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Energy Manangement Notes by




Different forms of energy

Most of the energy utilized by mankind until the advent of nuclear energy is the sun's
energy absorbed and stored in plants by the process called photosynthesis. Food stuff we eat
provide us this converted stored energy. The energy of firewood, oil and coal is also derived
from sunlight. Oil and coal have come from decomposed plants, that lived millions of years
ago. Energy from sun also gives rise to winds in the atmosphere, which have operated the
wind mills over the ages. Sun's heat produces rain. The rain water flows in rivers and drives
water wheels.
Energy utilized by mankind exists in the following forms :
1. Kinetic.
4. Magnetic.
7. Nuclear.
2. Potential.
5. Heat.
8. Sound.
3. Electrical.
6. Chemical.
9. Light.
With constant research man was able to convert one form of energy into another. This
process is called energy conversion.
Energy conversion always produces some amount of pollution since waste products
also occur along with desired goods. Therefore, it becomes important to convert and utilize
energy as effectively and efficiently as possible, with least pollution.
Direct energy conversion

The generation of electrical power from an energy source requires the transfer of
energy from the source to a working fluid which, by undergoing circulation and other
manipulation in a complex "prime mover" (turbine, engine) ultimately yield electrical power
Recently progress has been made in the development of direct energy conversion in
which the energy of the fuel is converted directly to electrical energy without the use of a
circulating fluid or any moving parts. Some of them are:
1. Thermoelectric converter.
2. Thermionic converter.
3. Fuel cell
4. Magneto hydrodynamic conversion.
Energy conversion power plants

Electrical power can be generated from several sources of energy as given below:
1. By conversion of chemical energy in coal, oil, peat, lignite or other conventional
fuels into heat by burning and then into mechanical energy by steam rising and using it
in a steam turbine. The steam turbine drives a dynamo which in turn produces
electrical energy.
2. By conversion of potential energy in water stored in elevated reservoirs to kinetic
energy and then to mechanical and electrical energy using hydraulic turbines and
3. By conversion of kinetic energy in wind using wind mills and dynamos.
4. By conversion of solar (heat) energy into electrical power with the help of solar
cells. Sometime solar energy is used to produce steam and using it in a turbine which
drives a dynamo.
5. By conversion of nuclear energy via heat and steam into electrical power.
6. By the use of electrolytic cells and fuel cells in which chemical energy can be
converted quickly to electrical energy.
Power plants convert various forms of energy into electrical energy and supply the same
continuously for domestic and industrial purposes. The electric power supply in turn
influences the growth of industry and improvement in the standard of life of an individual in a
country. As such power plants are of national importance.

Energy Manangement Notes by



Types of power plants

Power plants may be divided mainly into three groups, namely,

1. Thermal power plants.
2. Hydroelectric power plants.
3. Nuclear power plants
A major portion of the power required is generated by these power plants, which are
conventional power plants.

1. Thermal power plant

A major portion of the demand for electrical power is met by thermal power plants.
These plants can be operated safely, efficiently and economically. The steam power plant
can be considered to have two major divisions, namely, the boiler plant and the turbine
plant. The boiler plant converts the chemical energy of the fuel into heat energy
energy,, and the
turbine plant converts the heat energy in the steam into electricity
electricity.. The heat flow diagram
of a steam power plant can be seen in Figure.

In the thermal power plants, fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil / furnace oil, and
natural gas are used. The selection of the fuel is decided by availability and economic
considerations. In our country, coal is used in many thermal power plants as it is available in
some quantities,
ntities, at different places. In some power plants, furnace oil is used for starting the
boiler and for quick steam generation.
In this power plant main working fluid is steam. Large quantity of steam is generated in
boilers by evaporating water. This water
water is treated prior to be fed into boiler. Water
treatment is necessary for removal of impurities and hardness. To evaporate water into
steam heat energy is supplied either by burning coal or fuel oil or gaseous fuel.
This steam is passed to a prime mover (steam
(steam turbine) where it expands over blades
fixed on turbine rotor. Turbine runs at high speed and develop mechanical power. Thus
thermal (heat) energy in steam is converted into mechanical energy. Turbine is coupled to
electrical generator (alternator) which
which converts mechanical energy developed by turbine into
electrical energy.
Elements or Components of a Steam Power Plant :

Major components of a steam power plant and their functions are:

1. Steam boiler or generator : Water is evaporated in boiler at constant pressure. Steam is
superheated in a superheater and passed on turbine.
2. Economiser : It is a feed water heater. Exhaust (flue) gases leaving the boiler for
chimney are passed through the economiser. Heat in flue gases is abstracted by
incoming feed water and gets preheated before it enters boiler for further heating by
coal firing.
3. Air Preheater : Air required for burning (combustion) of coal is preheated in this
component so as to increase combustion efficiency. It makes use of fraction of heat in
flue gases flowing to chimney from economiser.
4. Turbine : This is the heart of power plant. Supereheated steam from boiler does work
in turbine by expanding over blades of turbine rotor. Heat energy in steam is
converted into mechanical energy by turbine.
Energy Manangement Notes by






Electrical System : It comprises electrical generator (alternator), transformer, switch

gear and transmission network. Generator coupled to turbine converts mechanical

energy developed by turbine into electrical energy.

