between screw and nut = 0.1
Load = 20 kN. Assuming the load rotates with the screw, determine:
The ratio of torque required to raise and lower the load.
The efficiency of the machine.

(a)
(b)
3

A multi-disc clutch has five plates having four pairs of active friction surfaces. If the intensity of pressure is
2
not to exceed 127 kN/m , Find the power in kW transmitted at 500 r.p.m. If the outer and inner radii of
friction surfaces are 1.25 and 75 mm respectively. Assume uniform wear and take coefficient of friction
0.3. Note: here n = No.of active surfaces = 4.

A vertical single cylinder engine has a cylinder diameter of 240 mm and a stroke of 420 mm. the mass of
reciprocating is 200 kg. The connecting rod is 4.25 times the crank radius and the speed is 340 rpm.
0
When the crank has turned through 40 from the top dead centre, the net pressure on the piston is 1 MPa.
Calculate the effective turning moment on the crankshaft for this piston.

A Hartnell governor moves between 300 rpm and 320 rpm for a sleeve lift of 20 mm. The sleeve arms and
ball arms are 80 mm and 120 mm, respectively. The levers are pivoted at 120 mm from the governor axis.
The weight of the each ball is 25 N. The ball arms are parallel to the governor axis at the lowest
equilibrium speed. Determine: (a) The loads on the spring at the minimum and maximum speeds, and
(b) The stiffness of the spring.

6 (a)
(b)

## What do you mean by force balancing of linkages? How is it achieved? Explain.

The four masses m1, m2, m3 and m4 having their radii of rotation as 200 mm, 150 mm, 250 mm and 300
mm are 200 kg, 300 kg, 240 kg and 260 kg in magnitude respectively. The angles between the successive
masses are 45, 75, and 135 respectively. Find the position and magnitude of the balance mass
required, if its radius of rotation is 200 mm.

A 90 V- engine has two cylinders which are placed symmetrically. The two connecting rods operate a
common crank. The length of the connecting rods are 320 mm each and the crank radius is 80 mm. The
reciprocating mass per cylinder is 12 kg. If the engine speed is 600 rpm, then find the resultant primary
and resultant secondary forces. Also find the maximum resultant secondary force.

Find the natural frequency of a vibratory system having a mass suspended from the free end of a mass
less spring. What is the effect of the vibration of the inertia of the spring mass?

*****

Code: 9A03502

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

An air-craft consists of a propeller and engine. The mass moment of inertia of propeller and engine is 100
2
kg.m . The engine rotates at 2500 r.p.m in clockwise direction if viewed from the front of the air-craft. The
air-craft completes half circle of radius of 1000 m, while flying at 500 km/hour. Determine the gyroscopic
couple on the aircraft and state its effect.

A single plate clutch is required to transmit 8 kW at 1000 rpm. The axial pressure is limited to 70 kN/m . The
mean radius of the plate is 4.5 times the radial width of the friction surface. If both the sides of the plate are
effective and the coefficient of friction is 0.25, find: (i) The inner and the outer radii of the plate and the mean
radius. (ii) The width of the friction lining.

(a)
(b)

The external radius of a friction plate of a single clutch having both sides as effective is 150 mm. The power
transmitted is 20 kN at a speed of 1000 r.p.m. The maximum intensity of pressure at any point of contact
5
2
surface is 0.8 10 N/m . If coefficient of friction is 0.30, then find:
The internal radius of the friction plate, and
Axial thrust with which the friction surfaces are held together.

(a)
(b)
(c)

A certain machine requires a torque of (500 + 50 sin ) N.m. to drive it, where is the angle of rotation of
shaft measured from certain datum. The machine is directly coupled to an engine which produces a torque
of (500 + 60 sin 2) N.m. the flywheel and the other rotating parts attached to the engine weight 500 N and
have a radius of gyration of 0.4 m. The mean speed is 180 rpm. Determine:
The fluctuation of energy.
The percentage fluctuation of speed and
The maximum and minimum angular acceleration of the flywheel and corresponding shaft positions.

Calculate the minimum speed, maximum speed and range of speed of a Porter governor, which has equal
arms each 250 mm long and pivoted on the axis of rotation. The mass of the each ball is 6 kg and the
central mass on the sleeve is 18 kg. The radius of rotation of the ball is 150 mm when the governor begins
to lift and 200 mm when the governor is at the maximum speed.

Explain the term static balancing and dynamic balancing. Derive the necessary conditions to achieve
them.

