design fields

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design fields

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Week 3

Goals:

1. Gain confidence with divergence and curl, and understand what they mean

physically (L.G. 9)

2. See a relationship between mathematical representation of E-field and graphical

(L.G. 2)

3. Understand what charge distribution causes an electric field (L.G. 1)

4. To decide if a mathematically plausible field is physically possible as well. (L.G.

1)

5. Path independence of voltage difference (L.G. 5c)

6. How to choose a good voltage reference point (L.G. 5c)

7. See the connection between calculating potential difference and measuring it with

a voltmeter. (L.G. 1)

8. Apply physics knowledge to a real-world example.

9. Estimate order of magnitude of a real-world problem (L.G. 5a)

This tutorial is based on:

Materials needed: big white boards, dry erase markers, Jacobs ladder demonstration

(could watch a video of a Jacobs ladder if demo is not available youtube.com has

several examples)

Tutorial Summary: Students make up their own electric field and write down its vector

formulation, sketch it, check that it satisfies Maxwell's equations, and justify the choice

of a reference point to measure its potential. Jacob's Ladder is used as a demonstration

and students are asked to make sense of the physical behavior they observe.

Written by: Darren Tarshis

Contact: Steve Pollock (steven.pollock@colorado.edu)

2/1/08

PHYS 3310

Week 3

The room setup has several small tables, with four chairs each. Each group was

given four markers, and a big white board that covered the whole table. This allows

students to easily communicate their ideas to each other and to the Learning Assistant

(LA). It also helps the LA communicate with the students more effectively.

Students are advised that it should take approximately an hour to complete the

tutorial. They are also advised that this is completely voluntary, so they will not be

required to turn in the tutorial. However, they are advised that it would be in their interest

to fill things out as completely as possible, since many of the topics would also be

covered on the homework. The group members are encouraged to work together, and the

LA wanders from group to group to see if there are any misconceptions, or if anyone is

completely lost/stuck. In the words of Steve Pollock, We will try our hardest not to give

you any of the answers, but we will also try our hardest to make sure you figure

everything out for yourself.

After the students work on the tutorial for 45 minutes, they should shift their

attention to the challenge problem. They are then shown a Jacobs ladder demonstration.

After calculating voltage on the tutorial, we want them to estimate how large of a

potential difference would actually be required to see sparks (15,000 V). More

importantly, they should see that what theyve just been working on can be applied to the

real world. Many interesting questions came up during this demo, and it provided a very

rich discussion (see comments below).

Number of students: 12 (3 groups of 4)

Date: Friday, February 1. Third week of class.

My overall reaction after the tutorial was that students wanted the tutorial to have

more structure. At this point in their formal education, they have been trained to get the

Copyright University of Colorado - Boulder

2/1/08

Written by: Darren Tarshis

Contact: Steve Pollock (steven.pollock@colorado.edu)

PHYS 3310

Week 3

right answer. When they were asked to design their own field, they realized that there

are many correct answers, so they easily lost focus on the task. I think that, in concept,

this is a great activity. Unfortunately, since there was not one magic answer, students

did not have an ultimate goal to motivate them.

Also, since this tutorial was a different format than previous ones, some groups

were a little confused. One group didnt realize that they were supposed to work with the

same E-field the whole way through. Because the format of this tutorial lacked structure,

it might be a good idea to give more thorough directions for some problems.

At the end of the tutorial, a question was posed to several students that generated

a lot of good discussion. The problem was a sphere with constant charge density, and

V=0 far away. They were asked what the potential difference was between r=0 and

r=infinity. There was a lot of "it must be zero" at first, which led to good discussion

about continuity and the connection between E and V. This might be a good

activity to replace (parts) of this tutorial in the future.

i. Create a simple (but not trivial) Electric field. Your E-field must have a non-zero

v

divergence ( " E # 0 ) somewhere.