Condenser : Exhaust steam is drawn into condenser where it is cooled by circulating

water. Cooled exhaust steam is called condensate which is pure water. This is fed to
boiler via economiser. Condenser increases efficiency of turbine.
Cooling Tower : Cooling tower or cooling ponds receive circulat
ing water from
condenser exit which is very hot as it has abstracted heat from exhaust steam from
turbine. In cooling tower this hot circulating water drips down and air cooled so that it
is recirculated in condenser.
In the absence of cooling towers cold water for circulation in condenser may be
drawn from river, sea or canal.

2. Hydroelectric power plant.

Nearly one third of the total power of the world is produced by hydroelectric
power plants. In some countries (Norway) almost
almost the entire power production is hydro based.
Features of hydroelectric power plants

The rain water that flows on the earth's surface has potential energy relative to the
ocean towards which it flows. In a hydroelectric power plant, this potential energy is
converted into mechanical work and ultimately into electrical energy.
The shaft power developed
oped by the hydraulic prime mover depends upon the following:
1. The quantity of water available.
2. The potential head available.
The quantity of water available at the selected site depends upon the rainfall and run
off in that area. The available potential
potential head depends upon the selection of site.
Hydroelectric power plant - layout and operation

The arrangements of a hydroelectric power plant can be seen in figures. The rain
water that falls on a large area called catchment area gets collected in the fform
orm of streams
and flows as run off into the plant site. During this flow some water will be lost by
Energy Manangement Notes by



percolation, seepage and evaporation. At the plant site water gets collected in the form of a
reservoir. The reservoir stores water during rainy season and supplies the same during dry

Taking into consideration the topography of the site, a dam is usually constructed. The
dam increases the height of the water level behind it. This in turn increases the amount of
water that is stored or the reservoir capacity. Dam also increases the working head of the
power plant and helps to divert the water into the conduits.
Waterr from the reservoir flows through the intake structure into the conduits called
penstocks. The intake structure has trash rack and gates. The trash rack prevents the entry
of debris (i.e unwanted materials) into the penstock. These debris might otherwise damage
the gates, nozzles and turbine blades by erosion. The gates control and regulate the flow of
water into the penstock.
The penstock carry water from the reservoir
reservoir to the hydraulic turbines. In some
designs, separate penstocks
enstocks are used for
f each turbine. Penstocks are most commonly made
of steel or in some cases of reinforced cement concrete. The former arrangement is more
ensive because it requires expansion joints, anchors and other apparatus. Expansion joints
eliminate temperature stresses in steel penstocks, which are exposed to varying weather
conditions. Anchorages prevent the movement of penstock due to dynamic forces at vertical

and horizontal bends and on slopes. When the penstocks are laid over the ground, they are
easily accessible for inspection and doing repairs.
The hydraulic turbine in the power house transforms the energy of water into
mechanical work. The turbine
turbine drives the alternator and produces electrical energy.
Depending on the quantity of water available and the head at which water is available,
different types of turbines are used. The most commonly used turbines are Pelton wheel,
Francis turbine, Kaplan
an turbine and Propeller turbines. Water flow into the turbine from the
penstock is controlled by the control valve.
The power house proper consists of two parts, namely, substructure and supersuper
structure. The substructure (i.e foundation) supports the hydr
aulic and electrical equipments.
The super structure (i.e., walls, roof etc.,) houses and protects the various equipments.
The water after doing work in the turbine, flows into the tailrace. When the turbine is
of reaction type (Francis, Kaplan and Propeller
Propeller turbines) the exit of the turbine is connected
to the tail race by a tube called draft tube. This tube is nothing but a diverging passage.
Because of this shape, the water that flows through the tube is decelerated, and it comes out
of the tube with minimum
imum kinetic energy. This in turn helps to increase the total pressure
difference on the turbine wheel and thereby increases the work output. The exit end of the
draft tube is submerged in the tail race.
The power plant also has a safety device called surg
surgee tank. Its function is as follows:
Whenever the electrical load on the generator drops down suddenly, the governor partially
closes the gates which admit water flow to the turbine. Due to this sudden decrease in the
rate of water flow to the turbine, there
there will be a sudden increase of pressure in the penstock.
This phenomena results in a hammering action called water hummer in the penstock. On the
other hand, when the turbine gates are suddenly opened to produce more power, there is a
Energy Manangement Notes by



sudden rush of water through the penstock. This might cause a vacuum in the water flow
system. This might collapse the penstock. As such, the penstock must withstand positive
hammer and vacuum effects. A surge tank in the form of a vertical tank, introduced in the
water flow system
ystem takes care of these effects.
effects. The surge tank acts as a temporary reservoir.
It helps in stabilizing the velocity and pressure in the penstock and thereby saves the same
from getting damaged. The surge
rge tank is located between the dam and the power hous
housee and
nearest to the power house.
3. Nuclear fission power plant