A 4-cylinder, slow speed marine engine has cranks at angular intervals of 90. The speed of the engine is
100 rpm and mass of reciprocating parts for each cylinder is 900 kg. Each crank is 500 mm long. The outer
cranks are 3.0 m apart and the inner cranks are 1.20 m apart and are placed symmetrically between the
outer cranks. Determine the order of the cranks for the best balancing of the reciprocating masses. What
would then be the unbalanced primary couple?

A vertical shaft of 5 mm diameter is 200 mm long and is supported in long bearings at its ends. A disc of
mass 50 kg is attached to the centre of the shaft. Neglecting any increase in stiffness due to the attachment
of the disc to the shaft, find the critical speed of rotation and the maximum bending stress when the shaft is
rotating at 75% of the critical speed. The centre of the disc is 0.25 mm from the geometric axis of the shaft.
2
E = 200 GN/m .

*****

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R9

Code: 9A03502
B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Supplementary Examinations, May 2013
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

A car is of total mass 3000 kg. It has wheel base equal to 2.5 m and track width equal to
1.5 m. The effective diameter of each wheel is 80 cm, and moment of inertia of each
wheel is 1.0 kg.m2. The rear axle ratio is 4. The mass moment of inertia of engine rotating
parts is 3 kg.m2 and spin axis of engine parts is perpendicular to the spin axis of wheels.
Determine the reaction at each wheel if car takes right turn of 100 m radius at 108 km/hr
speed. Also determine critical speed. The height of C.G. is 0.5 m from ground and it is
placed on the vertical line through geometric center of wheels.

A conical pivot supports a load of 25 kN, the cone angle being 120 degrees, and the
intensity of normal pressure is not to exceed 0.25 MPa. The external radius is twice the
internal diameter. Find the outer and inner radii of bearing surface. If the shaft rotates at
180 r.p.m and the coefficient of friction is 0.15, find the power loss in friction, assuming
uniform pressure.

(a)
(b)

A cone clutch of semi cone angle 150 is used to transmit a power of 30 KW at 800 r.p.m.
The mean frictional surface radius is 150 mm. The normal intensity of pressure at the
mean radius is not to exceed 0.15 N/mm2. The coefficient of friction is 0.2. Assuming
uniform wear, Determine :
Width of the contact surface and
Axial load (or force) needed to engage the clutch.

(a)
(b)
(c)

## Write short notes on:

Turning moment diagram.
Piston-effort.
Coefficient of fluctuation of speed.

## With a neat sketch, explain the working of Hartnell governor.

Contd. in Page 2

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R9

Code: 9A03502
6 (a)
(b)

## What you understand by static and dynamic balancing?

The four masses m1, m2, m3, and m4 having their radii of rotation as 200 mm, 150 mm,
250 mm and 300 mm are 200 kg, 300 kg, 240 kg and 260 kg in magnitude respectively.
The angles between the successive masses are 45, 75, and 135 respectively. Find the
position and magnitude of the balance mass required, if it radius of rotation is 200 mm.

A V-twin engine has the cylinder axes at right angle and connecting rods operates a
common crank. The reciprocating mass per cylinder is 10 kg. The crank is 7.5 cm long
and each connecting rod is 35 cm long. Show that the engine may be balanced for
primary effects by means of a revolving balance mass. If the speed of the crank is 500
r.p.m, what is the maximum value of the resultant secondary force and in which direction
does it act?

A horizontal spring mass system with coulomb damping has a mass of 5 kg attached to a
spring of stiffness 980 N/m. if the coefficient of friction is 0.025, calculate:
The frequency of free oscillations.
The number of cycles corresponding to 50% reduction in amplitude if the initial amplitude
is 5 cm and
The time taken to achieve this 50% reduction.

(a)
(b)
(c)

*****

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Code: 9A03502

B.TECH III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations November 2012