One student asked me, I dont understand this restriction (that the divergence

cannot be zero) because if it is zero, that means theres no charge. If theres no charge,

!

how can there be an E-field? I replied that that was exactly the point, and what he said

was exactly what we wanted him to see.

One group wasnt clear that they were supposed to write the E-field

mathematically. Instead, they just drew some sketches. Another group wrote down a field

that had a divergence, but also had a curl. I was happy to see that, because later in the

tutorial they would have to confront it.

ii. Sketch your E-field. What charge distribution would cause this field?

Written by: Darren Tarshis

Contact: Steve Pollock (steven.pollock@colorado.edu)

2/1/08

PHYS 3310

Week 3

No big problems (that I saw) here. However, for the group that drew their field on

the previous questions, it made them curious why they were asked to draw it again.

iii. Find the E-field flux through the surface of a closed volume (of your choice). Can you

give a reason why you get a positive, negative, or zero answer?

Students have had quite a bit of practice using Gausss Law on homework, and in

the last tutorial. So the only tricky part about this was choosing the Best shape (i.e. the

one that would made their integral the easiest).

v

iv. Static E-fields have zero curl, " # E = 0 . If needed, modify yours so that it satisfies

this requirement. But make sure it still satisfies the previous requirement (i.e. it must still

v

have a non-zero divergence ( " E # 0 ), somewhere).

!

One groups needed to modify their E-field to meet this requirement, but the others

groups fields already satisfied this. It was not clear to one group if they were supposed

!

to use the same field they started with.

(This constraint is relevant on HW4Q3)

v

v

v. Is your E-field physically plausible? Is any E-field that has " # E = 0 and " E # 0

physically plausible? If not, can you give an example of one that satisfies these two

requirements, but is not realistic?

!

!

Some good discussion came from this. Students eventually distinguished between

mathematically plausible, and physically possible. The issue of infinite charge emerged

in the discussion. I told one student that at an infinite radius, his field would require an

infinite amount of charge. He replied, Well, you cant go to an infinite radius either. I

wasnt sure how to respond to this.

(You will also determine if an E-field is physically realizable on HW4Q2b)

If you had a multimeter, you could measure potential differences between any two points

in space (if you had long enough leads).

Copyright University of Colorado - Boulder

Written by: Darren Tarshis

Contact: Steve Pollock (steven.pollock@colorado.edu)

2/1/08

PHYS 3310

Week 3

i. Calculate the potential difference you would expect to measure between two arbitrary

points. Choose two different paths to integrate over, and compare these answers.

One group realized that doing this integral with the E-field they had chosen (x-hat

divided by script-r-hat cubed) would be too hard. So, they just changed their E-field (to

x-hat divided by x cubed). Most students already understood that voltage was path

independent or at least they had memorized the phrase. I didnt see any students attempt

two different integrals.

(You are asked to find Voltage from E-field on HW4Q5)

iii. If you had a really long lead, find the potential difference between the origin and far,

far away. Why would someone choose far, far away as a reference point for your E-field?

One group of students had an E-field ~1/r, and they didnt know why they

couldnt use infinity as a reference point. They saw that their field should go to zero at

infinite radius, so it didnt make sense to them why their voltage integral was infinite. I

had them think about a point charge, and they already knew that E drops off ~1/r^2. They

did another integral using 1/r^2, and saw from the math that infinity works as a reference

point. Two of the group members were very satisfied after seeing this from the math,

realizing their function just didnt drop off fast enough. One group member still wasnt

happy, and still didnt understand why he couldnt use infinity as a reference because

when he plugged in infinity, his E~1/r was zero.

Challenge problem:

A Jacobs ladder is a continuous spark that rises between two conductors. (The dielectric

strength of air is about three million Newtons per Coulomb)

Estimate the voltage required for a Jacobs ladder to spark.

Since its plugged into the wall (120V AC), how is the voltage you estimated possible?

What is the potential difference between the two conductors when they are closest

together? What about when they are farthest apart?

What is the potential difference between the very top of one conductor, and the very

bottom of that same conductor (assuming its about a meter long).