An atomic or nuclear power plant is an equipment for accomplishing the controlled release

of atomic energy to produce useful mechanical or electrical power. The equipment includes a
nuclear reactor (frequently called a pile) in which neutrons cause nuclear fissions. Heat
energy from the fissions is extracted
extracted and used to drive suitable heat engines, usually turbines
to produce power.
Nuclear power plants require a high initial cost, but have low operating cost as
compared to the thermal power plants. They also become economically more attractive as the
ze of the plant becomes larger. Taking these aspects into account, attempts have been made
to install nuclear power stations in different parts of our country.
Nuclear energy

Inside an atom, electrons are revolving in different orbits. These electrons are held in
their orbits by electrostatic forces. The forces that hold the protons and neutrons inside the
nucleus are million times as strong as the electrostatic forces holding the electrons to the
It was found that enormous energy will be released when an atom was split or when
the nucleus was split into two smaller nuclei. The energy thus released is known as the
atomic energy or nuclear energy. The process of splitting the nucleus is called nuclear
fission,. The schematic U235 fission can be seen in Figure.

Nuclear power plant

The main components of a simple nuclear power plant are :

- reactor
- heat exchanger
- turbine
- generator
Reactor is the heart of the nuclear plant. By a process called nuclear fission enormous
heat is generated from fuel in a reactor. Nuclear fuels are Uranium, Plutonium and Thorium.
During fission, Uranium nucleus is split into two smaller nuclei (Barium and Krypto
n) by
bombarding it with a neutron. Heat energy liberated is transferred to a cooling medium. This
coolant delivers its heat to water circulating in the heat exchanger
exchanger). Air, Water, C02, He,
hydrogen fused salts, Na, K etc., may be used as coolant.
In the heat exchanger, water circulating in pipes picks up the heat from coolant and
evaporates into steam.
The reactor and heat exchanger are equivalent to the furnace and boiler in a
conventional steam plant.
Energy Manangement Notes by



Active core of the reactor constitutes nuclear fuel in the form of rods, plates or
spheres or liquid slurry.
Deuterium (D20), commercially known as heavy water acts as a moderator and slow
down the fast moving fission neutrons. Graphite and Carbon may also be used as moderators.
Control rods made of boron-steel
boron teel alloy or cadmium are used to start or slop the
reactor operation (fission).

The whole of the reactor is enclosed in a biological shield to prevent leakage of

neutrons and radiation losses. It is made of iron or dense concrete.
The steam generated in the heat exchanger is admitted to the turbine. Steam expands
over turbine blades doing work. Generator coupled to turbine produces electrical power.
Exhaust steam from turbine is condensed in the condenser as usual and condensate is
fed back to heat exchanger
nger coils, thus forming a closed fe
feed system.
Advantages :

- reduces the demand for conventional fuels like coal, oil and gas
- amount of fuel needed is small (1kg of Uranium is equiva
lent to 4500 tonnes of
high grade coal)
- plant occupies less
les space
- power plant produces no smoke and is not affected by adverse weather conditions
- radio isotopes produced are useful in the fields of medicine, agriculture and

Limitations :

danger of radio active effect which is harmful to health of workers

not suitable for variable load operations
high initial cost
high technical skill is required


Organic matter derived from biological organisms (plants, algae, animals) are called
Biomass. The energy obtained from biomass is called Bio mass Energy. The raw organic
matter obtained from nature for extracting secondary energy is called Biomass Energy
resources. Biomass Energy resources are available from botanical plants, vegetation,
egetation, algae,
animals and organisms living on land or in water. Unlike coal, oil and natural gas, which takes
millions of years to form, biomass can be considered a renewable energy source because
plant life renews and adds to itself every year. It can also be considered a form of solar
energy as the latter is used indirectly to grow these plants by photosynthesis.
As the word-clearly
clearly signifies; biomass means organic matter and photo
approach to harness solar energy means harnessing of solar eenergy
nergy by photosynthesis. Solar
energy is stored in the form of chemical energy. Hence
Solar energy  Photosynthesis  Biomass  Energy generation.
Out of several sources of renewable energy like solar, wind, ocean thermal energy,
tidal wave energy, Geothermal
Geothermal energy, nuclear energy, energy through biomass are important
feature in our country. Biomass resources fall into three categories :
(i) Biomass in its traditional solid mass (wood and agriculture residue) :- biomass
directly and get the energy
Energy Manangement Notes by




iomass in non-traditional form (converted into liquid
liquid-fuels) :- the biomass is
converted into ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and methanol (methyl
alcohol) to be used
as liquid fuels in engines
(iii) Ferment
erment the biomass anaerobically :- to obtain a gaseous fuel called
Biomass conversion, or simply bio conversion can take many forms :
(1) direct combustion, such as wood waste and bagasse (sugar
cane refuge),
(2) thermochemical conversion, and
(3) biochemical con-version.