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours

Max. Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks

*****
1. (a) Write a short note on gyroscope.
(b) An aeroplane runs at 600 km/h. The rotor of the engine weighs 4000 N with radius of gyration
of 1 metre. The speed of rotor is 3000 r.p.m. in anticlockwise direction when seen from rear
side of the aeroplane. If the plane takes a loop upwards in a curve of 100 metres radius, find
(1). Gyroscopic couple developed: and. (2) Effect of reaction gyroscopic couple developed on
the body of aeroplane.
2. (a) What is meant by the expression friction circle? Deduce an expression for the radius of
friction circle in terms of the radius of the journal and the angle of friction.
(b) An effort of 1500 N is required to just move a certain body up an inclined plane of angle 12,
force acting parallel to the plane. If the angle of inclination is increased to 15, then the effort
required is 1720 N. Find the weight of the body and the coefficient of friction.
3. (a) What is a clutch? Make a sketch of a single-plate clutch and describe its working.
(b) A cone clutch is to transmit 7.5 kW at 900 r.p.m. The cone has a face angle of 12. The width
of the face is half of the mean radius and the normal pressure between the contact faces is not
to exceed 0.09 N/mm2. Assuming uniform wear and the coefficient of friction between contact
faces as 0.2. Find the main dimensions of the clutch and the axial force required to engine the
clutch.
4. (a) Draw the turning moment diagram of a single cylinder double acting steam engine.
(b) The crank of a three-cylinder single-acting engine are set equally at 120the engine speed is
540 rpm. The turning-moment diagram for each cylinder is a triangle for the power stroke with
a maximum torque of 100 .m at 60after dead-centre of the corresponding crank. On the return
stroke, the torque is sensibly zero. Determine
(a) The power developed.
(b) The coefficient of fluctuation of speed if the flywheel has a mass of 7.5 kg with a radius
of gyration of 65 mm.
(c) The coefficient of fluctuation of energy.
(d) The maximum angular acceleration of the flywheel.
5.

A proell governor has equal arms of length 300 mm. The upper and lower ends of the arms are
pivoted on the axis of the governor. The extension arms of the lower links are each 80 mm
long and parallel to the axis when the radii of rotation of the balls are 150 mm and 200 mm.
The mass of each ball is 10 kg and the mass of the central load is 100 kg. Determine the
range of speed of the governor.

6. (a) Two masses in different planes are necessary to rectify the dynamic unbalance comment.
(b) A shaft with 3 metres span between two bearings carries two masses of 10 kg and 20 kg
acting at the extremities of the arms 0.45 m and 0.6 m long respectively. The planes in which
these masses rotate are 1.2 m and 2.4 m respectively from the left end bearing supporting the
shaft. The angle between the arms is 60. The speed of rotation of the shaft is 200 rpm if the
masses are balanced by two counter masses rotating with the shaft acting at radii of 0.3 m and
placed at 0.3 m from each bearing centers. Estimate the magnitude of the two balance masses
and their orientation with respect to the Xaxis, i.e mass of 10 kg.
Contd. in page 2
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7.

Derive the following expressions, for an uncoupled two cylinder locomotive engine:
(a) Variation in tractive force.
(b) Swaying couple and
(c) Hammer blow.

## 8. (a) What are free damped and forced vibrations? Explain.

(b) The following data are given for a vibratory system with viscous damping; Mass2.5 kg; spring
constant=3 N/mm and the amplitude decreases to 0.25 of the initial value after five
consecutive cycles. Determine the damping coefficient of the damper in the system.
*****

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Code: 9A03502

B.TECH III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations November 2012

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours

Max. Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks

*****
1. (a) Explain the application of gyroscopic principles to aircrafts.
(b) The mass of the motor cycle along with the rider is 180 kg. The height of the centre of gravity
of total mass is 60 cm above the ground when it moves straight. Each wheel has diameter
equal to 70 cm and polar mass moment of inertia of each wheel is 2 kgm2. The engine rotates
at a speed 5 times the road wheel and engine rotating parts have polar mass moment of
inertia equal to 0.2 kgm2. Determine the angle of heel required if motor cycle negotiates a
curve of radius 100 m at a speed of 108 km/hr.
2. (a) A truncated conical pivot of cone angle rotating at speed N supports a load W. The smallest
and largest diameter of the pivot over the contact area are d and D respectively. Assuming
uniform wear, derive the expression for the frictional torque.
(b) A 150 mm diameter valve against which a steam pressure of 2 MM/m2 is acting is closed by
means of a square threaded screw 50 mm in external diameter with 6 mm pitch. If the
coefficient of friction is 0.12: Find the torque required to turn the handle.
3

(a) What is a brake? What is the difference between a brake and a clutch?
(b) A Single dry plate clutch transmits 7.5 kW at 900 r.p.m. The axial pressure is limited to 0.07
M/mm2. If the coefficient of friction is 0.25, find
(1) Mean radius and face width of the friction lining assuming the ratio of the mean radius
to the face width as 4 and 2.
(2) Outer and inner radii of the clutch plate.