Why does the spark rise?

Copyright University of Colorado - Boulder

2/1/08

Written by: Darren Tarshis

Contact: Steve Pollock (steven.pollock@colorado.edu)

PHYS 3310

Week 3

The voltage estimate was not too difficult for the students, and it was nice that as

a check, the voltage was printed on the Jacobs ladder. Almost everyone knew about the

step-up transformer. Some of the students knew why the spark rises, but used very

technical terms to explain it. If I could go back, I would ask the same students to describe

it to me in the same way they would describe it to a 4th grader, that way I could figure out

if they really understood, or if they were hiding behind fancy scientific terms (i.e. ionized

plasma). Im still not convinced that every student understands why the spark rises. One

student gave a great reason why it makes sound: the spark heats the air, and pressure is

proportional to temperature, so the change in pressure is what you hear as sound.

Q2. DIVERGENCE AND CURLr

r

Consider an electric field E = c 2 (Please note the numerator is not r : this is NOT the

r

r

r

usual E field from a point charge at the origin, which would give c' 3 , right?!)

r

a) - Calculate the divergence and the curl of this E field. !

- Explicitly test your!answer for the divergence by using the divergence theorem.

(Is there a delta function at the origin like there was for a point charge field, or not?)

!

- Explicitly test your answer for the curl by using the formula

given in Griffiths problem

1.60b, page 56.

b) What are the units of c? What charge distribution would you need to produce an E

field like this? Describe it in words as well as formulas. (Is it physically realizable?)

!

!

Which of the following two static E-fields is physically impossible. Why?

i) E = c(2x i " x j + y k )

ii) E = c(2x i + z j + y k )

where c is a constant (with appropriate units)

For the one which IS possible, find the potential V(r), using the origin as your reference

point (i.e. setting V(0)=0)

- Check your answer by explicitly computing the gradient of V.

Written by: Darren Tarshis

Contact: Steve Pollock (steven.pollock@colorado.edu)

2/1/08

PHYS 3310

Week 3

Note: you must select a specific path to integrate along. It doesn't matter which path you

choose, since the answer is path-independent, but you can't compute a line integral

without having a particular path in mind, so be explicit about that in your solution.

Last week, we investigated

the electric field outside an infinite line that runs along the zr

r

2" s

axis, E =

.

4 #$0 s2

a) This field may look similar to Q2 above, but it is not the same - how is it different?

- Find the potential V(s) for points a distance "s" away from the z-axis.

(Note: you will have to have to be very careful to compute a difference of potentials

between two points, or something similar, to avoid integrals which are infinite! You'll

discuss this in part b)

- Check your answer by explicitly taking the gradient of V to make sure it gives you E.

b) Briefly discuss the question of "reference point": where did you set V=0? Can you use

s=, or s=0, as the reference point, V(s)=0, here?

- How would your answer change if I told you that I wanted you to set V=0 at a distance

s=3 meters away from the z-axis?

- Why is there trouble with setting V()=0? (our usual choice), or V(0)=0 (often our

second choice).

c) A typical Colorado lightning bolt might transfer a few Coulombs of charge in a stroke.

Although lightning is clearly not remotely "electrostatic", let's pretend it is - consider a

brief period during the stroke, and assume all the charges are fairly uniformly distributed

in a long thin line. If you see the lightning stroke, and then a few seconds later hear the

thunder, make a very rough estimate of the resulting voltage difference across a distance

the size of your heart. (For you to think about - why is this not worrisome?)

What's the model? I am thinking of a lightning strike as looking rather like a long

uniform line of charge... You've done the "physics" of this in the previous parts! (But

e.g., you need a numerical estimate for . How long might that lightning bolt be? For

estimation problems, don't worry about the small details, you can be off by 3, or even 10,

I just don't want you off by factors of 1000's!)

Written by: Darren Tarshis

Contact: Steve Pollock (steven.pollock@colorado.edu)

2/1/08

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