Biogas is a mixture containing 55-65

55 percent methane, 30
40 percent carbon dioxide
and the rest being the impurities (H2, H2S, and some N2), can be produced from the
decomposition of animal, plant and human waste. It is a clean but slow burning gas and usually
has a calorific value between 5000
5000 to 5500 kcal/kg (20935 to 23028 kJ/kg) or 38131 kJ/m3. It
can be used directly in cooking, reducing the demand for firewood.
Biogas is produced by digestion, pyrolysis, or hydrogasification.
is a
biological process that occurs in the absence of oxygen mid in the presence of anaerobic
organisms at ambient pressures and temperatures of 35
70C. The container in which this
digestion takes place is known as the


Fuel Cell

It is an electrochemical device which converts chemical energy directly in electrical

energy. Figure shows hydrogen oxygen fuel cell. This fuel cell uses hydrogen (or hydrohydro
carbon) as a fuel and oxygen (or air) as an oxidiser. There are two chambers. In one chamber
hydrogen is introduced and in other chamber oxygen is introduced. The gases are at high

The two chambers are separated by an electrolyte, which may be solid or liquid. The
various electrolytes used are potassium hydroxide. Zirconia oxide porous ceramic and solid
Polymers. When the temperature is high the electrolyte material acts as sieve and the
hydrogen ions can migrate through the material. The electrical load is connected between
anode and cathode. Hydrogen ions are produced by the dissociation of hydrogen molecules at
the anode electrolyte interface. +The reaction being as follows :
2H2 > 4H + 4eThe electrons so formed return to fuel cell at cathode leaving a positive charge at
anode. The hydrogen ions diffuse through electrolyte and when they reach cathode they
combine with electrons+and oxygen molecules and form water. The reaction be
ing as follows :
4H + 4e- + 02 > 2H20
In this chemical reaction the energy representing the enthalpy of combustion of fuel is
released and a part of it is available for conversion into electrical energy.
1. It is simple.
It has high power to weight ratio.
3. Theoretical efficiency as high as 90% can be expected but it is possible only at light
1. Its cost is high.
2. It has relatively short life particularly at high temperatures.

Energy Manangement Notes by



MHD Generator

Principle : Magneto Hydro-Dynamic

Hydro Dynamic conversion of energy is a process of direct
conversion of thermal power into electrical power. An M.H.D. generator works on the same
principle as that of Dynamo. In other words, process of MHD power generation is application
of Faraday's
ay's laws of electro-magnetic
electro magnetic induction to fluid conductors.
In conventional electrical generators (dynamos) magnetic flux is cut by metallic
conductors and e.m.f. produced is proportional to rate of cutting of flux. In M.H.D. generator,
fluid conductors are
re used. The fluid may be gas at elevated temperatures or liquid like sodium
or potassium.
To make gas a conductor of electricity is a difficult process. It is to be heated to a
very high temperature to dislodge the electrons of gas atoms which are tied up with
electrically neutral particles. This process is called ionization. Atoms as such are electrically
neutral. When they are ionised they become electrically charged particles and gas becomes a
conductor. Unlike the conventional electrical machine which is essentially an electroelectro
mechanical converter, M.H.D. Generator is a heat engine operating on turbine cycle
transforming internal (molecular) energy of gas into electri
electrical energy.
Figure illustrates the working of an M.H.D. Generator.

A plasma of hot gas is passed through a duct of varying rectangular cross

section. One
pair of walls (top and bottom) are insulated. They form the poles of the magnet. Magnetic
field is set up between them. Motion of the plasma in the magnetic field induces an e.m.f.
which is at right angles to the magnetic field as well as to the direction of gas flow. Electrical
energy is extracted from the plasma through the electrode pair which are externally
connected to the load.
When gas flows across a magnetic field and current is induced, force tending to slow
down the motion of the gas is experienced. Therefore ducts of MHD generator are made
diverging to accommodate the same mass of gas at smaller velocity.
Both insulators and electrodes have to withstand as high as 30
00C of temperature.
They must have good resistance to thermal shock, abrasion and chemical attack.
The working medium after leaving the generator, still possesses considerable amount
of heat which can be utilised for preheating the gas or for generation oof steam.
Inorder to achieve a reasonable ionization and high electrical conductivity at high
temperatures like 2000 - 3000 K, the gases are seeded with additives like alkali metals.
With the present level of knowledge in engineering and technology, the ffirst
irst generation
open cycle M.H.D. steam plants have 47 to 50% of overall efficiency as against 30 to 40% of
conventional steam turbines. Absence of moving parts is a unique feature of M.H.D.
generators. With slight improvements in design, seeding of gas et
c., efficiency as high as 60%
is expected in near future while power output is 500 MW.
Types of MHD Generators

An MHD generator is a device for converting heat energy directly into electrical
energy without a conventional electric generator. The major ad
vantage of MHD generator
(converter) is that is can take better advantage of high temperatures attained in the
combustion of a fossil fuel.
MHD generator are of two types :
1. Open
pen cycle generators
2. Closed cycle generators
Energy Manangement Notes by



In open cycle the working fluid after generating electrical energy is discharged to the
atmosphere through a stack. In closed cycle the working fluid is continuously recirculated.