4. (a) Explain the terms fluctuation of energy and fluctuation of speed as applied to flywheels.
(b) A vertical double action steam engine develops 75 kW at 250 r.p.m. The maximum fluctuation
of energy is 30 per cent of the work done per stroke. The maximum and minimum speeds are
not to vary more than I per cent on either side of the mean speed. Find the mass of flywheel
required. If the radius of gyration is 0.6 m.
5. (a) Define and explain the following terms relating to governors:
(i)
Sensitiveness and
(ii)
Isochronisms.
(b) The arms of a porter governor are 300 mm long. The upper arms are pivoted on the axis of
rotation and the lower arms are attached to the sleeve at a distance of 35 mm from the axis of
rotation. The load on the sleeve is 54 kg and the mass of each ball is 7 kg determine the
equilibrium speed when the radius of the balls is 225 mm. What will be the range of speed for
this position if the frictional resistance to the motion of the sleeve are equivalent to a force of
30 N?
6. (a) Define and explain the term balancing of rotating masses what will be the harm if the rotating
parts of a high speed engine are not properly balanced?
(b) A shaft carries five masses A,B,C,D and E which revolve at the same radius in planes which
are equidistant from one another. The magnitude of the masses in planes A, C and D are 50
kg, 40 kg and 80 kg respectively. The angle between A and C is 90 and that between C and D
is 135. Determine the magnitude of the masses in planes B and E and their positions to put
the shaft in complete rotating balance.
Contd. in page 2
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7. (a) Explain why only a part of the unbalanced force due to reciprocating masses is balanced by
revolving mass.
(b) The axes of a three-cylinder air compressor are at 120 to one another and their connecting
rods are coupled to a single crank. The length of each connecting rod is 240 mm and the
stroke is 160 mm. The reciprocating parts have a mass of 2.4 kg per cylinder. Determine the
primary and secondary force if the engine runs at 2000 rpm.
8. (a) Discuss the effect of inertia of a shaft on the free torsional vibrations.
(b) Calculate the whirling speed of a shaft 20 mm diameter and 0.6 m long carrying mass of 1 kg
at its mid-point. The density of the shaft material is 40 Mg/m3 , and ;youngs modulus is 200
GN/m2 .Assume the shaft to be freely supported.
*****

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Code: 9A03502

B.TECH III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations November 2012

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours

Max. Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks

*****
1. (a) Explain the special characteristics exhibited by the gyroscope when it is operating.
(b) The rotor of a turbine installed in a boat with its axis along the longitudinal axis of the boat
makes 1500 r.p.m. clockwise when viewed from the stern? The rotor has a mass of 750 kg
and a radius of gyration of 300 mm. If at an instant the boat pitches in the longitudinal vertical
plane so that the bow rises from the horizontal plane with an angular velocity of 1 rad/s,
determine the torque acting on the boat and the direction in which it tends to turn the boat at
the instant?
2. (a) State the laws of static and dynamic friction.
(b) A conical pivot bearing supports a vertical shaft of 200 mm diameter. It is subjected to a load
of 30 kN. The angle of the cone is 120 and the coefficient of friction is 0.025. Find the power
lost in friction when the speed is 140 r.p.m. assuming.
(i)
Uniform pressure and
(ii)
Uniform wear.
3. (a) Describe the working of a band and block brake with the help of a neat sketch. Deduce the
relation for ratio of tight and slack side tensions.
(b) A conical friction clutch is used to transmit 90 kW at 1500 r.p.m. The semi cone angle is 20
and the coefficient of friction is 0.2. If the mean diameter of the bearing surface is 375 mm and
the intensity of normal pressure is not to exceed 0.25 n/mm2 , find the dimensions of the
conical bearing surface and the axial load required.
4. (a) Define the terms coefficient of fluctuation of energy and coefficient of fluctuation of speed in
the case of flywheels.
(b) The turning moment diagram for a multi cylinder engine has been drawn to a scale of 1 mm
=4500 N-m vertically and 1 mm=2.4 horzontally. The intercepted areas between output
torque curve and mean resistance line take in order from one end are
342,23,245,303,115,232,227,164 mm2, when the engine is running at 150 r.p.m. If the mass of
the flywheel is 1000 kg and the total fluctuation of speed does not exceed 3% of the mean
speed, find the minimum value of the radius of gyration.
5. (a) Define and explain the following terms relating to governors:
(i)
Stability and (ii) Hunting.
(b) In a porter governor, the mass of the central load is 18 kg and the mass of each ball is 2 kg.
The top arms are 250 mm while the bottom arms are each 300 mm long. The friction of the
sleeve is 14 N. If the top arms make 45 with the axis of rotation in the equilibrium position.
Find the range of speed of the governor in that position.
6. (a) What is meant by static and dynamic unbalance in machinery? How can the balancing be
done?
(b) Four masses A,B,C and D are attached to a shaft and revolve in the same plane. The masses
are 12 kg ,10 kg, 18 kg and 15 kg respectively and their radii of rotations are 40 mm, 50 mm,
60 mm and 30 mm the angular position of the masses B,C and D are 60 and 135 and 270
from the mass A. Find the magnitude and position of the balancing mass at a radius of 100
mm.
Contd. in page 2
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7.