Energy Storage and Distribution

Energy is useful only if available when and where it is wanted. Carrying energy to
it is wanted is called
; keeping it available until
it is wanted is called
Means for storing energy in a readily recoverable form when the ssupply
upply exceeds the
demand for use at other times. Storage of primary fuels
coal, oil and gas) is a form of
energy storage, but the term generally applies to actual energy and to secondary fuels
hydrogen) rather than to primary fuels.






Energy storage systems

Methods for energy storage may be classified according to the form in which energy is stored
; the following categories appear to be the most important:
1. Mechanical energy storage
Pumped hydroelectric storage Compressed air Flywheel.
2. Electrical storage : the lead acid battery.
3. Chemical energy storage
Hydrogen Ammonia Reversible chemical reactions.
4. Electromagnetic energy storage.
5. Thermal (heat) energy storage
Sensible heat Latent heat Chemical reactions
6. Biological storage.
The primary electric-generating
electric generating plant is continuously operated in a base load mode,
which results in excess electricity production during the off peak periods. Electrical or
electrical-mechanical energy storage is then used to hold this excess electricity for use
during peak demand.
In thermal storage, all schemes deal with storing energy in a thermal form in a material
during periods of low power demand and releasing it back during periods of hig
highh demand. The








Energy Manangement Notes by




primary electric-generating
generating plant is operated to meet the real
time electrical demands during
peak hours. The available thermal energy input to the plant may be essentially constant
as is that from fossil or nuclear fuel, or varying as from
from solar incidence. The excess thermal
energy is stored as such and withdrawn to be converted to meet peak electrical demands.
Energy storage systems like pumped hydro, compressed air and super conductive
magnets are, or will be, suitable for large utility energy storage. Others, like flywheel and
batteries, are in the development
development stages and will probably be suitable for medium utility
energy storage.
Energy distribution systems

Petroleum oils are easy and cheap to transport by tankers and represent a major
energy commodity in international trade. Natural gas can be transported cheaply and easily
by pipe lines over land areas. However,
However, gas pipe lines across oceans are expensive. Coal is
being traded internationally for meeting growing demand for power gen
eration and steel
industry. However coal is consumed mostly in regions of coal mines by generating stations
and electrical energy generated in coal combustion thermal power plants is transmitted to
distant load centers by EHV AC or HVDC transmission lines.
The energy in electrical form is transferred from surplus area to deficit area easily,
cheaply and quickly. However, electricity cannot be economically stored in large quantity and
energy storage is in fuel or hydro form.
Transport is an important link between the resource extrac
conversion/secondary conversion and the end use utilization of energy.
Transport of bulk energy commodities over long distances is either (1) By land (2) By
Ocean (3) By EHV AC or HVDC Transmission/interconnection
Electrical Energy Route

Electrical energy has unique capabilities with regards to fast

instantaneous transmission,
distribution, automatic and effective control of large power in MW range, as well as low
power in MW range, easy exchange
exchange between various regional grids, accurate meas
conversion to various forms of utilization as per need, wide range of low
power, medium
power and high power applications, safe, pollution free, etc.
Electrical energy can be tapped from the network
network at any time in desired amount, at
desired rate, safely and economically. Electrical machines are energy
efficient. Conversion
can be precisely controlled. The electrical energy one of the most useful intermediate and
secondary energy.
The two basic alternative routes of energy supply are
1. Electrical route. Primary energy source is converted to
electrical form and then supplied to consumers.
2.NonNon-electrical route. Primary energy source is processed to
electrical intermediate or secondary form and tthen
hen supplied to
: Fuels; Chemicals ; heat, chemical reactants, bio
Both the routes are important in the Energy Strategy. In both the routes the intermediate
large scale energy storage is in nonelectrical
nonelectrical form. Figure explains the energy routes.

Energy Manangement Notes by



Intermediate and secondary forms of energy should be

in required quantities to
ensure regular supply as per requirement of consumers. Hence energy storage is very
important. Unfortunately energy in electrical form cannot be stored in large quantities
cally with presently available technology. Hence other non
electrical energy storage
methods are adopted along with the electrical energy supply system.

Load curves

Load on a machine or apparatus is the power which it delivers. Power is the time rate
of transferring or transforming energy. Energy of a system is measured by the amount of
mechanical work which the system is capable of doing.
The electrical power is used by the consumer as and when required. The consumption
i.e., load
oad will always be changing with respect to time and will not be constant. The curve
showing the load demand variations of the consumer with respect to time is known as the
load curve.
The load curve may be a daily load curve, weakly load curve or monthl
monthlyy load curve or
annual load curve. A typical weekly load curve can be seen in Figure.

The load curve shows how the load vanes or fluctuates with respect to time.
The load curve helps in predicting the annual requirements of energy and the capacity
of the power plant to meet the peak and fluctuating loads.
Peak load, Base load & Intermediate load
Following figure shows a weakly load curve. The load curves have typical
cyclic variation depending upon the lifestyle, business hours, industrial hours etc. The
Highest point on the load curve is called the maximum peak load.

The electrical load on the energy supply system is often identified as base load (which
remains at all times), peak load which is above and the intermediate load. The demarcation
lines are drawn on the load Curve.
Lowest line parallel to hour axis, touching the minimum load point of load curve is
called the Base load line. Base load is present all the time.
Load variation on a power plant

Electrical power is used in various units such as domestic, commercial, industrial,

municipal, agricultural, public transport etc. The unit of electrical energy for consumption is
kilowatt hour (kwh). Commonly one kwh is called a unit.
The quantum of power used at various hours of a day may vary considerably
depending upon the number of power devices switched on. At a certain hour of the day, the
demand may become the highest value. This is called peak load on a plant. The maximum
demand on a power station determines the size of the plant and its cost.
The quantum of power that has to be supplied by a power plant at all times is called
the base load on the plant. This is the minimum load over a given period of time.
Energy Manangement Notes by



In a power plant, few of the generating sets will always be working and supply the
base load. Whenever additional power is required, the same is met by operating one or more
number of additional generating sets.
In a network of different types of power plants, thermal power plants may be meeting
the base load, whereas the hydroelectric or diesel or gas turbine power plants may meet
occasional additional loads. In fact, this is the desirable combination.
Energy Conversion Plants for Base Load, Intermediate Load, Peak Load
and En
ergy Displacement

Basic requirements of the generator, turbine, primary energy converter (boiler) differ
for Base load/Intermediate load/Peak load units.
Base Load Stations/Units are :
 Continuous load with high load factor
 No frequent starting, rapid loading, rapid load throw off
 Large reserves of primary energy resource
 High efficiency
 Lowest generation cost (Rs./MWhr)
Intermediate Load Stations / Units are in between the base load and peaking load.
Peak Load Stations / Units are loaded for a few hours in a day. They should be :
 Quick to start, pick-up load, unload, stop
 Relatively lesser MW rating
 Cost of generation Rs./MWhr may be higher but is justified due to lesser MWhr
produced by the peaking station/unit.
Choice of Plant for Base Load, Intermediate and Peak Loads
Category of Load

Type of Station

Base Load



Steam Thermal Power Plant

Nuclear Steam Thermal PP


Operated at all times.

Influence overall cost
of generation Rs./MWhr.

Steam Thermal PP

Large Hydro-Electric PP
Combined Cycle Power Plant
Intermediate Load

Combined Cycle PP

Operated at above
base load line.

Hydro-electrical PP
Less efficient steam thermal units
Peaking Load

Gas Turbine PP

Operated during peak

loads only

- Combined Cycle PP
Hydro-electric PP
Pumped storage PP
Diesel Electric PP

Wind power, Solar power, Tidal power

Whenever Renewable
is available

Pumped hydro

In storing mode
during low loads

Energy Storage

Compressed Air
In generating mode
during peak loads


Energy Manangement Notes by



Energy Conversion Plants suitable for Base Load Supply are called the Base Load
Power Plants. The Base-Load Energy Conversion Plants operate continuously and should
have low operating cost (Rs/MWh). Base Load Energy Plants are Large Grid Connected
Power Plants .
Suitable Types of Energy Conversion Plants for various Primary Energy

Each energy conversion plant has certain operating characteristics, with reference to
starting, stopping, economy of generation, suitable rating etc.
The operating characteristics of the conventional power plants and renewable energy power
plants differ significantly. Many of the renewables sources are not available during all the 24
hours of a day and the freely available recurring renewable energy cannot be stored in large
Renewable energy plants are presently of much smaller sizes (kW to a few MW) to
make an impact on the large energy supply systems (several thousand MW). The choice of
plant for base load and peak load is based on :
1. Starting, stopping and running time : Slow starting for Base Load Plant, Fast for Peaking
2. Economy of generation : Low cost of generation for Base Load Plant. May be higher for
Peaking Plant.
3. Size of plant : Large for Base Load Plant, Small for Peaking Plant.
Types of energy conversion plants suitable for Base Load, Peak Load and Intermediate
Loads differ. Hence primary energy consumption requirements for these three categories are
Types of Energy Conversion Plants in Electrical Energy Systems
(B) = Base Load Plants
Energy Displacement Plants

(P) = Peaking Load Plants (IL) = Intermediate Load Plants

(ED) =

Conventional Electrical Energy Supply

Systems (<1975)

Non-conventional Electrical Energy Supply Systems


1. Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Integrated Coal Gasification

Coal Fired (thermal) (B)

Combined Cycle (ICGCC)

Gas Turbine (P/B)

Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC)

Combined Cycle (B)

Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) (B)

Diesel-Electric (P/B)
2. Hydro-Electric Power Plants (B/I)