The cylinder axes of a V-engine are at right angle to each other. The weight of each piston is 2
kg and of each connecting rod 2.8 kg the weight of the rotating parts like crank webs and the
crank pin is 1.8 kg. The connecting rod is 400 mm long and its centre of mass is 100 mm from
the crank pin centre. The stroke of the piston is 160 mm. Show that the engine can be balance
d for the revolving and the primary force by a revolving counter mass. Also, find the magnitude
and the position if its centre of mass from the crankshaft centre is 100 mm. What is the value
of the resultant secondary force if the speed is 840 rpm?

8. (a) Deduce an expression for the natural frequency of free transverse vibrations for a beam fixed
at both ends and carrying a uniformly distributed mass of m kg per unit length.
(b) Explain the term logarithmic decrement, as applied to damped vibrations.
*****

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Code: 9A03502

B.TECH III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations November 2012

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours

Max. Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks

*****
1. (a) Explain the special characteristics exhibited by the gyroscope when it is operating?
(b) A four wheel trolley car of total mass 2000 kg running on rails of 1 m gauge, rounds a curve of
25 m radius at 40 km/h. The track is banked at 10. The wheels have an external diameter of
0.6 m and each pair of an axle has a mass of 200 kg. The radius of gyration for each pair is
250 mm. The height of C.G. of the car above the wheel base is 0.95 m, allowing for centrifugal
force and gyroscopic couple action; determine the pressure on each rail.
2. (a) What is meant by the expression friction circle? Deduce an expression for the radius of friction
circle in terms of radius of the journal and angle of friction.
(b) A conical pivot bearing supports a vertical shaft of 200 mm diameter. It is subjected to a load
30 kN. The angle of the cone is 120 and the coefficient of friction is 0.025. Find the power lost
in friction when the speed is 140 r.p.m. assuming?
(i)
Uniform pressure and (ii) Uniform wear.
3. (a) Explain function of absorption type dynamometer.
(b) A car moving on a level road at a speed km/h has a wheel base 2.8 meters, distance of C.G.
from ground level 600 mm, and the distance of C.G. from rear wheels 1.2 meters. Find the
distance travelled by the car before coming to rest when brakes are applied.
(i)
To the rear wheels.
(ii)
To the front wheels and
(iii)
To all the four wheels. The coefficient of friction between the tyres and the road
may be taken as 0.6.

## 4. (a) What is meant by piston effort and crank effort?

(b) The turning moment diagram for a four stroke gas engine may be assumed for simplicity to be
represented by four triangles , the areas of which from the line of zero pressure are as follows:
Expansion stoke=3550 mm2: exhaust stroke=500 mm2: suction stroke=350 mm2: and
compression stroke=1400 mm2. Each mm2 represent 3 N-m. Assuming the resting moment to
be uniform. Find the mass of the rim of a flywheel required to keep the mean speed 200 r.p.m
with 2% . The mean radius of the rim may be taken as 0.75 m. Also determine the crank
positions for the maximum and minimum speeds.
5. (a) What are the effects of friction and of adding a central weight to the sleeve of a watt governor?
(b) A loaded governor of the porter type has equal arms and links each 250 mm long. The mass of
each ball is 2 kg and the central mass is 12 kg. When the ball radius is 150 mm, the valve is
fully open and when the radius is 185 mm, the valve is closed? Find the maximum speed and
the range of speed. If the maximum speed is to be increased 20% by an addition of mass to
6. (a) Discuss how a single revolving mass is balanced by two masses revolving in different planes.
(b) Four masses A,B.C and D revolve at equal radii and are equally spaced along a shaft. The
mass B is 7 kg and the radii of C and D make angles of 90 and 240 respectively with the
radius of B. Find the magnitude of the masses A. C and D and the angular position of A so that
the system may be completely balanced.
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Code: 9A03502

7.