Mini, Micro Hydro

Large Hydro

Underground Pumped Hydro (ES)

Pumped Hydro (ES)

3. Nuclear Power Plants (B)

Nuclear Fusion Power Plants

Nuclear Fission Chain Reaction Power

4. Ocean Energy Power Plants (ED)

Ocean Thermal
Ocean Tidal
Ocean Wave
Ocean Biomass

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Ocean Salinity Gradient Plants

5. Solar Energy Plants (ED)

Solar Thermal Steam Cycle Plants

Solar Thermal Binary Cycle Plants
Solar Chemical Energy Plants

6. Wind Energy Plants (ED)

Grid Connected
Isolated with Hybrid Solution

7. Biomass Energy Plants (IL/ED)

Forest, Urban, Agricultural, Marine

8. Geothermal Power Plants (B)

Steam Cycle Geothermal ^lant

Binary Cycle Geothermal Plant

9. Energy Storage Plants

Thermal, Compressed Air, Battery

Pumped Hydro

Superconducting Magnet, Hydrogen Gas, Flywheel

Chemical Reactants

Lead acid battery

Power Plants with Conventional Energy Sources

Conventional Power Plants of importance at present are :

1. Coal Fired Steam Turbine Power Plants
2. Hydro-Turbine Power Plants
3. Nuclear Reactor Power Plants
4. Gas-turbine and Combined Cycle-Power Plants. (Gas Turbines plus Steam Turbine)
5. Diesel-Engine driven Generator Plants.
The type of generating plants in a country or a region will mainly depend upon :
 Natural (primary) energy resources available locally and their present and future
 Energy resources which could be transported by sea, rail, road upto the plant sites.
 Technology available/imported
 Relative costs
 Ecological and Environmental clearances.
Conventional and NonNon-conventional Energy Conversion Plants

Nonconventional, Alternate., Renewables


Coal Fired Thermal




Gas Fired Thermal


Solar Thermal, Solar PV


(Steam + Gas)


Biomass, etc.


Combined Heat and Power

Nuclear Fission


Biomass Incineration , Biogass

Waste to Heat, Waste to Power
Nuclear Fusion




Energy Storage Systems Mini

Hydro , Micro Hydro Fuel

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10. Chemical Energy Plants (e.g.

11. Hydrogen
12. Magnetohydrodynamics
Fluidised Bed Combustion
13. Thermionic Generator


It is uneconomical to increase installed electrical generating capacity for meeting peak

demand, Energy storage plants are designed to store energy during off-peak electrical load
periods and supply it during peak electrical load periods.

Following types of plants have been built in advanced countries.

Pumped hydro (2 plants in India).
Compressed Air (or Nitrogen) Energy Storage.
Thermal Energy Storage.
Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage for very short-duration needs
Secondary cell energy storage.
Fuel-cell Energy storage (in form of fuels and oxidants derived during off-peak
Ocean tidal power plants.

Energy Storage PlantsPlants- types and applications.

The broad categories are :

1. Energy Storage Plant for storing Renewable Energy (e.g. Solar, Wind, Wave, Tides)
2. Energy Storage Plant connected to Electrical Grid for peaking supply (Pumped
Storage, Compressed Air etc.)
3. Energy Storage Plant Connected to the Electrical Grid for supply of emergency
energy to the Grid during faults, outages, sudden disturbances, etc. to maintain
Transient Stability of the electrical Energy System. These plants may be operated for
a few minutes at very high power levels (e.g. Super Conducting Magnet Energy
Grid Connected Power Plants are in MW range. They operate at the grid frequency and
are synchronised with the Grid. Power produced is directly fed into the grid. During low
power output of the local plant, the connected loads obtain power from the grid.
Stand Alone Power Plants are not connected to the grid. They are also called Isolated
Power Plants. They are either far away from the nearest grid-substation or are small and
Captive Power Plants are dedicated to particular consumers needs. For example Nalco,
Orissa has its own captive power plant for its aluminium smelter plant.
Energy Displacement Power Plants

Solar power plants and wind power plants generate electrical energy only during
favourable natural conditions of sun-light and wind. During favourable conditions, they are
allowed to generate full rated power and the other intermediate power plants are relieved of
equal power generation. The energy consumption of non-renewable resources is displaced by
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corresponding amount of MWhr Hybrid of Renewable and Energy Storage Plants Energy
displacement plants may operate in liaison with a conventional diesel electric plant and
battery energy storage to form Hybrid solution. Hybrid power plants introduced commercially
are :
During favourable conditions of sun/wind, the storage batteries are charged. During
unfavourable natural conditions the battery-bank supplies energy via a suitable power
conditioning unit (DC to AC).
When stored energy in battery-bank reduces, diesel-generator sets are started to supply
the power.