## The following data refer to a two cylinder uncoupled locomotive:

Rotating mass per cylinder
= 280 kg
Reciprocating mass per cylinder
= 300 kg
Distance between wheels
= 1400 mm
Distance between cylinder centres
= 600 mm
Diameter of treads of driving wheels
= 1800 mm
= 300 mm
Radius of centre of balance mass
= 620 mm
Locomotive speed
= 90
= 3.5 tonne.
Determine
(i)
The balancing mass required in the planes of driving wheels if whole of the
revolving and two-third of the reciprocating mass are to be balanced.
(ii)
The swaying couple.
(iii)
The variation in the attractive force.
(iv)
The maximum and minimum pressure on the rails.
(v)
The maximum speed of locomotive without lifting the wheels from the rails.

8. (a) Define, in short, free vibrations, forced vibrations and damped vibrations.
(b) A shaft 1.5 m long, supported in flexible bearings at the ends carries two wheels each of 50 kg
mass. One wheel is situated at the centre of the shaft and the other at a distance of 375 mm
from the centre towards left. The shaft is hollow of external diameter 75 mm and internal
diameter 40 mm. The density of the shaft material is 7700 kg/ m3 and modulus of elasticity is
200 GN/m2. Find the lowest whirling speed of the shaft, taking into account the mass of the
shaft.
*****

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R9

Code: 9A03502

## B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Supplementary Examinations, May 2012

DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours
Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****
1 (a)
(b)

What do you understand by gyroscopic couple? Derive a formula for its magnitude.
The mass of the motor cycle along with the rider is 180 kg. The height of the centre of
gravity of total mass is 60 cm above the ground when it moves straight. Each wheel has
diameter equal to 70 cm and polar mass moment of inertia of each wheel is 2 kgm2. The
engine rotates at a speed 5 times the road wheel and engine rotating parts have polar
mass moment of inertia equal to 0.2 kgm2. Determine the angle of heel required if motor
cycle negotiates a curve of radius 100 m at a speed of 108 km/hr.

2 (a)
(b)

## Explain the terms: friction circle and friction axis.

Deduce an expression for the efficiency of an inclined plane when a body moves down a
plane.

3 (a)

Which of the two assumptions-uniform intensity of pressure or uniform rate of wear, would
you make use of in designing friction clutch and why?
A cone clutch with cone angle 200 is to transmit 7.5 kW at 750 r.p.m. The normal intensity
of pressure between the contact faces is not to exceed 0.12 N/mm2. The coefficient of
friction is 0.2. If face width is 1/5th of mean diameter, find:
(i) The main dimensions of the clutch, and
(ii) Axial force required while running.

(b)

4 (a)
(b)

What is the function of flywheel? How does it differ from that of a governor?
The torque delivered by a two-stroke engine is represented by T = (1000 + 300 sin 2 500 cos 2 ) N.m where is the angle turned by the crank from the inner-dead centre. The
engine speed is 250 rpm. The mass of the flywheel is 400 kg and radius of gyration 400
mm. Determine:
(i) The power developed.
(ii) The total percentage fluctuation of speed.
(iii) The angular acceleration of flywheel when the crank has rotated through an angle of
(iv) The maximum angular acceleration and retardation of the flywheel.

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R9

Code: 9A03502
5 (a)
(b)

What are centrifugal governors? How do they differ from inertia governors?
The mass of each ball of a proell governor is 3 kg and the weight on the sleeve is 20 kg
each arm is 220 mm long and the pivots of the upper and the lower arms are 20 mm form
the axis. For the midposition of the sleeve the extension links of the lower arms are
vertical, the height of the governor 180 mm and the speed 150 rpm. Determine the lengths
of the extension links and the tension in the upper arms.

6 (a)

Define and explain the term balancing of rotating masses what will be the harm if the
rotating parts of a high speed engine are not properly balanced?
A shaft carries four rotating masses A, B, and C which are completely balanced. The
masses B, C and D are 50 kg, 80kg and 70 kg respectively. The masses C and D make
angles of 900 and 1950 respectively with mass B in the same sense. The masses A, B, C
and D are concentrated at radius 75 mm, 100 mm, 50 mm and 90 mm respectively. The
plane of rotation of masses B and C are 250 mm apart. Determine:
(i) The mass A and its angular position.
(ii) The position of planes of A and D.

(b)

7 (a)
(b)

## Explain the term partial balancing of primary force. Why is it necessary?

A four cylinder vertical engine has cranks 300 mm long. The planes of rotation of the first,
third and fourth cranks are 750, 1050 and 1650 mm respectively from that of the second
crank and their reciprocating masses are 150, 400 and 250 kg respectively. Find the mass
of the reciprocating parts for the second cylinder and the relative angular positions of the
cranks in order that the engine may be in complete primary balance.

8 (a)
(b)

## What do you understand by Torsionally equivalent shaft?

Describe in detail the method of finding the frequency of torsional vibration of a two rotor
system.

*****

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1
Code: 9A03502
III B. Tech I Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, November 2011
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

(a)
(b)

Explain the gyroscopic effect of pitching and rolling of a ship in the sea water.
An aeroplane makes a complete half circle of 60m radius to the left when flying at
200kmph.The rotary engine and propeller at the aeroplane weigh 4000N with a radius of
gyration 30cm the engine runs at 2500rpm CW, when viewed from real. Find the
gyroscopic couple on the air-craft and state its effect on it. Show the gyroscopic effect by a
sketch.

(a)
(b)

## Discuss about the friction between lubricating surfaces.

Explain the following: (i) Limiting angle of friction.
(ii) Angle of repose.

(a)
(b)

## Explain function of absorption type dynamometer.

Distinguish between brakes and dynamometer.

A single cylinder horizontal engine runs at 120rpm. The length of stroke is 400mm. The
mass of the revolving parts assumed concentrated at the crank pin is 100kg and mass of
reciprocating parts is 150kg. Determine the magnitude of the balancing mass required to
be placed opposite to the crank at a radius of 150 mm which is equivalent to all the
revolving and
of the reciprocating masses. If the crank turns 300 from the inner dead
centre, find the magnitude of the unbalanced force due to the balancing mass.

(a)
(b)

## Derive an expression for the height of proell governor.

Calculate the minimum speed of proell governor, which has equal arms each 200mm and
are pivoted on the axis of rotation. The mass of each ball is 4kg and the central mass on
the sleeve is 20kg. The extension arms of the lower links are each 60mm long and parallel
to the axis when the minimum radius of the ball is 100mm.

(a)
(b)

## What is the necessity of the balancing?

Explain why two balancing weights are required to balance the weights rotating in different
planes, compared to single balance weight required to balance weights rotating in one
plane.

Discuss the unbalanced forces and couples acting in a four cylinder-in-line engines and the
method of balancing them.
(a)
(b)

## What is meant by vibration isolation? Explain.

Describe a three-rotor vibratory system and find the ratio of their amplitudes.
*****

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Code: 9A03502
III B. Tech I Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, November 2011
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

(a)
(b)

## Write short notes on Gyroscopic Couple.

A horizontal axle AB 200cms long is pivoted at its centre. It carries a weigh of 42N at B & a
rotor weighing 100N at A. The rotor rotates at 1200rpm in clock wise direction looking from
the front. Calculate the angular velocity of precision taking the radius of gyration of the rotor to
be 60cms.

(a)
(b)

Define Friction. Explain with the examples, whether friction is fried or to human.
Derive an expression for the horizontal force F, necessary to move a load W up a plane,
which is inclined at an angle a to the horizontal.

(a)
(b)

## Describe with neat sketch the lope brake dynamometer.

Describe with a sketch a torsion dynamometer and explain the calculation involved in finding
the power transmitted.

A three cylinder single acting engine has its crank angle at 120. The turning moment diagram
for each cycle is a triangle for the power stroke with a maximum torque of 60Nm at 60 after
the dead centre of the corresponding crank. There is no torque on the return stroke. The
engine runs at 400 rpm. Determine the:
(i) Power developed.
(ii) Co-efficient of fluction of speed if the mass of the fly wheel is 10kg and radius of gyration is
88mm.
(iii) Co-efficient of fluction of energy.

The arms of the porter governor are of equal-lengths and both are pivoted on the same
vertical line. Derive an expression to find the height of the porter governor neglecting friction.

(a)
(b)

Explain the method of balancing of different masses revolving in the same plane.
Distinguish the static balance and dynamic balance with appropriate examples.
Derive the following expressions, for an un coupled two cylinder locomotive engine:
(a) Variation in tractive force.
(b) Swaying couple.
(c) Hammer blow.