Crop residue, vegetable waste, water hyacinth, poultry droppings, animal manure,
algae, ocean kelp, domestic waste etc., are said to be waste or biomass. Energy can be
derived from this waste so as to keep environment clean and as well as convert energy for
useful purpose such as production of charcoal, heavy oils etc., Different methods are
discussed below.
Pyrolysis is defined as an irreversible chemical change brought about by heat in the
absence of oxygen.
During pyrolysis biomass undergoes a sequence of changes and normally yields a
mixture of gases, liquids and solids. The solid is called charcoal, while the condensable liquid
is called by various names such as pyroligeneous liquid, liquor, acid or pyrolysis oil.
Pyrolysis in which charcoal production is maximised by slow heating is called carbonization.
Pyrolysis can also be carried out in the presence of small quantities of oxygen (gasification),
or water (steam gasification) or hydrogen (hydrogenation).
When pyrolysis is carried out in the presence of hydrogen, the process is called
Under less severe conditions of pressure and temperature (100 atmospheres and 300
- 400C), carbon monoxide and steam react with cellulose to produce heavy oils. These oil
can be separated and refined to produce premium oils.
Pyrolisis :

Hydrogenation :


It is the Method of tapping maximum solar energy by growing plants. Energy farms are
ideal solar collectors requiring virtually no maintenance, it is economical and non-polluting. It
uses an established technology and it stores energy. Photosynthesis occurring in naturally,
stores more than ten times much energy annually, in plant farm than is consumed by all
mankind. But very little of this energy is tapped.
In India about 23% of total land area is under forests. Area under the social forestry of
quick growing trees has increased. Fuel wood accounts for about 60% of all energy consumed
in the country, Social forestry programme comprises the schemes
(a) mixed plantation on waste lands, and
(b) reforestration of degraded forests.
Jojaba an ever green shrub around 1.7 m in height grows wild in the semi-arid region
of Mexico and U.S.A. Its seeds contain about 50 to 80% of oil and its plantation in U.S.A and
Israel has been successfully done providing 1,420 plants per hectare producing 1970 kg of
dry seed per annum. The tree species namely Acacia, Tortilla, Albizzia, Lebbak, Prasois,
Juliflora and likewise have been identified adaptable to the hot-arid regions in our country.
The plants namely Erythrina and Leocaena which are known to be fast growing plants are
Energy Manangement Notes by



proposed for the subtropical regions. Ethyl alcohol, the most promising compound, for mixing
with gasoline, can be easily prepared from the starch and carbohydrates available from plants
on other sources of bio-mass. Sycamore is a promising tree that yield upto 16 tons/acre per
year. All of it is used except the foliage, which contains the nutrients and is returned to the
soil. Aharvested sycamore produces a number of sprouts that are themselves ready for
harvesting in 2 to 3 years.
The utilization of bio gas as a source of energy goes back to the beginning of this
century when sewage sludge was anaerobically digested and the resulting gas collected and
utilized in the sewage treatment plant itself for heating the sludge during digestion. The idea
of production of bio gas from domestic and farm-yard wastes and its utilization in rural areas
as a source of energy originated in India in the late thirties with the khadi movement which
was concerned with the scale of tree felling in rural areas for the fire wood. It was also
argued that burning of the cow dung cakes is wasteful of a valuable resource which could be
better utilized for fertilizing the fields. Anaerobic digestion of the wastes results not only in
valuable bio gas production but also in a slurry whose fertilizer value is almost intact or even
better since the fertilizing components in the digested slurry are directly utilizable by plants.
Upto 1990-91 over 14 lakh family size biogas plants have been set up in the country
by DNES only. Assuming 85 per cent functionality of these plants for only 80 per cent of the
year, it is estimated that there is now an annual production of 1100 million cubic meter gas
equivalent to 38.18 lakh tonnes a fuelwood per year, valued at Rs. 152.7 crores per annum. In
addition, these plants are producing 183.6 lakh tonnes of enriched manure per year valued at
Rs. 152 crores. Thus the benefits to society from the biogas plants are already in excess of
Rs. 300 crores per year.
National programme on improved chulhas (NPIC) continues to ever-achieve the targets
since inception. The cumulative numbers of improved chulhas installed all over the country
are around 100 lakhs at the end of 1990-91, which are expected to result in saving of 42 lakh
tonnes of wood equivalent per year valued at Rs. 168 crores per annum apart from numerous
benefits for the environment of rural houses and villages and for women's welfare, due to the
reduction in black smoke.
Under the Biomass programme energy plantation projects have been taken up with a
view to fulfill the needs of fuel, fodder, and power generation together with good potential for
rural employment. Very encouraging results have been obtained in production of fast growing
species of biomass in arid areas. The department of non-conventional energy sources
(DNES) has taken up projects worth 5 MW aggregate capacity split into mechanical and
electrical application systems through gasifiers/stirling engines working on biomass at
various loca-tions in the country under a demonstration programme. Indigeneous capacity has
been created for manufacturing gasifiers and Stirling rngines for generation of energy from
various types of biomass. Upto the year 1988-89, 374 numbers of gasifiers Stirling engines
systems totalling about 4 MW capacity have already been installed in the country.

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