(a)
(b)

## Distinguish between longitudinal, transverse and forsional vibration.

What are the basic elements of vibratory system? What is the degree of free dom?
*****

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Code: 9A03502
III B. Tech I Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, November 2011
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

(a)
(b)

What are the special characteristics of a gyroscope? Explain with the help of a diagram.
Discuss the effect of gyroscopic couple on a two wheeled vehicle when taking a turn.

(a)
(b)

## State the law of dry friction.

A screw jack is used to raise a load of 50KN. The pitch of single start square threads used for
the screw is 24mm. The mean diameter is 72mm. Determine the force to be applied at the end
of 1.2m long handle when the load is lifted with constant velocity and rotate with the
spindle.Take co-efficient of friction is 0.2.Also find the mechanical efficiency of the jack.

(a)
(b)

## Distinguish between a brake and a dynamometer.

Describe with the help of a neat sketch the principles of an internal expanding shoe. Derive the
expression for the breaking torque.

A single cylinder four stroke cycle engine develops 15Kw power of 330rpm. The maximum
fluctuation of the energy is 80% of the indicated energy per cycle. The engine is connected
through a gearing to a machine having a speed of 726rpm the moment of inertia of rotating
parts of the engine is 104kg-m2 and that of the machine is 9.5kg-m2.
Determine the weight of additional flywheel that will be required to keep the overall
range of speed variation to 75% mean speed. Radius of gyration of the fly wheel is 0.45m.

(a)
(b)

## Why is balancing necessary for rotors of high speed engines?

Four masses A, B, C and D carried by a rotating shaft at radii 80mm,100mm,160mm and
120mm respectively are completely balanced. Masses B, C and D 8kg, 4kg and 3kg
respectively. Determine the mass A and the relative angular positions of the four masses if the
planes are spaced 500mm apart.
The following data relate to a single cylinder reciprocating engine.
Mass of reciprocating parts = 40kg.
Mass of revolving parts = 30kg at 180mm radius.
Speed = 150 rpm, stroke length is 350mm. If 60% of the reciprocating parts and all the
revolving parts to be balanced, determine the :
(a) Balanced mass required at a radius of 320mm.
(b) The unbalanced force when the crank has turned 450 from the top dead centre.

(a)
(b)

## What is meant by vibrations? How are they caused?

Describe the method of finding the natural frequency of torsional vibrations for a three rotor
system.
*****

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4
Code: 9A03502
III B. Tech I Semester (R09) Regular Examinations, November 2011
DYNAMICS OF MACHINERY
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 70
All questions carry equal marks
*****

## (a) Explain what is meant by applied torque and reactive torque.

(b) What is the effect of gyroscopic couple on the stability of 4 wheeler while negotiating a curve?
In what way does this effect along with that of the centrifugal force limit the speed of the
vehicle.

## (a) What is a friction circle? Derive an expression for its radius.

(b) A screw jack has a square thread of mean diameter 6cm and pitch 0.8cm. The co-efficient of
friction at the screw thread is 0.09. A load of 3KN is to be lifted through 12cm. Determine the
torque required and the work done in lifting the load through 12cm. Find the efficiency of the
jack also.

(a) Describe with sketches one form of torsion dynamometer and explain in detail the calculations
involved in finding the power transmitted.
(b) In a vertical belt transmission dynamometer the diameter of the driving pulley rotating at
1500rpm is 80mm. The centre distance of the intermediate pulleys from the fulcrum is also
80mm each. The weighing pan on the lever is at a distance as 250mm. Find the power
transmitted when a mass of 20kg is required in the pan, including its own mass.

## Write short notes on the following:

(i) Turning moment diagram.
(ii) Piston-effort.
(iii) Co-efficient of fluctuation of speed.

(a) How does a porter governor differs from that of a watt governor?
(b) A simple watt governor rotates at 75rpm. Calculate its vertical height and the change if the
speed increases to 80rpm. Also calculate the height at 75rpm, if the weight of the ball is 20N
and that of the arm 5N.

(a) Explain the role of reference plane in balancing masses of rotation in different planes.
(b) Describe reasons in detail for partial balancing of reciprocating masses.

## (a) Write a short note on primary and secondary balancing.

(b) Explain why only a part of the unbalanced force due to the reciprocating masses is balanced
by revolving masses.

## (a) Explain the terms: (i) Under damping.

(ii) Critical damping.
(iii) Over damping.
(b) Derive an equation for the transverse vibration of a uniformly loaded shaft.
*****

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